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Encyclopedia > History of the Peloponnesian War
Tenth-century minuscule Manuscript of Thucydides's History

The History of the Peloponnesian War is an account of the Peloponnesian War in Ancient Greece, fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens). It was written by Thucydides, an Athenian general who served in the war. It is widely considered a classic and regarded as one of the earliest scholarly works of history. The History was divided into eight books by editors of later antiquity. For other uses, see Thucydides (disambiguation). ... Athenian War redirects here. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Peloponnesian League was an alliance of states in the Peloponnese in the 6th and 5th centuries BC. By the end of the 6th century, Sparta had become the most powerful state in the Peloponnese, and was the political and military hegemon over Argos, the next most powerful state. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Delian League (Athenian Empire), right before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. Corcyra was not part of the League The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. It was led by Athens. ... For other uses, see Thucydides (disambiguation). ... Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ...


Analyses of the History generally fall into one of two camps.[1] On the one hand are those who view the work as an objective and scientific piece of history. The judgement of J. B. Bury reflects this traditional interpretation of the work: "[The History is] severe in its detachment, written from a purely intellectual point of view, unencumbered with platitudes and moral judgements, cold and critical."[2] A more recent interpretation, associated with reader-response criticism, argues that the History is better understood as a piece of literature than an objective record of the past. This view is embodied in the words of W. R. Connor, who describes Thucydides as "an artist who responds to, selects and skillfully arranges his material, and develops its symbolic and emotional potential."[3] The former outlook views Thucydides as pathbreaking, modern, and philosophical, ahead of his time; the latter views the historian as closely connected with his historical and cultural context. Both interpretations are accepted by scholars, sometimes by the same scholar, and seem to capture the contradictory impulses and tensions within the History. John Bagnell Bury (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927) was an eminent British historian, classical scholar, and philologist. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Contents

Historical method

Thucydides' History made a number of contributions to early historiography. Many of his principles have become standard methods of history writing today, though others have not. Historiography is the aspect of history, and of semiotics, that is the study of how knowledge of the past, recent or distant, is obtained and transmitted; simply put, historiography is the history of history. ...


Chronology

One of Thucydides' major innovations was to employ a strict standard of chronology, recording events by year, each year consisting of the summer campaigning season and a less active winter season. As a result, events that span several years are divided up and described in parts of the book that are sometimes quite distant from one another, causing the impression that he is oscillating between the various theatres of conflict. This method contrasts sharply with Herodotus' earlier work The Histories, which jumps around chronologically and makes frequent and roundabout excursuses into seemingly unrelated areas and time periods. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... The Histories of Herodotus by Herodotus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ...


Speeches

Another distinctive feature of the work is Thucydides' inclusion of dozens of speeches assigned to the principal figures engaged in the war. These include addresses given to troops by their generals before battles and numerous political speeches, both by Athenian and Spartan leaders, as well as debates between various parties. Of the speeches, the most famous is the funeral oration of Pericles, which is found in Book Two. Thucydides undoubtedly heard some of these speeches himself while for others he relied on eyewitness accounts. Some of the speeches are probably fabricated according to his expectations of, as he puts it, "what was called for in each situation" (1.22.2).[4] Wikisource has original text related to this article: Pericless Funeral Oration Pericles Funeral Oration is a famous speech from Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War. ...


While the inclusion of long first-person speeches is somewhat alien to modern historical method, in the context of ancient Greek oral culture speeches are expected. A brief glance at Homer's poems, the works of the tragedians, and Herodotus's Histories shows that many of the most influential literary forms in Thucydides' time included substantial first-person speeches. Oratory also played a large part in the political life of the democracy in Thucydides' home city of Athens. The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... Tragedy is one of the oldest forms of drama. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... The Histories of Herodotus by Herodotus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... In ancient Greece and Rome, oratory was studied as a component of rhetoric (that is, composition and delivery of speeches), and was an important skill in public and private life. ... Athenian democracy developed in the Greek city-state of Athens, comprising the central city-state of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, around 500 BC. Athens was one of the very first known democracies. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ...


