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Encyclopedia > History of the Roman Catholic Church

See also: History of the Papacy The office of the Pope is called the Papacy. ...


The History of the Roman Catholic Church covers a period of just under two thousand years. As the oldest branch of Christianity[1], the history of the Catholic Church plays an integral part of the History of Christianity as a whole. In simple terms, the term Catholic Church as it is used in this article refers specifically to the Church founded in Jerusalem by Jesus of Nazareth (c. AD 33) and led by an unbroken apostolic succession through St. Peter the Apostle, ruled by the Bishop of Rome as successor of St. Peter, now commonly known as the Pope. Catholic Church redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Church historian redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This article concerns critical reconstructions of the Historical Jesus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ...


Over time, schisms have disrupted the unity of Christianity. The major divisions occurred in 318 with Arianism, in 1054 the East-West Schism with the Eastern Orthodox Church and in 1517 with the Protestant Reformation. The Catholic Church has been the moving force in some of the major events of world history including the evangelization of Europe and Latin America, the spreading of literacy and the foundation of the Universities, hospitals, monasticism, the development of Art, Music and Architecture, the Inquisition, the Crusades, an analytical philosophical method, and the downfall of Communism in Eastern Europe in the late 20th century. The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Children reading. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... This article is about building architecture. ... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...

Contents

Ministry of Jesus and the Founding

Byzantine image depicting Jesus as Christ pantocrator
Byzantine image depicting Jesus as Christ pantocrator

The Catholic Church's institutional basis is the person and teachings of Jesus Christ (b. 6-4 B.C. Bethlehem, d. AD 33 Jerusalem) as described in the four Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. The Gospels describe Jesus as an observant Jewish carpenter from the region of Galilee, who was both the promised Messiah or anointed one (Christos in Greek, giving rise to the title Jesus Christ) and Son of God, in fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy. Catholicism thus considers itself a successor religion to Judaism with the Christian God and the God of the Jews seen as one and the same. The Catholic Church is the one same Church founded by Jesus Christ and this one same Church endures to the present by force of historical continuity through an unbroken apostolic succession reaching back to the leader of the apostles, Simon Peter and thus to Christ himself. The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carpenter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Supersessionism (sometimes referred to as replacement theology by its critics) is a belief that Christianity is the fulfillment and continuation of the Old Testament, and that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Messiah are not being faithful to the revelation that God has given them, and they therefore fall... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ...


According to the four Gospels, when Jesus was about thirty years of age (Luke 3:23), he left the town of Nazareth and began a ministry of preaching and miraculous healing. In his preaching, he called for repentance (Mark 1:15), presenting God as a loving Father always ready to forgive. He also called on people to imitate the goodness and love of God towards all. He gained a following of people who saw him as a Rabbi and in some cases wondered if he could be the Messiah. He, however, aroused opposition from the Jewish religious leadership and authorities. They saw his teachings as dangerous to traditional Jewish doctrine and practice, and felt that his hints about his own personal identity were blasphemous. According to the Gospel of Matthew, chapter 16, thus: For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ...

13 When Jesus went into the region of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, "Who do people say that the Son of Man is?" 14 They replied, "Some say John the Baptist, others Elijah, still others Jeremiah or one of the prophets." 15 He said to them, "But who do you say that I am?" 16 Simon Peter said in reply, "You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God." 17 Jesus said to him in reply, "Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah. For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father in Heaven. 18 And so I say unto you, you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hell shall not prevail against it. 19 And I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven. Whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven." 20 Then he strictly ordered his disciples to tell no one that he was the Messiah.

The Gospels give a detailed account of Jesus' final days, when, probably in his mid-thirties, Jesus was arrested by the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem and was charged with blasphemy. During the trial by the Sanhedrin, he declared himself the Messiah. The Sanhedrin then persuaded the authorities of the Roman Empire, who ruled the region as Iudaea Province, to sentence him to death; after which, he was scourged, beaten, and crucified. The Passion of Christ as recounted in the Gospels, tells of the events of Good Friday through Easter, when, according to the New Testament account, Jesus rose from the dead and appeared to his disciples. By its own reckoning, the Church began on the first Pentecost when the Holy Spirit descended on the apostles and disciples in the Upper Room. For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the world. ... The Upper Room can refer to a number of things: The Upper Room, a UK pop music band The Cenacle, site of The Last Supper. ...


Jesus had earlier stated that he would entrust to Simon Peter the keys of the kingdom of Heaven after being singled out and revealed by God the Father that upon the "rock" (Latin Petrus, Greek Petros, and Aramaic Cepha) of Peter, Jesus would found his Church. Simon Peter was singled out again in the context of the Gospel of John, chapter 21 with the explicit verbal commands of "Feed my lambs", "Tend my sheep" and "Feed my sheep" in verses 15 to 17, thus: According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ...

15 When they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord, you know that I love you." He said to him, "Feed my lambs." 16 He then said to him a second time, "Simon, son of John, do you love me?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord, you know that I love you." He said to him, "Tend my sheep." 17 He said to him the third time, "Simon, son of John, do you love me?" Peter was distressed that he had said to him a third time, "Do you love me?" and he said to him, "Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you." Jesus said to him, "Feed my sheep."

It is on these foundational bases of scripture that the Catholic Church believes the Pope as the successor of Saint Peter and the singular leader of the whole Church on earth. The doctrines of Papal authority and Primacy of the Roman Pontiff continue to be sources of controversy between the Catholic Church and other Christian Churches. For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... The primacy of the Roman Pontiff is the apostolic authority of the Pope (Bishop of Rome), from the Holy See, over the several churches that comprise the Catholic Church in the Latin and Eastern Rites. ...


c. 4 BC — 312 AD

Although the calculations of Dionysius Exiguus put the birth of Jesus in the year that in consequence is called AD 1, history places his birth more likely some time between 6 and 4 BC. The Nativity by Petrus Christus, c. ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Herod the Great. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided between Israel, Jordan and the West Bank. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Son of... Incarnation, which literally means enfleshment, refers to the DNA-encoding, conception, and live birth of a sentient creature (generally human) who is the material manifestation of an entity or force whose original nature is immaterial. ... Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, meaning humble) (c. ...

