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Encyclopedia > History of the world

The history of the world[1][2][3] is the recorded memory of the experience, around the world, of Homo sapiens. Ancient human history[4] begins with the invention, independently at several sites on Earth, of writing, which created the infrastructure for lasting, accurately transmitted memories and thus for the diffusion and growth of knowledge.[5][6] The history of the World is human history from the dawn of humanity to the present. ... World History is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s. ... The history of the world may refer to: History of Earth, the natural history of the planet Earth. ... Ancient history is from the period of time when writing and historical records first appear, roughly 5,500 years before the Common Era. ... Ancient history is from the period of time when writing and historical records first appear, roughly 5,500 years before the Common Era. ... For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... This article is about the social science. ... Write redirects here. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Human history is marked both by a gradual accretion of discoveries and inventions, as well as by quantum leapsparadigm shifts, revolutions—that comprise epochs in the material and spiritual evolution of humankind. Quantum Leap is a science fiction television series that ran for 97 episodes from March 1989 to May 1993 on NBC. It follows the adventures of Dr. Samuel Beckett (played by Scott Bakula), a brilliant scientist who after researching time-travel, and doing experiments in something he calls The Imaging... Paradigm shift is the term first used by Thomas Kuhn in his 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions to describe a change in basic assumptions within the ruling theory of science. ... -1... In chronology, an epoch (or epochal date, or epochal event) means an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular era. ... ...


One such epoch was the advent of the Agricultural Revolution.[7][8] Between 8,500 and 7,000 BCE, in the Fertile Crescent, humans began the systematic husbandry of plants and animals — agriculture.[9] This spread to neighboring regions, and also developed independently elsewhere, until most Homo sapiens lived sedentary lives as farmers in permanent settlements[10] centered about life-sustaining bodies of water. These communities coalesced over time into increasingly larger units, in parallel with the evolution of ever more efficient means of transport. The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


The relative security and increased productivity provided by farming allowed these communities to expand. Surplus food made possible an increasing division of labor, the rise of a leisured upper class, and the development of cities and thus of civilization. The growing complexity of human societies necessitated systems of accounting; and from this evolved, beginning in the Bronze Age, writing.[11] The independent invention of writing at several sites on Earth allows a number of regions to claim to be cradles of civilization. Division of labour is the specialisation of cooperative labour in specific, circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase efficiency of output. ... Upper class is a concept in sociology that refers to the group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Central New York City. ... It has been suggested that Accounting scholarship be merged into this article or section. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Write redirects here. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about society beginnings. ...


Civilizations developed perforce on the banks of rivers. By 3,000 BCE they had arisen in the Middle East's Mesopotamia ("land between the rivers" Euphrates and Tigris),[12] on the banks of Egypt's Nile River,[13][14][15] in India's Indus River valley,[16][17][18] and along the great rivers of China. For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... There is also Nile, a death metal band from South Carolina, USA. The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan. ...


The history of the Old World is commonly divided into Antiquity (in the Ancient Near East,[19][20][21] the Mediterranean basin of Classical Antiquity, Ancient China,[22] and Ancient India, up to about the 6th century); the Middle Ages,[23][24] from the 6th through the 15th centuries; the Early Modern period,[25] including the European Renaissance, from the 16th century to about 1750; and the Modern period, from the Age of Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution, beginning about 1750, to the present. For other uses, see Old World (disambiguation). ... Ancient redirects here. ... Overview map of the ancient Near East The terms ancient Near East or ancient Orient encompass the early civilizations predating classical antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria), during the time roughly spanning... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Ancient India may refer to: The Ancient India, which generally includes the ancient history of the whole Indian subcontinent (South Asia) Indus Valley Civilization — during the Bronze Age Vedic period — the period of Vedic Sanskrit, spanning the late Bronze Age and the earlier Iron Age Mahajanapadas — during the later Iron... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the post Late Middle Ages period in Western Europe (Early modern Europe), its first colonies marked by the rise of strong centralized governments and the beginnings of recognizable nation states that are the direct antecedents... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The word Enlightment redirects here. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


In Europe, the fall of the Western Roman Empire (476 CE) is commonly taken as signaling the end of antiquity and the beginning of the Middle Ages. A thousand years later, in the mid-15th century, Johannes Gutenberg's invention of modern printing,[26] employing movable type, revolutionized communication, helping end the Middle Ages and usher in modern times, the European Renaissance[27][28] and the Scientific Revolution.[29] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Ancient redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the inventor of printing in Europe; for other uses, see Guttenberg (disambiguation) and Gutenberg. ... For other uses, see Print. ... For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... For other uses, see Communication (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance The Renaissance was an influential cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ... This article is about the period in history. ...


By the 18th century, the accumulation of knowledge and technology, especially in Europe, had reached a critical mass that sparked into existence the Industrial Revolution.[30] Over the quarter-millennium since, the growth of knowledge, technology, commerce, and — concomitantly with these — the potential destructiveness of war has accelerated geometrically (exponentially), creating the opportunities and perils that now confront the human communities that together inhabit the planet.[31][32] For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For other uses of critical mass, see critical mass (disambiguation). ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... A millennium (pl. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... -1... The name Opportunity may refer to: Opportunity Asset Management , a Brazilian investment bank based in Rio de Janeiro Opportunity, Washington, a city in the U.S. Opportunity rover (MER-B), one of the two rovers of NASAs Mars Exploration Rover Mission. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ...


Prehistory

Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ...

Paleolithic

"Paleolithic" means "Old Stone Age." This was the earliest period of the Stone Age. The Lower Paleolithic is the period in human evolution when humans first began using stone tools. The Lower Paleolithic began 2.5 million years ago with the emergence of the genus homo. Homo habilis is the earliest known species in the genus Homo. The Middle Paleolithic originated 300,000 years ago. The period is characterized by Prepared-core techniques for manufacturing stone tools. The term Archaic homo sapiens is typically used to refer to the early hominids of the Middle Paleolithic. Anatomically modern humans also emerged during the Middle Paleolithic.[33][34] // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Ancient stone tools A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made of stone. ... Centripetal Core Reduction Centripetal or radial core reduction strategies are found in most Middle Palaeolithic assemblages known from Africa and Eurasia (e. ... The term Archaic Homo sapiens refers generally to the earliest members of the species Homo sapiens, which consisted of the Neanderthals of Europe and the Middle East, the Neanderthal-like hominids of Africa and Asia, and the immediate ancestors of all these hominids. ... The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... The Cro-Magnons form the earliest known European examples of Homo sapiens, the species to which modern humans belong. ...


Humans spread from East Africa to Asia some 100,000-50,000 years ago, and further to southern Asia and Australasia by at least 50 millennia ago, northwestwards into Europe and eastwards into Central Asia some 40 millennia ago, and further east to the Americas from ca. 13 millennia ago. The Upper Paleolithic is taken to begin some 40 millennia ago, with the appearance of wider variety of artifacts and a blossoming of symbolic culture.[35] Expansion to North America and Oceania took place at the climax of the most recent Ice Age, when today's temperate regions were extremely inhospitable. By the end of the Ice Age some 12,000 BP, humans had colonised nearly all the ice-free parts of the globe. Categories: Africa geography stubs | Eastern Africa ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ...


Throughout the Paleolithic, humans generally lived as nomadic hunter-gatherers. Hunter-gatherer societies have tended to be very small and egalitarian, though hunter-gatherer societies with abundant resources or advanced food-storage techniques have sometimes developed a settled lifestyle, complex social structures such as chiefdoms, and social stratification; and long-distance contacts may be possible, as in the case of Indigenous Australian "highways." For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... social stratification is the division of people of a particular society on the basis if occupation, income, power, prestige, authority, status, dignity, education, class, castle, gender, race and ethnicity In sociology, social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes and strata within a society. ... Australian Aborigines are the indigenous peoples of Australia. ...


Mesolithic

The "Mesolithic", or "Middle Stone Age" (from the Greek "mesos", "middle", and "lithos", "stone") was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age.[36] The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... A dugout is a boat which is basically a hollowed tree trunk. ... This article is about modern humans. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ...


The Mesolithic period began at the end of the Pleistocene epoch, some 10,000 BP, and ended with the introduction of agriculture, the date of which varied by geographic region. In some areas, such as the Near East, agriculture was already underway by the end of the Pleistocene, and there the Mesolithic is short and poorly defined. In areas with limited glacial impact, the term "Epipaleolithic" is sometimes preferred. The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants, animals and other life forms. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Austrias longest glacier, the Pasterze, winds its 8 km (5 mile) route at the foot of Austrias highest mountain, the Grossglockner A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ... The Epipalaeolithic (or Epi-Palaeolithic, Epipaleolithic, or Epi-Paleolithic) was a period in the development of human technology that immediately precedes the neolithic period, as an alternative to mesolithic. ...


Regions that experienced greater environmental effects as the last ice age ended have a much more evident Mesolithic era, lasting millennia.[37] In Northern Europe, societies were able to live well on rich food supplies from the marshlands fostered by the warmer climate. Such conditions produced distinctive human behaviours which are preserved in the material record, such as the Maglemosian and Azilian cultures. These conditions also delayed the coming of the Neolithic until as late as 4000 BCE (6,000 BP) in northern Europe. This article or section should be merged with Wisconsinan glaciation The Wisconsin (in North America), Weichsel (in Scandinavia), Devensian (in the British Isles) or Würm glaciation (in the Alps) is the most recent period of the Ice Age, and ended some 10,000 Before Present (BP). ... Maglemosian is the name given to a culture of the early Mesolithic period in Northern Europe. ... The Azilian is a name given by archaeologists to an industry of the terminal Palaeolithic and early Mesolithic in northern Spain and south western France. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ...


Remains from this period are few and far between, often limited to middens. In forested areas, the first signs of deforestation have been found, although this would only begin in earnest during the Neolithic, when more space was needed for agriculture. A midden, also known as kitchen middens, is a dump for domestic waste. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ...


The Mesolithic is characterized in most areas by small composite flint tools — microliths and microburins. Fishing tackle, stone adzes and wooden objects, e.g. canoes and bows, have been found at some sites. These technologies first occur in Africa, associated with the Azilian cultures, before spreading to Europe through the Ibero-Maurusian culture of Spain and Portugal, and the Kebaran culture of Palestine. Independent discovery is not always ruled out. This article is about the sedimentary rock. ... A microlith is a small stone tool, typically knapped of flint or chert, usually about three centimetres long or less. ... A microburin is the residual product of the creation of a microlith during flint tool manufacture in the European Mesolithic. ... Fishing tackle refers to the equipment and gear used when engaing in the pursuit of fish for sport and commercial value. ... Adze The tool known as the adze [pronounced adds] serves for smoothing rough-cut wood in hand woodworking. ... This article is about the boat. ... This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Azilian is a name given by archaeologists to an industry of the terminal Palaeolithic and early Mesolithic in northern Spain and south western France. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Kebarans were the first anatomically modern humans to live in the eastern Mediterranean area (c. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... // Multiple independent discoveries in science — termed multiples by Robert K. Merton — are instances in which similar discoveries are made by scientists working independently of each other. ...


During the Mesolithic as in the preceding Paleolithic period, people lived in small (mostly egalitarian) bands and tribes. The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ...


Neolithic

"Neolithic" means "New Stone Age." This was a period of primitive technological and social development, toward the end of the "Stone Age." Neolithic culture appeared in the Levant, centering around Jericho in the modern-day West Bank. It developed directly from the Epipaleolithic Natufian culture circa the 10th millennium BCE (12,000 BP) and was marked by the development of early villages, agriculture, animal domestication and tools.[38][39] An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Technology (Gr. ... Social refers to human society or its organization. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... The Epipalaeolithic (or Epi-Palaeolithic, Epipaleolithic, or Epi-Paleolithic) was a period in the development of human technology that immediately precedes the neolithic period, as an alternative to mesolithic. ... The Natufian culture existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... This article is about the instrument. ...