Neutral point of view

Despite being an Athenian and a participant in the conflict, Thucydides is often regarded as having written a generally unbiased account of the conflict and all the sides involved in it. In the introduction to the piece he states, "My work is not a piece of writing designed to meet the taste of an immediate public, but was done to last for ever" (1.22.4). However, this has been challenged; Ernst Badian is one scholar who has argued that Thucydides has a strong pro-Athenian bias.[5] Others claim he had an ulterior motive, specifically to create an epic comparable to those of the past, and that this led him to create a nonobjective dualism favoring the Athenians.[6]. For other senses of this word, see Bias (disambiguation). ... Ernst Badian (b. ...


Role of religion

The gods play no active role in Thucydides' work. This is very different from Herodotus, who frequently mentions the role of the gods, as well as a nearly ubiquitous divine presence in the centuries-earlier poems of Homer. Instead, Thucydides regards history as being caused by the choices and actions of human beings. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ...


Subject matter of the History

The first book of the History, after a brief review of early Greek history and some programmatic historiographical commentary, seeks to explain why the Peloponnesian War broke out when it did and what its causes were. Except for a few short excursuses (notably 6.54-58 on the Tyrant Slayers), the remainder of the History (books 2 through 8) rigidly maintains its focus on the Peloponnesian War to the exclusion of other topics. Statue of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, Naples. ... Athenian War redirects here. ...

Greek Hoplite.

While the History concentrates on the military aspects of the Peloponnesian War, it uses these events as a medium to suggest several other themes closely related to the war. It specifically discusses in several passages the socially and culturally degenerative effects of war on humanity itself. The History is especially concerned with the lawlessness and atrocities committed by Greek citizens to each other in the name of one side or another in the war. Some events depicted in the History, such as the Melian dialogue, describe early instances of realpolitik or power politics. The History is preoccupied with the interplay of justice and power in political and military decision-making. Thucydides' presentation is decidedly ambivalent on this theme. While the History seems to suggest that considerations of justice are artificial and necessarily capitulate to power, it sometimes also shows a significant degree of empathy with those who suffer from the exigencies of the war. The hoplite was a heavy infantryman that was the central focus of warfare in Ancient Greece. ... Athenian War redirects here. ... The Melian dialogue is a passage found in Book V (85-113) of the History of the Peloponnesian War by the ancient Greek historian Thucydides. ... Politik redirects here. ... Power politics is a state of international relations in which sovereigns protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic, or political aggression. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ...


For the most part, the History does not discuss topics such as the art and architecture of Greece. This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... The restored Stoa of Attalus, Athens Architecture, executed to considered design, was extinct in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC) to the 7th century BC, when urban life and prosperity recovered to a point where public building could be undertaken. ...


Military Technology

Illustration of a Greek Trireme

The History emphasizes the development of military technologies. In several passages (1.14.3, 2.75-76, 7.36.2-3), Thucydides describes in detail various innovations in the conduct of siegeworks or naval warfare. The History places great importance upon naval supremacy, arguing that a modern empire is impossible without a strong navy. Important in this regard was the development, at the beginning of the classical period (ca. 500 B.C.), of the trireme, the supreme naval ship for the next several hundred years. In his emphasis on sea power, Thucydides resembles the modern naval theorist Alfred Thayer Mahan, whose influential work The Influence of Sea Power upon History helped set in motion the naval arms race prior to World War I. A Greek trireme. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... A Greek trireme. ... Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan (September 27, 1840–December 1, 1914) was a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Empire

The History explains that the primary cause of the Peloponnesian War was the "growth in power of Athens, and the alarm which this inspired in Sparta" (1.23.6). Thucydides traces the development of Athenian power through the growth of the Athenian empire in the years 479 BC to 432 BC in book one of the History (1.89-118). The legitimacy of the empire is explored in several passages, notably in the speech at 1.73-78, where an anonymous Athenian legation defends the empire on the grounds that it was freely given to the Athenians and not taken by force. The subsequent expansion of the empire is defended by these Athenians, "...the nature of the case first compelled us to advance our empire to its present height; fear being our principal motive, though honor and interest came afterward." (1.75.3) The Athenians also argue that, "We have done nothing extraordinary, nothing contrary to human nature in accepting an empire when it was offered to us and then in refusing to give it up." (1.76) They claim that anyone in their position would act in the same fashion. The Spartans represent a more traditional, circumspect, and less expansive power. Indeed, the Athenians are nearly destroyed by their greatest act of imperial overreach, the Sicilian expedition, described in books six and seven of the History. Athenian War redirects here. ... The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. As it was led by Athens, it is sometimes pejoratively referred to as the Athenian Empire. ... 479 pr. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC - 430s BC - 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC Years: 437 BC 436 BC 435 BC 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC 431 BC 430 BC... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ...


