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Encyclopedia > History of the United States Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps

Major Commands
Organization of the Marine Corps
I Marine Expeditionary Force
II Marine Expeditionary Force
III Marine Expeditionary Force
Marine Forces Reserve
MARSOC
Headquarters Marine Corps
Personnel
Commandant
Officer Insignia
Enlisted Insignia
Uniforms
Famous Marines
Structure
Battalions
Aircraft squadrons
Expeditionary units
Bases
History and Traditions
Marine Corps history
Marine Hymn
Marine Band
Marine One
Marine Flag

The United States Marine Corps was originally organized as the Continental Marines in 1775 to conduct ship-to-ship fighting, provide shipboard security and assist in landing forces. Its mission evolved with changing military doctrine and American foreign policy. Owing to the availability of Marine forces at sea, the Marine Corps has served in every conflict in U.S. history. It attained prominence when its theories and practice of amphibious warfare proved prescient, and ultimately formed a cornerstone of the Pacific campaign of World War II. By the early 20th century, the Marine Corps would become the dominant theorist and practitioner of amphibious warfare. Its ability to rapidly respond to regional crises has made and continues to make it an important tool for American foreign policy.[1] Image File history File links USMC_logo. ... The United States Marine Corps is administered by the Department of the Navy, which is lead by the Secretary of the Navy(SECNAV). ... Presumably a USA force ? // Lineage Activated November 8th, 1969 at Okinawa, Japan as the I Marine Expeditionary Force Redesignated August 18th, 1970 as the I Marine Amphibious Force Relocated in April 1971 to Camp Pendleton, California Redesignated February 5th, 1988 as the I Marine Expeditionary Force Recent Service Persian Gulf... The 2nd Marine Expeditionary Force (II MEF), one of three MEFs in the Marine Corps, is a combined arms force consisting of ground, air, and logistics forces possessing the capability of projecting offensive combat power ashore while sustaining itself in combat without external assistance for a period of 60... The United States 3rd Marine Expeditionary Force was originally activated in 1942, and took part in the struggle against the Japanese Empire during World War II. It took part in some of the bloodiest battles in the Pacific, including invading the Japanese islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa. ... The Marine Forces Reserve (MARFORRES) (also known as the United States Marine Corps Reserve (USMCR)), a part of the United States Marine Corps, is the largest command in the Marine Corps. ... Marine Forces Special Operations Command (MARSOC) is a new subordinate command to the U.S. Special Operations Command (SOCOM) that is to contain the Marine Corps planned contribution to SOCOM. It was announced on 1 November 2005 by US Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, following a meeting between him, the USSOCOM... Headquarters Marine Corps (HQMC), located in Washington, D.C., includes the offices of the Commandant of the Marine Corps and various agencies and staff functions. ... The Commandant of the United States Marine Corps is the highest ranking officer of the United States Marine Corps and a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, reporting to the Secretary of the Navy but not to the Chief of Naval Operations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Uniforms of the United States Marine Corps serve to distinguish Marines from members of other services. ... Famous people who served in the United States Marine Corps. ... This is a list of current United States Marine Corps battalions, sorted by major subordinate commands: // 1st Marine Division 2nd Marine Division Headquarters Battalion, 2nd Marine Division 3rd Marine Division Headquarters Battalion 3rd Marine Division 1st Battalion 12th Marines 3rd Battalion 12th Marines 3rd Reconnaissance Battalion Combat Assault Battalion 4th... This is a list of United States Marine Corps aircraft squadrons. ... The following is a list of Marine Expeditionary Units of the United States Marine Corps. ... This is a list of U.S. Marine Corps bases and installations, organized by U.S. state within the territory of the U.S. and by country if overseas. ... The Marines hymn is the official hymn of the United States Marine Corps. ... The Presidents Own United States Marine Band, Marine Chamber Orchestra, Marine Chamber Ensembles The Presidents Own United States Marine Band was established by an Act of Congress on July 11, 1798, and is America’s oldest professional musical organization. ... Official force name Marine Helicopter Squadron 1 Other names Marine One Branch United States Marine Corps Chain of Command Headquarters Marine Corps Description Direct helicopter support of the White House. ... USMC Flag The flag of the United States Marine Corps is scarlet with the Corps badge in gray and yellow. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces to global crises. ... The Continental Marines were the Marine force of the American Colonies during American Revolutionary War. ... ... This article is about a military strategy involving land troops dispatched from naval ships. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...

Contents

Colonial origins

The history of American Marines traces back to Gooch's Marines,[2]the 61st Foot, raised in the American colonies for the War of Jenkins Ear in 1739. This was an American regiment of the British Army that served alongside British Marines. Among its officers was Lawrence Washington, half-brother of George Washington. It was disbanded as a regiment in 1742 and the remaining independent companies were merged with another regiment in 1746. Nobel Jones' Company of Marine Boatmen of the Georgia militia also fought in the War of Jenkins Ear, helping defeat a Spanish amphibious landing on St. Simons Island in the Battle of Gully Hole Creek and the Battle of Bloody Marsh. Other Marines were raised for the various state navies that came into existence shortly before the Revolutionary War. William Gooch (21 October 1681-17 December 1751) born in Yarmouth, England; died in London; served as Governor of Virginia from 1727 through 1749. ... The War of Jenkins Ear was a conflict between Great Britain and Spain that lasted from 1739 to 1742. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Royal Marines (RM), are the Royal Navys light infantry. ... Lawrence Washington (1718-1752) was George Washingtons brother and mentor. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732–December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first President of the United States. ... The War of Jenkins Ear was a conflict between Great Britain and Spain that lasted from 1739 to 1742. ... The Battle of Gully Hole Creek was a battle in 1742 on St. ... The Battle of Bloody Marsh was a battle in the War of Jenkins Ear in 1742. ... Combatants American Revolutionaries, France, Dutch Republic, Spain, American Indians Kingdom of Great Britain, German mercenaries, Loyalists, American Indians Commanders George Washington, Comte de Rochambeau, Nathanael Greene, Bernardo de Gálvez Sir William Howe, Sir Henry Clinton, Lord Cornwallis (more commanders) The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the...