Rise of agriculture

Ox-drawn plow, Egypt, ca. 1200 BCE

A major change, described by prehistorian Vere Gordon Childe as the "Agricultural Revolution", occurred about the 10th millennium BCE with the adoption of agriculture. The Sumerians first began farming ca. 9500 BCE. By 7000 BCE agriculture had spread to India; by 6000 BCE to Egypt; by 5000 BCE to China. About 2700 BCE agriculture had come to Mesoamerica.[40] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... For the constellation known as The Plough see Ursa Major. ... Vere Gordon Childe (April 14, 1892, Sydney, New South Wales–October 19, 1957, Mt. ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants, animals and other life forms. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... This article is about the culture area. ...


Although attention has tended to concentrate on the Middle East's Fertile Crescent, archaeology in the Americas, East Asia and Southeast Asia indicates that agricultural systems, using different crops and animals, may in some cases have developed there nearly as early. The development of organized irrigation, and the use of a specialized workforce, by the Sumerians, began about 5500 BCE. Stone was supplanted by bronze and iron in implements of agriculture and warfare. Agricultural settlements had until then been almost completely dependent on stone tools. In Eurasia, copper and bronze tools, decorations and weapons began to be commonplace about 3000 BCE. After bronze, the Eastern Mediterranean region, Middle East and China saw the introduction of iron tools and weapons. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... The workforce is the labour pool in employment. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Balanced Rock stands in Garden of the Gods park in Colorado Springs, CO. In geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Fe redirects here. ...

Technological and social state of the world, ca. 1000 BCE

The Americas may not have had metal tools until the Chavín horizon (900 BCE). The Moche did have metal armor, knives and tableware. Even the metal-poor Inca had metal-tipped plows, at least after the conquest of Chimor. However, little archaeological research has so far been done in Peru, and nearly all the khipus (recording devices, in the form of knots, used by the Incas) were burned in the Spanish conquest of Peru. As late as 2004, entire cities were still being unearthed. Some digs suggest that steel may have been produced there before it was developed in Europe. The Chavín were an early civilization that existed in present-day Peru. ... The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Late Intermediate Period Cultures Chimu Piece - Imperial Epoch, 1300 A.D. to 1532 A.D.Larco Museum Collection Chimor (also Kingdom of Chimor) was the political grouping of the Chimú culture that ruled the northern coast of Peru, beginning around 850 AD and ending around 1470 AD. Chimor was the... Khipu, or quipa, or quipu were recording devices used during the Inca Empire and its predecessor societies in the Andean region. ... There lies Peru with its riches; Here, Panama and its poverty. ... A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


The cradles of early civilizations were river valleys, such as the Euphrates and Tigris valleys in Mesopotamia, the Nile valley in Egypt, the Indus valley in the Indian subcontinent, and the Yangtze and Yellow River valleys in China. Some nomadic peoples, such as the Indigenous Australians and the Bushmen of southern Africa, did not practice agriculture until relatively recent times.[41][42][43] Central New York City. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley (also called a vale or dale) is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... There is also Nile, a death metal band from South Carolina, USA. The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Length 6,380 km Elevation of the source  ? m Average discharge 31,900 m³/s Area watershed 1,800,000 km² Origin Qinghai Province and Tibet Mouth East China Sea Basin countries China The Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: 长江; Traditional Chinese: 長江; pinyin: Cháng Jiāng; Wade-Giles: Chang Chiang... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... Languages Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religions Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including Islam and various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group... |group = Bushmen |image = |poptime = 82,000 |popplace = Botswana (55,000), Namibia (27,000) |rels = San Religion |langs = various Khoisan languages |related = Khoikhoi, Xhosa, Zulu, Griqua }} The Bushmen, San, Basarwa, ǃKung or Khwe are indigenous people of the Kalahari Desert, which spans areas of South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Angola. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ...


Before 1800, many populations did not belong to states. Scientists disagree as to whether the term "tribe"[44] should be applied to the kinds of societies that these people lived in. Many tribal societies, in Europe and elsewhere, transformed into states when they were threatened, or otherwise impinged on, by existing states. Examples are the Marcomanni, Poland and Lithuania. Some "tribes", such as the Kassites and the Manchus, conquered states and were absorbed by them. This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... http://www. ... The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Suebi or Suevi. ... // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... The Manchu (manju in Manchu; 滿族 (pinyin: mǎnzú) in Chinese, often shortened to 滿 (pinyin: mǎn) are an ethnic group who originated in northeastern Manchuria. ...


Agriculture made possible complex societies—civilizations. States and markets emerged. Technologies enhanced people's ability to control nature and to develop transport and communication. This article is about the physical universe. ... For other uses, see Communication (disambiguation). ...


Rise of religion

Most historians trace the beginnings of complex religion to the Neolithic.[45][46][47] Religious belief in this period commonly consisted in the worship of a Mother Goddess, a Sky Father, and of the Sun and Moon as deities.[48] (see also Sun worship). Shrines developed, which over time evolved into temple establishments, complete with a complex hierarchy of priests and priestesses and other functionaries. Typical of the Neolithic was a tendency to worship anthropomorphic deities. Some of the earliest surviving written religious scriptures are the Pyramid Texts, produced by the Egyptians, the oldest of which date to between 2400 and 2300 BCE.[49]. Religious belief refers to a faith or creed concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine. ... A Cucuteni culture statuette, 4th millennium BC. A mother goddess is a goddess, often portrayed as the Earth Mother, who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... A solar deity is a deity who represents the Sun. ... Shrine is also used as a conventional translation of the Japanese Jinja. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who are thought to have special religious authority or function. ... 7th millennium BC anthropomorphized rocks, with slits for eyes, found in modern-day Israel. ... This list of deities aims at giving information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ... The Pyramid Texts are a collection of Ancient Egyptian religious texts from the time of the Old Kingdom, mostly inscriptions found in pyramids. ...


Bronze Age

The Bronze Age forms part of a three-age system. In this system, in some areas of the world, the Bronze Age follows the Neolithic. In the 24th century BCE, the Akkadian Empire arose.[50][51] In the 22nd century BCE, the First Intermediate Period of Egypt occurred. The time from the 21st to 17th centuries BCE around the Nile River is designated the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. In the 21st century BCE, the Sumerian Renaissance occurs. By the 18th century, the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt begins. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The pyramids are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... The Giza pyramid field, viewed from the southwest. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The three-age system is a system of classifying human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age The system is most apt in describing the progression of European society, although it has been used... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... The First Intermediate Period is the name conventionally given by Egyptologists to that period in Ancient Egyptian history between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom. ... There is also Nile, a death metal band from South Carolina, USA. The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The... The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty... The third dynasty of Ur reinstalled Sumerian rule after several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian kings (Sumerian Renaissance). ... The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. ...


By 1600 BCE, Mycenaean Greece begins to develop.[52][53] Also by 1600 BCE, China's Shang Dynasty emerges, and there is evidence of a fully developed Chinese writing system. Around 1600 BCE, the Hittites dominate the Eastern Mediterranean region. The time from the 16th to 11th centuries around the Nile is called the New Kingdom of Egypt.[54][55] Between 1550 BCE and 1292 BCE, the Amarna period occurs. Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... The Chinese written language consists of a writing system stretching back nearly 4000 years. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The New Kingdom period of Egyptian history is the period between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ... Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna) is the name given to an extensive archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. ...


Early civilization

The first Agricultural Revolution led to several major changes. It permitted far denser populations, which in time organised into states. There are several definitions for the term, "state." Max Weber and Norbert Elias defined a state as an organization of people that has a monopoly on the legitimate use of force in a particular geographic area. This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... Central New York City. ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Norbert Elias (born June 22, 1897 in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland); died August 1, 1990 in Amsterdam) was a German sociologist of Jewish descent, who later became a British citizen. ... The monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force designs an essential attribute of the states sovereignty. ...

Borders delineate states. Great Wall of China.

In Bronze Age Mesopotamia and Iran, there were several city-states. States appeared in Mesopotamia, western Iran, and Indus Valley. Ancient Egypt began as a state without cities, but soon developed them. States appeared in China in the late 3rd and early 2nd millennia BCE. Borders Books and Music (NYSE: BGP) is a North American chain of bookstores, with some branches overseas. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... The pyramids are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ...


A state ordinarily needs an army for the legitimate exercise of force. An army needs a bureaucracy to maintain it. The only exception to this appears to have been the Indus Valley Civilization, for which there is no evidence of the existence of a military force. Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... This article is about the sociological concept. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan. ...


Major wars were waged among states in the Middle East. About 1275 BCE, the Hittites under Muwatalli II and the Egyptians under Ramesses II concluded the treaty of Kadesh, the world's oldest recorded peace treaty.[56] A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Muwatalli II was a king of the New kingdom of the Hittite empire (1295–1272 BC). ... Nomen: Ramesses meryamun Ramesses (Re has fashioned him), beloved of Amun. ... This article is about Kadesh in Syria, see also Kadesh (South of Israel) or Kedesh Kadesh (the most popular spelling; more accurately Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on the Orontes River, probably identical to the remains at Tell Nebi Mend,[1] about 24 km southwest of... A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ...


Empires came into being, with conquered areas ruled by central tribes, as in the Neo-Assyrian Empire (10th century BCE), the Achaemenid Persian Empire (6th century BCE), the Mauryan Empire (4th century BCE), Qin and Han China (3rd century BCE), and the Roman Empire (1st century BCE). This article is about the political and historical term. ... Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansions. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Clashes among empires included those that took place in the 8th century, when the Islamic Caliphate of Arabia (ruling from Spain to Iran) and China's Tang dynasty (ruling from Xinjiang to Dalian) fought for decades for control of Central Asia. Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to...


The largest contiguous land empire in history was the 13th-century Mongolian Empire.[57][58] By then, most people in Europe, Asia and North Africa belonged to states. There were states as well in Mexico and western South America. States controlled more and more of the world's territory and population; the last "empty" territories, with the exception of uninhabited Antarctica, would be divided up among states by the Berlin Conference (1884-1885). The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was an empire founded by Genghis Khan in 1206. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The conference of Berlin The Berlin Conference (German: or Congo Conference) of 1884–85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germanys sudden emergence as an imperial power. ...


City and trade

Agriculture also created, and allowed for the storage of, food surpluses that could support people not directly engaged in food production. The development of agriculture permitted the creation of the first cities. These were centers of trade, manufacture and political power with nearly no agricultural production of their own. Cities established a symbiosis with their surrounding countrysides, absorbing agricultural products and providing, in return, manufactures and varying degrees of military protection.[59][60][61] For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... This article is about economic exchange. ... Surplus means the quantity left over, after conducting an activity; the quantity which has not been used up, and can refer to: budget surplus, the opposite of a budget deficit economic surplus Surplus product or surplus value in Marxian economics physical surplus in the economic theory of Piero Sraffa Operating... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... This article is about economic exchange. ... Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ... Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ...

Cuneiform script, the earliest known writing system

The development of cities equated, both etymologically and in fact, with the rise of civilization itself: first Sumerian civilization, in lower Mesopotamia (3500 BCE),[62][63] followed by Egyptian civilization along the Nile (3300 BCE)[15] and Harappan civilization in the Indus Valley (3300 BCE).[64][65] Elaborate cities grew up, with high levels of social and economic complexity. Each of these civilizations was so different from the others that they almost certainly originated independently. It was at this time, and due to the needs of cities, that writing and extensive trade were introduced. Cuneiform redirects here. ... Etymology is the study of the origins of words. ... Central New York City. ... Sumer ( Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR, Land of the Lords of Brightness[1], or land of the Sumerian tongue[2][3], Akkadian: Šumeru; possibly Biblical Shinar ), located in southern Mesopotamia, is the earliest known civilization in the world. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The pyramids are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Write redirects here. ... This article is about economic exchange. ...


