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Encyclopedia > History of the New York City Subway

The New York City Subway has had a long history, beginning as many disjointed systems and eventually merging under City control. The New York City Subway is a large rapid transit system in New York City, New York, United States. ...

Contents


Early steam and elevated railroads

The beginnings of the Subway came from various excursion railroads to Coney Island and elevated railroads in Manhattan and Brooklyn. At that time, New York County (Manhattan Island and part of the Bronx), Kings County (including the Cities of Brooklyn and Williamsburg) and Queens County were separate political entities. Image of Coney Island (middle left of picture) taken by NASA. The peninsula at right is Rockaway, Queens. ... Subway redirects here; for the restaurant named Subway, see Subway (restaurant). ... Manhattan Borough,highlighted in yellow, lies between the East River and the Hudson River. ... A map highlighting Brooklyn and the rest of New York City. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... Kings County is the name of several counties aorund the world: Kings County, Nova Scotia, Canada Kings County, New Brunswick, Canada Kings County, California, United States of America Kings County, Ireland is the former name of County Offaly. ... A map highlighting Brooklyn and the rest of New York City. ... The Williamsburg Bridge connects the Brooklyn neighborhood to Manhattan Williamsburg is a neighborhood in northern Brooklyn, New York City. ... Queens County is the name of several counties around the world: Queens County, New York, United States Queens County, New Brunswick, Canada Queens County, Nova Scotia, Canada Queens County, Prince Edward Island, Canada Queens County, Ireland now known as County Laois This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid...


In New York, competing steam-powered elevated railroads were built over major avenues. The first elevated line was constructed in 1867-70 by Charles Harvey and his West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway company along Greenwich Street and Ninth Avenue (although cable cars were the initial mode of transportation on that railway). Later more lines were built on Second, Third and Sixth Avenues. None of these structures remain today, but these lines later shared trackage with subway trains as part of the IRT system. The IRT Ninth Avenue Line, often called the Ninth Avenue Elevated, was the first elevated railway in New York City, first opened in 1868 as the West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway, a cable-hauled line. ... Cable car can mean: a street railway system using a cable in the road to pull the cars along; see cable car (railway). ... The Third Avenue Line was an elevated railway in Manhattan and the Bronx, New York City, USA. It passed into the ownership of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT) and eventually the New York City Subway system before being closed in sections from 1950 to 1973. ... , John French Sloan, 1928. ... The Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT) was the operator of the original New York Subway line that opened in 1904 and additional rapid transit lines in the City of New York. ...


In Kings County, elevated railroads were also built by several companies, over Lexington, Myrtle, Third and Fifth Avenues, Fulton Street and Broadway. These also later shared trackage with subway trains, and even operated into the subway, as part of the BRT and BMT. Most of these structures have been dismantled, but some remain in original form, mostly rebuilt and upgraded. These lines were linked to Manhattan by various ferries and later the tracks along the Brooklyn Bridge (which originally had their own line, and were later integrated into the BRT/BMT). The Lexington Avenue Elevated (also called the Lexington Avenue Line) was the first standard elevated railway in Brooklyn, New York, operated in its later days by the BRT, the BMT and then the City of New York. ... The Myrtle Avenue Line, also called the Myrtle Avenue Elevated, is a fully elevated line of the New York City Subway, as part of the BMT division. ... The Jamaica Line is a rapid transit line of the BMT Division of the New York Subway. ... The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company (BRT) was a transportation holding company formed in 1896 to acquire and consolidate transit facilities in Kings County, now Brooklyn, New York. ... A 1914 map showing what was at the time the proposed expansion for the BRT. The only major differences from what was built is that a new 60th Street Tunnel was used rather than the Queensboro Bridge, the Manhattan-side Brooklyn Bridge connection was never built, and several lines ended... The Pride of Burgundy, a P&O Ferries car ferry on the Dover-Calais route A ferry is a boat or a ship carrying passengers, and possibly their vehicles, on a relatively short-distance, regularly-scheduled service. ... View from the East River (2002) Plan of one tower for the Brooklyn Bridge, 1867. ...