Jesus Christ dies on the cross
Jesus Christ dies on the cross
  • c. 27: Jesus' baptism, start of ministry, and selection of the Apostles. The Gospel of Luke indicates that Christ was baptized during the 15th reign of Tiberius Caesar which is dated in 27 A.D (found in Luke 3:1,21,22). Christian Gospels strongly implicate Peter as leader and spokesman of the Apostles of Jesus being mentioned the most number of times in the Gospels. Peter, and the sons of Zebedee, James and John, constitute the inner circle of the Apostles of Jesus being witnesses to specific important events of the life of Jesus. Major preachings of Jesus, such as the Sermon on the Mount. Performance of miracles, such as raising the dead back to life, feeding five-thousand, walking on water, etc.
  • c. 33: Peter declares and other followers believe Jesus of Nazareth to be the Jewish Messiah promised by Yahweh according to the Jewish Scriptures and the predictions of the Hebrew prophets. Entry into Jerusalem, start of Passion of Christ. Jesus of Nazareth is crucified in Jerusalem under Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judea during the reign of Tiberius and Herod Antipas, after the Sandhedrin, under the High Priest Caiaphas, accuse Jesus of blasphemy. He was crucified by the Romans, however, under the political crime of sedition and rebellion as the titulus on his cross indicated his crime clearly as: "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews". According to his followers, three days later, "God raised him from the dead"[2], or, as they also express it, he "has risen."[3] Forty days after his resurrection (Ascension), the Christian Gospels narrate that Jesus instructed His disciples thus: "All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth. Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of time." (Matthew 28:18-20). Ten days later (Pentecost) Peter makes the first sermon converting 3,000 to be baptized. From this point onwards, the teachings of Jesus are spread throughout the Roman Empire and beyond forming into churches led by the Apostles. Christian tradition records that the Christian Church in Rome was jointly founded by Saint Peter and Saint Paul, and that Peter was its first bishop.
  • c. 34: St. Stephen, a deacon and first Christian martyr, stoned to death in Jerusalem.
  • c. 50: Council of Jerusalem
  • c. 52: Traditional arrival of St. Thomas, the Apostle in India.
  • c. 64: Christian persecution begins under Emperor Nero after the great fire of Rome. Persecution continues intermittently until 313 AD.
  • c. 64-67?: Death of St. Peter and St. Paul in Rome.
  • c. 70: Fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple.
  • c. 72: Martyrdom of St. Thomas the Apostle at Mylapore.
  • c. 96: Traditional date of First Epistle of Clement attributed to Pope Clement I written to the church of Corinth.
  • c. 100: St. John, the last of the Apostles, dies in Ephesus.[4][5]
  • c. 110: Ignatius of Antioch uses the term Catholic Church in a letter to the Church at Smyrna, one of the letters of undisputed authenticity attributed to him. In this and other genuine letters he insists on the importance of the bishops in the Church and speaks harshly about heretics.
  • c. 150: Latin translations (the Vetus Latina) from the Greek texts of the Scriptures are circulated among non-Greek-speaking Christian communities.
  • c. 155: The teachings of Marcion, the gnostic Valentinus and pentecostal Montanists cause disruptions in the Roman community. Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire continues.
  • c. 180: Irenaeus's Adversus Haereses brings the concept of "heresy" further to the fore in the first systematic attempt to counter Gnostic and other aberrant teachings.
  • c. 195: Pope Victor I, first African Pope, excommunicated the Quartodecimans in an Easter controversy. Some think he may have been the first pope to celebrate Mass in Latin instead of Greek.[6]
  • c. 200: Tertullian, first great Christian Latin writer, coined for Christian concepts Latin terms such as "Trinitas", "Tres Personae", "Una Substantia", "Sacramentum"
  • January 20, 250: Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Pope Fabian is martyred. Afterwards the Donatist controversy over readmitting lapsed Christians disaffects many in North Africa.
  • c. 250: Pope Fabian is said to have sent out seven bishops from Rome to Gaul to preach the Gospel: Gatien to Tours, Trophimus to Arles, Paul to Narbonne, Saturnin to Toulouse, Denis to Paris, Austromoine to Clermont, and Martial to Limoges.
  • October 28, 312: Emperor Constantine leads the forces of the Roman Empire to victory at the Battle of Milvian Bridge. Tradition has it that, the night before the battle, Constantine had a vision that he would achieve victory if he fought under the Symbol of Christ; accordingly, his soldiers bore on their shields the Chi-Rho sign composed of the first two letters of the Greek word for "Christ" (ΧΡΙΣΤΌΣ). After winning the battle, Constantine legalized Christianity. He himself was not baptized until shortly before death.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3176x2820, 870 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Crucifixion Matthias Grünewald History of the Roman Catholic Church ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3176x2820, 870 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Crucifixion Matthias Grünewald History of the Roman Catholic Church ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Pilate redirects here. ... A procurator is the incumbent of any of several current and historical political or legal offices. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Herod Antipas (short for Antipatros) was an ancient leader (tetrarch, meaning ruler of a quarter) of Galilee and Perea. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Yhosef Bar Kayafa (Hebrew יְהוֹסֵף בַּר קַיָּפָא, ), also known as Caiaphas (Greek Καϊάφας) in the New Testament, was the Jewish high priest to whom Jesus was taken after his arrest in the garden of Gethsemane, and who played a part in Jesus trial before the Roman Governor, Pontius Pilate. ... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ... Also refers to the process of gaining Enlightenment and several meditation techniques. ... The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... St Peter redirects here. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... For alternate uses, see Number 34. ... St. ... For other uses, see Deacon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year 50. ... This article is about the 1st century Council of Jerusalem in Christianity. ... This article is about the year 52. ... July 18 - Great fire of Rome: A fire began to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burned completely out of control while Emperor Nero allegedly played his lyre and sang while watching the blaze from a safe distance, although there is no hard evidence to support this... Nero Claudius Cæsar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37 – June 9, 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (54–68). ... According to the historian Tacitus, the Great Fire of Rome started on the night of 18 July in the year 64, among the shops clustered around the Circus Maximus. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... The name Saint Paul may refer to one of several possible meanings or references, though it is most commonly used to refer to the Biblical Paul of Tarsus. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year 70. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year 72. ... St. ... , Mylapore is one of the oldest areas within Chennai (formerly Madras), the capital of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. ... For other uses, see number 96. ... The Epistles of Clement often referred to as 1 Clement and 2 Clement were not accepted in the canonic New Testament but they are part of the Apostolic Fathers collection. ... Saint Clement I was the Bishop of Rome, and thus pope, from 88 to 99 AD. Also called Clement of Rome and Clemens Romanus, he was the fourth pope, according to Catholic tradition. ... Pliny the Younger advances to consulship. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see number 110. ... Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today Ä°zmir in Turkey) that was founded by ancient Greeks at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... The Roman army consists of 400,000 men. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Vetus Latina is a collective name given to the Biblical texts in Latin that were translated before St Jeromes Vulgate bible became the standard Bible for Latin-speaking Western Christians. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Events Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius starts a new war against the Parthians Pope Anicetus succeeds Pope Pius I First year of Yongshou era of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Dio Cassius, Roman historian Cao Cao, future ruler of the Kingdom of Wei Deaths July 11 - Pope Pius I Saint Polycarp... Marcion of Sinope (ca. ... Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect god, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ... This article is about the Gnostic Valentinus. ... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... Montanism was an early Christian sectarian movement of the mid-2nd century A.D., named after its founder Montanus. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see number 180. ... Saint Irenaeus (Greek: Ειρηναίος), (b. ... On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, commonly called Against Heresies (Latin: Adversus haereses), is a five volume work written by St. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect god, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ... Events Roman Emperor Septimius Severus had the Senate deify Commodus while trying to gain favor with the family of Marcus Aurelius. ... Pope Saint Victor I was an African Bishop of Rome (controversially called Pope) from 189 to 199 (the Vatican cites 186 or 189 to 197 or 201). ... Quartodecimanism (derived from the Vulgate Latin: quarta decima[1], meaning fourteen) refers to the custom of Christians celebrating Passover on the 14th day of Nisan in the Old Testaments Hebrew Calendar (Lev 23:5). ... The Easter controversy is a series of controversies about the proper date to celebrate Easter. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see number 200. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Persona literally means mask , although it does not usually refer to a literal mask but to the social masks all humans supposedly wear. ... Consubstantial is a term used in orthodox Christian theology. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Diophantus writes Arithmetica the first systematic treatise on algebra. ... Bust of Traianus Decius. ... Saint Fabian (died 250; feast day: January 20), pope and martyr, was chosen pope, or bishop of Rome, in January 236 in succession to Pope Anterus. ... The Donatists (founded by the Berber christian Donatus) were followers of a belief considered a heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Events Diophantus writes Arithmetica the first systematic treatise on algebra. ... Saint Fabian (died 250; feast day: January 20), pope and martyr, was chosen pope, or bishop of Rome, in January 236 in succession to Pope Anterus. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Gatianus or Saint Gatien (3rd century AD) was the founding bishop of the see of Tours. ... Tours is a city in France, the préfecture (capital city) of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. ... According to Catholic lore, Saint Trophimus of Arles or Saint Trophime was the first bishop of Arles, in todays southern France. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (Subprefecture) Arrondissement Arles Canton Chief town of 2 cantons: Arles-Est and Arles-Ouest Intercommunality Agglomeration community of Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette Mayor Hervé Schiavetti (PS) (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 0 m–57 m (avg. ... Saint Paul of Narbonne (3rd century CE) was one of the apostles to the Gauls sent out (probably under the direction of Pope Fabian, 236 - 250) during the consulate of Decius and Gratus (250-251 AD) to Christianize Gaul after the persecutions under Emperor Decius had all but dissolved the... Narbonne (Narbona in Catalan and in Occitan, commonly Narbo especially when referring to the Ancient Rome era) is a town and commune of southwestern France in the Languedoc-Roussillon région. ... Saint Saturnin (in Latin Saturninus, now Sernin in France and in Navarra Cernin), with a feast day entered for November 29, was one of the apostles to the Gauls sent out (probably under the direction of Pope Fabian, 236 - 250) during the consulate of Decius and Gratus (250-251 AD... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... For other uses, see Denis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... In Roman Catholic lore, Saint Austremonius or Saint Stramonius or Austromoine, the apostle of the Auvergne, was the first bishop of Clermont. ... Clermont is the name of several places in the United States of America: Clermont, Florida Clermont, Georgia Clermont, Indiana Clermont, Iowa Clermont, New York Clermont County, Ohio Clermont is the name of several communes in France: Clermont, in the Ariège département Clermont, in the Haute-Savoie département Clermont, in the... Saint Martial was the first bishop of Limoges, in todays France , according to a life of Saturninus, first bishop of Toulouse, which Gregory of Tours quotes in his Life That is all that is known and it may be summed up thus: Under the Emperor Decius and of Gratus... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 28 — Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine I defeats Maxentius and becomes the only Roman Emperor in the West. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Combatants Constantinian forces Maxentian forces Commanders Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius† Strength ~50000 men ~75000-120000 men Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Milvian Bridge took place on October 28, 312 between the Roman Emperors Constantine the Great and Maxentius. ... The Labarum An image of the labarum, with the Greek letters Alpha and Omega inscribed. ...