The earliest known form of writing was cuneiform script, created by the Sumerians from ca. 3000 BCE. Cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs. Over time, the pictorial representations became simplified and more abstract. Cuneiforms were written on clay tablets, on which symbols were drawn with a blunt reed for a stylus. The first alphabets were used in the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 BCE). From them evolved the Phoenician alphabet, used for the writing of Phoenician. The Phoenician alphabet is the ancestor of many of the writing systems used today. Cuneiform redirects here. ... Pictography is a form of writing whereby ideas are transmitted through drawing. ... Small tablets made out of clay were used from late 4th millennium BC onwards as a writing medium in Sumerian, Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Minoan/Mycenaean civilizations. ... This article is about common reed. ... For the online music and film magazine, see Stylus Magazine. ... The Middle Bronze Age alphabets are two similar but undeciphered scripts, dated to be from the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 BC), and believed to be ancestral to nearly all modern alphabets: the Proto-Sinaitic script discovered in the winter of 1904-1905 by William Flinders Petrie, and dated to... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region then called PÅ«t in Ancient Egyptian, Canaan in Phoenician, Hebrew and Aramaic, and Phoenicia in Greek and Latin. ... Writing systems of the world today. ...


In China, proto-urban societies may have developed from 2500 BCE, but the first dynasty to be identified by archeology is the Shang Dynasty. Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ...


The 2nd millennium BCE saw the emergence of civilization in Canaan, Crete, mainland Greece, and central Turkey. Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ...


In the Americas, civilizations such as the Maya, Zapotec, Moche, and Nazca emerged in Mesoamerica and Peru at the end of the 1st millennium BCE. World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Extent of the Zapotec civilization The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca of southern Mesoamerica. ... The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ... Late Intermediate Period Cultures The Nazca culture flourished in the Nazca region between 300 BCE and 800 CE. They created the famous Nazca lines and built an impressive system of underground aqueducts that still function today. ... This article is about the culture area. ...

Trans-Asian trade routes, 1st century CE

The world's first coinage was introduced around 625 BCE in Lydia (western Anatolia, in modern Turkey).[66] For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For current exchange rates, see exchange links. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ...


Trade routes appeared in the eastern Mediterranean in the 4th millennium BCE. Long-range trade routes first appeared in the 3rd millennium BCE, when Sumerians in Mesopotamia traded with the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley. The Silk Road between China and Syria began in the 2nd millennium BCE. Cities in Central Asia and Persia were major crossroads of these trade routes. Silla dynastic tombs have been found in Korea, containing relics such as wine cups produced in Iran.[67] The Phoenician and Greek civilizations founded trade-based empires in the Mediterranean basin in the 1st millennium BCE. A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Sumer ( Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR, Land of the Lords of Brightness[1], or land of the Sumerian tongue[2][3], Akkadian: Šumeru; possibly Biblical Shinar ), located in southern Mesopotamia, is the earliest known civilization in the world. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... Persia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Silla (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Phoenicia (nonstandardly, Phenicia; pronounced [1], Greek: : Phoiníkē, Latin: ) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal regions of modern day Lebanon, Syria and Israel. ... Central New York City. ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ...


In the late 1st millennium CE and early 2nd millennium CE, the Arabs dominated the trade routes in the Indian Ocean, East Asia, and the Sahara. In the late 1st millennium, Arabs and Jews dominated trade in the Mediterranean. In the early 2nd millennium, Italians took over this role, and Flemish and German cities were at the center of trade routes in northern Europe controlled by the Hanseatic League.[68] In all areas, major cities developed at crossroads along trade routes. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographical region. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... A crossroads (the word rarely appears in singular) is a road junction, where two or more roads meet (there are three or more arms). ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ...


Ancient history

Historiography proper emerges in antiquity — Chinese historiography, in the 6th century BCE with the Classic of History and the Spring and Autumn Annals; and Greek historiography, in the 5th century BCE with Herodotus. Earlier historical records, however, allow the piecing together of at least sketchy histories of the states of the Ancient Near East from as early as the 3rd millennium BCE. Ancient redirects here. ... Historiography is the aspect of history, and of semiotics, that is the study of how knowledge of the past, recent or distant, is obtained and transmitted; simply put, historiography is the history of history. ... Chinese historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. ... The Classic of History (書經/书经 Shū Jīng) is a collection of documents and speeches alleged to have been written by rulers and officials of the early Zhou period and before. ... The Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋 ChÅ«n QiÅ«, also known as 麟經 Lín JÄ«ng) is the official chronicle of the state of Lu covering the period from 722 BCE to 481 BCE. It is the earliest surviving Chinese historical text to be arranged on annalistic principles. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Overview map of the ancient Near East The terms ancient Near East or ancient Orient encompass the early civilizations predating classical antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria), during the time roughly spanning... (4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – Syria) (29th century BC ) Creation of the Kingdom of Elam (Iraq) Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah about 2700 BC, the oldest tree still living now Dynasty of Lagash in Sumeria Golden age of Ur in Mesopotamia. ...

Ajanta caves, India

In India, Stone Age rock shelters with paintings at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh are the earliest known traces of human life in India. The first known permanent settlements appeared over 9,000 years ago and gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, dating back to 3300 BCE in western India. It was followed by the Vedic period, which laid the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Indian society, and ended in the 500s BCE. From around 550 BCE, many independent kingdoms and republics known as the Mahajanapadas were established across the country. This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... A rock shelter is a shallow cave-like opening at the base of a bluff or cliff. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River and the Vedic Sarasvati River in present-day Pakistan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the third century BCE, most of South Asia was united into the Maurya Empire by Chandragupta Maurya and flourished under Ashoka the Great. From the third century CE, the Gupta dynasty oversaw the period referred to as ancient India's Golden Age. Empires in Southern India included those of the Chalukyas, the Cholas and the Vijayanagara Empire. Science, engineering, art, literature, astronomy, and philosophy flourished under the patronage of these kings. Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Romanized Greek: Sandrakottos), whilst often referred to as Sandrakottos outside India, is also known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... Ashoka redirects here. ... The Gupta dynasty ruled the Gupta Empire of India, from around 320 to 550. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled parts of southern India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... This article is about (usually written) works. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


Religion and philosophy

Angkor Wat temple, Cambodia, early 12th century

New philosophies[69] and religions[70] arose in both east and west, particularly about the 6th century BCE. Over time, a great variety of religions developed around the world, with some of the earliest major ones being Hinduism,[71] Buddhism,[72] Jainism in India,[73] and Zoroastrianism[74] in Persia. The Abrahamic religions[75] trace their origin to Judaism, around 1800 BCE. According to the Axial Age theory, the philosophy behind the worlds major religions sprang from a six-hundred year span of time in the first millennium BCE. German philosopher Karl Jaspers coined the term the Axial Age (Achsenzeit in the German language original) to describe the period from 800... The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. ... The main entrance to the temple proper, seen from the eastern end of the Naga causeway Angkor Wat (or Angkor Vat) (Khmer: អង្គរវត្ត), is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia, built for King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century as his state temple and capital city. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Major world religions have been distinguished from minor religions using a variety of methods, though any such division naturally reflects a particular bias, since many adherent of a religion are likely to consider their own faith major. Two methods are mentioned in this article, number of adherents and the definitions... Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Persia redirects here. ... Symbols of the three main Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Eastern (yellow) religions in each country. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In the east, three schools of thought were to dominate Chinese thinking until the modern day. These were Taoism,[76] Legalism[77] and Confucianism.[78] The Confucian tradition, which would attain dominance, looked for political morality not to the force of law but to the power and example of tradition. Confucianism would later spread into the Korean peninsula and Goguryeo[79] and toward Japan. Taoism (pronounced or ; also spelled Daoism) refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... This article is about the Korean Peninsula. ... Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ...


In the west, the Greek philosophical tradition, represented by Socrates,[80] Plato,[81] and Aristotle,[82][83] was diffused throughout Europe and the Middle East in the 4th century BCE by the conquests of Alexander III of Macedon, more commonly known as Alexander the Great.[84][85][86] This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


Civilizations and regions

The Parthenon epitomizes the sophisticated culture of the ancient Greeks.

By the last centuries BCE, the Mediterranean, the Ganges River and the Yellow River had become seats of empires which future rulers would seek to emulate. In India, the Mauryan Empire[87][88] ruled most of southern Asia, while the Pandyas ruled southern India. In China, the Qin and Han dynasties extended their imperial governance through political unity, improved communications and Emperor Wu's establishment of state monopolies. Central New York City. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Parthenon west façade For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... This article is about the river. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... Emperor Wu of Han (156 BC*–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che, was the sixth emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. A military compaigner, Han China reached its greatest expansion under his reign, spanning from Kyrgyzstan in the west, Northern Korea... In economics, government monopoly is a form of coercive monopoly in which a government agency is the sole provider of a particular good or service and competition is prohibited by law. ...


In the west, the ancient Greeks established a civilization that is considered by most historians to be the foundational culture of modern western civilization. Some centuries later, in the 3rd century BCE, the Romans began expanding their territory through conquest and colonisation. By the reign of Emperor Augustus (late 1st century BCE), Rome controlled all the lands surrounding the Mediterranean. By the reign of Emperor Trajan (early 2nd century CE), Rome controlled much of the land from England to Mesopotamia. Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek_speaking world in ancient times. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ...


The great empires depended on military annexation of territory and on the formation of defended settlements to become agricultural centres.[89] The relative peace that the empires brought encouraged international trade, most notably the massive trade routes in the Mediterranean that had been developed by the time of the Hellenistic Age, and the Silk Road. This article is about the political and historical term. ... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ...

Ptolemy's world map, reconstituted from his Geographia (ca. 150)

The empires faced common problems associated with maintaining huge armies and supporting a central bureaucracy. These costs fell most heavily on the peasantry, while land-owning magnates were increasingly able to evade centralised control and its costs. The pressure of barbarians on the frontiers hastened the process of internal dissolution. China's Han Empire fell into civil war in 220 CE, while its Roman counterpart became increasingly decentralised and divided about the same time. Ptolemys world map, reconstituted from Ptolemys Geographia (circa 150), indicating Sinae (China) at the extreme right, beyond the island of Taprobane (Sri Lanka, oversized) and the Aurea Chersonesus (Southeast Asian peninsula). ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... Polish Magnate (17th century) Magnate, from the Late Latin magnas, a great man, itself from Latin magnus great, designates a noble or other man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities. ... barbarians is a mini-series on the history channel which tells the story of four of the most barbariac tribes of the early and late middle ages. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Throughout the temperate zones of Eurasia, America and North Africa, empires continued to rise and fall. In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


The gradual break-up of the Roman Empire,[90][91] spanning several centuries after the 2nd century CE, coincided with the spread of Christianity westward from the Middle East. The western Roman Empire fell[92] under the domination of Germanic tribes in the 5th century, and these polities gradually developed into a number of warring states, all associated in one way or another with the Roman Catholic Church. The remaining part of the Roman Empire, in the eastern Mediterranean, would henceforth be the Byzantine Empire.[93] Centuries later, a limited unity would be restored to western Europe through the establishment of the Holy Roman Empire[94] in 962, which comprised a number of states in what is now Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, Italy, and France. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Polity (Greek: Πολιτεία or Πολίτευμα transliterated as Politeía or Políteuma) is a general term that refers to political organization of a group. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


In China, dynasties would similarly rise and fall.[95][96] After the fall of the Eastern Han Dynasty[97] and the demise of the Three Kingdoms, Nomadic tribes from the north began to invade in the 4th century CE, eventually conquering areas of Northern China and setting up many small kingdoms. The Sui Dynasty reunified China in 581, and under the succeeding Tang Dynasty (618-907) China entered a second golden age. The Tang Dynasty also splintered, however, and after half a century of turmoil the Northern Song Dynasty reunified China in 982. Yet pressure from nomadic empires to the north became increasingly urgent. North China was lost to the Jurchens in 1141, and the Mongol Empire[98][99] conquered all of China in 1279, as well as almost all of Eurasia's landmass, missing only central and western Europe, and most of Southeast Asia and Japan. A dynasty is a family or extended family which retains political power across generations, or more generally, any organization which extends dominance in its field even as its particular members change. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Northern Peoples Republic of China region. ... The Jurchens (Traditional Chinese: 女眞; Simplified Chinese: 女真; pinyin: nÇšzhÄ“n) were a Tungus people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the 17th century, when they became the Manchus. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Mongol dominions, ca. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


In these times, northern India was ruled by the Guptas. In southern India, three prominent Dravidian kingdoms emerged: Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas. The ensuing stability contributed to heralding in the golden age of Hindu culture in the 4th and 5th centuries CE. The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... For district of Kuala Lumpur, see Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, the town in Spain, see Chera, Valencia, for the town in Selangor, see Cheras, Selangor. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ...