Some difficulties of interpretation

Thucydides' History is extraordinarily dense and complex. This has resulted in much scholarly disagreement on a cluster of issues of interpretation.


Strata of composition

It is commonly thought that Thucydides died while still working on the History, since it ends in mid-sentence and only goes up to 410 BC, leaving six years of war uncovered. Furthermore, there is a great deal of uncertainty whether he intended to revise the sections he had already written. Since there appear to be some contradictions between certain passages in the History, it has been proposed that the conflicting passages were written at different times and that Thucydides' opinion on the conflicting matter had changed. Those who argue that the History can be divided into various levels of composition are usually called "analysts" and those who argue that the passages must be made to reconcile with one another are called "unitarians". This conflict is called the "strata of composition" debate.


Sources

The History is notoriously reticent about its sources. Thucydides almost never names his informants and alludes to competing versions of events only a handful of times. This is in marked contrast to Herodotus, who frequently mentions multiple versions of his stories and allows the reader to decide which is true. Instead, Thucydides strives to create the impression of a seamless and irrefutable narrative. Nevertheless, scholars have sought to detect the sources behind the various sections of the History. For example, the narrative after Thucydides' exile (4.108ff.) seems to focus on Peloponnesian events more than the first four books, leading to the conclusion that he had greater access to Peloponnesian sources at that time. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ...


Frequently, Thucydides appears to assert knowledge of the thoughts of individuals at key moments in the narrative. Scholars have asserted that these moments are evidence that he interviewed these individuals after the fact. However, the evidence of the Sicilian Expedition argues against this, since Thucydides discusses the thoughts of the generals who died there and whom he would have had no chance to interview. Instead it seems likely that, as with the speeches, Thucydides is looser than previously thought in inferring the thoughts, feelings, and motives of principal characters in his History from their actions, as well as his own sense of what would be appropriate or likely in such a situation. The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian expedition to Sicily from 415 BC to 413 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. ... For other uses, see Thucydides (disambiguation). ...


Influence

Thucydides' History has been enormously influential in both ancient and modern historiography. It was embraced by the author's contemporaries and immediate successors with enthusiasm; indeed, many authors sought to complete the unfinished history. For example, Xenophon wrote his Hellenica as a continuation of Thucydides' work, beginning at the exact moment that Thucydides' History leaves off. His work, however, is generally considered inferior in style and accuracy compared with Thucydides'.[citation needed] In later antiquity, Thucydides' reputation suffered somewhat, with critics such as Dionysius of Halicarnassus rejecting the History as turgid and excessively austere. Lucian also parodies it (among others) in his satire The True Histories. Woodrow Wilson read the History on his voyage across the Atlantic to the Versailles Peace Conference.[7] Historiography is the aspect of history, and of semiotics, that is the study of how knowledge of the past, recent or distant, is obtained and transmitted; simply put, historiography is the history of history. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... Hellenica is an important work of the Greek writer Xenophon and one of the principle sources for the final seven years of the Peloponnesian War not covered by Thucydides, and the wars aftermath. ... Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ... For other uses, see Lucian (disambiguation). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... The Paris Peace Conference was an international conference, organized by the victors of the World War I for negotiating the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and their former enemies. ...


Miscellaneous

Thucydides correlates, in his description of the 426 BC Maliakos Gulf tsunami, for the first time in the history of natural science, quakes and waves in terms of cause and effect.[8] [9] The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ...

Method of citation

Most critics writing about the History, including this article, use a standard format to direct readers to passages in the text: book.chapter.section. For example, the notation that Pericles' last speech runs from 2.60.1 to 2.64.6, this means that it can be found in the second book, from the sixtieth chapter through the sixty-fourth. Most modern editions and translations of the History include the chapter numbers in the margins (a notable exception being Rex Warner's translation published by Penguin Classics). Rex Warner (March 9, 1905 - June 24, 1986) was an English classicist, writer and translator. ... It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ...