Also in Kings County, six steam excursion railroads were built to various beaches in the southern part of the county; all but one (the Manhattan Beach Line) eventually fell under BMT control. Steam railroad is a term used in the United States to disambiguate conventional heavy railroads from street railways, interurbans, and other light railways usually dedicated primarily to passenger transport. ... A 1914 map showing what was at the time the proposed expansion for the BRT. The only major differences from what was built is that a new 60th Street Tunnel was used rather than the Queensboro Bridge, the Manhattan-side Brooklyn Bridge connection was never built, and several lines ended...


The first subways

In 1898, New York, Kings and Richmond Counties, and parts of Queens and Westchester Counties and their constituent cities, towns, villages and hamlets were consolidated into the City of Greater New York. During this era the expanded City of New York resolved that it wanted the core of future rapid transit to be underground subways, but realized that no private company was willing to put up the enormous capital required to build beneath the streets. 1898 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... This article describes subways as mass transit lines. ...


The City decided to issue rapid transit bonds outside of its regular bonded debt limit and build the subways itself, and contracted with the IRT (which by that time ran the elevated lines in Manhattan) to equip and operate the subways, sharing the profits with the City and guaranteeing a fixed five-cent fare. In finance, a bond is a debt security, i. ... The Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT) was the operator of the original New York Subway line that opened in 1904 and additional rapid transit lines in the City of New York. ...


At this time, the original subway (Contract 1) was built from City Hall to the Bronx, with the first part opening in October 1904; an extension to Atlantic Avenue at the LIRR Flatbush Avenue terminal in Brooklyn was built soon after as Contract 2. City Hall is the original southern terminal of the first underground line of the New York City Subway, built for Interborough Rapid Transit (IRT), and now part of the Lexington Avenue Line. ... The Bronx is one of the five boroughs of New York City in the United States. ... October is the tenth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Atlantic Avenue, located at Flatbush Avenue and Atlantic Avenue, is a complex three-platform station, with an island platform between the express tracks, and two side platforms for the local tracks. ... The Long Island Rail Road or LIRR is a railroad that serves the length of Long Island, New York. ... A map highlighting Brooklyn and the rest of New York City. ...


The subway system began at a time when Thomas Edison and his opponent, Nikola Tesla, in the electricity industry were trying to decide whether to accept alternating current or, as Edison wanted, direct current as the standard way to deliver electricity. Edison lost the battle and alternating current became the standard, but not before the New York City Subway adopted direct current. As a result, to this day, the city has to convert alternating current to direct current when it buys electricity to power the trains. Thomas Alva Edison Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many important devices. ... Nikola Tesla (July 10, 1856 — circa January 7, 1943; baptismal name: Никола) was an inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer, and electrical engineer. ... It has been suggested that Electric reactance be merged into this article or section. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ...


In Brooklyn, the various elevated railroads and many of the surface steam railroads, as well as most of the trolley lines, were consolidated under the BRT. Some improvements were made to these lines at company expense during this era. This article refers to the mass transit vehicle running on rails. ... The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company (BRT) was a transportation holding company formed in 1896 to acquire and consolidate transit facilities in Kings County, now Brooklyn, New York. ...


The Dual Contracts

Main article: Dual Contracts

The BRT, which just barely entered Manhattan via the Brooklyn Bridge, wanted the opportunity to compete with the IRT, and the IRT wanted to extend its Brooklyn line to compete with the BRT. This led to the City's agreeing to contract for future subways with both the BRT and IRT. The Dual Contracts of 1913, also known as the Dual Subway System, were contracts for the construction and/or rehabilitation and operation of rapid transit lines in the City of New York. ... View from the East River (2002) Plan of one tower for the Brooklyn Bridge, 1867. ...