Machu Picchu, "the Lost City of the Incas"—the most recognizable symbol of Inca civilization

At this time also, in Central America,[100] vast societies also began to be built, the most notable being the Maya and Aztecs of Mesoamerica. As the mother culture of the Olmecs[101] gradually declined, the great Mayan city-states slowly rose in number and prominence, and Maya culture spread throughout Yucatán and surrounding areas. The later empire of the Aztecs was built on neighboring cultures and was influenced by conquered peoples such as the Toltecs. Machu Picchu (Quechua: , Old mountain) is a pre-Columbian Inca site located 2,400 meters (7,875 ft) above sea level[1]. It is situated on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, which is 80 km (50 mi) northwest of Cusco. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Central New York City. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... This article is about the culture area. ... A mother culture is a term for an early people and their culture, with great and widespread influence on later cultures and people. ... Olmec stone head The Olmec were an ancient people living in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, roughly what would now be the Veracruz and Tabasco regions of the Mexican isthmus. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... For other uses, see Yucatán (disambiguation). ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... The Atlantes – columns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula. ...


In South America, the 14th and 15th centuries saw the rise of the Inca. The Inca Empire of Tawantinsuyu, with its capital at Cusco, spanned the entire Andes Mountain Range.[102][103] The Inca were prosperous and advanced, known for an excellent road system and unrivaled masonry. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... This article is the city in Peru. ... This article is about the mountain range in South America. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... Major highways of the Inca Empire Among the many roads and trails constructed in pre-Columbian South America, the Inca road system (El Camino Inca) of Peru was the most extensive. ... This article refers to the building structure component; for the fraternal organization, see Freemasonry. ...


Islam,[104] which began in 7th century Arabia, was also one of the most remarkable forces in world history, growing from a handful of adherents to become the foundation of a series of empires in the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia, India and present-day Indonesia. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to...


In northeastern Africa, Nubia and Ethiopia remained Christian enclaves while the rest of Africa north of the equator converted to Islam. With Islam came new technologies that, for the first time, allowed substantial trade to cross the Sahara. Taxes on this trade brought prosperity to North Africa, and the rise of a series of kingdoms in the Sahel. Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... World map showing the equator in red For other uses, see Equator (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Sahelian kingdoms were a series of empires that had many similarities. ...


This period in the history of the world was marked by slow but steady technological advances, with important developments such as the stirrup and moldboard plow arriving every few centuries. There were, however, in some regions, periods of rapid technological progress. Most important, perhaps, was the Mediterranean area during the Hellenistic period, when hundreds of technologies were invented.[105][106][107] Such periods were followed by periods of technological decay, as during the Roman Empire's decline and fall and the ensuing early medieval period. Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... The plough (American spelling: plow) is a tool used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Frankish ruler Charlemagne was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III in 800 in Rome. ...


The Plague of Justinian[108] was a pandemic that afflicted the Byzantine Empire, including its capital Constantinople, in the years 541–42. It is estimated that the Plague of Justinian killed as many as 100 million people across the world.[109][110] It caused Europe's population to drop by around 50% between 541 and 700.[111] It also may have contributed to the success of the Arab conquests.[112][113] The Plague of Justinian was a pandemic that afflicted the Byzantine Empire, including its capital Constantinople, in the years 541–542 AD. It has been speculated that this pandemic marked an early recorded incidence of bubonic plague, which centuries later became infamous for either causing or contributing to the Black... For other uses, see Pandemic (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ...


Middle Ages

The Middle Ages are commonly dated from the fall of the Western Roman Empire (or by some scholars,[who?] before that) in the 5th century to the beginning of the Early Modern Period[25] in the 16th century, marked by the rise of nation-states, the division of Western Christianity in the Reformation,[114] the rise of humanism in the Italian Renaissance,[115] and the beginnings of European overseas expansion which allowed for the Columbian Exchange.[116] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ... The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the post Late Middle Ages period in Western Europe (Early modern Europe), its first colonies marked by the rise of strong centralized governments and the beginnings of recognizable nation states that are the direct antecedents... Max Barry set up Jennifer Government: NationStates, a game on the World Wide Web inspired by, and promoting, his novel Jennifer Government. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... Inca-era terraces on Taquile are used to grow traditional Andean staples, such as quinua and potatoes, alongside wheat, a European import. ...


The period corresponds to the Islamic conquests[117] and the Islamic golden age,[118][119] followed by the Mongol invasions in the Middle East and Central Asia. South Asia sees a series of "Middle kingdoms" followed by the establishment of Islamic empires. The Chinese Empire sees the succession of the Sui, Tang, Liao, Yuan and Ming Dynasties. Age of the Caliphs The initial Islamic conquests (632-732) began with the death of Muhammad, were followed by a century of rapid Arab and Islamic expansion, and ended with the Battle of Tours—resulting in a vast Islamic empire and area of influence that stretched from India, across the... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Mongol invasions can refer to: 1205–1209 invasion of Western China 1211–1234 invasion of Northern China 1218–1220 invasion of Central Asia 1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus 1220–1224 of the Cumans 1223–36 invasion of Volga Bulgaria 1231–1259 invasion of Korea 1237... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Ming. ...


The Black Death was one of the deadliest pandemics in human history. Starting in Asia, the disease reached Mediterranean and western Europe during the late 1340s,[120] and killed tens of millions of Europeans in six years; between a third and a half of the total population.[121] This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The Middle Ages[122] witnessed the first sustained urbanization of northern and western Europe. Many modern European states owe their origins to events unfolding in the Middle Ages; present European political boundaries are, in many regards, the result of the military and dynastic achievements during this tumultuous period.[123]


Modern history

Modern history (the "modern period," the "modern era," "modern times") is history of the period following the Middle Ages. "Contemporary history" encompasses historic events that are immediately relevant to the present time; its intentionally loose ambit includes major events such as World War II, but not those whose immediate effects have dissipated. Modern history describes the history of the Modern Times, the era after the Middle Ages. ... Modern history describes the history of the Modern Times, the era after the Middle Ages. ... Contemporary history describes the term of historical events, that are immediately relevant to the present time. ... The perimeter is the distance around a given two-dimensional object. ...


Early Modern period

"Early modern period"[124] is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies that spans the centuries between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution. The early modern period is characterized by the rise to importance of science and by increasingly rapid technological progress, secularized civic politics, and the nation-state. Capitalist economies began their rise, initially in northern Italian republics such as Genoa. The early modern period also saw the rise and dominance of the mercantilist economic theory. As such, the early modern period represents the decline and eventual disappearance, in much of the European sphere, of feudalism, serfdom and the power of the Catholic Church. The period includes the Protestant Reformation, the disastrous Thirty Years' War, the European colonization of the Americas, and the peak of European witch-hunting. The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the post Late Middle Ages period in Western Europe (Early modern Europe), its first colonies marked by the rise of strong centralized governments and the beginnings of recognizable nation states that are the direct antecedents... The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the post Late Middle Ages period in Western Europe (Early modern Europe), its first colonies marked by the rise of strong centralized governments and the beginnings of recognizable nation states that are the direct antecedents... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... A witch-hunt is a search for suspected witches; it is a type of moral panic. ...


Rise of Europe

The movable-type printing press arose in the mid-15th century. Less than 50 years later, nine million books were in print.

Nearly all the agricultural civilizations were heavily constrained by their environments. Productivity remained low, and climatic changes easily instigated boom and bust cycles that brought about civilizations' rise and fall. By about 1500, however, there was a qualitative change in world history. Technological advance and the wealth generated by trade gradually brought about a widening of possibilities.[125][126][127][128][129][130][131][132][133][134][135] The history of Europe describes the passage of time from humans inhabiting the European continent to the present day. ... For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... The climate (ancient Greek: κλίμα) is the weather averaged over a long period of time. ... In economics, the term boom and bust refers to the movement of an economy through economic cycles. ... Cycle or Cycles may be: Look up cycle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Technology (Gr. ... For the business meaning, see Wealth (economics). ... This article is about economic exchange. ...


Even before the 16th century, some civilizations had developed advanced societies.[136] In ancient times, the Greeks and Romans had produced societies supported by a developed monetary economy, with financial markets and private-property rights. These institutions created the conditions for continuous capital accumulation, with increased productivity. By some estimates, the per-capita income of Roman Italy, one of the most advanced regions of the Roman Empire, was comparable to the per-capita incomes of the most advanced economies in the 18th century.[137] The most developed regions of classical civilization were more urbanized than any other region of the world until early modern times. This civilization had, however, gradually declined and collapsed; historians still debate the causes. The archaic period in Greece is the period during which the ancient Greek city-states developed, and is normally taken to cover roughly the 9th century to the 6th century BCE. The Archaic period followed the dark ages, and saw significant advancements in political theory, and the rise of democracy... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... A monetary economy is a societys economy where products and services are traded in exchange for money. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... Most generally, the accumulation of capital refers simply to the gathering or amassment of objects of value; the increase in wealth; or the creation of wealth. ... Per capita income means how much each individual receives, in monetary terms, of the yearly income generated in their country. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD...


China had developed an advanced monetary economy by 1,000 CE. China had a free peasantry who were no longer subsistence farmers, and could sell their produce and actively participate in the market. The agriculture was highly productive and China's society was highly urbanized. The country was technologically advanced as it enjoyed a monopoly in piston bellows and printing. (see Joseph Needham[138]). But, after earlier onslaughts by the Jurchens, in 1279 the remnants of the Sung empire were conquered by the Mongols. A monetary economy is a societys economy where products and services are traded in exchange for money. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ... Like most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, this Cameroonian man cultivates at the subsistence level. ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ... For other uses, see Print. ... Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (December 9, 1900 – March 24, 1995) was a British biochemist and pre-eminent authority on the history of Chinese science. ... The Jurchens (Traditional Chinese: 女眞; Simplified Chinese: 女真; pinyin: nÇšzhÄ“n) were a Tungus people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the 17th century, when they became the Manchus. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ...


Outwardly, Europe's Renaissance, beginning in the 14th century,[139] consisted in the rediscovery of the classical world's scientific contributions, and in the economic and social rise of Europe. But the Renaissance also engendered a culture of inquisitiveness which ultimately led to Humanism,[140] the Scientific Revolution,[141] and finally the great transformation of the Industrial Revolution. The Scientific Revolution in the 17th century, however, had no immediate impact on technology; only in the second half of the 18th century did scientific advances begin to be applied to practical invention. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Social refers to human society or its organization. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... This article is about the period in history. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... This article is about the period in history. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For the musical form, see Invention (music). ...