The United States Marine Corps traces its institutional roots to the Continental Marines of the American Revolutionary War. The Continental Congress formed the Continental Marines on November 10, 1775, planning to draw them from among Washington's army in Boston and send them to capture supplies from Halifax, Nova Scotia. However, Washington was unenthuthiastic about the plan and suggested the Marines be recruited in New York or Philadelphia instead. Captain Samuel Nicholas was commissioned as the Continental Marines' first officer on 28 November 1775. Though legend places its first recruiting post at Tun Tavern, Marine historian Edwin Simmons surmises that it was more likely the Conestoga Waggon, a tavern owned by the Nicholas family. Robert Mullen, whose mother owned Tun Tavern, later received a commission in June 1776 and likely used it as his recruiting rendezvous.[3] The Continental Marines were the Marine force of the American Colonies during American Revolutionary War. ... Combatants American Revolutionaries, France, Dutch Republic, Spain, American Indians Kingdom of Great Britain, German mercenaries, Loyalists, American Indians Commanders George Washington, Comte de Rochambeau, Nathanael Greene, Bernardo de Gálvez Sir William Howe, Sir Henry Clinton, Lord Cornwallis (more commanders) The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the... The Continental Congress is the label given to these two girls that i know. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... ... Motto: Template:Unhide = E Mari Merces (Wealth from the Sea) Logo: Location City Information Established: April 1, 1996 Area: (former city) 79. ... Samuel Nicholas (circa 1744 - August 27, 1790) was the first officer commissioned in the United States Continental Marines (now the United States Marine Corps), and by tradition is considered to be the first Commandant of the Marine Corps. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


By December 1775, five companies of about 300 Marines were raised. While armed, they were not equipped with uniforms. However, they headed not North as originally planned, but South, for the Caribbean. The five companies joined Commodore Esek Hopkins of the Continental Navy's first squadron on its first cruise. Hopkins ignored his ambitious orders to sweep the southern seas of British ships, and instead raided the Bahamas for gunpowder for Washington's army. Nicholas' Marines made an opposed landing and marched on Nassau Town, on the island of New Providence, seizing shot, shells and cannon. However, a failed attempt at a surprise attack the day before had warned the defenders, who sent off their stock of gunpowder in the night. Sailing back to Rhode Island, the squadron captured four small prize ships. The squadron finally returned on 8 April 1776, with 7 dead Marines (including Lt. John Fitzpatrick), and four wounded. Though Hopkins was disgraced for failing to obey orders, Nicholas was promoted to Major on 25 June and tasked with raising 4 new companies of Marines for 4 new frigates then under construction. Among the newly commissioned Marines was Captain Robert Mullan. [4] French portrait of Commodore Esek Hopkins Esek Hopkins (26 April 1718 – 26 February 1802), was Commander in Chief of the Fleet throughout the American Revolutionary War. ... Continental Navy Jack The Continental Navy was authorized by the Continental Congress on October 13, 1775. ... (This article is about the island in the Bahamas. ...


In December 1776, the Marines were tasked to join Washington's army at Trenton to slow the progress of British troops southward through New Jersey. Unsure what to do with the Marines, Washington added the Marines to a brigade of Philadelphia militia, also dressed in green. Captain Mullan's roster lists two black men, Issac and Orange, the first recorded black Marines. Though they were unable to arrive in time to affect the battle of Trenton, they assisted in the decisive American victory at Princeton.


The last official act of the Continental Marines was to escort a stash of French silver crowns on loan from Louis XVI, from Boston to Philadelphia, to enable the opening of the Bank of North America. At the end of the Revolution in 1783, both the Continental Navy and Marines were disbanded. In all, there were 131 Colonial Marine officers there were probably no more than 2,000 enlisted Colonial Marines[3]. Though individual Marines were enlisted for the few American naval vessels, the organization would not be re-created until 1798. Despite the gap between the disbanding of the Continental Marines and the U.S. Marine Corps, Marines worldwide celebrate November 10, 1775 as the Marine Corps Birthday. This is traditional in Marine units and is similar to the practice of the British and Netherlands Royal Marines. Louis XVI Louis XVI (August 23, 1754 - January 21, 1793), was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French in 1791-1792. ... The Bank of North America was chartered in 1781 by the Continental Congress and opened on January 7, 1782, at the prodding of Finance Minister Robert Morris, and was rechartered in 1784. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... ... Royal Netherlands Marine Corps Emblem The Korps Mariniers is the marine corps of the Netherlands, and is part of the Royal Netherlands Navy. ...


Founding of the Modern Marine Corps

In preparation for the Quasi-War with France, Congress created the United States Navy and Marine Corps. Under the "act for establishing and organizing a Marine Corps", signed on 11 July 1798 by President John Adams, the Marine Corps was to consist of a battalion of 500 privates, lead by a major and a complement of officers and NCO's. The next day, William W. Burrows was appointed Major of the Marine Corps. In the Quasi-War, Marines aboard the USS Constitution conducted raids in the waters off Hispaniola against the French and Spanish, making the first of many landings in Haiti. The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1801. ... USN redirects here. ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was a politician and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. ... Lieutenant Colonel William Ward Burrows (16 January 1768 – 6 March 1805) was the second Commandant of the Marine Corps. ... USS Constitution, known as Old Ironsides, is a wooden-hulled, three-masted frigate of the United States Navy. ... Early map of Hispaniola The island of Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ...


Among the equipment Burrows inherited was a stock of leftover blue uniforms with red trim, the basis for the modern "dress blues".[4]. When the capital moved to Washington, D.C. in June 1800, Burrows was appointed Lieutenant Colonel Commandant of the Marine Corps the first official Commandant. Burrows selected the land between 8th and 9th, and G and I streets for the new Marine Barracks, still in service today. Burrows also founded the Marine Band, which debuted at the President's House on January 1, 1801 and has played for every presidential inauguration since. Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Federal District District of Columbia  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack Evans... The Presidents Own United States Marine Band, Marine Chamber Orchestra, Marine Chamber Ensembles The Presidents Own United States Marine Band was established by an Act of Congress on July 11, 1798, and is America’s oldest professional musical organization. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


The Marines' most famous action of this period occurred in the First Barbary War (1801–1805) when William Eaton and First Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon led a group of eight Marines and 300 mostly Greek mercenaries in an attempt to capture Tripoli. Though they only made it as far as Derna, Tripoli has been immortalized in the Marines Hymn and the Mameluke sword carried by Marine officers. Combatants United States Barbary States ( Ottoman Empire regencies) Commanders Richard Dale William Eaton Edward Preble Hassan Bey Murad Reis Strength 7 Ships 10[] US Marines and Soldiers 70 Christian Mercenaries 4000 400 Arab Mercenaries Casualties 2 Ships destroyed 2 Marines killed, 3 wounded 9 Christian Mercenaries killed and wounded Unknown... William Eaton (23 February 1764 - 1 June 1811) was an American Army officer, involved with the First Barbary War. ... Presley Neville O’Bannon (1784 – 12 September 1850) was an officer in the United States Marine Corps, famous for his exploits in the First Barbary War. ... A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict and is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a Party to the conflict, material compensation substantially in excess of that... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Combatants United States Ottoman vilayet of Tripoli Commanders William Eaton Hassan Bey Strength 10 US Marines & Soldiers 70 Christian mercenaries 400 Arab mercenaries 4,000 Casualties Americans 2 killed, 3 wounded Christian Mercenaries: 9 killed and wounded Arab Mercenaries: unknown Unknown {{{notes}}} The Battle of Derna was a decisive victory... The Marines hymn is the official hymn of the United States Marine Corps. ... A Mameluke Sword is a cross hilted, curved scimitar-like sword. ...