Outline of the work

  • Book 1
    • The state of Greece from the earliest times to the commencement of the Peloponnesian War, also known as the Archaeology. 1.1-1.19.
    • Methodological excursus. 1.20-1.23.
    • Causes of the war (433-432 BC) 1.24-1.66.
    • Congress of the Peloponnesian League at Lacedaemon. 1.67-1.88
      • The Speech of the Corinthians. 1.68-1.71.
      • The Speech of the Athenian envoys. 1.73-1.78.
      • The Speech of Archidamus. 1.80-1.85.
      • The Speech of Sthenelaidas. 1.86.
    • From the end of the Persian War to the beginning of the Peloponnesian War, also known as the Pentecontaetia. 1.89-1.117.
      • The progress from supremacy to empire.
    • Second congress at Lacedaemon and the Corinthian Speech. 1.119-1.125.
    • Diplomatic maneuvering. 1.126-1.139.
    • Pericles' first speech. 1.140-1.145.
  • Book 2 (431-428 BC)
    • War begins with Thebes' attempt to subvert Plataea. 2.1-2.6.
    • Account of the mobilization of and list of the allies of the two combatants. 2.7-2.9.
    • First invasion of Attica. 2.10-2.23.
      • Archidamus leads the Peloponnesian army into Attica. 2.10-2.12.
      • Athenian preparations and abandonment of the countryside. 2.13-2.14.
      • Excursus on Athenian synoikism. 2.15-2.16.
      • Difficult conditions in Athens for refugees from countryside. 2.17.
      • Archidamus ravages Oenoe and Acharnai. 2.18-2.20.
      • Athenian fury and anger at Pericles. 2.21-2.22.
    • Athenian naval counter-attacks along coast of Peloponese and islands. 2.23-2.32.
    • Pericles' Funeral Oration. 2.34-2.46.
    • The plague of Athens. 2.47-2.54.
    • Second invasion of Attica and Athenian naval counter-attacks. 2.55-2.58.
    • Pericles' third speech, defending his position and policy. 2.59-2.64.
    • Thucydides' estimate of Pericles' qualities and the causes for Athens' eventual defeat. 2.65.
    • Diplomacy and skirmishes in Thrace, the islands, and the Northeast. 2.66-2.69.
    • Fall of Potidaea. 2.70.
    • Investment of Plataea. 2.71-2.78.
    • Naval victories of Phormio in the Northeast. 2.80-2.92.
    • Threat of raid on the Piraeus. 2.93-2.94.
    • Thracian campaign in Macedonia under Sitalces. 2.95-2.101.
  • Book 3 (428-425 BC)
    • Annual invasion of Attica. 3.1.
    • Revolt of Mytilene. 3.2-3.50.
      • Speech of Mytilenian envoys to Sparta at Olympia, asking for help. 3.9-3.14.
      • Sparta accepts Lesbos as an ally and prepares to counter the Athenians. 3.15.
      • Mytilene surrenders to Athens despite Spartan support. 3.28.
      • Mytilenian Debate. 3.37-3.50.
    • Fall of Plataea. 3.20-3.24, 3.52-68.
      • Some Plataeans escape. 3.20-3.24.
      • Plataea surrenders. 3.52.
      • Trial and execution of the Plataeans. 3.53-3.68.
        • Speech of Plataeans, 3.53-3.59.
        • Speech of the Thebans. 3.61-3.67.
    • Revolution at Corcyra. 3.70-3.85.
      • Thucydides' account of the evils of civil strife. 3.82-3.84.
    • Athenian campaigns in Sicily. 3.86, 3.90, 3.99, 3.103, 3.115-3.116.
    • Tsunami and inquiry into its causes 3.89.2-5
    • Campaigns of Demosthenes in western Greece. 3.94-3.98, 3.100-3.102, 3.105-3.114.
    • Spartans establish Heracleia in Trachis. 3.92-3.93.
    • Athenians purify Delos. 3.104.
  • Book 4 (425-423 BC)
    • Annual invasion of Attica. 4.2.