The advantages that Europe had developed by the mid-18th century were two: an entrepreneurial culture,[142] and the wealth generated by the Atlantic trade (including the African slave trade). By the late 16th century, American silver accounted for one-fifth of Spain's total budget.[143] The profits of the slave trade and of West Indian plantations amounted to 5% of the British economy at the time of the Industrial Revolution.[144] While some historians conclude that, in 1750, labour productivity in the most developed regions of China was still on a par with that of Europe's Atlantic economy (see the NBER Publications by Carol H. Shiue and Wolfgang Keller[145]), other historians like Angus Maddison hold that the per-capita productivity of western Europe had by the late Middle Ages surpassed that of all other regions.[146] The attitudes, mindset and skills of an enterpreneur Related: Enterpreneurship entrepreneurial education Junior Enterprise ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... The slave trade in Africa existed for thousands of years. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For specific articles on the slave trade, see: Atlantic slave trade Slave trade in the ancient world Slave trade in the Middle Ages Slave trade in Islamic World Slave trade in Africa Slave trade in the Americas Slave trade and the British Empire Swedish slave trade Abolitionism Categories: Disambiguation | Slavery... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... In economics, productivity is the amount of output created (in terms of goods produced or services rendered) per unit input used. ... Angus Maddison, Emeritus Professor at the Faculty of Economics at the University of Groningen. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


A number of explanations are proffered as to why, from the late Middle Ages on, Europe rose to surpass other civilizations, become the home of the Industrial Revolution,[147] and dominate the world. Max Weber argued that it was due to a Protestant work ethic that encouraged Europeans to work harder and longer than others. Another socioeconomic explanation looks to demographics: Europe, with its celibate clergy, colonial emigration, high-mortality urban centers, periodic famines and outbreaks of the Black Death, continual warfare, and late age of marriage had far more restrained population growth, compared to Asian cultures. A relative shortage of labour meant that surpluses could be invested in labour-saving technological advances such as water-wheels and mills, spinners and looms, steam engines and shipping, rather than fueling population growth. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... The Protestant work ethic, or sometimes called the Puritan work ethic, is a Calvinist value emphasizing the necessity of constant labor in a persons calling as a sign of personal salvation. ... Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... This article is about the disease. ... This is an incomplete list of major famines, ordered by date. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – AD 2000. ... For water wheels used to drive boats, see paddle wheel. ... A factory (previously manufactory) is a large industrial building where goods or products are manufactured. ... A hand-turned spinning wheel in action Cones of yarn for industrial use Z-twist and S-twist yarns Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials. ... For other uses, see Loom (disambiguation). ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ...


Many have also argued that Europe's institutions were superior,[148][149] that property rights and free-market economics were stronger than elsewhere due to an ideal of freedom peculiar to Europe. In recent years, however, scholars such as Kenneth Pomeranz have challenged this view, although the revisionist approach to world history has also met with criticism for systematically "downplaying" European achievements.[150] This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... For other uses, see Freedom. ... Kenneth Pomeranz is a professor and the chair of the history department at the University of California, Irvine in the US. He received his Ph. ... World History is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s. ...

Vasco da Gama reached India by sea in 1498.

Europe's geography may also have played an important role. The Middle East, India and China are all ringed by mountains but, once past these outer barriers, are relatively flat. By contrast, the Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines, Carpathians and other mountain ranges run through Europe, and the continent is also divided by several seas. This gave Europe some degree of protection from the peril of Central Asian invaders. Before the era of firearms, these nomads were militarily superior to the agricultural states on the periphery of the Eurasian continent and, if they broke out into the plains of northern India or the valleys of China, were all but unstoppable. These invasions were often devastating. The Golden Age of Islam[151] was ended by the Mongol sack of Baghdad in 1258. India and China were subject to periodic invasions, and Russia spent a couple of centuries under the Mongol-Tatar Yoke. Central and western Europe, logistically more distant from the Central Asian heartland, proved less vulnerable to these threats. For other uses, see Vasco da Gama (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Alp redirects here. ... The Apennine Mountains (Greek: Απεννινος; Latin: Appenninus--in both cases used in the singular; Italian: Appennini) is a mountain range stretching 1000 km from the north to the south of Italy along its east coast, traversing the entire peninsula, and forming, as it were, the backbone of the country. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... This article is about the body of water. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Mongol invasions can refer to: 1205–1209 invasion of Western China 1211–1234 invasion of Northern China 1218–1220 invasion of Central Asia 1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus 1220–1224 of the Cumans 1223–36 invasion of Volga Bulgaria 1231–1259 invasion of Korea 1237... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Tatar invasions of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the middle ages to early modern period. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Logistics is the management of resources and their distribution. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to...


Geography also contributed to important geopolitical differences. For most of their histories, China, India and the Middle East were each unified under a single dominant power that expanded until it reached the surrounding mountains and deserts. In 1600 the Ottoman Empire[152] controlled almost all the Middle East, the Ming Dynasty ruled China,[153][154] and the Mughal Empire held sway over India. By contrast, Europe was almost always divided into a number of warring states. Pan-European empires, with the notable exception of the Roman Empire, tended to collapse soon after they arose. Geopolitics analyses politics, history and social science with reference to geography. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... For other uses, see Ming. ... Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Lahore, Delhi, Agra , Kabul, Lucknow and Bhopal Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Absolute Monarchy , Unitary Government with a federal structure Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


One source of Europe's success is often said to be the intense competition among rival European states. In other regions, stability was often a higher priority than growth. China's growth as a maritime power was halted by the Ming Dynasty's Hai jin ban on ocean-going commerce. In Europe, due to political disunity, a blanket ban of this kind would have been impossible; had any one state imposed it, that state would quickly have fallen behind its competitors. For other uses, see Competition (disambiguation). ... Look up stability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Growth can mean increase in spatial number or complexity for concrete entities in time or increase in some other dimension for abstract or hard-to-measure entities. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Hai jin (海禁) was a ban on maritime activities during the mid-Ming Dynasty of China. ...


Another doubtless important geographic factor in the rise of Europe was the Mediterranean Sea, which, for millennia, had functioned as a maritime superhighway fostering the exchange of goods, people, ideas and inventions. Mediterranean redirects here. ...


By contrast to Europe, in tropical lands the still more ubiquitous diseases and parasites, sapping the strength and health of humans, and of their animals and crops, were societally-disorganizing factors that impeded progress. [155] A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... Tropical diseases are infectious diseases that either occur uniquely in tropical and subtropical regions (which is rare) or, more commonly, are either more widespread in the tropics or more difficult to prevent or control. ... This is a list of topics related to human parasitic diseases. ... Progress can refer to: The idea of a process in which societies or individuals become better or more modern (technologically and/or socially). ...


Age of Discovery

Columbus sought India aboard the Santa Maria in 1492.

In the fourteenth century, the Renaissance began in Europe.[156][157] Some modern scholars[who?] have questioned whether this flowering of art and Humanism was a benefit to science. The era did see an important fusion of Arab and European knowledge.[158][159] One of the most important developments was the caravel, which combined the Arab lateen sail with European square rigging to create the first vessels that could safely sail the Atlantic Ocean.[160] Along with important developments in navigation, this technology allowed the Italian Christopher Columbus in 1492 to journey across the Atlantic Ocean and bridge the gap between Afro-Eurasia and the Americas. See also: Age of Sail and Afro-Asiatic age of discovery For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... The Santa Maria was the largest of the three ships used by Christopher Columbus in his first voyage across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... Portuguese caravel, adorned with the Cross of the Order of Christ. ... A lateen (from Latin) is a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, and running in a fore-and-aft direction. ... Main-mast of a square-rigged ship, with all square sails set except the course. ... This article is about determination of position and direction on or above the surface of the earth. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


This had dramatic effects on both continents. The Europeans brought with them viral diseases that American natives had never encountered,[161] and uncertain numbers of natives died in a series of devastating epidemics. The Europeans also had the technological advantage of horses, steel and guns that helped them overpower the Aztec and Incan empires as well as North American cultures.[162] vaghhyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy viral vaghela (shrewsbury, massachusetts) also know as vagh is the hot sexy lover of kinjal shah (houston, texas) ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the video game. ... For other uses, see Aztec (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ...


Gold and resources from the Americas began to be stripped from the land and people and shipped to Europe, while at the same time large numbers of European colonists began to emigrate to the Americas.[163][164] To meet the great demand for labor in the new colonies, the mass import of Africans as slaves began.[165] Soon much of the Americas had a large racial underclass of slaves. In West Africa, a series of thriving states developed along the coast, becoming prosperous from the exploitation of suffering interior African peoples. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Slave redirects here. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... The Slave Coast is the name of the coastal areas of present Togo, Benin (formerly Dahomey) and western Nigeria, a fertile region of coastal Western Africa along the Bight of Benin. ...


Europe's maritime expansion unsurprisingly — given that continent's geography — was largely the work of its Atlantic states: Portugal, Spain, England, France, and the Netherlands. The Portuguese and Spanish Empires were the predominant conquerors and source of influence, and their union resulted in the Iberian Union,[166] the first global empire, on which the "sun never set". Soon the more northern English, French and Dutch began to dominate the Atlantic. In a series of wars fought in the 17th and 18th centuries, culminating with the Napoleonic Wars, Britain emerged as the new world power. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // The Spanish-Portuguese empire in the period of personal union under the Habsburgs (1581-1640) Red/Pink - Spanish Empire Blue/Light Blue - Portuguese Empire The phrase The Empire on which the sun never sets (Spanish: ) was first used to describe the Spanish Empire in the 16th century, and originates with... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack...


Meanwhile the voyages of Admiral Zheng He were halted by China's Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), established after the expulsion of the Mongols. A Chinese commercial revolution, sometimes described as "incipient capitalism", was also abortive. The Ming Dynasty would eventually fall to the Manchus, whose Qing Dynasty at first oversaw a period of calm and prosperity but would increasingly fall prey to Western encroachment. A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Mǎnzú, Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


19th century

Soon after the expansion into the Americas, Europeans had exerted their technological advantage as well over the peoples of Asia. In the early 19th century, Britain gained control of the Indian subcontinent, Egypt and the Malay Peninsula; the French took Indochina; while the Dutch occupied the Dutch East Indies. The British also took over several areas still populated by Neolithic peoples, including Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, and, as in the Americas, large numbers of British colonists began to emigrate there. In the late 19th century, the European powers divided the remaining areas of Africa. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (or Semenanjung Malaysia in the Malay language) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Map of the Dutch East Indies showing its territorial expansion from 1800 to its fullest extent prior to Japanese occupation in 1942. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


This era in Europe saw the Age of Reason lead to the Scientific Revolution, which changed man's understanding of the world and made possible the Industrial Revolution, a major transformation of the world's economies. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and used new modes of production — the factory, mass production, and mechanisation — to manufacture a wide array of goods faster and for less labour than previously. The Age of Reason is either Thomas Paines book The Age of Reason. ... This article is about the period in history. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... Mechanization refers to the use of powered machinery to help a human operator in some task. ...


The Age of Reason also led to the beginnings of modern democracy in the late-18th century American and French Revolutions. Democracy would grow to have a profound effect on world events and on quality of life. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Quality of life is the degree of well-being felt by an individual or group of people. ...


During the Industrial Revolution, the world economy was soon based on coal, as new methods of transport, such as railways and steamships, effectively shrank the world. Meanwhile, industrial pollution and environmental damage, present since the discovery of fire and the beginning of civilization, accelerated drastically. Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... End of the single track, unelectrified line at Bad Radkersburg, Styria, Austria, quite close to the Slovenian border. ... Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... This article is about the natural environment. ...


20th century to present

(19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... 20XX redirects here. ...

Early 20th century

World War I, fought by the Allies (green) and Central Powers (orange), ended the German, Austro-Hungarian, Russian and Ottoman Empires.

The 20th century[167][168][169] opened with Europe at an apex of wealth and power, and with much of the world under its direct colonial control or its indirect domination.[170] Much of the rest of the world was influenced by heavily Europeanized nations: the United States and Japan.[171] As the century unfolded, however, the global system dominated by rival powers was subjected to severe strains, and ultimately yielded to a more fluid structure of independent nations organized on Western models. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Red: Central Powers at their zenith. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...


This transformation was catalysed by wars of unparalleled scope and devastation. World War I[172] destroyed many of Europe's empires and monarchies, and weakened France and Britain.[173] In its aftermath, powerful ideologies arose. The Russian Revolution[174][175][176] of 1917 created the first communist state, while the 1920s and 1930s saw militaristic fascist dictatorships gain control in Italy, Germany, Spain and elsewhere.[177] Catalyst redirects here. ... -1... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Russian Revolution (1917) was a series of economic and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ...


