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Encyclopedia > History of the Republic of Turkey
History of the Republic of Turkey
v  d  e
War of Independence | Single Party Period | Multi-Party Period
Timeline of Independence | Timeline of Republic
Economic History | Constitutional History | Military History

The Republic of Turkey was the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, following the overthrow of Sultan Mehmet VI Vahdettin by the new Republican assembly of Turkey in 1922. This new regime delivered the 'coup de grâce' to the Ottoman state which had been practically wiped away from the world stage following the First World War. The history is covered under three headings: War of Independence, single-party period and multi-party period. Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Atatürk, modern Turkeys founder and first President The history of modern Turkey begins with the foundation of the republic on October 29, 1923 (the Republic was declared on January 20, 1921), with Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) as its first president. ... This page summarizes the history after the Multi-party period. ... Chronology of the Turkish War of Independence is a timeline of events for the Turkish War of Independence (including the background starting with the end of the First World War). ... A graphical timeline is available here: History of the Republic of Turkey // The wearing of the turban and the fez, a traditional Ottoman hat, is outlawed. ... At the time of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire (see Economy of the Ottoman Empire) during World War I, the Turkish economy was underdeveloped: agriculture depended on outmoded techniques and poor-quality livestock, and the few factories producing basic products such as sugar and flour were under foreign control. ... // Overview Over the centuries, Turkey has had many constitutions and can be caracterized by the steady establishment of a nation-state, democratization and internationalisation. ... The History of Turkey generally accepted term for the History of the Republic of Turkey; has been used prior to 1921, for the history of Thrace and Anatolia and its civilizations, or as the history of the Turkish people and their migration to Anatolia with their established states. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Mehmed VI (Arabic: محمد السادس), original name Mehmed Vahdettin or Mehmed Vahideddin, (January 14, 1861 – May 16, 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918–1922. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Atatürk, modern Turkeys founder and first President The history of modern Turkey begins with the foundation of the republic on October 29, 1923 (the Republic was declared on January 20, 1921), with Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) as its first president. ... This page summarizes the history after the Multi-party period. ...

A graphical timeline is available here:
History of the Republic of Turkey

Contents

Image File history File links Timeline_icon. ...

War of Independence

For more details on this topic, see Turkish War of Independence.
Atatürk, modern Turkey's founder and first President
Atatürk, modern Turkey's founder and first President

Turkish nationalists established modern Turkey as an outcome of the Turkish War of Independence, mostly on what was to become Turkish soil, as of the Treaty of Lausanne. The Turkish War of Independence saw the defeat of Greece in western Turkey (see Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)), the East Armenian state on the east (2 November 1920 Gümrü Treaty), Britain, France, and Georgia. The Treaty of Lausanne, signed on July 24, 1923, and negotiated by İsmet Pasha (İnönü) on behalf of the Ankara government, established most of the modern boundaries of the country (except the province of Hatay, formerly the Syrian province of Alexandretta, which joined Turkey following a referendum organized in the province in 1939 after having gained its independence from France in 1938). The Treaty of Lausanne also led to the international recognization of the sovereignty of the new Republic of Turkey as the successor state of the defunct Ottoman Empire. Republic of Turkey was founded as a nation-state on the French Revolutionary model. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ataturk_6_August_1929. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ataturk_6_August_1929. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Gen Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Gen Anastasios Papoulas, Gen Georgios Hatzianestis Ali Fethi Okyar, Ismet Inonu, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Fevzi Çakmak Strength 200,000 men 120,000 men (plus thousands more volunteers) Casualties 23,500 dead; 20,820 captured 20,540 dead; 10,000 wounded The... Gyumri (Armenian: Ô³ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ´Ö€Õ«) is the capital and largest city of the Shirak province in northwest Armenia. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... Generals Mustafa Kemal and Ä°smet Ä°nönü before the Battle of Dumlupınar, August 1922 Ä°nönüs tomb Mustafa Ä°smet Ä°nönü (September 24, 1884–December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ... shows the Location of the Province Hatay Flag of the Republic of Hatay (1938-1939) Hatay is a province of southern Turkey, situated between the Mediterranean Sea to the west and Syria to the south and east. ... Ä°skenderun panorama Ä°skenderun (formerly known in the west as Alexandretta, from Greek Ἀλεξανδρέττα; in Arabic الإسكندرون, al-Skanderoon) [Alexandrette in French] is a district and its center in the Turkish province of Hatay. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... i heart kate young The French Revolution was a period of major political and social change in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to...


Single Party Period

For more details on this topic, see Single-Party Period of Republic of Turkey.