In May 1811, 2 officers and 47 Marines established an advanced base on Cumberland Island, Georgia to be used for actions against pirates in Spanish Florida and captured Fernandino in Spanish Florida on March 18, 1812. They occupied it until May 1813. This was the first peacetime overseas base of the United States. Cumberland Island is one of the Sea Islands. ... Spanish Florida refers to the Spanish colony of Florida. ...


The Marine Corps' first land action of the War of 1812 was the establishment of an advanced base at Sacketts Harbor, New York by 63 Marines. The Marines would also establish another base at Erie, Pennsylvania. Other detachments would serve both ashore and afloat. They participated in US Army Colonel Winfield Scott's amphibious landing at York (now Toronto). Under Commodore Barney and Captain Samuel Miller, USMC, they acted to delay the British invasion of Washington, DC. Marine ship detachments took part in the great frigate duels of the war, the first American victories of the war. Their most significant contributions came at the Battle of Bladensburg and the defense of New Orleans. At Bladensburg, they held the line after the Army and militia retreated, and although eventually overrun, inflicted heavy casualties on the British and delayed their march to Washington. At New Orleans, the Marines held the center of Gen. Andrew Jackson's defensive line. By the end of the war Marines acquired a reputation as marksmen, especially in ship to ship actions. Combatants United States Native Americans Great Britain, Canadian provincial forces First Nations Peoples Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other vessels: 14 •Indigenous... Sackets Harbor is a village located in Jefferson County, New York. ... Nickname: The Flagship City Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: County Erie County Founded 1795  - Mayor Joseph Sinnott Area    - City 72. ... Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... The Battle of Bladensburg was a battle fought during the War of 1812. ... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders Sir Edward Pakenham† John Lambert Alexander Cochrane Andrew Jackson Strength 8,000 men 3,500-4,000 men Casualties 385 killed 1,186 wounded 484 captured 13 killed 58 wounded 30 captured The Battle of New Orleans, also known as the Battle of Chalmette... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ...


Together with sailors and U.S. Army troops, they again captured Fernandino in Spanish Florida on December 23, 1817. Fernandino was occupied until Spain ceded Florida to the U.S. in 1821. In 1823 Marines also established an advanced base on Thompson's Island, now called Key West, for use against pirates around the island of Cuba. They garrisoned Pensacola, Florida in 1825 to use it as a base against pirates in the West Indies. December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (358th in leap years). ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Map of Key West Key West is a city located in Monroe County, Florida. ... Nickname: The City of Five Flags Location of Pensacola (top left) in Florida Country United States State Florida County Escambia  - Mayor John Fogg Area    - City 39. ...


After the war, the Marine Corps fell into an ill state. The third commandant, Franklin Wharton, died while in office and the fourth commandant, Anthony Gale, was the first commandant to be fired. However, the appointment of Archibald Henderson as its fifth commandant in 1820 breathed new life into the Corps. He would go on to be the longest-serving commandant, commonly referred to as the "Grand old man of the Marine Corps". Under his tenure, the Marine Corps took on a number of expeditionary duties in the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Key West, West Africa, the Falkland Islands, and Sumatra. Commandant Henderson is also credited with thwarting attempts by President Andrew Jackson to combine the Marine Corps with the Army. Instead, Congress passed the Act for the Better Organization of the Marine Corps[5] in 1834, stipulating that the Corps was part of the Department of the Navy, as a sister service to the U.S. Navy. This would be the first of many times that Congress came to the aid of the Marines. Lieutenant Colonel Franklin Wharton (July 23, 1767–September 1, 1818), third Commandant of the Marine Corps, was born into a prominent Philadelphia, Pennsylvania family. ... Anthony Gale (born September 17, 1782 in Dublin, Ireland) was the fourth Commandant of the United States Marine Corps and the only one ever fired. ... Archibald Henderson (January 21, 1783 – January 6, 1859) was the longest-serving Commandant of the Marine Corps, serving from 1820 to 1859. ... West Indian redirects here. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Map of Key West Key West is a city located in Monroe County, Florida. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... The presidential seal was first used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States armed forces and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Type Bicameralism Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D, since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D, since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Seal The United States Department of the Navy was established by an Act of Congress on April 30, 1798, to provide administrative and technical support, and civilian leadership to the United States Navy. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ...

Storming of Chapultapec
Storming of Chapultapec

When the Seminole Wars (1835–1842) broke out, Commandant Henderson volunteered the Marines for service, leading 2 battalions to war — half the strength of the Marine Corps. They garrisoned Fort Brooke in Tampa Bay, Florida and held off an Indian attack on 22 January 1836. Col. Archibald Henderson commanded the mixed Marine/Army Second Brigade at high point of the campaign, the Battle of Hatchee-Lustee on 27 January 1837, for which he was brevetted a brigadier general. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Osceola, Seminole leader, detail from an 1838 lithograph The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between the Seminole Native American tribe and the United States. ... Fort Brooke is a historical military poat situated on the east bank (at the mouth) of the Hillsborough River in present-day Tampa. ... Landsat image of Tampa Bay Tampa Bay is a large natural harbor and estuary along the Gulf of Mexico on the western coast of Florida, made up of Old Tampa Bay, Hillsborough Bay, McKay Bay, and the New Tampa Bay. ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ...


A decade later, in the Mexican-American War (1846–1848), the Marines made their famed assault on Chapultepec Palace, which overlooked Mexico City, their first major expeditionary venture. Since Marching to Mexico City was long and perhaps impossible, a combined Marine and Army force (containing some 200 Marines) under MajGen Winfield Scott made an unopposed landing south of Veracruz on 9 March 1847 and captured the city on 29 March. From there, they fought their way to Mexico City and commenced their assault on 13 September. The Marines were given the task of clearing the Palacio National, the "Halls of Montezuma", where they cut down the Mexican colors and ran up the Stars and Stripes. Marines were later placed on guard duty at the palace and Captain Jacob Zeilin, future Commandant, was made military governor. Marines also seized several ports in California and Mexico as part of the Navy's blockade of Mexico that successfully prevented overseas arms and munitions from reaching the Mexican forces. In the 1850s, the Marines would further see service in Panama, and in Asia, escorting Matthew Perry's East India Squadron on its historic trip to the East. Two hundred Marines under Zeilin were among the Americans who first stepped foot on Japan; they can be seen in contemporary woodprints in their blue jackets, white trousers, and black shakos. Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia Strength 7,000 - 43,000 18,000 - 40,000 Casualties KIA: 1,733 Total dead: 13,283 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded (Mexican government... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Nicolás Bravo Strength 13,000 876 cadets, 4000 regulars Casualties 130 killed 703 wounded 29 missing 862 total 1,800 killed and wounded 823 captured 2,623 TotalGen. ... Nickname: Ciudad de los Palacios Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (69th in Leap years). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Matthew Perry may be: Matthew Perry (1794-1858), American naval officer. ... East India Squadron is a squadron of American ships which existed in the nineteenth century. ...