Ongoing national rivalries, exacerbated by the economic turmoil of the Great Depression, helped precipitate World War II.[178][179] The militaristic dictatorships of Europe and Japan pursued an ultimately doomed course of imperialist expansionism. Their defeat opened the way for the advance of communism into Central Europe, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, China, North Vietnam and North Korea. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Militarism is an ideology which claims that military strength is the source of all security, and that the military represents the forward direction of the society as a whole, as it expands into the world, asserting its influence. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... General location of the political entities known as Yugoslavia. ... Anthem Tiến Quân Ca (Army March) Location of North Vietnam Capital Hanoi Language(s) Vietnamese Government Socialist republic First president Ho Chi Minh Historical era Cold War  - Independence proclaimed (from Japan) September 2, 1945  - Recognized 1954  - Disestablished July 2, 1976 Area 157,880 km² Population  -  est. ...

Nuclear bombs, dropped on Japan in 1945, ended World War II and opened the Cold War.

Following World War II, in 1945, the United Nations was founded in the hope of allaying conflicts among nations and preventing future wars.[180][181] The war had, however, left two nations, the United States[182] and the Soviet Union, with principal power to guide international affairs.[183] Each was suspicious of the other and feared a global spread of the other's political-economic model. This led to the Cold War, a forty-year stand-off between the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective allies. With the development of nuclear weapons[184] and the subsequent arms race, all of humanity were put at risk of nuclear war between the two superpowers.[185] Such war being viewed as impractical, proxy wars were instead waged, at the expense of non-nuclear-armed Third World countries. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... UN redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The term arms race in its original usage, describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... The Titan II Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... A proxy war is a war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly. ... Third World is a term originally used to distinguish those nations that neither aligned with the West nor with the East during the Cold War and most were members of the Non-Aligned Movement. ...


Late 20th century

The Cold War lasted through to the ninth decade of the twentieth century, when the Soviet Union's communist system began to collapse, unable to compete economically with the United States and western Europe; the Soviets' Central European "satellites" reasserted their national sovereignty, and in 1991 the Soviet Union itself disintegrated.[186][187][188] The United States for the time being was left as the "sole remaining superpower".[189][190][191] Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Satellite state or client state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ... // The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ...


In the early postwar decades, the African and Asian colonies of the Belgian, British, Dutch, French and other west European empires won their formal independence.[192][193] These nations faced challenges in the form of neocolonialism, poverty, illiteracy and endemic tropical diseases.[194][195] Many of the Western and Central European nations gradually formed a political and economic community, the European Union, which subsequently expanded eastward to include former Soviet satellites.[196][197][198][199] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Neocolonialism is the term describing international economic arrangements wherein former colonial powers maintained control of colonies and dependencies after World War II. Neocolonialism can obfuscate the understanding of current colonialism, given that some colonial governments continue administrating foreign territories and their populations in violation of United Nations resolutions[1] and... In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. ... Tropical diseases are infectious diseases that either occur uniquely in tropical and subtropical regions (which is rare) or, more commonly, are either more widespread in the tropics or more difficult to prevent or control. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ...

Last Moon landing — Apollo 17 (1972)

The twentieth century saw exponential progress in science and technology, and increased life expectancy and standard of living for much of humanity. As the developed world shifted from a coal-based to a petroleum-based economy, new transport technologies, along with the dawn of the Information Age,[200] led to increased globalization.[201][202][203] Space exploration reached throughout the solar system. The structure of DNA, the very template of life, was discovered,[204][205][206] and the human genome was sequenced, a major milestone in the understanding of human biology and the treatment of disease.[207][208][209][210][211] Global literacy rates continued to rise, and the percentage of the world's labor pool needed to produce humankind's food supply continued to drop. This article is about Earths moon. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Petro redirects here. ... A university computer lab containing many desktop PCs The transition of communication technology: Oral Culture, Manuscript Culture, Print Culture, and Information Age Information Age is a term that has been used to refer to the present economic era. ... Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ... Space exploration is the use of astronomy and space technology to explore outer space. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... This article is about life in general. ... A graphical representation of the normal human karyotype. ... Human biology is an interdisciplinary academic field of biology, biological anthropology, and medicine which focuses on humans; it is closely related to primate biology, and a number of other fields. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Children reading. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ...


The century saw the development of new global threats, such as nuclear proliferation, worldwide epidemics of diseases, global climate change,[212][213] geomagnetic reversal, massive deforestation, and the dwindling of global resources.[214] It witnessed, as well, a dawning awareness of ancient hazards that had probably previously caused mass extinctions of lifeforms on the planet, such as near-earth asteroids and comets, supervolcano eruptions, and gamma-ray bursts. World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... The term climate change is used to refer to changes in the Earths climate. ... Recent geomagnetic reversals. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... An extinction event (also extinction-level event, ELE) is a period in time when a large number of species die out. ... Lifeform is the physical entity which encompasses a life. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... A supervolcano is a volcano that produces the largest and most voluminous kinds of eruption on Earth. ... In astronomy, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays that last from seconds to hours, the longer ones being followed by several days of X-ray afterglow. ...


21st century

As the 20th century yielded to the 21st, worldwide demand and competition for resources rose due to growing populations and industrialization, with resulting increased levels of environmental degradation.[215] This led to development of alternate sources of energy such as solar and other renewable energy varieties, to proposals for cleaner fossil-fuel technologies, and to consideration of expanded use of nuclear energy.[216][217][218][219] Contemporary history describes the term of historical events, that are immediately relevant to the present time. ... The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). ... For other uses, see Competition (disambiguation). ... Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... Heat and light from the Sun fuels life on Earth. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ... This article concerns the energy stored in the nuclei of atoms; for the use of nuclear fission as a power source, see Nuclear power. ...


Older industrial regions competed with rapidly-industrializing economies, such as those of China and India, for the world's resources, including petroleum. Many states were involved in wars, with resulting loss of life, economic damage, disease, famine, and genocide. As of 2009, some 30 ongoing armed conflicts raged in various parts of the world.[220] As of June 2009, the world economy is on pace to shrink by between 0.5% and 1.0% by the year's end, the first global contraction in 60 years. In its forecast the International Monetary Fund (IMF) says that developed countries will suffer "deep recession".[221] Petro redirects here. ... Current wars redirects here. ... IMF redirects here. ...


Lessons

Ever since the invention of history, people have searched for "lessons" that might be drawn from its study, on the principle that to understand the past is potentially to control the future.[222] Arnold J. Toynbee, in his monumental Study of History, sought regularities in the rise and fall of civilizations.[223] In a more popular vein, Will and Ariel Durant devoted a 1968 book, The Lessons of History, to a discussion of "events and comments that might illuminate present affairs, future possibilities... and the conduct of states."[224] This article is about the social science. ... For other uses, see Future (disambiguation). ... This page is about the universal historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee; for the economic historian Arnold Toynbee see this article. ... A Study of History is the 12-volume magnum opus of British historian Arnold J. Toynbee, finished in 1961. ... Central New York City. ... Will Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ... The Lessons of History by Will and Ariel Durant The Lessons of History is a book by historians Will Durant and Ariel Durant. ...


Discussions of history's lessons often tend to an excessive focus on historic detail or, conversely, on sweeping historiographic generalizations.[225] Yet some conclusions may be profitably drawn from the study of history. Some of these lie embedded in foregoing parts of this article and relate to the physical requisites for the sustenance and development of human communities—to soil, water, climate, geography, and biogenic and mineral resources—as well as to mankind's accumulation of discoveries and inventions, including the Agricultural Revolution, literacy and the Industrial Revolution. The technology that mankind initiates, takes on an evolutionary dynamic of its own.[226] In the Earths history there have been a number of agricultural revolutions. ... Children reading. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...


It may be emblematic of history's traditional concerns that what is regarded as the first work of history in Western literature, Herodotus's The Histories written about 440 BCE, tells the story of the Greco-Persian Wars in the 5th century BCE.[227] For much of what has been regarded until recently as human history is indeed the story of gradual, ongoing nation-building and -maintenance via internal struggles for dominance and external struggles to defend one's polity against other polities.[228] The borders between nations tend to reflect histories of antagonism and conflict: not surprisingly, for those borders have largely been shaped by conflicts.[229] This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... The Histories of Herodotus by Herodotus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... Persian Wars redirects here. ... For other uses, see Polity (disambiguation). ...


Another notable phenomenon is the recurrence of the concept of "exceptionalism", whereby successive civilizations, imperfectly aware of their predecessors in history's archeological layering, tend to see their own ascendance as an exceptional event in history—perhaps the final event.[230] Yet if history demonstrates anything, it is that history stands still for no community—that there are no final events. This has been expressed poetically in the following 1807 quotation from British author William Playfair, known as the "Playfair cycle": Exceptionalism is the perception that a country, society, institution, movement, or time period is exceptional (ie. ... This article is about the art form. ... William Playfair (September 22, 1759 - February 11, 1823) a Scottish engineer and political economist, was an important inventor of statistical graphics. ...

...wealth and power have never been long permanent in any place.
...they travel over the face of the earth,
something like a caravan of merchants.
On their arrival, every thing is found green and fresh;
while they remain all is bustle and abundance,
and, when gone, all is left trampled down, barren, and bare.[231]

In mankind's historic evolution, major advances and revolutions have set the stage for subsequent ones. The Agricultural Revolution, beginning some ten thousand years ago, created a surplus of food and made possible a greater division of labor, thereby leading to the development of cities and thus of civilization. The growing complexity of civilized life necessitated systems of accounting, which led over time to the evolution of writing. Writing made possible the accumulation of knowledge; and the growing dissemination of knowledge, especially after the invention of printing with movable type in the mid-15th century, fostered technology and eventually, in 18th-century Europe, the Industrial Revolution. In the Earths history there have been a number of agricultural revolutions. ... Division of labour is the breakdown of labour into specific, circumscribed tasks for maximum efficiency of output in the context of manufacturing. ... A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ... Central New York City. ... It has been suggested that Accounting scholarship be merged into this article or section. ... Write redirects here. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Print. ... For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


The Industrial Revolution took its early impetus from the resolution of a resource bottleneck when Britain's forests were depleted by a rising demand for charcoal used in producing iron, and several generations of the Abraham Darbys invented a process for turning coal, of which Britain had an abundance, into coke. The resulting increased iron production, combined with the invention of the modern steam engine—initially used for pumping water out of Britain's coal mines—produced what in time became the Industrial Revolution.[232] Natural resources are commodities that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... A bottleneck is literally the neck of a glass or pottery bottle. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Fe redirects here. ... Abraham Darby is the name of three generations of an English Quaker family that was key to the development of the Industrial Revolution. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Coke may refer to: Coca-Cola, a soft drink originally based on coca leaf extract The Coca-Cola Company Cola, any soft drink similar to Coca-Cola Coke (fuel), a solid carbonaceous residue derived from destructive distillation of coal Petroleum coke, a solid carbon rich residue derived from distillation of... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... Wyoming coal mine Coal mining is the mining of coal. ...


The Industrial Revolution in its turn prepared the ground for explosive growth in the sciences, in ever newer technologies, in commerce, in the arts, in statecraft, and in the destructiveness of warfare. Warfare became potentially so destructive that, after World War II, there was no more full-scale overt warfare among the most highly industrialized nations (though the world did come close to nuclear annihilation during the October 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis). Instead, these countries waged war on less technologically advanced nations—or the latter waged war among themselves. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... Public affairs is a catch-all term that includes public policy as well as public administration, both of which are closely related to and draw upon the fields of political science as well as economics. ... Look up warfare in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ...