The expansion of rapid transit was greatly facilitated by the signing of the Dual Contracts in 1913, allowing the Triborough System to be built. Contract 3 was signed between the IRT and the City; the contract between the BRT and the City was Contract 4. The majority of the present-day Subway was either built or improved under these contracts, which not only built new lines but added tracks and connections to existing lines of both companies. The Astoria Line and Flushing Line were built at this time, and were for some time operated by both companies. Link title1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... The Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT) was the operator of the original New York Subway line that opened in 1904 and additional rapid transit lines in the City of New York. ... The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company (BRT) was a transportation holding company formed in 1896 to acquire and consolidate transit facilities in Kings County, now Brooklyn, New York. ... The Astoria Line is a rapid transit line of the BMT division of the New York City Subway, serving the neighborhood of Astoria, Queens. ... The Flushing Line is a rapid transit line of the New York City Subway system, operated as part of the IRT Division. ...


The Independent System

Main article: Independent Subway System

The City, bolstered by political claims that the private companies were reaping profits at taxpayer expense, determined that it would build, equip and operate a new system itself, with private investment and without sharing the profits with private entities. This led to the building of the Independent City-Owned Subway (ICOS), sometimes called the Independent Subway System (ISS), the Independent City-Owned Rapid Transit Railroad, or simply The Eighth Avenue Subway after the location of its premier Manhattan mainline. After the City acquired the BMT and IRT in 1940, the Independent lines were dubbed the IND to follow the three-letter initialisms of the other systems. The Independent Subway System (IND, formerly ISS), and even earlier the Independent City-Owned Subway System (ICOS) or Independent City-Owned Rapid Transit Railroad was one of the three systems that is now part of the New York City Subway. ... The Independent Subway System (IND, formerly ISS), and even earlier the Independent City-Owned Subway System (ICOS) or Independent City-Owned Rapid Transit Railroad was one of the three systems that is now part of the New York City Subway. ... A 1941 view of a sign for the Eighth Avenue Subway The Eighth Avenue Line is the original rapid transit line of the Independent Subway System (IND), now run by the New York City Transit Authority as part of the New York City Subway system. ... A 1914 map showing what was at the time the proposed expansion for the BRT. The only major differences from what was built is that a new 60th Street Tunnel was used rather than the Queensboro Bridge, the Manhattan-side Brooklyn Bridge connection was never built, and several lines ended... The Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT) was the operator of the original New York Subway line that opened in 1904 and additional rapid transit lines in the City of New York. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Independent Subway System (IND, formerly ISS), and even earlier the Independent City-Owned Subway System (ICOS) or Independent City-Owned Rapid Transit Railroad was one of the three systems that is now part of the New York City Subway. ... Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations formed from the initial letter or letters of words, such as NATO and XHTML, and are pronounced in a way that is distinct from the full pronunciation of what the letters stand for. ...


As the first line neared completion, New York City offered it for private operation as a formality, knowing that no operator would meet its terms. Thus the city declared that it would operate it itself, formalizing a foregone conclusion. In keeping with the quasi-Socialist spirit of the city at the time, the first line opened without a formal ceremony. The trains began operating their regular schedules ahead of time, and all stations of the Eighth Avenue Line, from 207th Street in Washington Heights to Hudson Terminal (now World Trade Center), opened simultaneously at one minute after midnight on September 10, 1932. The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... A 1941 view of a sign for the Eighth Avenue Subway The Eighth Avenue Line is the original rapid transit line of the Independent Subway System (IND), now run by the New York City Transit Authority as part of the New York City Subway system. ... Washington Heights is located in Upper Manhattan. ... The World Trade Center Station is the southernmost stop on the E train. ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ...


Magnificently engineered, almost entirely underground, with ~670 foot (~204 m.) platforms and flying junctions throughout, the IND system tripled the City's rapid transit debt, ironically contributing to the demise of plans for an ambitious "Second System" proposed before the first line of the first system was even opened. ... Underground as an adjective commonly refers to something that is either below the ground or outside of public consciousness. ... In U.S. railroad practice, a flying junction is a track configuration in which merging or crossing railroad lines provide track connections with each other without requiring trains to cross over in front of opposing traffic. ... This article or section should include material from Independent Subway System#The IND Second System 1929 plan The IND Second System was a plan for a major expansion of the city-owned Independent Subway System in New York, New York. ...