Civil War

Marines and sailors on the U.S. gunboat Mendota — blockade duty, 1864.
Marines and sailors on the U.S. gunboat Mendota — blockade duty, 1864.

Despite their stellar service in foreign engagements, the Marine Corps played a minor role during the Civil War (1861–1865); their most important task was blockade duty. During the prelude to war, an 86-man Marine detachment under Lt Israel Greene was detached to arrest John Brown in 1859. Greene slashed Brown twice and would have killed Brown except his sword bent on his last thrust; in his haste he had carried his light dress sword instead of his regulation sword. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1396x1100, 291 KB)American Civil War: Sailors and Marines on the deck of the U.S. gunboat Mendota, 1864. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1396x1100, 291 KB)American Civil War: Sailors and Marines on the deck of the U.S. gunboat Mendota, 1864. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


At the opening of the war, the Marine Corps had 1892 officers and men, but half the captains and two-thirds of the lieutenants resigned to join the Confederacy, as did many prominent Army officers. On the opposite side of the lines, the Confederate Congress authorized a marine corps of 10 companies, which played little role in the war. Following the defections, the 13 Marine officers and 336 Marines, mostly recruits, were hastily formed into a battalion and sent to Manassas. At the First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas), they performed poorly, running away like the rest of the Union forces. Commandant Harris reported sadly that this was "the first instance in Marine history where any portion of its members turned their backs to the enemy." Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 effectives 32,500 effectives Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing) 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing) The First Battle...


Congress only slightly enlarged the Marines and the Regular Army and after filling detachments for the ships of the Navy, the Marine Corps was only able to field about one battalion at a time as a larger force for service ashore. Marines from ship's detachments as well as scratch battalions took part in the landing operations necessary to capture bases for blockade duty. These were mostly successful, but on September 8, 1863, the Marines tried an amphibious landing to capture Fort Sumter in Charlestown harbor and failed. This was probably the first and last failed landing of the USMC. Due to a shortage of officers, the Marine battalion of Commander Preble's naval brigade that fought at Honey Hill, SC in 1864 started the battle with a 1st Lt. as Battalion Commander. He was the only officer in the battalion. All the Company Commanders and other battalion "officers" were sergeants. In January 1865, the Marines took part in the assault on Fort Fisher. They were tasked with acting as riflemen on the flank of the attack to shoot any Confederate troops that appeared on the ramparts of the fort. Even though they were ordered from their firing positions by Admiral Porter's second in command, Porter blamed the Marines for the failure of the naval portion of the assault to take the fort. Fort Sumter, located in Charleston, South Carolina, harbor, was named after General Thomas Sumter. ... Fort Fisher Fort Fisher was a Confederate fort during the American Civil War. ...


The Rest of the 19th Century

The remainder of the 19th century would be a period of declining strength and introspection about the mission of the Marine Corps. The Navy's transition from sail to steam put into question the need for Marines on naval ships. Meanwhile, the Marines would serve as a convenient resource for interventions and landings to protect American lives and property in foreign countries. The Marines saw action in Formosa (1867) and Korea (1871). The Marines took part in naval brigade landing exercises in Key West in 1875 after the Virginius Affair, a war with Spain scare. The Marines took part in more naval brigade exercises on Gardiner's Island in August 1884 and Newport, RI in November 1887. Altogether, the Marines were involved in over 28 separate interventions in the 30 years from the end of the civil war to the end of the 19th century, including China, Formosa, Japan, Nicaragua, Uruguay, Mexico, Korea, Panama, Hawaii, Egypt, Haiti, Samoa, Argentina, Chile, and Colombia. They would also be called upon to stem political and labor unrest within the United States. Sometime during this period, war correspondent Richard Harding Davis coined the phrase "The Marines have landed and have the situation well in hand". Shinmiyangyo (lit. ... The Virginius Affair (sometimes called the Virginius Incident) was a diplomatic dispute that occurred in the 1870s between the United States, the United Kingdom and Spain, then proprietor of Cuba. ... Richard Harding Davis (18th April 1864 - 11th April 1916) was a writer and journalist best known for his involvement in the William Randolph Hearsts unproven plot to start the Spanish-American War in order to boost newspaper sales. ...


Under Commandant Jacob Zeilin's term (1864–1876), Marine customs and traditions took shape. The Corps adopted the Marine Corps emblem in essentially its modern form on 19 November 1868, borrowing the globe from the Royal Marines, but introducing the fouled anchor and an American bald eagle. In 1869, the Corps adopted a blue-black evening jacket and trousers encrusted with gold braid, that survives today as officers's mess dress. It was also during this time that "The Marines' Hymn" was first heard. Around 1883, the Marines adopted their current motto "Semper Fidelis" (Latin for "Always Faithful," often shortened by Marines to "Semper Fi"). In 1885 1st Lt. H.K. Gilman USMC wrote the first manual for enlisted Marines Marines’ manual: prepared for the use of the enlisted men of the U.S. Marine Corps and in 1886 the first landing manual The naval brigade and operations ashore. Previous to this, the only landing instructions available were those in the Ordnance Instructions for the United States Navy. John Philip Sousa, previously an apprentice in the Marine Band as a child, returned to lead the band in 1880 at the age of 25, making a name for himself and the Band with his composed marches. Categories: Stub | 1806 births | 1880 deaths ... Semper Fidelis is Latin for Always faithful. ... Portrait of John Philip Sousa taken in 1900 John Philip Sousa (November 6, 1854 – March 6, 1932) was an American composer and conductor of the late Romantic era known particularly for American military marches. ...

Marines in Nicaragua, 1932
Marines in Nicaragua, 1932

During the Spanish-American War (1898), Marines would lead U.S. forces ashore in the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico, demonstrating their readiness for deployment. The 1st or Huntington's Battalion captured Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, in order to set up an advanced base and coaling station for the fleet. In the Battle of Cuzco Well, a Spanish counterattack was aided by mistaken naval gunfire from the USS Dolphin and two Marines received Medals of Honor for braving both Spanish rifle fire and US Navy shells and signalling the Dolphin to stop. Marine detachments under Lt. John A. LeJeune landed in Fajardo, Puerto Rico in order to seize boats for a subsequent landing by Army forces. While they were waiting for the Army, they were attacked by strong Spanish forces in a night attack. Upon a prearranged signal, the Marines and sailors who were occupying the town's lighthouse, took cover while the Navy ships bombarded the area around the lighthouse. They left the next day when they found out that the Army commander had changed his mind and landed on the other end of the island at Guánica. There Marines and Bluejackets landed first in order to capture boats and lighters for the Army landing. Image File history File links Sandinoflagusmc. ... Image File history File links Sandinoflagusmc. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (only 332 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties Unknown[1] The Spanish... Map of Cuba with location of Guantánamo Bay indicated. ...