More recently, traditional forms of conflict and crisis have begun yielding place to more novel and potentially at least as destructive forms of crisis. The exponential growth of industry and of Earth's human population has led to depletion of some of the planet's most economically advantageous arable soils, forests, water resources, metal ores and fossil and fissile fuels. Where these resources were not on their way to outright depletion, the environmental costs of their exploitation—in terms of the pollution of the seas, soil and atmosphere, and of potentially disastrous climate change and consequent destruction of civilization as it exists, as well as of unimaginably destructive warfare—have led to calls for what amounts to a new, post-industrial revolution[233] aimed at: For other uses, see Conflict (disambiguation). ... A crisis (plural: crises) is a turning point or decisive moment in events. ... In mathematics, exponential growth (or geometric growth) occurs when the growth rate of a function is always proportional to the functions current size. ... Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... // Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful to humans. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... This article or section should be merged with Fissile Fissile material is composed of atoms that can undergo nuclear fission and sustain a fission chain reaction. ... This article is about the natural environment. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Central New York City. ...

  • replacing fossil fuels with solar-energy-based energy production;[234]
  • halting and reversing the degradation of Earth's biosphere, which sustains all life on the planet;[235] and
  • creating a more peaceful, equitable distribution of the planet's wealth among its peoples, lest they seek redistribution by war.[236]

Man is, however, an empirical being that tends to react to what he has actually experienced rather than to mere potentialities, however well these may be predicted by science.[237] [238] Thus, while the world's governments have begun to express interest in the reforms noted above, as of the early 21st century most of them have held back from actually committing substantial resources to their implementation. Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Heat and light from the Sun fuels life on Earth. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... This article is about life in general. ... -1... This article is about adult human males. ... A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ...


See also


Human history
before Homo (Pliocene)
Three-age system prehistory
>> Lower Paleolithic: Homo, Homo erectus,
>> Middle Paleolithic: early Homo sapiens
>> Upper Paleolithic: behavioral modernity
>> Neolithic: civilization
>> Near East | IndiaEuropeChinaKorea
>> Bronze Age collapseAncient Near EastIndiaEuropeChinaJapanKoreaNigeria
History
see also: Modernity, Futurology
Future

Hominina is a subtribe that inludes Homo sapiens, Australopithecus, as well as prehistoric humans. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The three-age system is a system of classifying human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age The system is most apt in describing the progression of European society, although it has been used... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. ... For the 2007 comedy film, see Homo Erectus (film). ... The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... The term Archaic Homo sapiens refers generally to the earliest members of the species Homo sapiens, which consisted of the Neanderthals of Europe and the Middle East, the Neanderthal-like hominids of Africa and Asia, and the immediate ancestors of all these hominids. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... Behavioral modernity is a term used in anthropology and archeology to refer to an important milestone in the evolution of humans. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... This article is about society beginnings. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Overview map of the ancient Near East The terms ancient Near East or ancient Orient encompass the early civilizations predating classical antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria), during the time roughly spanning... A simplified map archaeological cultures of the late Bronze Age (c. ... For other uses, see Bronze Age (disambiguation). ... Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland In archaeology, the Iron Age is the stage in the development of any people where the use of iron implements as tools and weapons is preeminent. ... The Bronze Age collapse is the name of the Dark Age period of history of the Ancient Middle East extending between the collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, and the Egyptian Empire in Syria and Palestine between 1206 and 1150 BC, down to the... Overview map of the ancient Near East The terms ancient Near East or ancient Orient encompass the early civilizations predating classical antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria), during the time roughly spanning... NOK redirects here. ... This article is about the social science. ... Writing systems evolved in the Early Bronze Age (late 4th millennium BC) out of neolithic proto-writing. ... Ancient redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the post Late Middle Ages period in Western Europe (Early modern Europe), its first colonies marked by the rise of strong centralized governments and the beginnings of recognizable nation states that are the direct antecedents... Modern history describes the history of the Modern Times, the era after the Middle Ages. ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ... Futurology is the detailed critical inspection and reasoning of the state in which things will develop in the future on the basis of existing circumstances in history. ... For other uses, see Future (disambiguation). ...

History topics

Central New York City. ... Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of scientific methods, which emphasize the observation, explanation, and adequate prediction of real world phenomena by experiment. ... When plotted on a logarithmic graph, 15 separate lists of paradigm shifts for key events in human history show an exponential trend. ... Historiography is the aspect of history, and of semiotics, that is the study of how knowledge of the past, recent or distant, is obtained and transmitted; simply put, historiography is the history of history. ... Development criticism refers to far-reaching criticisms of modernization and its central aspects : modern technology, industrialization, capitalism and economic globalization . ... This article is about great floods. ...

History by period

Names for archaeological periods vary enormously from region to region. ... . ...

History by region

The history of Africa begins with the first emergence of Homo sapiens in East Africa, continuing into its modern present as a patchwork of diverse and politically developing nation states. ... The Silk Road connected many civilisations across Asia. ... // In East Asia, the Neolithic period may have begun as early as 7500 BC. The earliest evidence suggests the existence of the Pengtoushan culture in northern Hunan province from about 7500 BC to 6100 BC and of the Peiligang culture in Henan province around from about The Jeulmun pottery period... The term South Asia refers to the political entities of the Indian subcontinent and associated islands, that is the states of Pakistan, Republic of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and the island nations of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. ... Location of Southeast Asia. ... The history of Europe describes the passage of time from humans inhabiting the European continent to the present day. ... The written history of Australia began when Dutch explorers first sighted the landmass in the 17th century. ... // The history of New Zealand dates back at least 700 years to when it was discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed a distinct Māori culture centred on kinship links and land. ... History of the Pacific Islands covers the history of the islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Non-Native American nations claims over North America, 1750-2008. ... Political Evolution of Central America and the Caribbean from 1700 to present The history of Central America is the study of the past of the region known as Central America. ... European nations’ control over South America, 1700 to present The history of South America is the study of the past, particularly the written record, oral histories, and traditions, passed down from generation to generation on the continent in the Earths southern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The history of North America is the study of the past, particularly the written record, oral histories, and traditions, passed down from generation to generation on the continent in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Political Evolution of Central America and the Caribbean from 1700 to present The history of the Caribbean reveals the significant role the region played in the colonial struggles of the European powers since the fifteenth century. ... December 1911: Roald Amundsens Norwegian expedition becomes the first to reach the South Pole. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Williams, H. S. (1904). The historians' history of the world; a comprehensive narrative of the rise and development of nations as recorded by over two thousand of the great writers of all ages. New York: The Outlook Company; [etc.,etc.].
  2. ^ Blainey, Geoffery (2000). A Short History Of The World. Penguin Books, Victoria. ISBN 0-670-88036-1
  3. ^ Gombrich, Ernst H. A Little History of the World. Yale. UK and USA, 2005.
  4. ^ Crawford, O. G. S. (1927). Antiquity. [Gloucester, Eng.]: Antiquity Publications [etc.]. (cf., History education in the United States is primarily the study of the written past. Defining history in such a narrow way has important consequences ...)
  5. ^ According to David Diringer ("Writing", Encyclopedia Americana, 1986 ed., vol. 29, p. 558), "Writing gives permanence to men's knowledge and enables them to communicate over great distances.... The complex society of a higher civilization would be impossible without the art of writing."
  6. ^ Webster, H. (1921). World history. Boston: D.C. Heath. Page 27.
  7. ^ Bellwood, Peter. (2004). First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies. Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-20566-7
  8. ^ Cohen, Mark Nathan (1977)The Food Crisis in Prehistory: Overpopulation and the Origins of Agriculture. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02016-3.
  9. ^ Tudge, Colin (1998). Neanderthals, Bandits and Farmers: How Agriculture Really Began. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-84258-7. 
  10. ^ Not all societies abandoned nomadism, especially those in isolated regions that were poor in domesticable plant species. See Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs and Steel.
  11. ^ Schmandt-Besserat, Denise (Jan-Feb 2002). "Signs of Life". Archaeology Odyssey: 6–7, 63. https://webspace.utexas.edu/dsbay/Docs/SignsofLife.pdf. 
  12. ^ McNeill, Willam H. (1999) [1967]. "In The Beginning". A World History (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-19-511615-1. 
  13. ^ Baines, John and Jaromir Malek (2000). The Cultural Atlas of Ancient Egypt (revised ed.). Facts on File. ISBN 0816040362. 
  14. ^ Bard, KA (1999). Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. NY, NY: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18589-0. 
  15. ^ a b Grimal, Nicolas (1992). A History of Ancient Egypt. Blackwell Books. ISBN 0631193960. 
  16. ^ Allchin, Raymond (ed.) (1995). The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. New York: Cambridge University Press. 
  17. ^ Chakrabarti, D. K. (2004). Indus Civilization Sites in India: New Discoveries. Mumbai: Marg Publications. ISBN 81-85026-63-7. 
  18. ^ Dani, Ahmad Hassan; Mohen, J-P. (eds.) (1996). History of Humanity, Volume III, From the Third Millennium to the Seventh Century BC. New York/Paris: Routledge/UNESCO. ISBN 0415093066. 
  19. ^ William W. Hallo & William Kelly Simpson, The Ancient Near East: A History, Holt Rinehart and Winston Publishers, 1997
  20. ^ Jack Sasson, The Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, New York, 1995
  21. ^ Marc Van de Mieroop, History of the Ancient Near East: Ca. 3000-323 B.C., Blackwell Publishers, 2003
  22. ^ "Ancient Asian World". Automaticfreeweb.com. http://www.automaticfreeweb.com/index.cfm?s=ancientasianworld. Retrieved on 2009-04-18. 
  23. ^ "Internet Medieval Sourcebook Project". Fordham.edu. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/. Retrieved on 2009-04-18. 
  24. ^ "The Online Reference Book of Medieval Studies". The-orb.net. http://www.the-orb.net/. Retrieved on 2009-04-18. 
  25. ^ a b Rice, Eugene, F., Jr. (1970). The Foundations of Early Modern Europe: 1460-1559. W.W. Norton & Co.. 
  26. ^ "What Did Gutenberg Invent?". BBC. http://www.open2.net/historyandthearts/discover_science/gberg_synopsis.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-20. 
  27. ^ Burckhardt, Jacob (1878), The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, trans S.G.C Middlemore, republished in 1990 ISBN 0-14-044534-X
  28. ^ "''The Cambridge Modern History. Vol 1: The Renaissance (1902)". Uni-mannheim.de. http://www.uni-mannheim.de/mateo/camenaref/cmh/cmh.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-18. 
  29. ^ Grant, Edward. The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages: Their Religious, Institutional, and Intellectual Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1996.
  30. ^ More; Charles. Understanding the Industrial Revolution (2000) online edition
  31. ^ Reuters – The State of the World The story of the 21st century
  32. ^ "Scientific American Magazine (September 2005 Issue) The Climax of Humanity". Sciam.com. 2005-08-22. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?chanID=sa006&articleID=00031010-F7DA-1304-B72683414B7F0000. Retrieved on 2009-04-18. 
  33. ^ "Middle and Upper Paleolithic Hunter-Gatherers The Emergence of Modern Humans, The Mesolithic". Indiana.edu. http://www.indiana.edu/~arch/saa/matrix/ia/ia03_mod_11.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-18. 
  34. ^ "Map of Earth during the late Upper Paleolithic By Christopher scotese". Scotese.com. http://www.scotese.com/lastice.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-18. 
  35. ^ "The Upper Paleolithic Revolution". Newarchaeology.com. http://www.newarchaeology.com/articles/uprevolution.php. Retrieved on 2009-04-18. 
  36. ^ Mithen, S. J. (2004). After the ice: a global human history, 20,000-5000 BC. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
  37. ^ Pielou, E.C., 1991. After the Ice Age : The Return of Life to Glaciated North America. University Of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. ISBN 0-226-66812-6 (paperback 1992)
  38. ^ Bellwood, Peter. (2004). First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies. Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-20566-7
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  218. ^ Renewable energy (UNEP); Global Trends In Sustainable Energy Investment (UNEP).
  219. ^ NREL – US National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  220. ^ "The World at War". Globalsecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-12. 
  221. ^ Schifferes, Steve (2009-03-19). "Business | World economy 'to shrink in 2009'". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7952377.stm. Retrieved on 2009-04-18. 
  222. ^ Robert V. Daniels, "History", Encyclopedia Americana, 1986 ed., vol. 14, p. 227.
  223. ^ Arnold J. Toynbee, A Study of History, vols. I–XII, Oxford University Press, 1934–61.
  224. ^ Will and Ariel Durant, The Lessons of History, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1968, prelude.
  225. ^ Berkeley Eddins and Georg G. Iggers, "History", Encyclopedia Americana, 1986 ed., vol. 14, pp. 243–44.
  226. ^ Havelock Ellis writes (Little Essays of Love and Virtue, chapter 7, 1922): "The greatest task before civilization... is to make machines... the slaves, instead of the masters of men." Technology is in the saddle, and is riding man.
  227. ^ Herodotus, The Histories, Newly translated and with an Introduction by Aubrey de Sélincourt, Harmondsworth, England, Penguin Books, 1965.
  228. ^ Robert V. Daniels, "History", Encyclopedia Americana, vol. 14, p. 226.
  229. ^ Arthur Jay Klinghoffer, The Power of Projections: How Maps Reflect Global Politics and History, Praeger, 2006, ISBN 0275991350, p. 11.
  230. ^ An "exceptionalist" argument is presented in Francis Fukuyama's 1992 book, The End of History and the Last Man.
  231. ^ William Playfair, 1807: An Inquiry into the Permanent Causes of the Decline and Fall of Powerful and Wealthy Nations, p. 102.
  232. ^ Harrison Brown, "Human Materials Production as a Process in the Biosphere," The Biosphere, A Scientific American Book, 1970, p. 118.
  233. ^ On the 21 July 2009 Daily Show with Jon Stewart, Nobel-laureate Energy Secretary Steven Chu said, "We need a new Industrial Revolution."
  234. ^ [1] Robert S. Leonard, "A Dream for a Future with Alternative Energy"
  235. ^ [2] "Environmental Degradation"
  236. ^ Nobel-laureate economist Joseph Stiglitz argues that the global economic system is stacked against poor nations. Michael Hirsh, "The Most Misunderstood Man in America," Newsweek, July 27, 2009, p. 45.
  237. ^ Teddy Ward, "Empiricism" (no date). Eprint.
  238. ^ While the hazards of nuclear power had long been evident (Sheldon Novick, The Careless Atom, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1969), its development was dampened in most of the world only by the events at Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986).