Unification and Contraction

In June 1940, the transportation assets of the former BMT and IRT systems were taken over by the City of New York for operation by the City's Board of Transportation, which already operated the IND system. In 1953 the New York City Transit Authority, a state agency incorporated for the benefit of the city, now known to the public as MTA New York City Transit, succeeded the BoT. June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... A 1914 map showing what was at the time the proposed expansion for the BRT. The only major differences from what was built is that a new 60th Street Tunnel was used rather than the Queensboro Bridge, the Manhattan-side Brooklyn Bridge connection was never built, and several lines ended... The Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT) was the operator of the original New York Subway line that opened in 1904 and additional rapid transit lines in the City of New York. ... The Independent Subway System (IND, formerly ISS), and even earlier the Independent City-Owned Subway System (ICOS) or Independent City-Owned Rapid Transit Railroad was one of the three systems that is now part of the New York City Subway. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The New York City Transit Authority (also known as NYCTA, NYCT or simply the TA for Transit Authority) is a New York State Authority that operates buses and subway trains in New York City. ...


A combination of factors had this takeover coincide with the end of the major rapid transit building eras in New York City. The City immediately began to eliminate what it considered redundancy in the system, closing several elevated lines including the IRT Ninth Avenue Line and most of the IRT Second Avenue Line in Manhattan, and the BMT Fifth and Third Avenue Lines and most of the BMT Fulton Street Line in Brooklyn. The IRT Ninth Avenue Line, often called the Ninth Avenue Elevated, was the first elevated railway in New York City, first opened in 1868 as the West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway, a cable-hauled line. ...


Despite the unification, a distinction between the three systems survives in the service labels: IRT lines (now referred to as "Division A") have numbers, BMT/IND (now collectively "Division B") lines use letters. There is also a more physical but less obvious difference: Division A cars are narrower than those of Division B by 18 inches (~45cm) and shorter by 9 to 24 feet (~2.7 to 7.3m).


The original IRT subway lines were built to elevated line dimensions. The clearances and curves on these lines are too narrow and too sharp for any IND or BMT equipment. The later extensions of the IRT, constituting the bulk of the system, were built to BMT dimensions, and so are of a profile that could use IND/BMT sized equipment. In other words, Division B equipment could operate on much of Division A if station platforms were trimmed and trackside furniture moved. Being able to do so would increase the capacity of Division A. However, there is virtually no chance of this happening because the portions of Division A that could not accommodate Division B equipment without major physical reconstruction are situated in such a way that it would be impossible to put together coherent through services. The most that can be reasonably hoped for is that some branch lines of Division A might be resized and attached to Division B lines. This was done with the BMT Astoria Line in Queens (which had formerly been dual-operated with normal IRT trains and special narrow BMT shuttles), and has been proposed for the IRT Pelham Line in the Bronx. The Astoria Line is a rapid transit line of the BMT division of the New York City Subway, serving the neighborhood of Astoria, Queens. ... Queens Borough in New York City Queens, the most ethnically diverse county in the United States, is geographically the largest of the five boroughs of New York City. ... Stations Third Avenue-138th Street Brook Avenue Cypress Avenue East 143rd Street-St. ... The Bronx is one of the five boroughs of New York City in the United States. ...


Because the Division A lines are of lower capacity for a given capital investment, all new extensions and lines built since World War II have been for Division B. Division A cars can travel on Division B lines when necessary, but are not used for passenger service on those lines due to the dangerously wide gap between the car and the station platform.