Early 1900s

The successful landing at Guantanamo and the readiness of the Marines for the Spanish-American War were in contrast to the slow mobilization of the US Army in the war. In 1900, the General Board of the US Navy decided to give the USMC primary responsiblity for the seizure and defense of advanced naval bases. The USMC formed an expeditionary battalion to be permanently based in the Caribbean. This battalion and Marine detachments in the Caribbean practiced landings in 1902 in preparation for war with Germany over Venezuela. Under then-Major John Lejeune, in 1903, it also undertook landing exercises with the Army in Maine, and in November 1903, blocked Columbian Army forces sent to quash a Panamanian rebellion, an action which led to the independence of Panama. The Marine Corps Advanced Base School was founded as was the Advance Base Force, the prototype of the Fleet Marine Force. Lieutenant General John Archer Lejeune (January 10, 1867—November 20, 1942) was the 13th Commandant of the Marine Corps. ...


Between 1900 and 1916, the Marine Corps continued its record of participation in foreign expeditions, including the Philippine Insurrection, the Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901), Panama, the Cuban Pacifications, Veracruz, Haiti, Santo Domingo, and Nicaragua. Action in these and other places throughout the Caribbean such as Haiti and Nicaragua continued after World War I. These actions became known as "The Banana Wars", and the experiences gained in counter-insurgency and guerrilla operations during this period were consolidated into the Small Wars Manual in 1935. Combatants United States Philippines Commanders William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt Emilio Aguinaldo Strength 126,000 soldiers 80,000 soldiers Casualties 4,324 U.S. soldiers dead, 3,000 wounded 2,000 killed, dead, or wounded suffered by the Philippine Constabulary 16,000 soldiers killed est. ... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Japan Russia United Kingdom France United States Germany Italy Austria-Hungary Righteous Harmony Society Qing China Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total Over 100,000 Casualties 230 foreigners, thousands of civilians Unknown The... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert Henry Asquith Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow... US Marines with the captured flag of Augusto César Sandino in Nicaragua in 1932 The Banana Wars is an unofficial term that refers to the United States military interventions into Central and South America from 1898 (following the Spanish-American War) through 1934. ... Small Wars Manual The Marine Corps role in Small Wars has a long and complex history. ...


World War I

Painting of the Battle of Belleau Wood (1918)
Painting of the Battle of Belleau Wood (1918)

In World War I, battle-tested, veteran Marines served a central role in the U.S. entry into the conflict. Unlike the U.S. and British armies, the Marine Corps had a deep pool of officers and NCO's with battle experience, and experienced a relatively smaller expansion. It is here that Marines fought their celebrated battle at Belleau Wood, then the largest in the history of the Corps. There, the Marines' reputation in modern history was created. Rallying under the battle cries of "Retreat? Hell, we just got here!" (Captain Lloyd Williams) and "Come on, you sons of bitches, do you want to live forever?" (GySgt. Dan Daly), the Marines drove German forces from the area. While its previous expeditionary experience had not earned it much acclaim in the Western world, the Marines' fierceness and toughness earned them the respect of the Germans, who rated them of storm-trooper quality. Though Marines and American media reported that Germans had nicknamed them "Teufelhunden" or "Devil Dogs", there is no evidence of this in German records. Nevertheless, the name stuck.[6] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (896x674, 252 KB)Georges Scott (1873-1943) illustration American Marines in Belleau Wood (1918) - originally published in the French Magazine Illustrations - retrieved from http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (896x674, 252 KB)Georges Scott (1873-1943) illustration American Marines in Belleau Wood (1918) - originally published in the French Magazine Illustrations - retrieved from http://www. ... Combatants United States France British Empire German Empire Commanders John J. Pershing James Harbord Crown Prince Wilhelm Strength 2 U.S. divisions French 6th Army (elements) British IX Corps (elements) 5 German divisions (elements) Casualties 9,777 unknown The Battle of Belleau Wood was a battle of the first World... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert Henry Asquith Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow... Combatants United States France British Empire German Empire Commanders John J. Pershing James Harbord Crown Prince Wilhelm Strength 2 U.S. divisions French 6th Army (elements) British IX Corps (elements) 5 German divisions (elements) Casualties 9,777 unknown The Battle of Belleau Wood was a battle of the first World... 1 June 1918 2nd Division troops dig in along a defensive line just north of the village of Lucy-le-Bocage. ... Sergeant Major Daniel Joseph Dan Daly (11 November 1873 – 28 April 1937) was a United States Marine. ...


The French government renamed Belleau Wood "Bois de la Brigade de Marine", or "Wood of the Marine Brigade", and decorated both the 5th and 6th Regiments with the Croix de Guerre. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, then Secretary of the Navy, stated that enlisted Marines would henceforth wear the French Fourragere on the left shoulder of their dress uniforms. The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of both Belgium and France which was first created in 1915. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... The Fourragère is a French military award, distinguishing military units as a whole. ...


The Marine Corps had entered the war with 511 officers and 13,214 enlisted personnel and, by November 11, 1918, had reached a strength of 2,400 officers and 70,000 men. [7] November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Between the wars, the Marine Corps was headed by Commandant John A. Lejeune, another well-beloved commandant. Under his leadership, the Marine Corps presciently studied and developed amphibious techniques that would be of great use in World War II. Many officers, including LtCol Earl Hancock "Pete" Ellis foresaw a pacific war with Japan and took preparations for such a conflict. While stationed in China, then LtCol. Victor H. Krulak observed Japanese amphibious techniques in 1937. Through 1941, as the prospect of war grew, the Marine Corps pushed urgently for joint amphibious exercises, and acquired amphibious equipment such as the Higgins boat which would prove of great use in the upcoming conflict. Lieutenant General John Archer Lejeune, 13th Commandant of the Marine Corps, was born at Pointe Coupee, Louisiana, on 10 January 1867. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Lieutenant Colonel Earl Hancock “Pete” Ellis (December 19, 1880 - May 12, 1923) was a significant United States Marine Corps officer. ... Victor H. Krulak (born January 7, 1913 in Denver, Colorado) was a decorated United States Marine Corps officer who saw action in WWII, Korea and Vietnam. ... The Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel (LCVP) or Higgins boat was a landing craft used extensively in World War II. The craft was designed by Andrew Higgins of Louisiana, based on boats made for operating in swamps and marshes. ...