The history of modern Turkey begins with the foundation of the republic on October 29, 1923 (the Republic was declared on January 20, 1921), with Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) as its first president. The government was formed from the Ankara-based revolutionary group, led by Atatürk. The second constitution was ratified by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey on April 20, 1924. For about the next 10 years, the country saw a steady process of secular Westernization through Atatürk's Reforms, which included the unification of education; the discontinuation of religious and other titles; the closure of Islamic courts and the replacement of Islamic canon law with a secular civil code modeled after Switzerland's and a penal code modeled after the Italian Penal Code; recognition of the equality between the sexes and the granting of full political rights to women on 5 December 1934; the language reform initiated by the newly founded Turkish Language Association; replacement of the Ottoman Turkish alphabet with the new Turkish alphabet derived from the Latin alphabet; the dress law (the wearing of a fez, a traditional Muslim hat, is outlawed); the law on family names; and many others. Atatürk, modern Turkeys founder and first President The history of modern Turkey begins with the foundation of the republic on October 29, 1923 (the Republic was declared on January 20, 1921), with Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) as its first president. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–10 November 1938), until 1934 Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Turkish army officer and revolutionist statesman, was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Turkish Constitution of 1924 (Ottoman Turkish: TeÅŸkilât-ı Esasiye Kanunu; Turkish: 1924 Türk Anayasası) was the second constitution to be ratified by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi (TBMM)) and the first one to be adopted after the proclamation of... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... Atatürk’s reforms are a series of legal changes concerning the Turkish society initiated between 1922 and 1938 by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and the first president of the Republic of Turkey. ... Not to be confused with Shahryar. ... The Zivilgesetzbuch (ZGB) is the Swiss civil code. ... Womens suffrage has been granted (and been revoked) at various times in various countries throughout the world. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Logo of the Turkish Language Association The Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language, founded on July 12, 1932 and headquartered in Ankara, Turkey. ... Ottoman Turkish alphabet (الفبا elifbâ), refers to the version of the Arabic alphabet that was once used for the Ottoman Turkish language, during the time of the Ottoman Empire. ... The current 29-letter Turkish alphabet, used for the Turkish language, was established by law in Turkey on November 1, 1928 (Yazım Kılavuzu). ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Fez can refer to: Fez (clothing), a type of hat Fes, Morocco (or, Fez), the name of a city in Morocco Fez (That 70s Show), a character in That 70s Show, played by Wilmer Valderrama Functional electrical stimulation, FES FeS2, Pyrite, otherwise known as fools gold [[Fez (album)], this...


The passage to multi-party period was first attempted with the Liberal Republican Party by Ali Fethi Okyar. However, the Liberal Party was dissolved on 17 November 1930 and no further attempt for a multi-party democracy was made until 1945. Turkey was admitted to the League of Nations in July 1932. Atatürk's successor after his death on November 10, 1938 was İsmet İnönü. During World War II, Turkey signed a peace treaty with Germany and officially remained neutral until near the end of war. In 1945 Turkey joined the UN, and in February 1945 it declared war on Germany and Japan. This was largely symbolic. Turkey joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) in 1952. The Liberal Republican Party (sometimes referred to as the Free Republican Party; in Turkish Serbest Cumhuriyet Fırkası) was a political party founded by Ali Fethi Okyar in the early years of the Turkish Republic. ... Atatürk and Okyar, August 1930 Ali Fethi Okyar (29 April 1880 - 7 May 1943) was an early Turkish nationalist and politician. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Generals Mustafa Kemal and Ä°smet Ä°nönü before the Battle of Dumlupınar, August 1922 Ä°nönüs tomb Mustafa Ä°smet Ä°nönü (September 24, 1884–December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Multi-Party Period

For more details on this topic, see Multi-Party Period of Republic of Turkey.