Even during World War II, which gave a reprieve to the closure of most rail transit in the US, some closures continued, including the remainder of the IRT Second Avenue Line in Manhattan (1942) and the surviving BMT elevated services over the Brooklyn Bridge (1944). World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons like the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th-century conflict that engulfed much of the globe... This article is about the year. ... View from the East River (2002) Plan of one tower for the Brooklyn Bridge, 1867. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The originally planned IND system was built to the completion of its original plans after World War II ended, but the system then entered an era of deferred maintenance in which infrastructure was allowed to deteriorate, and closures of elevated lines continued. These closures included the entire IRT Third Avenue Line in Manhattan (1955) and the Bronx (1973), as well as the BMT Lexington Avenue Line (1950), much of the remainder of the BMT Fulton Street Line (1956), the downtown Brooklyn part of the BMT Myrtle Avenue Line (1969) and the BMT Culver Shuttle (1975), all in Brooklyn. Deferred Maintenance is a practice of allowing machinery or infrastructure to deteriorate by postponing prudent but non-essential repairs to save cost, labor and/or material. ... The Third Avenue Line was an elevated railway in Manhattan and the Bronx, New York City, USA. It passed into the ownership of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT) and eventually the New York City Subway system before being closed in sections from 1950 to 1973. ... Manhattan Borough,highlighted in yellow, lies between the East River and the Hudson River. ... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... The Lexington Avenue Elevated (also called the Lexington Avenue Line) was the first standard elevated railway in Brooklyn, New York, operated in its later days by the BRT, the BMT and then the City of New York. ... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Myrtle Avenue Line, also called the Myrtle Avenue Elevated, is a fully elevated line of the New York City Subway, as part of the BMT division. ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday For other uses, see Number 1969. ... R1 end rollsign R27 end rollsign The Culver Shuttle was a service of the New York City Subway system, running along the BMT Culver Line. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... A map highlighting Brooklyn and the rest of New York City. ...


Only two new lines were opened in this era, the IRT Dyre Avenue Line (1941) and the IND Rockaway Line (1956). Both of these lines were rehabilitations of existing railroad rights-of-way rather than new construction. The former line was the City portion of the New York, Westchester and Boston Railway (an interurban streetcar line closed in 1937) and the latter a line obtained from the Long Island Rail Road. While the Rockaway Line is a long and substantial line, it consists mostly of a long right-of-way crossing Jamaica Bay with a single station on Broad Channel island and two branches on a peninsula that is only several city blocks wide. The Dyre Avenue Line is a rapid transit line of the New York City Subway, as part of the IRT division. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An interurban streetcar line or interurban, also called a radial railway in Canada, is a streetcar line running between urban areas. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Long Island Rail Road or LIRR is a railroad that serves the length of Long Island, New York. ... Jamaica Bay is a bay that lies in the shadow of New York Citys skyscrapers and is adjacent to one of the nations busiest airports. ... Broad Channel is a community / neighborhood in the borough of Queens in New York City. ...


In 1951 a half-billion dollar bond issue was passed to build the Second Avenue Line (part of the IND Second System), but money from this issue was used for other priorities and the building of short connector lines, namely a ramp connecting between the IND South Brooklyn Line and the BMT Culver Line at Ditmas and McDonald Avenues in Brooklyn (1954), allowing IND subway service to operate to Coney Island for the first time, the 60th Street Tunnel Connection (1955), linking the BMT Broadway Line to the IND Queens Boulevard Line, and the Chrystie Street Connection (1967), linking the BMT line via the Manhattan Bridge to the IND Sixth Avenue Line. 1951 was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... The Second Avenue Line, usually called the Second Avenue Subway (SAS), refers to a series of public works projects and engineering studies undertaken to construct a subway underneath Second Avenue in New York Citys borough of Manhattan. ... This article or section should include material from Independent Subway System#The IND Second System 1929 plan The IND Second System was a plan for a major expansion of the city-owned Independent Subway System in New York, New York. ... The IND Culver Line is a rapid transit line of the IND Division of the New York City Subway, extending from the Rutgers Street Tunnel under the East River to the BMT Culver Line at Ditmas Avenue (which continues to Coney Island). ... The BMT Culver Line is a rapid transit line of the BMT division of the New York City Subway, running from Coney Island through Gravesend to Ditmas Avenue, where it becomes the IND Culver Line. ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image of Coney Island (middle left of picture) taken by NASA. The peninsula at right is Rockaway, Queens. ... The 60th Street Tunnel Connection (also known as the 11th Street Connector[1]) is a short connecting line of the New York City Subway System connecting the BMT 60th Street Tunnel under the East River (which connects to the Broadway-BMT Line) with the IND Queens Boulevard Line west of... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Broadway Line is a rapid transit line of the BMT division of the New York City Subway system. ... The Queens Boulevard Line is a fully underground line of the New York City Subway, as part of the IND division. ... The Chrystie Street Connection is a major connecting line of the New York City Subway System, and is one of the few connections between lines of the BMT and IND divisions. ... 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... View from the East River Cross section Lower level of the Manhattan Bridge The Manhattan Bridge is a suspension bridge that crosses the East River in New York City, connecting Lower Manhattan with Brooklyn. ... The Sixth Avenue Line is a rapid transit line of the IND division of the New York City Subway system, running mostly under Sixth Avenue in Manhattan. ...