313 — 476

Head of Constantine's colossal statue at Musei Capitolini
Head of Constantine's colossal statue at Musei Capitolini

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (538x858, 224 KB) Summary Head of the colossal marble statue of Constantine I, Musei Capitolini, Rome Photographer: Markus Bernet Date: 07/10/2004 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Constantine I (emperor) Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (538x858, 224 KB) Summary Head of the colossal marble statue of Constantine I, Musei Capitolini, Rome Photographer: Markus Bernet Date: 07/10/2004 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Constantine I (emperor) Metadata This file contains additional... Michelangelos design for Capitoline Hill, now home to the Capitoline Museums. ... February - Wtf is up mah cracka??. Constantine issues the Edict of Milan, ending all persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire. ... The Edict of Milan was a letter that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. ... Events Gregory the Illuminator appoints his son Aristax as successor in the Patriarchate of Armenia. ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... Pope Alexander of Alexandria (died April 17, 326) was the nineteenth Patriarch of Alexandria from 313 to his death. ... Events Publication of the first blue law by Constantine I of the Roman Empire: trade is forbidden on Sundays; agriculture is allowed The Roman Catholic church is allowed to hold property Births Deaths Categories: 321 ... Miltiades, or Melchiades (other forms of the name being Meltiades, Melciades, Milciades, and Miltides) was Pope from July 10, 310 or 311 to January 10 or 11, 314. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Constantine becomes the sole emperor of the Roman Empire. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Trinitarianism is the Christian doctrine that God, although one being, exists in three distinct persons (hypostases) known collectively as the Holy Trinity. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed addition to the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 14 - Discovery of the (alleged) True Cross by Vatican City, where St. ... ... Interior view, with the Nave of the Cattedra in the back St. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 9 - Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans succeed their father Constantine I and rule as co-emperors of the Roman Empire. ... First invasions of the Saxons in Britain. ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 380 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A380. ... Theodosius (from greek friend of God) is a common name to three emperors of ancient Rome and Byzantium: Theodosius I (379-395) Theodosius II (408-450) Theodosius III (715-717) Categories: Disambiguation | Late Antiquity ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 380 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A380. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... A deputation from the Roman Senate delivers to Gratianus the robe of the Pontifex Maximus, which had been worn by every Roman Emperor since Augustus. ... The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . ... Events October 3 - Theodosius I commands his general Saturninus to conclude a peace treaty with the Visigoths, allowing them to settle south of the Danube. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Council of Rome was a... Damasus I (ca 305 - 383) was pope from 366 to 383. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Events All non-Christian temples in the Roman Empire are closed Quintus Aurelius Symmachus is urban prefect in Rome, and petitions Theodosius I to re-open the pagan temples. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... For other uses, see 404 (disambiguation), for the error see HTTP 404. ... Saint Telemachus, a fifth-century monk who lived in a monastery in Asia or modern day Turkey, who is said to have felt God calling him to Rome. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Augustus Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... // Alaric is a Germanic name that, broken into its parts means Ala: everyones and ric: ruler. This has various forms in the several Germanic languages, such as Alareiks in the original Gothic and Alrekr in Old Norse. ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Events June - Council of Ephesus: Nestorianism is rejected, the Nicene creed is declared to be complete. ... Cyril of Alexandria The Council of Ephesus was held in the Church of Mary in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great; Ephesus was the city of Artemis (see Acts 19:28). ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... The Chalcedonian Creed was adopted at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 in Asia Minor. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Eutyches (c. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχισμα, schisma (from σχιζω, schizo, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term... Events Attila, king of the Huns, invades Italy Northern Wei Tai Wu Di is succeeded by Northern Wei Nan An Wang, then by Northern Wei Wen Cheng Di as ruler of the Northern Wei Dynasty in China. ... Pope Saint Leo I or Pope Saint Leo the Great was Pope from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461) He was a Roman aristocrat and the first Pope to receive the title the Great. He is perhaps best known for having met Attila the Hun outside Rome near Governolo... Attila redirects here. ... March 16 - Valentinian III is murdered by former soldiers of Aëtius in revenge for Valentinians killing of Aëtius the previous year. ... The city of Rome has been sacked on several occasions. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... Model of Herods Temple - currently in the Israel Museum View from east to west of the model of Herods Temple Herods Temple in Jerusalem was a massive expansion of the Second Temple along with renovations of the entire Temple Mount. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ...

477 — 799

Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy
Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x2074, 440 KB) Description: Title: de: Chormosaiken in San Vitale in Ravenna, Szene: Kaiser Justinian und Bischof Maximilianus und sein Hof, Detail: Büste des Justinian Technique: de: Mosaik Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Ravenna Current... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x2074, 440 KB) Description: Title: de: Chormosaiken in San Vitale in Ravenna, Szene: Kaiser Justinian und Bischof Maximilianus und sein Hof, Detail: Büste des Justinian Technique: de: Mosaik Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Ravenna Current... This article is about a decorative art. ... Events Odoacer defeats an attempt by Julius Nepos to recapture Italy, and has Julius killed; Odoacer also captured Dalmatia. ... This article is about Saint Benedict of Nursia, for other uses of the name Benedict see Benedict (disambiguation) Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Events Battle of Tolbiac; Clovis I defeats the Alamanni accepts Catholic baptism at Reims. ... Clovis I (variously spelled Chlodowech or Chlodwig, giving modern French Louis and modern German Ludwig) (c. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Events End of the Qi Dynasty and beginning of the Liang Dynasty in southern China. ... Symmachus was pope from 498 to 514. ... For other uses, see number 529. ... The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is a fundamental work in jurisprudence issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 1 - John becomes Pope, succeeding Pope Boniface II, who had died in 532. ... John II (born Mercurius) was Pope from 533 to 535. ... Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ... Events February 1 - John becomes Pope, succeeding Pope Boniface II, who had died in 532. ... Events June 8 - St. ... // Flavius Belisarius (505(?) – 565) was one of the greatest generals of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most acclaimed generals in history. ... Events The Ostrogoth Kingdom is conquered by the Byzantines after the Battle of Mons Lactarius. ... This article incorporates text from the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia The Fifth Ecumenical Council (the Second Council of Constantinople) was a Christian Ecumenical Council that was held at Constantinople (5 May-2 June, 553), having been called by Emperor Justinian. ... Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ... The Three Chapters (trîa kephálaia), a phase in the Monophysite controversy, was an attempt to reconcile the Christians of Syria and Egypt with Western Christendom, following the failure of the Henotikon. ... Events September 3 - St. ... “Saint Gregory” redirects here. ... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary Ecclesiastical means pertaining to the Church (especially Christianity) as an organized body of believers and clergy, with a stress on its juridical and institutional structure. ... Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church. ... King Ethelbert of Kent asks for missionaries to visit his kingdom Gao Jifu, Chinese chancellor of the Tang Dynasty (d. ... Augustine of Canterbury (birth unknown, died May 26, 604) was the first Archbishop of Canterbury, sent to Ethelbert of Kent, Bretwalda (ruler) of England by Pope Gregory the Great in 597. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Events Islamic calendar introduced The Muslims capture Antioch, Caesarea Palaestina and Akko Births Deaths October 12 - Pope Honorius I Categories: 638 ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Events August 5 - In the Battle of Maserfield, Penda king of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald, king of Bernicia. ... Events September, Synod of Whitby Births Deaths Xuanzang, famous Chinese Buddhist monk. ... The Synod of Whitby was an important synod which eventually led to the unification of the church in Britain. ... Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries: that is, among Celtic/British peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, Cumbrians (the inhabitants of the... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... The Sixth Ecumenical Council met on November 7, 680 for its first session; it ended its meetings, said to have been eighteen in number, on September 16 of 681. ... Monothelitism (a Greek loanword meaning one will) is a particular teaching about how the divine and human relate in the person of Jesus, known as a Christological doctrine. ... Events Umayyad caliph Marwan I (684-685) succeeded by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705) Justinian II succeeds Constantine IV as emperor of the Byzantine Empire Sussex attacks Kent, supporting Eadrics claim to the throne held by Hlothhere Pope Benedict II succeeded by Pope John V Cuthbert consecrated... John Maron (d. ... Sergius I (d. ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Events Tiberius III deposes Leontius and becomes Byzantine Emperor. ... Saint Willibrord (c. ... Sergius I (d. ... Utrecht refers to various cities and areas: Utrecht (province), of the Netherlands Utrecht (city), Netherlands, and capital of the province of the same name Utrecht (municipality), includes the city of Utrecht and two neighbouring villages (Vleuten / de Meern) Utrecht (agglomeration), in the Netherlands, includes the city of Utrecht Diocese of... See also: phone number 711. ... Events Pelayo established the Kingdom of Asturias in the Iberian peninsula (modern day Portugal and Spain). ... For the Roman general of this name, see Bonifacius. ... Saint Gregory II, pope from 715 or 716 to February 11, 731, succeeded Pope Constantine, his election being variously dated May 19, 715, and March 21, 716. ... Events City of Jarash (in present-day Jordan) suffers a major earthquake First annual Sumo tournament held by Emperor Seibu. ... Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Tours: Near Poitiers, France, leader of the Franks Charles Martel and his men, defeat a large army of Moors, stopping the Muslims from spreading into Western Europe. ... Charles Martel (or, in modern English, Charles the Hammer) (23 August 686 – 22 October 741) was proclaimed Mayor of the Palace, ruling the Franks in the name of a titular King, and proclaimed himself Duke of the Franks (the last four years of his reign he did not even bother... Location within France Poitiers (population 85,000) is a small city located in west central France. ... Events Pippin the Short is elected as king of the Franks by the Frankish nobility, marking the end of the Merovingian and beginning of the Carolingian dynasty. ... Events Abd-ar-rahman I conquers Iberia and establishes a new Umayyad dynasty. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Pépin le Bref [1] (714 – September 24, 768), often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was the King of the Franks from 751 to 768 and is best known for being the father of Charlemagne, or Charles the Great. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... The Donation of Pepin in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended papal temporal rule beyond the traditional diocese and duchy of Rome. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... This article is about the year 787. ... Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... Events Vikings sack the monastery of Lindisfarne, Northumbria. ... Map of the UK showing the location of Lindisfarne at 55. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ...