World War II

In World War II, the Marines played a central role in the Pacific War; the Corps expanded from two brigades to two corps with six divisions, and five air wings with 132 squadrons. In addition, 20 Defense Battalions were also set up, as well as a Parachute Battalion. [8] . The battles of Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Saipan, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa saw fierce fighting between U.S. Marines and the Imperial Japanese Army. The secrecy afforded their communications by the now-famous Navajo code talkers program is widely seen as having contributed significantly to their success. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Republic of China U.S.A. (from 1941) U.K. (from 1941) Australia (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) U.S.S.R. (from 1945) Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin (from 1945) Hideki Tojo The Pacific War was... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... A corps (a word that migrated from the French language, pronounced IPA: , but originating in the Latin corpus, corporis meaning body; plural same as singular) is either a large military unit or formation, an administrative grouping of troops within an army with a common function (such as artillery or signals... Operation Watchtower On August 7, 1942, the 1st Marine Division performed an amphibious landing east of the Tenaru River. ... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Julian Smith Shibasaki Keiji † Strength 35,000 3,000 troops, 1,000 Japanese workers and 1,200 Korean laborers Casualties 1,001 killed, 2,296 wounded 4,713 Japanese & Korean killed 17 POWs and 129 Koreans freed The Battle of Tarawa was a battle in... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Richmond K. Turner, Holland Smith Yoshitsugu Saito Strength 71,000 31,000 Casualties 3,426 killed; 13,160 wounded 24,000 KIA and 5,000 suicides; 921 prisoners The battle of Saipan was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 22,000 Casualties 4,197 killed[1] 19,189 wounded[1] 1,401 died of wounds[1] 494 missing[1] 20,703 killed[1] 216 captured[1] The Battle of Iwo Jima was fought by the... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada New Zealand Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner, Jr. ... Page one of Navajo recommendation letter, 1942. ...

(Joe Rosenthal / ©Associated Press)U.S. Marines and a U.S. Navy corpsman raise the American Flag on Iwo Jima on February 23, 1945
(Joe Rosenthal / ©Associated Press)
U.S. Marines and a U.S. Navy corpsman raise the American Flag on Iwo Jima on February 23, 1945

During the battle of Iwo Jima, photographer Joe Rosenthal took the famous photo Raising of the Flag on Iwo Jima of five Marines and one Navy corpsman raising the American flag on Mt. Suribachi. Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal, who had come ashore earlier that day to observe the progress of the troops, said of the flag raising on Iwo Jima, "...the raising of that flag on Suribachi means a Marine Corps for the next five hundred years." The acts of the Marines during the war added to their already significant popular reputation, and the USMC War Memorial in Arlington, Virginia was dedicated in 1954. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1380x1111, 200 KB) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1380x1111, 200 KB) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... With the U.S. fleet off Iwo Jima in the background, Joe Rosenthal strikes a pose on the summit of Mount Suribachi Joe Rosenthal (October 9, 1911 – August 20, 2006) was an American photographer who received the Pulitzer Prize for his iconic World War II photograph Raising the Flag on... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... With the U.S. fleet off Iwo Jima in the background, Joe Rosenthal strikes a pose on the summit of Mount Suribachi Joe Rosenthal (October 9, 1911 – August 20, 2006) was an American photographer who received the Pulitzer Prize for his iconic World War II photograph Raising the Flag on... Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima, by Joe Rosenthal / The Associated Press Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima is a historic photograph taken on February 23, 1945, by Joe Rosenthal. ... Hospital Corpsmen (HMs) are members of the United States Navy Hospital Corps. ... Iwo Jima (Japanese 硫黄島 Iōjima, meaning sulfur island) is a volcanic island in Japan, part of the Volcano Islands (also known as the Ogasawara Islands), approximately 650 miles (1046 km) south of Tokyo (24. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... James Vincent Forrestal (February 15, 1892 – May 22, 1949) was a Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense. ... The Marine Corps War Memorial is a military memorial statue located near the Arlington National Cemetery in Rosslyn, Virginia, United States. ... Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000...


By the war’s end, the Corps had grown to include six divisions, five air wings and supporting troops totaling about 485,000 Marines. Nearly 87,000 Marines were killed or wounded during WWII and 82 received the Medal of Honor. [9] The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ...


Despite Secretary Forrestal's prediction, the Corps faced an immediate institutional crisis following the war. Army brass pushing for a strengthened and reorganized defense establishment also attempted to fold the Marine mission and assets into the Navy and Army. Drawing on hastily assembled Congressional support, the Marine Corps rebuffed such efforts to legislatively dismantle the Corps, resulting in statutory protection of the Marine Corps in the National Security Act of 1947. The National Security Act of 1947 signed July 26, 1947 by U.S. President Harry S. Truman realigned and reorganized the United States armed forces, foreign policy, and Intelligence Community apparatus in the aftermath of World War II. It merged the United States Department of War and the United States...


Shortly after, in 1952, the Douglas-Manfield Bill afforded the Commandant an equal voice with the Joint Chiefs of Staff on matters relating to the Marines, and established the structure of three divisions and air wings that remains today. This allowed the Corps to permanently maintain a division and air wing in the Far East and participate in various small wars in Southeast Asia - in the Tachen Islands, Taiwan, Laos, Thailand, and South Vietnam.


In Korea

Landing at Inchon
Landing at Inchon

The Korean War (1950 - 1953) saw the hastily formed Provisional Marine Brigade holding the line at the Pusan Perimeter. To execute a flanking maneuver, General Douglas MacArthur called on Marine air and ground forces to make an amphibious landing at the Inchon. The successful landing resulted in the collapse of North Korean lines and the pursuit of North Korean forces north near the Yalu River until the entrance of the People's Republic of China into the war. Chinese troops surrounded, surprised and overwhelmed the overextended and outnumbered American forces. However, unlike the Eighth Army, which retreated in disarray, the 1st Marine Division regrouped and inflicted heavy casualties during their fighting withdrawal to the coast. Now known as the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, it entered Marine lore as an example of the toughness and resolve of the Marine. Marines would continue a battle of attrition around the 38th Parallel until the 1953 armistice. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x737, 88 KB) Photo #NH96876 Marines Landing at Inchon, 15 September 1950 Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x737, 88 KB) Photo #NH96876 Marines Landing at Inchon, 15 September 1950 Source: http://www. ... Combatants UN forces: United States; United Kingdom; South Korea; Canada; Australia; Netherlands; France North Korea Commanders Douglas MacArthur Arthur Dewey Struble Jeong Il-Gwon Kim Il-sung Choi Yong-Kun Strength 40,000[1]  ? Casualties 566 killed 2,713 wounded 14,000 casualties[2] 7,000 captured[2] The Battle... Combatants United Nations: Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium Canada  Colombia Ethiopia  France Greece  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom United States Medical staff:  Denmark  Australia  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist states: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea People’s Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee... The 1st Provisional Marine Brigade, a formation of United States Marines hastily put together at the outset of the Korean War, fought with great distinction at the Pusan Perimeter, the most important early battle in that conflict. ... The Pusan Perimeter was the area in extreme southeast Korea that was held by US and South Korean troops during the furthest advance of the North Korean troops, in the summer and fall of 1950, during the Korean War. ... Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 - April 5, 1964), was an American general who played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II. He was poised to command the invasion of Japan in November 1945 but was instead instructed to accept their surrender on September 2, 1945. ... Combatants UN forces: United States; United Kingdom; South Korea; Canada; Australia; Netherlands; France North Korea Commanders Douglas MacArthur Arthur Dewey Struble Jeong Il-Gwon Kim Il-sung Choi Yong-Kun Strength 40,000[1]  ? Casualties 566 killed 2,713 wounded 14,000 casualties[2] 7,000 captured[2] The Battle... The Amnok River, or the Yalu River, is a river on the border between China and North Korea. ... Combatants Peoples Republic of China United Nations forces; including United States Commanders Song Shi-Lun Oliver Smith Strength 120,000 40,000 Casualties 25,000 killed, 12,500 wounded, 30,000 frost-bite casualties 2,500 dead, 192 missing, 5,000 wounded, 7,500 cold related injuries The Battle...