    • Athenians en route to Sicily occupy Pylos in the Peloponnese. 4.2-4.6.
    • Concerted Spartan attack on the Athenian fort at Pylos. 4.8-4.15.
      • The Athenian general Demosthenes coordinates the defense of Pylos and rouses the troops with a speech. 4.9-4.10.
      • The Spartan commander Brasidas distinguishes himself for bravery. 4.11-4.12.
    • The Athenians defeat the Spartan assault on Pylos and cut off a garrison of Spartiates on the adjacent island of Sphacteria. 4.13-4.14.
    • The Spartans, concerned for the men on the island, conclude an immediate armistice and send an embassy to Athens to negotiate peace. 4.13-4.22.
      • The speech of the Spartan ambassadors offers to peace and alliance to Athens in exchange for the return of the men on Sphacteria. 4.17-4.20.
      • The Athenian Cleon, speaking in the Assembly, encourages the Athenians to demand the return of the territories surrendered by Athens at the conclusion of the First Peloponnesian War. 4.21-4.22.
    • Events in Sicily. 4.24-4.25.
    • Siege of the Spartiates on Sphacteria continues without result. 4.26-4.27.
    • Cleon takes command at Pylos. 4.27-4.29.
      • With the siege of Sphacteria yielding no results, the Athenians grow angry at Cleon for encouraging them to reject the Spartan offer of peace. 4.27.1-.4.27.3.
      • Cleon blames Nicias and the generals for ineptitude. 4.27.5.
      • Nicias yields command to Cleon. 4.28.
    • Battle of Sphacteria results in the capture of all the Spartiates trapped there. 4.29-4.41.
    • Nicias leads an Athenian attack on Corinth. 4.42-4.45.
    • End of Corcyraean revolution. 4.46-4.48.
    • Athenians capture Cythera, an island off the Peloponnese, and Thyrea, a town in the Peloponnese. Sparta is hemmed in on all sides and desperate. 4.53-4.57.
    • Sicilian cities make peace in conference at Gela, frustrating Athenian designs on the island. 4.58-65.
    • Athenian attack on Megara. 4.66-4.74.
      • Capture of Nisaea. 4.69.
      • Inconclusive engagements at Megara. 4.73.
      • Megara eludes Athenian capture. 4.74.
    • Invasion of Boeotia. 4.76, 4.89-4.101.2.
      • Athenians occupy temple at Delium. 4.90.
      • Battle of Delium results in Athenian retreat. 4.91-4.96.
      • Boeotians refuse to return Athenian dead until Athenians relinquish the shrine of Delium. 4.97-4.99.
      • Boeotians assault the Athenian in the temple and burn it down. 4.100.
    • Brasidas marches through Thessaly to Thrace and begins to cause Athenian subject cities to revolt. 4.78-4.88.
      • Speech of Brasidas to the Acanthians. 4.85-4.87.
    • Fall of Amphipolis to Brasidas. 4.102-4.108.
    • Continued successes of Brasidas in Thrace. 4.111-4.135.
      • Brasidas secures the revolt of the garrison of Torone. 4.110-4.116.
      • One-year armistice between Athenians and Spartans. 4.117-4.118.
      • Scione revolts from Athens to Brasidas. 4.120-4.123.
      • Truce breaks down. 4.122-4.123.
      • Athenians retake Mende and besiege Scione. 4.129-4.131.
  • Book 7 (414-413 BC)
    • Arrival of Gylippus at Syracuse
    • Fortification of Decelea
    • Successes of the Syracusans
    • Arrival of Demosthenes
    • Defeat of the Athenians at Epipolae
    • Folly and obstinacy of Nicias
    • Battles in the Great Harbour
    • Retreat and annihilation of the Athenian army