800 — 1453

Notre-Dame Cathedral - designed in the Gothic architectural style.
Notre-Dame Cathedral - designed in the Gothic architectural style.

is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Infobox Pope| English name=Leo III| image= | birth_name=Unknown| term_start=December 27, 795 | term_end=June 12, 816| predecessor=Adrian I| successor=Stephen IV| birth_date=Date of birth unknown| birthplace=Rome, Italy| dead=dead|death_date=June 12, 816| deathplace=Place of death unknown| other=Leo}} Pope Leo III (died June 12... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... Events Egbert of Wessex conquers Mercia and is recognized as Bretwalda. ... For the city in Iowa, see St. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Events Constantine I succeeds as king of Scotland. ... Saint Cyril (Greek: Κύριλλος , Church Slavonic: Кирилъ) (827 - February 14, 869) was a Byzantine Greek monk, scholar, theologian, and linguist. ... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Events Western Emperor Louis II allies with eastern Emperor Basil I against the Saracens. ... The Fourth Council of Constantinople as an ecumenical council is a name given to one of two meetings in Constantinople: the first in 869-870; the second in 879-880. ... Photius (b. ... Events Foundation of the Benedictine monastery of Cluny Chinese Zhou dynasty monarch 懿王 yi4 wang2 is succeeded by 孝王 xiao4 wang2 Hashavarman I succeeds Yasovarman I as ruler of the Khmer empire Gabriel I of Alexandria becomes Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church Garcia I of Leon becomes king Ordono... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... Cluny nowadays The town of Cluny or Clugny lies in the modern-day département of Saône-et-Loire in the région of France, near Mâcon. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Events Vladimir I, Prince of Kiev marries Anna, sister of Byzantine emperor Basil II and converts to Christianity. ... Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great (c. ... Mael Morda starts a rebellion against Brian Boru in Ireland, which would eventually end in 1014 at the Battle of Clontarf. ... Statue of Burchard of Worms at Wormser Dom. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... Humbert of Mourmoutiers (c. ... Frederick of Lorraine (1371 - October 25, 1415, in the battle of Agincourt) was Count of Vaudemont. ... Michael I Caerularius, mosaic Michael I Caerularius, anglicized - Cerularius, (b. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Pope Urban II (1042 – July 29, 1099), born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, given a late Gothic setting in this illumination from the Livre des Passages dOutre-mer, of c 1490 (Bibliothèque National) The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held in... Events First Crusade: end of the siege of Antioch. ... 16th century Citeaux, perspective view (engraving) Cîteaux Abbey (abbaye de Cîteaux) is a Catholic abbey located in Saint-Nicolas-les-Cîteaux, south of France. ... Cistercians coat of arms The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin: ), otherwise White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which a black scapular or apron is sometimes worn) is a Roman Catholic order of enclosed monks. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Christian Holy Land from Muslims. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Events First Council of the Lateran confirms Concordat of Worms and demands that priests remain celibate End of the reign of Emperor Toba of Japan. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia The Council of 1123 is reckoned in the series of Ecumenical councils. ... July 26, Independence of Portugal from the Kingdom of León and Castile declared after the Battle of Ourique against the Almoravids lead by Ali ibn Yusuf: Prince Afonso Henriques becomes Afonso I, King of Portugal, after assembling the first assembly of the estates-general of Portugal at Lamego, where... The Second Lateran, and tenth ecumenical council was held by Pope Innocent II in April 1139, and was attended by close to a thousand clerics. ... Events Louis VII capitulates to Pope Celestine II and so earns the popes absolution Pope Celestine II is succeeded by Pope Lucius II December 24 - Edessa falls to Zengi Montauban, France, is founded First recorded example of an anti-Semitic blood libel in England Normandy comes under Angevin control... West façade of Saint Denis Depiction of the Trinity over the main entrance The Basilica of Saint Denis (French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the famous burial site of the French monarchs, comparable to Westminster Abbey in England. ... Suger of Saint-Denis on a medieval window Suger (c. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... Events Åhus, Sweden gains city privileges City of Airdrie, Scotland founded King Sverker I of Sweden is deposed and succeeded by Eric IX of Sweden. ... Decretum Gratiani The Decretum Gratiani or Concordia discordantium canonum (in some manuscripts Concordantia discordantium canonum) is a collection of Canon law compiled and written in the twelfth century as a legal textbook by a jurist (perhaps) named Gratian. ... Events Third Council of the Lateran condemned Waldensians and Cathars as heretics, institutes a reformation of clerical life, and creates the first ghettos for Jews Afonso I is recognized as the true King of Portugal by Portugal the protection of the Catholic Church against the Castillian monarchy Philip II is... The Third Council of the Lateran met in March, 1179 as the 11th ecumenical council. ... Events Canute VI crowned king of Denmark. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... Three sieges have the name Siege of Jerusalem: The Siege of Jerusalem in 701 BC by Sennacherib, fighting a revolt against the Assyrian Empire The Siege of Jerusalem in AD 70 by Titus, ending the Great Jewish Revolt The Siege of Jerusalem in 1099 by the crusaders, a part of... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Toba of Japan Emperor Tsuchimikado ascends to the throne of Japan January 8 - Pope Innocent III ascends Papal Throne Frederick II, infant son of German King Henry VI, crowned King of Sicily Births August 24 - Alexander II of Scotland (d. ... Pope Innocent III (c. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... Belligerents Crusaders Holy Roman Empire Republic of Venice Montferret Champagne Blois Amiens ÃŽle-de-France Saint-Pol Burgundy Flanders Balkans Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Hungary Croatia Dalmatia Commanders Otto IV Boniface I Theobald I Lois I Alexios V Doukas Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Emeric I The Fourth Crusade... Belligerents Crusaders Holy Roman Empire Republic of Venice Montferret Champagne Blois Amiens ÃŽle-de-France Saint-Pol Burgundy Flanders Balkans Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Hungary Croatia Dalmatia Commanders Otto IV Boniface I Theobald I Lois I Alexios V Doukas Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Emeric I The Fourth Crusade... The knights of the Fourth Crusade set up a Crusader kingdom known as the Latin Empire or Romania based on Constantinople after sacking the city in 1204. ... January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire April 1 - King Amalric II of Jerusalem (born 1145) May 7... Saint Francis of Assisi (born in Assisi, Italy, ca. ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A certified copy of the Magna Carta March 4 - King John of England makes an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III. June 15 - King John of England was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning... The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Bull of April 19, 1213. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A certified copy of the Magna Carta March 4 - King John of England makes an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III. June 15 - King John of England was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ... Events February 18 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements nor support from the papacy. ... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catharism. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... // Events Ardengus becomes bishop of Florence. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino dei Conti, was pope from 1227 to August 22, 1241. ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Two military engagements are known as the Battle of Liegnitz: The Battle of Legnica (1241) was a battle in the Mongol invasion of Europe The Battle of Liegnitz (1760) was a battle in the Seven Years War This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... Combatants Kingdom of Hungary Mongol Empire Commanders King Béla IV Batu Khan, Subutai Strength 15,000-30,000+ Unknown (mostly cavalry) Casualties 10,000-30,000+ unknown The Battle of Mohi, or Battle of the Sajó River, (on April 11, 1241) was the main battle between the Mongols and... Events Rebellion against king Sancho II of Portugal in favor of his brother Alphonso. ... The First Council of Lyon (Lyons I) was the Thirteenth Ecumenical Council and took place in 1245. ... Events May 7 - In France the Second Council of Lyons opens to consider the condition of the Holy Land and to agree to a union with the Byzantine church. ... The Second Council of Lyon was the fourteenth ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, convoked on 31 March 1272 and convened in Lyon in 1274. ... Events Mongol leader Ghazan Khan is converted to Islam, ending a line of Tantric Buddhist leaders. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 11 - Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch), major victory of Flanders over the French occupier. ... On November 18, 1302, Pope Boniface VIII issued the Papal bull Unam sanctam (The One Holy), which historians consider one of the most extreme statements of Papal spiritual supremacy ever made. ... Events August 5 - English troops capture William Wallace Wenceslas III becomes king of Bohemia Archbishop of Bordeaux, Bertrand de Got, was elected as Pope Clement V. Philip IV of France accused the Knights Templar of heresy. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For the Municipality in Quebec, see Avignon Regional County Municipality, Quebec. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Henry VII is elected as king of the Holy Roman Empire. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... [edit] Events May 11 - In France, 64 members of the Knights Templar are burned at the stake for heresy Abulfeda becomes governor of Hama. ... Events Henry VII is elected as king of the Holy Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... The Chinon parchment is a document from the Secret Vatican Archives that shows that Pope Clement V secretly pardoned the Knights Templar in 1314. ... This is a list of the bishops and, from 815, the archbishops of Tours: // St. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Bolingbroke Castle passes to the House of Lancaster. ... Above all else, the Roman Catholic Council of Vienne was the Ecumenical Council that withdrew papal support for the Knights Templar, confirming the destruction of the rich Order by the bureaucrats of Philip IV of France. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 15 : Battle near Rozgoni Battle near Thebes Siege of Rostock begins Births November 13 - King Edward III of England Deaths June 19 - Piers Gaveston, favourite of Edward II of England September 7 - King Ferdinand IV of Castile Categories: 1312 ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 15 : Battle near Rozgoni Battle near Thebes Siege of Rostock begins Births November 13 - King Edward III of England Deaths June 19 - Piers Gaveston, favourite of Edward II of England September 7 - King Ferdinand IV of Castile Categories: 1312 ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings, IPA: ) (c. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Saint Catherine of Siena, O.P. (March 25, 1347 - April 29, 1380) was a Tertiary (a lay affiliate) of the Dominican Order, and a scholastic philosopher and theologian. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Historical map of the Western Schism: red is support for Avignon, blue for Rome The Western Schism or Papal Schism (also known as the Great Schism of Western Christianity) was a split within the Catholic Church (1378 - 1417). ... Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires...