The real multi-party period begins with the election of the Democratic Party. The Menderes government was very popular at first, relaxing the restrictions on Islam and presiding over a booming economy. In the later half of the decade, however, the economy began to fail and the government introduced censorship laws limiting dissent. The government became plagued by high inflation and a massive debt. On May 27, 1960 General Cemal Gürsel led a military coup d'état removing President Celal Bayar and Prime Minister Adnan Menderes, the second of whom was executed. The system returned to civilian control in October of 1961. The political system that emerged in the wake of the 1960 coup was a fractured one, producing a series of unstable government coalitions in parliament alternating between the True Path Party of Süleyman Demirel on the right and the Republican People's Party of İsmet İnönü and Bülent Ecevit on the left. A new coup was staged in 1971, and in the 1970s under Prime Minister Ecevit in coalition with the religious National Salvation Party, Turkey carried out an invasion of Cyprus. The fractured political scene and poor economy led to mounting violence between ultranationalists and communists in the streets of Turkey's cities. A military coup d'état took place in 1980. Within two years, the military had returned the government to civilian hands. The political system came under one-party governance under Turgut Özal's Motherland Party, which combined a globally-oriented economic program with conservative social values. Under Özal, the economy boomed, converting towns like Gaziantep from small provincial capitals into mid-sized economic boomtowns. This page summarizes the history after the Multi-party period. ... The Democratic Party (Demokrat Parti) of Turkey was the first legal opposition party, opposing the dominant Republican Peoples Party which had established the Turkish Republic. ... Adnan Menderes Adnan Menderes (1899 - September 17, 1961) turkish statesman and Prime minister between 1950–1960. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Cemal Gürsel (October 13, 1895— September 14, 1966), a statesman and a soldier, was a Turkish army officer, political leader and the 4th president of Turkey. ... A coup d’état (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Celal Bayar Mahmut Celal Bayar (May 16, 1883 - August 22, 1986) was a Turkish politician, statesman and the third President of Turkey. ... Adnan Menderes Adnan Menderes (1899 - September 17, 1961) turkish statesman and Prime minister between 1950–1960. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... The True Path Party (Turkish: Dogru Yol Partisi or DYP) is a right-wing, secularist conservative Turkish political party, established by Suleyman Demirel in 1983. ... Süleyman Demirel Süleyman Demirel (born November 1, 1924) is a Turkish politician who served as prime minister seven times and was the 9th President of Turkey. ... The Republican Peoples Party (Turkish: Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi or CHP) is the oldest Turkish political party, which has established the Republican regime and the parliament in Turkey. ... Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (May 28, 1925–November 5, 2006; pronounced ), was a Turkish politician, poet, writer and journalist. ... Combatants TRNC Turkey Cyprus Greece The Turkish invasion of Cyprus, (also known as the 1974 Cyprus War; referred to as the 1974 Cyprus Peace Operation by Turkey) was a consequence of tensions between the governments of Greece and Turkey, and of internal unrest within Greece. ... Turgut Özal was a Turkish political leader, Prime minister and 8th president of Turkey. ... The Motherland Party of Turkey, (Turkish: Anavatan Partisi or ANAP) is a political party in Turkey. ... 19th century Åžire Bazaar in Gaziantep, whose restoration has been nearly completed (www. ...


With the turn of the 1990s, political instability returned. The 1995 elections brought a short-lived coalition between Yılmaz's Motherland Party and the True Path Party, now with Tansu Çiller at the helm. In 1997, the military, citing his government's support for religious policies deemed dangerous to Turkey's secular nature, sent a memorandum to Erbakan government requesting that he resign, which he did. This was named a postmodern coup. Shortly thereafter, the RP was banned and re-born under the name Virtue Party (FP). A new government was formed by ANAP and Ecevit's Democratic Left Party (DSP) supported from the outside by the center-left Republican People's Party (CHP), led by Deniz Baykal. The DSP won big in the 1999 elections. Second place went to the Nationalist Action Party (MHP). These two parties, alongside Yılmaz's ANAP formed a government. The government was somewhat effective, if not harmonious, bringing about much-needed economic reform, instituting human rights legislation, and bringing Turkey ever closer to the European Union. A series of economic shocks led to new elections in 2002, bringing into power the religiously conservative Justice and Development Party of former mayor of Istanbul, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. Tansu Çiller Tansu Çiller (IPA: (born 9 October 1946) is an economist and politician in Turkey. ... The Welfare Party (Refah Partisi) (RP) in Turkey was founded by Ahmed Tekdal in Ankara in 1983 as heir to two earlier parties, Milli Nizam Partisi (National Order Party, MNP) and Milli Selamet Partisi (National Salvation Party, MSP), which were banned from politics. ... Virtue Party (Fazilet Partisi) is a political party in Turkey. ... The Democratic Left Party (Turkish: Demokratik Sol Parti, DSP) is aTurkish political party. ... Deniz Baykal, Turkish politician and lawyer, born July 20, 1938 in Antalya. ... MHP symbol The Nationalist Movement Party (Can also be translated as Nationalist Action Party) (Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi (MHP)), is a far-right nationalist political party in Turkey. ... The Motherland Party of Turkey, (Turkish: Anavatan Partisi or ANAP) is a political party in Turkey. ... The Justice and Development Party: (Turkish: Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi or AKP, or AK Parti; the former of the two abbrevations is the official one, while the latter is mostly preferred by its supporters; since the word ak in Turkish means white, clean, or unblemished and therefore gives a... Recep Tayyip ErdoÄŸan (born February 26, 1954), became Prime Minister of Turkey on March 14, 2003. ...


References

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
MSN Encarta - Turkey (country) (1644 words)
Turkey borders the Aegean Sea and Greece on the west; Bulgaria on the northwest; the Black Sea on the north; Georgia, Armenia, and the autonomous Azerbaijani republic of Naxçivan on the northeast; Iran on the east; and Iraq, Syria, and the Mediterranean Sea on the south.
The landscapes of Turkey are varied, from fertile plains in the northwest and southeast to broad river valleys in the west to high barren plateaus and towering mountains in the east.
The modern Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal (later Atatürk) from Anatolia and Eastern Thrace, the Ottoman Empire’s predominantly Turkish-speaking areas.
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