Athenian War redirects here. ... The Greek city of Epidamnos (Strabo Geography vi. ... Battle of Potidaea Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 432 BC Place Potidaea Result Athenian victory The Battle of Potidaea was, with the Battle of Sybota, one of the catalysts for the Peloponnesian War. ... The Peloponnesian League was an alliance of states in the Peloponnese in the 6th and 5th centuries BC. By the end of the 6th century, Sparta had become the most powerful state in the Peloponnese, and was the political and military hegemon over Argos, the next most powerful state. ... Lacedaemon, or Lakedaimon, Grk. ... Persian Wars redirects here. ... Lacedaemon, or Lakedaimon, Grk. ... Cylon (also spelled Kylon) was an Athenian associated with the first reliably dated event in Athenian history, the Cylonian affair. ... Pausanias (Greek = Παυσανίας) was a Spartan general of the 5th century BCE. He was the nephew of Leonidas I and served as regent after his uncles death, as Leonidas son, Pleistarchus was still under-age. ... Themistocles (Greek: ; c. ... For the Shakespeare play, see Pericles, Prince of Tyre. ... Thebes (Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva; Katharevousa: — Thêbai or Thívai) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Archidamus has been the name of 5 kings of Sparta. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Archidamus has been the name of 5 kings of Sparta. ... Oenoe (Greek: Οινόη Oinoi in both Ancient and Modern Greek or Inoi in Modern Greek) referred to several ancient cities in ancient Greece: Oenoe, an ancient city located in Argolis Oenoe (Attica), an ancient city near todays Oinoi and is the ancient name of the modern Oinoi in Attica. ... Archarnae was the largest deme of ancient Attica; it was located in the northwest part of the Attic plain, around Menidi, and about 10 km due north of Athens. ... For the Shakespeare play, see Pericles, Prince of Tyre. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Pericless Funeral Oration Pericles Funeral Oration is a famous speech from Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War. ... The city-state of Athens in ancient Greece was hit by a devastating epidemic, known as the Plague of Athens, during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (430 BC) when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... For the Shakespeare play, see Pericles, Prince of Tyre. ... For other uses, see Thucydides (disambiguation). ... For the Shakespeare play, see Pericles, Prince of Tyre. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Battle of Potidaea Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 432 BC Place Potidaea Result Athenian victory The Battle of Potidaea was, with the Battle of Sybota, one of the catalysts for the Peloponnesian War. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Phormio, the son of Asopius, was an Athenian general and admiral during the Peloponnesian War. ... It has been suggested that Kaminia (Piraeus), Greece be merged into this article or section. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... Sitalkes (reigned 431 - 424 BC) was one of the great kings of the Thracian Odrysian state. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Mytilene (Greek: Μυτιλήνη - Mytilíni, Turkish: Midilli), also Mytilini, is the capital city of Lesbos (formerly known as Lesbos but the modern name is Mytilene), a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, and the Lesbos Prefecture as well. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Olympia among the principal Greek sanctuaries Olympia (Greek: Olympía or Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. ... Lesbos may refer to: Lesbos Island, a large Greek island in the Aegean Sea Lesbos Prefecture, the Greek prefecture that contains the island Slang word for Lesbians. ... Mytilene (Greek: Μυτιλήνη - Mytilíni, Turkish: Midilli), also Mytilini, is the capital city of Lesbos (formerly known as Lesbos but the modern name is Mytilene), a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, and the Lesbos Prefecture as well. ... The Mytilenian Debate according to Thucydides, occured in Athens during the time of The Peloponnesian War. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article is about the Greek island Kerkyra known in English as Corfu or Corcyra. ... For other uses, see Thucydides (disambiguation). ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Demosthenes (Greek: Δημοσθένης, died 413 BC), son of Alcisthenes, was an Athenian general during the Peloponnesian War. ... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Combatants Athens Sparta Commanders Demosthenes Thrasymelidas Brasidas Strength 50 ships Hundreds of troops 60 ships Unknown troops Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Pylos took place in 425 BC during the Peloponnesian War, between Athens and Sparta. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... Agis may refer to: Agis I, a Spartan King. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... Combatants Athens Sparta Commanders Demosthenes Thrasymelidas Brasidas Strength 50 ships Hundreds of troops 60 ships Unknown troops Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Pylos took place in 425 BC during the Peloponnesian War, between Athens and Sparta. ... Demosthenes (Greek: Δημοσθένης, died 413 BC), son of Alcisthenes, was an Athenian general during the Peloponnesian War. ... This article is about the Greek geographical feature and town. ... Brasidas (Greek: Βρασίδας) (d. ... Combatants Athens Sparta Commanders Demosthenes Thrasymelidas Brasidas Strength 50 ships Hundreds of troops 60 ships Unknown troops Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Pylos took place in 425 BC during the Peloponnesian War, between Athens and Sparta. ... Spartiates were the elite warrior class of the rigidly hierarchical Spartan society. ... Sphacteria is a small island at the entrance to the bay of Pylos in the Peloponnese, Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Sphacteria is a small island at the entrance to the bay of Pylos in the Peloponnese, Greece. ... Cleon (d. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Combatants Delian League led by Athens, Argos Peloponnesian League led by Sparta, Thebes Commanders Pericles Cimon Leosthenes Tolmides Myronides Pleistoanax Nicodemes The First Peloponnesian War began in 460 BC and lasted circa 15 years. ... Combatants Athens Sparta Commanders Demosthenes Cleon Epitadas† Styphon Strength About 3000 440 Casualties Very few (about 230) 148 The Battle of Sphacteria was a battle of the Peloponnesian War in 425 BC, between Athens and Sparta. ... Cleon (d. ... Sphacteria is a small island at the entrance to the bay of Pylos in the Peloponnese, Greece. ... Cleon (d. ... Cleon (d. ... Nicias expeditions, before the Sicilian campaign. ... Nicias expeditions, before the Sicilian campaign. ... Cleon (d. ... Combatants Athens Sparta Commanders Demosthenes Cleon Epitadas† Styphon Strength About 3000 440 Casualties Very few (about 230) 148 The Battle of Sphacteria was a battle of the Peloponnesian War in 425 BC, between Athens and Sparta. ... Spartiates were the elite warrior class of the rigidly hierarchical Spartan society. ... Nicias expeditions, before the Sicilian campaign. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Kythira, also seen as Kythera, Cythera or Tsirigo, is an island, one of the Ionian Islands. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Gela is a city in the province of Caltanissetta in the south of Sicily, Italy. ... The Speech of Hermocrates at Gela is a speech recorded by the historian Thucydides in book four of his History of the Peloponnesian War. ... Bold text For other uses, see Megara (disambiguation). ... Bold text For other uses, see Megara (disambiguation). ... Bold text For other uses, see Megara (disambiguation). ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... The Battle of Delium took place in 424 BC between the Athenians and the Boeotians, and ended with the siege of Delium in the following weeks. ... The Battle of Delium took place in 424 BC between the Athenians and the Boeotians, and ended with the siege of Delium in the following weeks. ... The Battle of Delium took place in 424 BC between the Athenians and the Boeotians, and ended with the siege of Delium in the following weeks. ... Brasidas (Greek: Βρασίδας) (d. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Combatants Athens Sparta Commanders Cleon† Nicias Thucydides Brasidas† Clearidas Strength About 2000 About 2500 Casualties About 600 8 {{{notes}}} The Battle of Amphipolis was fought in 422 BC during the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta. ... Brasidas (Greek: Βρασίδας) (d. ... Brasidas (Greek: Βρασίδας) (d. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Brasidas (Greek: Βρασίδας) (d. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Brasidas (Greek: Βρασίδας) (d. ... The Mende are a large tribe (population approximately 700,000) living primarily in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea. ... Cleon (d. ... The Peace of Nicias was a peace treaty that was signed between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta in 421 BC, ending the first half of the Peloponnesian War. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... Mantinea is a city in the central Peloponnese that was the site of two significant battles in Classical Greek history. ... Elis, or Eleia is an ancient district within the modern prefecture of Ilia. ... Argos (Greek: Άργος, Árgos) is a city in Greece in the Peloponnesus near Nafplio, which was its historic harbor, named for Nauplius. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... Combatants Sparta Arcadian allies of Sparta Tegea Argos Athens Mantineia Commanders Agis II Laches † Nicostratus† Thrasyllus Strength About 9000 About 8000 Casualties About 300 About 1100 The Battle of Mantinea took place in 418 BC between Sparta and its allies, and an army led by Argos and Athens. ... The Melian dialogue is a passage found in Book V (85-113) of the History of the Peloponnesian War by the ancient Greek historian Thucydides. ... Milos (formerly Melos, and before the Athenian genocide Malos) is a volcanic island in the Aegean Sea. ... The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian expedition to Sicily from 415 BC to 413 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. ... Hermæ, in Greek antiquities, quadrangular pillars, broader above than at the base, surmounted by a head or bust, so called either because the head of Hermes was most common or from their etymological connection with the Greek word (blocks of stone), which originally had no reference to Hermes at all. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Syracuse (Italian, Siracusa, ancient Syracusa - see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy. ... Statue of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, Naples. ... Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: ; English /ælsɪbaɪədi:z/; 450 BC–404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. ... Gylippus was a Spartan general of the 5th century BC; he was the son of Cleandridas, who had been expelled from Sparta for accepting Athenian bribes in 446 BC and had settled at Thurii. ... Decelea, modern Dekeleia or Dekelia, Deceleia or Decelia, previous name Tatoi was a decisive source of supplies for Athens. ... Demosthenes (Greek: Δημοσθένης, died 413 BC), son of Alcisthenes, was an Athenian general during the Peloponnesian War. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Coup redirects here. ... Samos (Greek: Σάμος) is a Greek island in the Eastern Aegean sea, located between the island of Chios to the North and the archipelagic complex of the Dodecanese to the South and in particular the island of Patmos and off the coast of Turkey, on what was formerly known as Ionia. ... For the Greek mythological figures see Euboea Euboea, or Negropont or Negroponte (Modern Greek: Εύβοια Évia, Ancient Greek Eúboia), is the second largest of the Greek Aegean Islands and the second largest Greek island overall in area and population (after Crete). ... The term boule can be used to describe a large block of synthetically produced crystal material. ... Battle of Cynossema Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 411 BC Place Off Cynossema Result Athenian victory The Battle of Cynossema was a naval battle in the Hellespont in 411 BC between Athens and Sparta, around the same time the Athenian democracy was overthrown in favour of a short_lived oligarchy. ...