1454 — 1632

Michelangelo's Pietà in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
Michelangelo's Pietà in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1584x1660, 636 KB) Summary Michelangelos Pietà, St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1584x1660, 636 KB) Summary Michelangelos Pietà, St. ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Inter caetera (Among other [works]) was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on May 4, 1493, which granted to Spain (the Crowns of Castile and Aragon) all lands to the west and south of a pole-of-pole line 100 leagues (418 km) west and south of any... Pope Alexander VI (1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), born Roderic Borja (Italian: Borgia), (reigned from 1492 to 1503), is the most controversial of the secular popes of the Renaissance and one whose surname became a byword for the debased standards of the papacy of that era. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Swiss Guards have been Swiss who fought for various European powers from the 15th century until the 19th century, called up from the separate Swiss cantons and placed at the disposal of various foreign powers by treaties (the capitulations), in return for money payments. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1508 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The 95 Theses. ... In the theology of Roman Catholicism, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christians sins. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ... Hernán Cortés Hernán Cortés (1485 - December 2, 1547) (who was known as Hernando or Fernando Cortés during his lifetime and signed all his letters Fernán Cortés) was the conquistador who conquered Mexico for Spain. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... Decet Romanum Pontificem (1521) is the papal bull excommunicating Martin Luther, bearing the title of the first three Latin words of the text: [It] befits [the] Roman Pontiff in English. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... An image of the Santo Niño de Cebú can be commonly found in many Filipino homes. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... // Fidei defensor is the Latin original of the English and French titles. ... Tudor usually relates to the Tudor period in English history, which refers to the period of time between 1485 and 1558/1603 when the Tudor dynasty held the English throne. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... The Defence of the Seven Sacraments (in Latin, Assertio Septem Sacramentorum) is a book, written by King Henry VIII of England in 1521. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... The city of Rome has been sacked on several occasions. ... January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake - thousands die. ... An image of Our Lady of Guadalupe. ... For the actor, see Juan Diego (actor). ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ... Pizarro, Francisco (pĬzä´rō, Span. ... Lifetime portrait of Atahuallpa, the last sovereign Inca emperor Atahualpa or Atawallpa (c. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... Ignatius of Loyola Saint Ignatius of Loyola (December 24, 1491? – July 31, 1556), baptized Íñigo López de Loyola, was the founder of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order commonly known as the Jesuits that was established to strengthen the Church, initially against Protestantism. ... Saint Francis Xavier (Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa; Spanish: San Francisco Javier; Portuguese: São Francisco Xavier; Chinese: 聖方濟各沙勿略) (7 April 1506 - 2 December 1552) was a Spanish pioneering Roman Catholic Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... pie is nice Year 1535 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Treaty of Nagyvarad. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Pope Paul III with his cardinal-nephew Alessandro Cardinal Farnese (left) and his other grandson (right), Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death 1549. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei), previously known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office, is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... John Chrysostom (347 - 407) was a notable Christian bishop and preacher from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople. ... Basil (ca. ... An icon of Saint Gregory Nazianzen the theologian holding a Gospel Book Saint Gregory Nazianzen (AD 329 - January 25, 389), also known as Saint Gregory the Theologian, was a 4th century Christian bishop of Constantinople. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) (298–May 2, 373) was a Christian bishop, the Patriarch of Alexandria, in the fourth century. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 - March 7, 1274) was a Catholic philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition, who gave birth to the Thomistic school of philosophy, which was long the primary philosophical approach of the Roman Catholic Church. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis May 20 - Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas. ... A pre-1969 Latin Rite altar with reredos: A main altar was usually preceded by three steps, below which were said the Prayers at the Foot of the Altar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... Three battles have been known as the Battle of Lepanto: Battle of Lepanto (1499) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1500) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1571) defeat of the Turkish fleet An earlier battle near modern Lepanto was called the Battle of Naupactus (429... Events March 17 - formation of the Cathay Company to send Martin Frobisher back to the New World for more gold May 28 - Publication of the Bergen Book, better known as the Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, one of the Lutheran confessional writings. ... Teresa of Avila by Peter Paul Rubens Saint Teresa of Avila (known in religion as Teresa de Jesús, baptised as Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada) was a Spanish Roman Catholic mystic and monastic reformer; born at Avila (53 miles north-west of Madrid), Old Castile, March 28, 1515; died... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... Inter gravissimas is a papal bull issued by Pope Gregory XIII on February 24, 1582. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... This article is about Robert Bellarmine, the Catholic Saint. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... The Peace of Vervins was signed between Henry IV of France and Philip II of Spain on May 2 1598. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... Tokugawa Ieyasu January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616)was the founder and first shogunof the Tokugawa shogunateof Japanwhich ruled from the Battle of Sekigaharain 1600until the Meiji Restorationin 1868. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... Pope Gregory XV with his Cardinal Nephew of unprecedented income and authority, Ludovico Ludovisi, known as il cardinale padrone. ... Louis XIII (September 27, 1601 – May 14, 1643), called the Just (French: le Juste), was King of France from 1610 to 1643. ... Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu (September 9, 1585 – December 4, 1642), was a French clergyman, noble, and statesman. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... Pope Urban VIII (April 1568 – July 29, 1644), born Maffeo Barberini, was Pope from 1623 to 1644. ... ...