In the mid-1960s, $600,000,000 was made available to the Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) of New York City for the purposes of Subway expansion. $1,230,000,000 was spent to create three tunnels and a half-dozen holes as part of construction on the Second Avenue and 63rd Street Lines. Construction would cease in 1975 on account of the city's severe fiscal crisis; none of the sections were usable by the time federal payments were suspended in 1985. The 1960s, or The Sixties, in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) is a public benefit corporation of the State of New York chartered by the New York State Legislature in 1965. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... A disused railway tunnel now converted to pedestrian and bicycle use, near Houyet, Belgium A tunnel is an underground passage. ... The Second Avenue Line, usually called the Second Avenue Subway (SAS), refers to a series of public works projects and engineering studies undertaken to construct a subway underneath Second Avenue in New York Citys borough of Manhattan. ... The IND 63rd Street Line is a rapid transit line of the IND division of the New York City Subway system. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... 1985 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Because the early subway systems competed with each other, they tended to cover the same areas of the city, leading to much overlapping service. The amount of service has actually decreased since the 1940s as many elevated railways were torn down, and finding funding for underground replacements has proven difficult. // Events and trends The 1940s were dominated by World War II, the most destructive armed conflict in history. ...


Due to deferred maintenance, the condition of the subway system reached dangerous conditions as of the early 1980's. Talk of new construction was considered absurd at that point. However, as of the mid-1980's, reconstruction was begun. Stations were refurbished and rolling stock was repaired and replaced. Around 2002, talk began to circulate about taking up the construction of the Second Avenue subway. Most New Yorkers regarded these plans with cyncism, since citizens were promised the line since well before the Second Avenue elevated was torn down in 1955. This time, backers claim, will be different. Funds have been set aside and environmental impact reports have been completed. Construction has not yet begun; the establishment of this long-desired line is not assured.


References

The Washington Monthly is a magazine based in Washington DC which covers American politics and government. ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Reconstruction and incremental advance

edit
New York City Subway (official site)
Services 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A B C D E F G J L M N Q R V W Z
Shuttles (S) 42nd Street - Franklin Avenue - Rockaway Park
Unused/defunct 8 9 10 11 12 13 H K P T U X Y JFK Express
BMT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Divisions IRT - BMT - IND (Second System)
Lists Lines - Services - Stations - Terminals - Inter-division connections - Inter-division transfers - Yards
Miscellaneous Accessibility - Dual Contracts - Chaining - History - Nomenclature - Rolling stock - Straphanger
Other transit in NYC Amtrak - LIRR - Metro-North - NJ Transit - PATH - Staten Island Railway - AirTrain - Roosevelt Island Tramway

  Results from FactBites:
 
NodeWorks - Encyclopedia: New York City Subway (2077 words)
The subway is operated by the New York City Transit Authority, described by its parent Metropolitan Transportation Authority as MTA New York City Transit.
The city was closely involved; every line built for the IRT, and most other lines built or improved for the BRT after 1913, were built by the city and leased to the companies (via the original Contracts 1 and 2 for the IRT subway, and the Dual Contracts for later extensions and widenings).
Cars purchased by the City of New York since the inception of the and for the other divisions beginning in 1948 are identified by the letter "R" followed by a number; e.g.: R32.
Exhibits on New York State History and Culture, New York History Net (793 words)
New York City Style Tattoos - exhibit discusses modern mechanical tattooing that was invented in New York City at the end of the 19th century.
New York Forts - a celebration of the rich military history of New York State from the early 1600's to the present.
New York Governors - from the Office of the Governor of the State of New York.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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