Notes

  1. ^ - K.J. Dover, "Thucydides 'as History' and 'as Literature,' History and Theory (1983) 22:54-63.
  2. ^ - J.B. Bury, History of Greece, 4th ed., (New York 1975), p. 252.
  3. ^ - W.R. Connor, Thucydides, (Princeton 1984), pp. 231-2.
  4. ^ - Donald Kagan, "The Speeches in Thucydides and the Mytilene Debate", Yale Classical Studies (1975) 24:71-94.
  5. ^ - Ernst Badian, "Thucydides and the Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War. A Historian's Brief" in Conflict, Antithesis and the Ancient Historian, ed. June Allison, (Columbus 1990), pp. 46-91
  6. ^ Graziosi, Barbara. Inventing Homer: The Early Reception of Epic, 2002, p. 118, ISBN 0521809665.
  7. ^ H.W. Brands, Arthur Schlesinger Woodrow Wilson (The American President Series), Times Books, 2003 ISBN 9780805069556
  8. ^ Thucydides: "A History of the Peloponnesian War", 3.89.2-5
  9. ^ Smid, T. C.: "'Tsunamis' in Greek Literature", Greece & Rome, 2nd Ser., Vol. 17, No. 1 (Apr., 1970), pp. 100-104 (103f.)

For other uses, see Thucydides (disambiguation). ...

Secondary sources

  • Connor, W. Robert, Thucydides. Princeton: Princeton University Press (1984). ISBN 0-691-03569-5.
  • Crane, Gregory, Thucydides and the Ancient Simplicity: the Limits of Political Realism. Berkeley: University of California Press (1998).
  • Hornblower, Simon, A Commentary on Thucydides. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon (1991-1996). ISBN 0-19-815099-7 (vol. 1), ISBN 0-19-927625-0 (vol. 2).
  • Hornblower, Simon, Thucydides. London: Duckworth (1987). ISBN 0-7156-2156-4.
  • Orwin, Clifford, The Humanity of Thucydides. Princeton: Princeton University Press (1994).
  • Romilly, Jacqueline de, Thucydides and Athenian Imperialism. Oxford: Basil Blackwell (1963). ISBN 0-88143-072-2.
  • Rood, Tim, Thucydides: Narrative and Explanation. Oxford: Oxford University Press (1998). ISBN 0-19-927585-8.
  • Strassler, Robert B, ed. The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War. New York: Free Press (1996). ISBN 0-684-82815-4.

Clifford Orwin is a Canadian scholar of ancient, modern, contemporary and Jewish political thought. ...

Translations

The original Wikisource logo. ... Hobbes redirects here. ... Very Revd. ... Benjamin Jowett (April 15, 1817 – October 1, 1893) was an English scholar and theologian, Master of Balliol College, Oxford. ... Rex Warner (March 9, 1905 - June 24, 1986) was an English classicist, writer and translator. ...

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History of the Peloponnesian War: Information from Answers.com (1498 words)
The History of the Peloponnesian War is an account of the Peloponnesian War in Ancient Greece, fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens).
While the History seems to suggest that considerations of justice are artificial and necessarily capitulate to power, it sometimes also shows a significant degree of empathy with those who suffer from the exigencies of the war.
^ - Ernst Badian, "Thucydides and the Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War.
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