1633 — 1800

Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... // For siege of Vienna in 1529 see Siege of Vienna Combatants Holy League: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria Ottoman Empire, Khanate of Crimea, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders John III Sobieski, Charles V of Lorraine Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000, (10,000 during siege) 138,000, (200... The Great Turkish War refers to a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and contemporary European powers, then joined into a Holy League, during the second half of the 17th century. ... Headstone of Kara Mustafa, Edirne, Turkey Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha (1634/1635 – December 25, 1683) was an Ottoman military leader and vizier who was a central character in the empires last attempts at expansion into central and eastern Europe. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... // The Coonan Cross Oath was taken in 1653,[1] by a group of Saint Thomas Christians, enraged by the persecution of their Church by the Portuguese colonials and Jesuit missionaries who sought to bring it under Portuguese Padroado or Propaganda Fide , swore the Coonan Cross Oath, vowing that neither they... This box:      The Saint Thomas Christians are a group of Christians from the Malabar coast (now Kerala) in South India, who follow Syriac Christianity. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... Innocent XII, né Antonio Pignatelli (March 13, 1615 - September 27, 1700) pope from 1691 to 1700, was the successor of Alexander VIII. He came of a distinguished Naples family and was educated at the Jesuit college in Rome. ... Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up simony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... An encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. ... There are english source documents for or relating to this article that could be added to Wikipedias sister project, Wikisource. ... Jansenism was a branch of Catholic thought tracing itself back to Cornelius Otto Jansen (1585 – 1638), a Flemish theologian. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Clement XI, né Giovanni Francesco Albani (July 23, 1649 - March 19, 1721) was pope from 1700 to 1721. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The Chinese Rites controversy was a dispute within the Roman Catholic Church in the early 18th century about whether Chinese folk religion rites and offerings to the emperor constituted idolatry or not. ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Kangxi (disambiguation) The Kangxi Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kang-hsi; May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was an Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty,[1] and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... This religion article needs to be wikified. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Jesu XPI Passio Passionism is also an artistic movement. ... Pope Clement XIV Clement XIV, né Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli (SantArcangelo di Romagna, October 31, 1705 - Rome, September 22, 1774) was pope from 1769 to 1774. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Blessed Junípero Serra (November 24, 1713 – August 28, 1784) was a Majorcan (Spain) Franciscan friar who founded the mission chain in Alta California. ... Mission San Diego de Alcalá as it stood circa 1900. ... The Spanish missions in California (more simply referred to as the California Missions) comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order between 1769 and 1823 to spread the Catholic faith among the local Native Americans. ... Year 1773 (MDCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was a product of a series of political moves rather than a theological controversy. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Carroll (January 8, 1735 – December 3, 1815) was a priest of the Catholic Society of Jesus. ... There are many Bishops in the Baltimore area. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Anti-clericalism is a movement that opposes religious interference into public and political life and more generally the encroachment of religion in the citizens lives. ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Pius VI, born Giovanni Angelo Braschi (December 27, 1717 – August 29, 1799), Pope from 1775 to 1799, was born at Cesena. ...

19th century

  • July 16, 1802: French Concordat of 1801. The Catholic Church re-established in France.
  • December 2, 1804: Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of the French in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris, in the presence of Pope Pius VII.
  • 1847: The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem resumes residence in Jerusalem.
  • 1850: The Archdiocese of Westminster and twelve other dioceses are erected, reestablishing a hierarchy in the United Kingdom.
  • 1852: The First Plenary Council of Baltimore was held in the United States.
  • December 8, 1869: Pope Pius IX opens the First Ecumenical Council of the Vatican.
  • July 18, 1870 - The Dogmatic Constitution of the Church of Christ from the fourth session of Vatican I, "Pastor Aeternus", issues the dogma of papal infallibility among other issues before the fall of Rome in the Franco-Prussian War causes it to end prematurely and brings an end to the Papal States. Controversy over several issues leads to the formation of the Old Catholic Church. This council was not formally closed until 1960 by Pope John XXIII in preparation for the Second Vatican Council.
  • May 15, 1891: Pope Leo XIII issues encyclical Rerum Novarum (translation: Of New Things).
  • November 30, 1894: Pope Leo XIII publishes the Apostolic Letter Orientalium Dignitas (On the Churches of the East) safeguarding the importance and continuance of the Eastern traditions for the whole Church.
  • 1898 - Secondo Pia takes the first photographs of the Shroud of Turin.

is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1802 (MDCCCII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is the title given to the Latin Rite Roman Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Westminster Cathedral is the motherchurch of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Westminster. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Third Plenary Council of Baltimore (1884) The Plenary Councils of Baltimore refer to three national meetings of Roman Catholic bishops in the 19th century in Baltimore, Maryland. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... The Old Catholic Church is a community of Christian churches. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

20th century

is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Opus Dei (disambiguation). ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pius XIIs signature Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the human head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death in 1958. ... Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the theological concept. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... Universal Call to Holiness and Apostolate is a teaching of the Roman Catholic Church that all people are called to be holy. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater religious unity or cooperation. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Traditionalist Catholics are Roman Catholics, or persons who identify as Roman Catholics, who believe that there should be a restoration of many or all of the liturgical forms, public and private devotions and presentation of Catholic teachings which prevailed in the Roman Catholic Church before the Second Vatican Council (1962... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mass of Pope Paul VI is the liturgy of the Catholic Mass of the Roman Rite as revised after the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965). ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Pope John Paul I (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo I), born Albino Luciani, (October 17, 1912—September 28, 1978) reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and as Sovereign of Vatican City from August 26, 1978 until his death. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... This article is about the year. ... World Youth Day 2000 in Rome World Youth Day (It. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The Most Reverend Dr. Marcel-François Lefebvre (November 29, 1905–March 25, 1991), better known as Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, was a French Roman Catholic bishop. ... The Society of St. ... Ecône is an area in the municipality of Riddes, district of Martigny, in the canton of Valais, in Switzerland. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Ordinatio Sacerdotalis (Latin for On Ordination to the Priesthood) is a Roman Catholic papal encyclical or apostolic letter discussing the Roman Catholic Churchs position on the reservation of priestly ordination to men alone. ... In general religious use, ordination is the process by which one is consecrated (set apart for the undivided administration of various religious rites). ... Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. ...

21st century

Benedict XVI, the first Pope elected in the 21st century
Benedict XVI, the first Pope elected in the 21st century

April 30, 2000 : Pope John Paul II canonized St. Faustina and designated the Sunday after Easter as Divine Mercy Sunday in the General Roman Calendar, with effect from the following year. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1559x1536, 1268 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 2005 Pope Benedict XVI List of popes His Holiness Papal conclave, 2005 Catholic Church hierarchy History... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1559x1536, 1268 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 2005 Pope Benedict XVI List of popes His Holiness Papal conclave, 2005 Catholic Church hierarchy History...