The Korean War saw the Marine Corps expand from 75,000 regulars to a force, by the end of the conflict in 1953, of 261,000 Marines, most of whom were Reservists. 30,544 Marines were killed or wounded during the war and 42 were awarded the Medal of Honor. [10]. The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ...


Vietnam War

Dong Ha, Vietnam. Operation Hastings - Marines on patrol. 07/1966
Evacuation of Saigon.
Evacuation of Saigon.

The Marines also played an important role in the Vietnam War at battles such as Da Nang, Hué City, and Khe Sanh. The Marines operated in the northern I Corps regions of South Vietnam and fought both a constant guerilla war against the NLF and an off and on conventional war against NVA regulars. Marines also conducted the less well-known Combined Action Program that implemented unconventional techniques for counterinsurgency warfare. The Marine presence was withdrawn in 1971, but returned briefly in 1975 to evacuate Saigon and attempt to rescue the crew of the Mayagüez. Image File history File links Dong_Ha,_Vietnam_Operation_Hastings. ... Image File history File links Dong_Ha,_Vietnam_Operation_Hastings. ... Operation Hastings was an American military operation in the Vietnam War. ... Image File history File links Vietnamescape. ... Image File history File links Vietnamescape. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Da Nang (occasionally Danang; in Vietnamese: Đà Nẵng  ) is a major port city in the South Central Coast of Vietnam, on the coast of the South China Sea. ... Huế (順化 in Chinese characters) is a city in Vietnam. ... For the battle during the Vietnam War, see Battle of Khe Sanh. ... National Liberation Front (NLF) flag The National Front for the Liberation of Southern Vietnam (Vietnamese Mặt Trận Dân Tá»™c Giải Phóng Miền Nam), also known as the Viet Cong (VC), the National Liberation Front (NLF), and as the Front National de Liberté (FNL... The Peoples Army of Vietnam (PAVN) is the term used by the Vietnamese for their armed forces. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... Combatants United States of America Democratic Kampuchea Commanders Lt. ...


Returning from Vietnam, the Marine Corps hit one of the lowest points in its history with high rates of courts-martial, non-judicial punishments, unauthorized absences, and outright desertions.The re-making of the Marine Corps began in the late 1970s when policies for discharging inadequate Marines were relaxed leading to the removal of the worst performing ones. Once the quality of new recruits started to improve, the Marines began reforming their NCO corps, an absolutely vital element in the functioning of the Marine Corps.


After Vietnam, Marines resumed their expeditionary role, participating in Operation Urgent Fury and Operation Just Cause. On October 23, 1983, a Marine barracks in Lebanon was bombed, causing the highest peacetime losses to the Corps in its history (220 Marines of the 24th MAU were killed) and leading to the American withdrawal from Lebanon. Marines were also responsible for liberating Kuwait during the Persian Gulf War (1990–1991). The Invasion of Grenada, known to US forces as Operation Urgent Fury, was an invasion of the island nation of Grenada by the military forces of the United States of America and several Caribbean nations. ... Combatants United States Panama Commanders General Carl W. Stiner Manuel Noriega Strength 27,684+ 3,000+ Casualties 23 Dead, 324 Wounded 450 Military, 200-4,000 Civilian U.S. Army 7th Infantry Division (light) soldiers prepare to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama City, December 1989. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1983 barracks bombing was a major terrorist incident during the Lebanese Civil War. ... The 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit (24th MEU) is one of seven Marine Expeditionary Units currently in existence in the United States Marine Corps. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ...


In 1990, the 22nd and 26th Marine Expeditionary Units conducted Operation Sharp Edge, a noncombatant evacuation operation, or NEO, in the west African city of Monrovia, Liberia. Liberia suffered from civil war at the time, and civilian citizens of the United States and other countries could not leave via conventional means. Sharp Edge ended in success. Only one reconnaissance team came under fire, with no casualties incurred on either side, and the Marines evacuated several hundred civilians within hours to U.S. Navy vessels waiting offshore. Operation Sharp Edge was carried out by the United States Marine Corps 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit in mid-1990 amid increasing internal unrest which threatened U.S. diplomats and civilians in Liberia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... For alternate meanings, see Monrovia (disambiguation). ...


U.S. Marines participated in combat operations in Somalia (1992–1995) during Operations Restore Hope [11], Restore Hope II, and United Shield. While Operation Restore Hope was designated as a humanitarian relief effort, Marine ground forces frequently engaged Somali militiamen in combat. Elements of Battalion Landing Team 2/9 (2nd Battalion, 9th Marines) with 15th MEU were among the first troops of the United Nations effort to land in Somalia in December, 1992, while Marines of 3rd Battalion 1st Marines participated in the final withdrawal of United Nations troops from Somalia in 1995. Combatants USSOF UNOSOM II Somali militiamen Commanders Many Mohamed Farrah Aidid The United Nations intervention in Somalia (code-named Operation Restore Hope) was a United Nations–sanctioned United States military operation from 9 December 1992 to 4 May 1993. ... Operation United Shield was the name given to the US military operation of evacuating all remaining 6,200 UN peacekeeping troops from Somalia from January to March of 1995, the troops were made up of Americans, Pakistanis and Egyptians. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... 3rd Battalion 1st Marines (3/1) is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Camp Horno, at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. ...