A Short History of The World isnt a general history book by Luke Berry and Christopher Duffield, which explains some areas of history in ordinary language. ... David Diringer, (1900-1975), is a British linguist, alphabetologist, palaeographer, writer. ... // The Encyclopedia Americana is the second largest printed general encyclopedia in the English language (after the Encyclopædia Britannica). ... In anthropology and archaeology, a complex society is a social formation that is otherwise described as a formative or developed state (i. ... Colin Tudge (born 22 April 1943) is a biologist by training and a British science writer who is the author of numerous works on food, agriculture, genetics, and species diversity. ... Neanderthals, Bandits and Farmers: How Agriculture Really Began (ISBN 0297842587) is a book by the British science writer Colin Tudge. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies cover Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies is a 1997 book by Jared Diamond, professor of physiology at UCLA. It won the Pulitzer Prize for 1998, as well as the Aventis Prize for best science book in the... Denise Schmandt-Besserat Denise Schmandt-Besserat is Professor Emerita of Art and Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Texas at Austin. ... William H. McNeill (born 1917, Vancouver, British Columbia) is a Canadian historian. ... John Baines is the incumbent Professor of Egyptology at the University of Oxford, England and the author of multiple scholarly articles and publications relating to ancient Egyptian civilisation. ... Ahmad Hassan Dani (born 1920) is a Pakistani archaeologist and linguist, and is considered to be one of the foremost authorities on South Asian archaeology and history. ... Jacob Burckhardt in 1892 Jacob Burckhardt (May 25, 1818, Basel, Switzerland – August 8, 1897, Basel) was a Swiss historian of art and culture, fields which he helped found. ... (Clarence) Crane Brinton (Winsted, Connecticut 1898 –Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1968), American historian of France and the history of ideas|. His most famous work, The Anatomy of Revolution, compared the dynamics of revolutionary movements to the progress of fever. ... The Kizil Caves (also romanized Qizil Caves) are a set of 236 Buddhist caves located 75 kilometres northwest of Kucha on the northern bank of the Muzat River in Baicheng County, Xinjiang province, China. ... Marija Gimbutas by Kerbstone 52, at the back of Newgrange, Co. ... John Chadwick (21 May 1920 – 24 November 1998) was an English linguist and classical scholar most famous for his role in deciphering Linear B, along with Michael Ventris. ... Barry Kemp is an English archaeologist and Egyptologist, currently Reader in Egyptology at the University of Cambridge and director of the excavations at Amarna in Egypt. ... Peter Stearns is a professor of history at George Mason University, where he is currently provost. ... The Encyclopedia of World History is a classic single volume work detailing world history. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies and is part of the Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies (ORB). ... This article is about the book. ... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... Founded in 1881, The American School of Classical Studies at Athens provides graduate students and scholars from some 168 affiliated North American colleges and universities a base for research and study in the history and monuments of Hellenic civilization. ... Dictionary of the Middle Ages: Supplement 1 (2003) The Dictionary of the Middle Ages is a 13-volume encyclopedia of the Middle Ages published by the American Council of Learned Societies between 1982 and 1989, with a supplemental volume added in 2003. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies, between the Middle Ages and modern society. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Dante by Michelino The Late Middle Ages is a term used by historians to describe European history in the period of the 14th to 16th centuries (AD 1300–1500). ... In chronology, an epoch (or epochal date, or epochal event) means an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular era. ... Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide time into discrete named blocks. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Richard Cantillon (1680-1734), acknowledged by many historians as the first great economic theorist, is an obscure character. ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies is a 1997 book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at UCLA. In 1998 it won a Pulitzer Prize and the Aventis Prize for Best Science Book. ... Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies is a 1997 book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at UCLA. In 1998 it won a Pulitzer Prize and the Aventis Prize for Best Science Book. ... John Reeds signature John Jack Silas Reed (October 22, 1887 – October 19, 1920) was an American journalist, poet, and communist activist, famous for his first-hand account of the Bolshevik Revolution, Ten Days that Shook the World. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... Bibliography Dinan, Desmond (1993). ... John McCormick is Professor of Political Science at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis(IUPUI), and has been chair since July 2001. ... Thomas L. Friedman (born July 20, 1953) is an American journalist, columnist, and author, currently working as an Op-Ed columnist for the New York Times. ... For other uses, see The World Is Flat (disambiguation). ... James Watson The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA is an autobiographical account of the discovery of structure of DNA. It was written by James D. Watson and published in 1968. ... Ensembl is a bioinformatics research project aiming to develop a software system which produces and maintains automatic annotation on selected eukaryotic genomes. It is run in a collaboration between the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and the European Bioinformatics Institute, an outstation of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... Abraham Darby is the name of three generations of an English Quaker family that was key to the development of the Industrial Revolution. ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... A Raw material is something that is acted upon by human labour or industry to create some product that humans desire. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Marion King Hubbert (October 5, 1903 – October 11, 1989) was a Geologist by education and a geophysicist by profession who worked at the Shell research lab in Houston, Texas. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... Klaus Töpfer, UNEP Exec. ... Klaus Töpfer, UNEP Exec. ... GlobalSecurity. ... // The Encyclopedia Americana is the second largest printed general encyclopedia in the English language (after the Encyclopædia Britannica). ... This page is about the universal historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee; for the economic historian Arnold Toynbee see this article. ... A Study of History is the 12-volume magnum opus of British historian Arnold J. Toynbee, finished in 1961. ... Will Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ... The Lessons of History by Will and Ariel Durant The Lessons of History is a book by historians Will Durant and Ariel Durant. ... // The Encyclopedia Americana is the second largest printed general encyclopedia in the English language (after the Encyclopædia Britannica). ... Central New York City. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... The Histories of Herodotus by Herodotus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... Aubrey de Selincourt (Sélincourt) (1896-1962) was an English writer, classical scholar, and translator. ... // The Encyclopedia Americana is the second largest printed general encyclopedia in the English language (after the Encyclopædia Britannica). ... Francis Fukuyama Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952, Chicago, Illinois) is an American philosopher, political economist and author. ... The End of History and the Last Man is a 1992 book by Francis Fukuyama, expanding on his 1989 essay The End of History?, published in the international affairs journal The National Interest. ... William Playfair (September 22, 1759 - February 11, 1823) a Scottish engineer and political economist, was an important inventor of statistical graphics. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... The Daily Show (currently The Daily Show with Jon Stewart) is a Peabody and Emmy Award-winning half-hour American comical news television program produced by and run on the Comedy Central cable television network. ... The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ... The United States Secretary of Energy is the head of the United States Department of Energy, concerned as the name suggests, with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Steven Chu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), born 1948 in St. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ... Joseph Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist, author and winner of Nobel Prize for economics ( 2001). ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station consists of two nuclear reactors, each with its own containment building and cooling towers. ... This article is about the city of Chernobyl. ...

References

The goal of H. G. Wells in The Outline of History was stated in the subtitle: Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind. Wells was very dissatisfied with the quality of history textbooks at the end of World War I, and so, between 1918 and 1919 produced a 1... The Worlds History is a college textbook by world historian Howard Spodek. ... The Times Atlas of World History, first published in 1978 in London, UK, sold many millions of copies in many languages. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... Look up material in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In engineering, energy conversion is any process of converting energy from one form to another. ... Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of wildlife. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies is a 1997 book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at UCLA. In 1998 it won a Pulitzer Prize and the Aventis Prize for Best Science Book. ... Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ... Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ... Francis Fukuyama Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952, Chicago, Illinois) is an American philosopher, political economist and author. ... The End of History and the Last Man is a 1992 book by Francis Fukuyama, expanding on his 1989 essay The End of History?, published in the international affairs journal The National Interest. ... Kenneth Pomeranz is a professor and the chair of the history department at the University of California, Irvine in the US. He received his Ph. ... Clive Ponting is a British writer and academic. ... Ronald Wright (Born 1948, London, England) Author and historian. ... A Short History of Progress is a book length essay penned by Ronald Wright, published in 2004, and honoured with a subsequent reading by the author as a series of five one hour Massey Lectures given at the University of British Columbia and broadcast on the CBC Radio program Ideas...

Further reading

  • David Landes, "The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor", New York, W. W. Norton & Company (1999) ISBN 978-0393318883
  • David Landes, "Why Europe and the West? Why Not China?", Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20:2, 3, 2006.
  • Ricardo Duchesne, "Asia First?", The Journal of the Historical Society, Vol. 6, Issue 1 (March 2006), pp.69-91 (PDF)
  • William H. McNeill, The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1963.
  • Larry Gonick, The Cartoon History of the Universe, Volume One, Main Street Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0385265201, Volume Two, Main Street Books, 1994, ISBN 978-0385420938, Volume Three, W. W. Norton, 2002, ISBN 978-0393324037.

David Landes is professor emeritus of economics and retired professor of history at Harvard University. ... The Wealth and Poverty of Nations is a book by David Landes, currently Emeritus Professor of Economics and former Coolidge Professor of History at Harvard University. ... David Landes is professor emeritus of economics and retired professor of history at Harvard University. ... William H. McNeill (born 1917, Vancouver, British Columbia) is a Canadian historian. ... Larry Gonick is a cartoonist best known for The Cartoon History of the Universe, a history of the world in comic book form, which he has been publishing in installments since 1977. ...

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  • Universal Concise History of the World, 1832 Full text, free to read, American book on the history of the world with the intriguing perspective of 1832 America.
  • Five Epochs of Civilization. This web site is based on concepts in a book, Five Epochs of Civilization, by William McGaughey.
  • MacroHistory: Prehistory to the 21st Century. A narrative on trends, successes and failures across the ages in power conflicts, religion, philosophy, and political institutions. Also, monthly commentaries with a historical perspective.
  • Western Civilization: From Adam to Atom. Lecture notes from retired history professor, Dr. Raymond Jirran
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