  • January 1, 2001: The 21st century and the new millennium begin. The Church solemnizes the start of the third Christian millennium by extending into part of the year 2001 the jubilee year that it observes at 25-year intervals and that, in the case of the year 2000, it called the Great Jubilee.
  • January 6, 2001: John Paul II issues Novo Millennio Ineunte, a program for the Church in the new millennium, wherein he placed sanctity through a training in prayer as the most important priority of the Catholic Church in consonance with its purpose.
  • January 18, 2002: Former priest John Geoghan is convicted of child molestation and sentenced to ten years in prison, as part of the ongoing sex abuse scandal. The Geoghan case was one of the worst scandals of the Catholic Church in modern times.
  • April 2, 2005: Pope John Paul II dies at the age of 84. His funeral is broadcast to every corner of the globe through the modern media. Millions of Catholic pilgrims journey to Rome to pay final respects.
  • April 19, 2005: German-born Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger is elected by the College of Cardinals as Pope Benedict XVI, thus becoming the first Pope elected during the 21st century and the 3rd millennium.
  • August 18, 2005: Pope Benedict XVI visits Cologne, Germany, his first outside Italy. Continues World Youth Day begun by his predecessor.
  • September 12, 2006: Pope Benedict XVI delivers address "Faith, Reason and the University Memories and Reflections" in University of Regensburg. Quoting Emperor Manuel II Paleologus: "Show me just what Mohammed brought that was new, and there you will find things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached." constituting a minimal part of the speech about faith and reason, the irrationality of violence, and the program of de-Hellenization sparks violent and deadly reactions among Muslims all over the world.[15][16][17][18][19]
  • July 7, 2007: Motu proprio Summorum Pontificum is issued by Pope Benedict XVI explicitly liberating the Roman Missal of 1962 as the extraordinary form of the Roman Rite. Hopes of healing the schism between the SSPX and the Catholic Church is implied in accompanying letter to the motu proprio.

is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Novo Millennio Ineunte is an apostolic letter of John Paul II, addressed to the the Bishops Clergy and Lay Faithful, At the Close of the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... John J. Geoghan (c. ... Bad Touch redirects here. ... The Roman Catholic sex abuse cases are a series of accusations of child sexual abuse made against Roman Catholic priests and also concern accusations of related church cover-ups against said abuse. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church established by Pope St. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... The third millennium (so called because it is the third period of 1000 years in the Common Era) is a period of time which began on (depending on your beliefs) 1 January 2001 and will end on 31 December 3000 or 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2999. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Regensburg, situated in Regensburg, in Bavaria, was founded on 18th July 1962 by the Bavarian parliament. ... Emperor Manuel II Manuel II Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Μανουήλ Β΄ Παλαιολόγος, Manouēl II Palaiologos) (June 27, 1350 – July 21, 1425) was Byzantine emperor from 1391 to 1425. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A motu proprio is a papal rescript in which the clause motu proprio (Latin, of his own motion) is used, signifying that the provisions of the rescript were decided by the Pope personally and not by a cardinal or other advisors. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. Summorum Pontificum (English: ) is the Apostolic Letter motu proprio data of Pope Benedict XVI, which formulates the canonical rules to be respected in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church for the celebration of Mass according to the Missal promulgated by John XXIII in... The Roman Missal (Missale Romanum) is the liturgical book that contains the texts and rubrics for the celebration of the Latin rite of Mass. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article, refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. ... The Society of St. ...

Further reading

Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Revised and expanded ed. New York: Image Books Doubleday, 2005. ISBN 0-385-51613-4


References

  1. ^ The Eastern Orthodox and some other churches are also apostolic in origin -- i.e., they also date their origins back to the founding of the Christian Church at the time of the Apostles
  2. ^ Acts 2:24, Romans 10:9, 1 Cor 15:15, Acts 2:31-32, 3:15, 3:26, 4:10, 5:30, 10:40-41, 13:30, 13:34, 13:37, 17:30-31, 1 Cor 6:14, 2 Cor 4:14, Gal 1:1, Eph 1:20, Col 2:12, 1 Thess 1:10, Heb 13:20, 1 Pet 1:3, 1:21
  3. ^ Mark 16:9, Luke 24:7, Luke 24:46, John 20:9, Acts 10:41, Acts 17:3, Acts 1:22, Acts 2:31, Acts 4:33,
  4. ^ St. John the Evangelist, Catholic Encyclopedia, retrieved Sep. 30, 2006
  5. ^ St. John the Evangelist, ewtn.com, retrieved Sep. 30, 2006
  6. ^ This statement is made in derivative websites such as Cultural Catholic (retrieved 28 September 2006) and Catholic Apologetics International (retrieved 28 September 2006); but liturgical scholars are doubtful: early-twentieth-century Adrian Fortescue merely says, in two Catholic Encyclopedia articles, Liturgy of the Mass 28 September 2006) and Church Latin 28 September 2006), that, on the basis of the uncertain attribution to him of a work found among the writings of Saint Cyprian, Pope Victor seems to have been the first Pope "to use Latin at Rome" (referring to writing, not to liturgy); and the later Josef Jungmann makes no mention of this theory about Pope Victor, and states that the burial inscriptions of the Popes, which begin to be in Latin only with Pope Cornelius (d. 253), indicate that the change occurred later, while he observes that both languages will have been used in Rome for some centuries, according to the languages of the various groups of Christians in the city (page 65 of volume I of his Missarum Sollemnia - Eine genetische Erklärung der römischen Messe (Vienna, 1949) - the English translation, also in two volumes, is titled "The Mass of the Roman Rite: Its Origins and Development", and has been referred to as a "classic work", which "may be the best text on this most important mystery of our faith"[1]).
  7. ^ De Imperatoribus Romanis - Constantine I, retrieved Feb. 23, 2007
  8. ^ Date is according to Catholic Encyclopedia[2] but is not definitive.
  9. ^ De Imperatoribus Romanis - Constantine I, retrieved Feb. 23, 2007
  10. ^ Theodosian Code XVI.1.2 Medieval Sourcebook: Banning of Other Religions by Paul Halsall, June 1997, Fordham University, retrieved Septembe 25, 2006
  11. ^ IMPERATORIS THEODOSIANI CODEX Liber Decimus Sextus, Emperor Theodosius, George Mason University retrieved September 25, 2006
  12. ^ Theodosian Code XVI.1.2:
    It is our desire that all the various nations which are subject to our clemency and moderation, should continue the profession of that religion which was delivered to the Romans by the divine Apostle Peter, as it has been preserved by faithful tradition and which is now professed by the Pontiff Damasus and by Peter, Bishop of Alexandria, a man of apostolic holiness. According to the apostolic teaching and the doctrine of the Gospel, let us believe in the one Deity of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, in equal majesty and in a holy Trinity. We authorize the followers of this law to assume the title Catholic Christians; but as for the others, since in our judgement they are foolish madmen, we decree that they shall be branded with the ignominious name of heretics, and shall not presume to give their conventicles the name of churches. They will suffer in the first place the chastisement of divine condemnation and the second punishment of our authority, in accordance with the will of heaven shall decide to inflict.
    from Henry Bettenson, ed., Documents of the Christian Church, (London: Oxford University Press, 1943), p. 31 [Short extract used under fair-use provsions]
  13. ^ Suave Molecules of Mocha Coffee, Chemistry, and Civilization, New Partisan - A Journal of Culture, Arts and Politics, Mar. 7, 2005, retrieved Oct. 23, 2006
  14. ^ Schism of SSPX Pete Vere, My Journey out of the Lefebvre Schism: All Tradition Leads to Rome, Catholic Education Resource Center, retrieved Nov. 20, 2006
  15. ^ Faith, Reason and the University Memories and Reflections from official Vatican website, retrieved Oct. 18, 2006
  16. ^ "Three Stages in the Program of De-Hellenization" by Pope Benedict XVI, Zenit News Agency, retrieved Oct. 18, 2006
  17. ^ Pope Is Regretful That His Speech Angered Muslims, Sep. 17, 2006, L.A. Times, retrieved Oct. 18, 2006
  18. ^ Al Qaeda threat over pope speech, Sep. 18, 2006, CNN.com retrieved Oct. 18, 2006
  19. ^ Qaeda-led group vows "jihad" over Pope's speech, Sep. 18, 2006, Reuters, retrieved Oct. 18, 2006

Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the world. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is about Cyprian, bishop of Carthage. ... Cornelius was elected pope on either March 6 or March 13, 251 during the lull in the persecution of the Roman Emperor Decius. ... Zenit News Agency is an international news agency. ...