Operation Desert Storm

Marines were also responsible for liberating Kuwait during the Persian Gulf War (1990–1991), as the Army made an attack to the west directly into Iraq. The I Marine Expeditionary Force had a strength of 92,990 making Operation Desert Storm the largest Marine Corps operation in history. A total of 23 Marines were killed in action or later died of wounds from the time the air war was launched on January 16th until the cease-fire took effect 43 days later [1]. See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Presumably a USA force ? // Lineage Activated November 8th, 1969 at Okinawa, Japan as the I Marine Expeditionary Force Redesignated August 18th, 1970 as the I Marine Amphibious Force Relocated in April 1971 to Camp Pendleton, California Redesignated February 5th, 1988 as the I Marine Expeditionary Force Recent Service Persian Gulf...


Bosnian War

In 1995, Marines performed a successful mission in Bosnia, rescuing Captain Scott O'Grady, a downed Air Force fighter pilot, in what is called a TRAP (Tactical Recovery of Aircraft and Personnel). Motto: none Anthem: Intermeco (previously Jedna i jedina) Location of Bosnia and Herzegovina() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city)  Sarajevo Official languages Bosnian Croatian Serbian Government Emerging federal democratic republic  - Presidency members 1 Haris Silajdžić2 Željko KomÅ¡ić3  - Council of Ministers Chairman Nikola Å pirić Independence... Scott F. OGrady (born October 12, 1965 in Brooklyn, New York) is a former United States Air Force captain who gained prominence after he was shot down in his F-16 by Bosnian Serb forces on June 2, 1995 while patrolling the no-fly zone over Bosnia. ...


Global War on Terror

U.S. Marines fight in the city of Fallujah, Iraq during Operation Phantom Fury, November 2004
U.S. Marines fight in the city of Fallujah, Iraq during Operation Phantom Fury, November 2004

Marines of the 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit and 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit were the first conventional forces into Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in November of 2001. Since then Marine battalions and flying squadrons have been rotating through on seven month tours engaging leftover Taliban and Al Queda forces and also helping to rebuild the war torn country. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2002x1438, 1491 KB) US Marines use a shoulder-mounted rocket to assault an enemy position. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2002x1438, 1491 KB) US Marines use a shoulder-mounted rocket to assault an enemy position. ... Combatants United States Iraqi Security Forces Iraqi insurgents Tawhid wal Jihad Commanders Maj. ... The 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit (15th MEU) is one of seven Marine Expeditionary Units currently in existence in the United States Marine Corps. ... The 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit (26th MEU) is one of seven Marine Expeditionary Units currently in existence in the United States Marine Corps. ... Combatants United States Canada Australia United Kingdom Netherlands Philippines (in the Philippines theatre only) Northern Alliance GUAM Poland Italy Visegrad Group Hungary Ethiopia Somalia Estonia Latvia Lithuania Slovakia Vilnius group Croatia Albania Macedonia Romania Bulgaria Taliban al-Qaeda Abu Sayyaf Jemaah Islamiyah Islamic Courts Union Commanders General Tommy Franks Brig. ... Flag flown by the Taliban. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the label given to an alleged worldwide militant Islamist alliance said to be founded by Afghanistan in 1988 as an expansion of the mujahideen resistance movement against the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan into a...


Most recently, the Marines have served prominently in Operation Iraqi Freedom where a light, mobile force was and is especially needed. I MEF along with the Army's 3rd Infantry Division spearheaded the 2003 invasion of Iraq and perhaps most notably, the Marines spearheaded both assaults on the city of Fallujah in April and November 2004. For their performance during the invasion, the Marines of I MEF received the Presidential Unit Citation (US), the first time a Marine unit has received that award since 1968. [12] For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq arguably without the explicit backing of the... I MEF Logo The 1st Marine Expeditionary Force is a MAGTF of the United States Marine Corps primarily composed of the 1st Marine Division, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, and 1st Marine Logistics Group. ... Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized). ... Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom South Korea Australia Poland Romania others. ... Fallujah skyline Fallujah (Arabic: ‎; sometimes transliterated as Falluja or Fallouja) is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly 69 km (43 miles) west of Baghdad on the Euphrates. ... Combatants United States Iraqi insurgents Commanders James T. Conway Abu Musab al-Zarqawi Strength 1,200[1] 3,000 - 6,000 Casualties 83 KIA , WIA 90+ (U.S) [1] 615 military and civilian KIA Operation Vigilant Resolve, sometimes referred to as the First Battle of/for Fallujah was an abortive... Combatants United States Iraqi Security Forces Iraqi insurgents Tawhid wal Jihad Commanders Maj. ... I MEF Logo The 1st Marine Expeditionary Force is a MAGTF of the United States Marine Corps primarily composed of the 1st Marine Division, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, and 1st Marine Logistics Group. ... Please see Presidential Unit Citation for other versions of this award The Presidential Unit Citation is awarded to units of the Armed Forces of the United States and allies for extraordinary heroism in action against an armed enemy on or after 7 December 1941 (the date of the Attack on...


See also

United States Marine Corps Portal
Military of the United States Portal

Image File history File links USMC_logo. ... Image File history File links Naval_Jack_of_the_United_States. ...

References

  1. ^ John H. Dalton, Secretary of the Navy; Adm. J. M. Boorda, Chief of Naval Operations; General Carl E. Mundy, Commandant, U.S. Marine Corps (1994-11-9). "Forward...From the Sea". Department of the Navy.
  2. ^ Birth of Marines. Recruit Knowledge. MCRD Museum Historical Society. Retrieved on 2006-02-03.
  3. ^ a b Simmons, Edwin Howard (2003). The United States Marines: A History, 4th Edition. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-790-5. 
  4. ^ a b Chenoweth, USMCR (Ret.), Col. H. Avery; Col. Brooke Nihart, USMC (ret) (2005). Semper fi: The Definitive Illustrated History of the U.S. Marines. New York: Main Street. ISBN 1-4027-3099-3. 
  5. ^ (30-June-1834) "An Act for the Better Organization of the United States Marine Corps". '.
  6. ^ The devil dog legend
  7. ^ History of Marine Corps Aviation - World War One, AcePilots.com.
  8. ^ Marines in World War II Commemorative Series, Marine Corps Historical Center.
  9. ^ Marine Corps History, GlobalSecurity.org.
  10. ^ USMC Fast Facts, History Division, United States Marine Corps.
  11. ^ "The preannounced landing of U.S. Marines was witnessed by millions of U.S. primetime television viewers", United States Naval Aviation, 1910-1995, U.S. Navy publication. (PDF file, see 1992, December 9, p. 16)
  12. ^ Yearly Chronologies of the United States Marine Corps - 2003. History Division, United States Marine Corps.

Jeremy Michael Boorda (November 26, 1939 – May 16, 1996) was an admiral of the United States Navy and the 25th Chief of Naval Operations (CNO). ... Carl Epting Mundy Jr. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

External links

  • Chronologies of the United States Marine Corps. History Division, United States Marine Corps. Retrieved on 2007-02-03. (Access by year or campaign.)

 
 

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