See also

The office of the Pope is called the Papacy. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The purpose... Ludwig Pastor, created Freiherr von Campersfelden, (January 31, 1854, Aachen – September 30, 1928, Innsbruck), was the great Catholic historian of the Papacy, who published his Geschichte der Päpste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters in sixteen volumes that appeared from 1886 to a last posthumous volume in 1933. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Church historian redirects here. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... This article — a part of the Jesus and history series — describes the period within which Jesus, the central figure of Christianity, is said to have lived. ... The chronology of Jesus depicts the traditional chronology established for the events of the life of Jesus by the four canonical gospels (which allude to various dates for several events). ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... The Apostolic Age is, to some church historians, the period in early church history during which some of Christs original apostles were still alive and helping to influence church doctrine, polity, and the like. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... St. ... This article is about the 1st century Council of Jerusalem in Christianity. ... // Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Early Christianity is the Christianity of the three centuries between the death of Jesus ( 30) and the First Council of Nicaea (325). ... The Apostolic Fathers were a small collection of Christian authors who lived and wrote in the late 1st century and early 2nd century who are acknowledged as leaders in the early church, but whose writings were not included in the collection of Christian scripture, the New Testament Biblical canon, at... Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... Saint Irenaeus (Greek: Ειρηναίος), (b. ... Marcionism is the dualist belief system that originates in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year 144. ... A folio from P46, an early 3rd century collection of Pauline epistles. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... Montanism was an early Christian sectarian movement of the mid-2nd century A.D., named after its founder Montanus. ... Origen Origen (Greek: ÅŒrigénÄ“s, 185–ca. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... The Order of Friars Minor is a major mendicant movement founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (Greek: Αθανάσιος, Athanásios; c 293 – May 2, 373) was a Christian bishop, the Bishop of Alexandria, in the fourth century. ... The Arian controversy describes several controversies which divided the Christian church from before the Council of Nicaea in 325 to after the Council of Constantinople in 383. ... The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Cyril of Alexandria The Council of Ephesus was held in the Church of Mary in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great; Ephesus was the city of Artemis (see Acts 19:28). ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article does not cite any... The Eastern Orthodox Churches trace their roots back to the Apostles and Jesus Christ. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Judging from the New Testament account of the rise and expansion of the early church, during the first few centuries of Christianity, the most extensive dissemination of the gospel was not in the West but in the East. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term... Coptic history is part of History of Egypt that begins with the introduction of Christianity in Egypt in the 1st century AD during the Roman period, and covers the history of the Copts to the present day. ... This article refers to the Christian saint. ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... This article is about the religious artifacts. ... The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Pelagianism is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature (which, being created from God, was divine), and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without Divine aid. ... “Saint Gregory” redirects here. ... Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries: that is, among Celtic/British peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, Cumbrians (the inhabitants of the... For the purposes of this article the Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian and Nordic peoples, starting in the 8th century with the arrival of missionaries in Denmark and ending in the 18th century with the conversion of the Inuits and the... The Investiture Controversy, also known as the lay investiture controversy, was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. ... For entities named after Saint Anselm, see Saint Anselms. ... Abaelardus and Heloïse surprised by Master Fulbert, by Romanticist painter Jean Vignaud (1819) Pierre Abélard (in English, Peter Abelard) or Abailard (1079 – April 21, 1142) was a French scholastic philosopher, theologian, and logician. ... Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–August 21, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... For other saints named Dominic, see the disambiguation page for Dominic Saint Dominic (Spanish: Domingo), also known as Dominic of Osma, often called Dominic de Guzmán and Domingo de Guzmán Garcés (1170 – August 6, 1221) was the founder of the Friars Preachers, popularly called the Dominicans or... Saint Francis of Assisi (September 26, 1181 or 1182 – October 3, 1226) was a Roman Catholic friar and the founder of the Order of Friars Minor, more commonly known as the Franciscans. ... The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Bull of April 19, 1213. ... Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (Italian: San Bonaventura) (1221 – 15 July 1274), born John of Fidanza (Italian: Giovanni di Fidanza), was the eighth Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called the Franciscans. ... Aquinas redirects here. ... Insert non-formatted text here Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Historical map of the Western Schism: red is support for Avignon, blue for Rome The Western Schism or Papal Schism (also known as the Great Schism of Western Christianity) was a split within the Catholic Church (1378 - 1417). ... Jan Hus ( ) (IPA: , alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c. ... In the history of Christianity, the Conciliar movement or Conciliarism was a reform movement in the 14th and 15th century Roman Catholic Church which held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Roman Church as corporation of Christians, embodied by a general church council, not with the pope. ... Reformation redirects here. ... Anabaptists (re-baptizers, from Greek ana and baptizo; in German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the so-called radical wing of the Protestant Reformation. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ... Calvinism began as part of the Magisterial Reformation branch of the Protestant Reformation. ... Lutheranism has its origins in the early 16th century with the work of Martin Luther. ... The History of Protestantism begins with the Reformation movement, which began as an attempt to reform the Catholic Church and led to the fracturing of Christendom. ... The specifically English church originates primarily from events in the late 6th century in the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Kent, and the mission of Saint Augustine. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Reformation redirects here. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Bull of April 19, 1213. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... The office of the Pope is called the Papacy. ... 17th Century religious Denominations in England There were a large number of religious denominations who emerged during the early - mid 17th Century in England. ... The term Adventist can refer to One who believes in the Second Advent (usually known as the Second coming) of Jesus. ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The First Great Awakening is the name sometimes given to a period of heightened religious activity, primarily in the southwester belly US during the 1730s and 1740s. ... The history of Jehovahs Witnesses dates from 1872 when Charles Taze Russell began to lead a Bible study group in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... The History of the Anglican Communion may be attributed mainly to the worldwide spread of British culture associated with the British Empire. ... The Latter Day Saint movement is a religious movement within Christian Restorationism beginning in the early 19th century that led to the set of doctrines, practices, and cultures called Mormonism and to the existence of numerous Latter Day Saint churches. ... The Seventh-day Adventist Church had its roots in the Millerite movement of the 1830s and 1840s, and was officially founded in 1863. ... The Latter Day Saint movement (a subset of Restorationism) is a group of religious denominations and adherents who follow at least some of the teachings and revelations of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... William Miller The Millerite tradition is a diverse family of denominations and Bible study movements that have arisen since the middle of the 19th century, traceable to the Adventist movement sparked by the teachings of William Miller. ... Neo-Lutheranism was a 19th century revival movement within Lutheranism, which began as a reaction against Pietism. ... Pietism was a movement within Lutheranism, lasting from the late-17th century to the mid-18th century. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about the Stone... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration The term Restorationism is used to describe both the late middle ages (15-16th century) movement that preceded the protestant reformation, and recent religious movements. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Revival in... A watercolor painting of a camp meeting circa 1839 (New Bedford Whaling Museum). ... The Holiness movement is composed of people who believe and propagate the belief that the carnal nature of man can be cleansed through faith and by the power of the Holy Spirit if one has had his sins forgiven through faith in Jesus. ... Independent Catholic Churches are Christian denominations (or congregations) claiming valid apostolic succession of their bishops but are not a part of the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Old Catholic Churches under the Archbishop of Utrect or the Anglican Communion. ... The Second Great Awakening  (1800–1830s) was the second great religious revival in United States  history and consisted of renewed personal salvation experienced in revival meetings. ... The Azusa Street Revival was a Pentecostal revival meeting that took place in Los Angeles, California and was led by William J. Seymour, an African American preacher. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater religious unity or cooperation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... For the first century movement surrounding Jesus of Nazareth, see Early Christianity The Jesus movement was the major Christian element within the hippie counterculture, or, conversely, the major hippie element within the Christian Church. ... In the United States, the mainline (also sometimes called mainstream) or mainline Protestant denominations are those Protestant denominations with a mix of moderate and liberal theologies. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The charismatic movement began... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The purpose... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This is... Icon of St. ... // This timeline of Christian missions chronicles the global expansion of Christianity through its missionary work. ... The Eastern Orthodox Churches trace their roots back to the Apostles and Jesus Christ. ... The History of Protestantism begins with the Reformation movement, which began as an attempt to reform the Catholic Church and led to the fracturing of Christendom. ...

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Roman Catholic Church. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07 (2285 words)
The doctrine of apostolic succession is one of the keystones of the Catholic faith; it holds that the pope (the vicar of Christ) and the bishops have in varying degrees the spiritual authority Jesus assigned to his apostles.
In addition the Roman Catholic Church stresses that since the members, living and dead, share in each other’s merits, the Virgin Mary and other saints and the dead in purgatory are never forgotten (see church; saint).
This pattern of decline of religion followed by reform is characteristic of the history of the Roman Catholic Church; the reform goals have varied, but they have included the revival of spiritual life in society and the monasteries, and the elimination of politics from the bishops’; sphere and venality from the papal court.
Roman Catholic Church - MSN Encarta (1207 words)
Until the break with the Eastern church (see Orthodox Church) in 1054 and the break with the Protestant churches in the 16th century, it is impossible to separate the history of the Roman Catholic Church from the history of Christianity in general.
The distinct Roman Catholic view of history, however, is its claim to unbroken continuity with the church of the New Testament and its consequent acceptance as legitimate of the major developments in doctrine and structure that it has assimilated since then.
The Catholic Church responded during the era of the Counter Reformation by reaffirming the traditions that had developed through the ages and especially by emphasizing those elements that were most under attack, such as Scholastic theology (see Scholasticism), the efficacy of the sacraments, and the primacy of the pope.
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