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Encyclopedia > History of the National Hockey League
The classic NHL shield logo, used until the end of the 2004 lockout.

This is the story of the National Hockey League(NHL) professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in Canada and the United States from its founding in 1917 to the present day. National Hockey League logo This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “NHL” redirects here. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ...

Contents

Frank Calder Era: Founding to The Original Six

The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA). The first NHL season began in 1917-18 with five teams. Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... This article is part of the Evolution of the NHL series. ... A list of National Hockey League seasons since inception of the league: 1917-18 | 1918-19 | 1919-20 | 1920-21 | 1921-22 | 1922-23 | 1923-24 | 1924-25 | 1925-26 | 1926-27 | 1927-28 | 1928-29 | 1929-30 | 1930-31 | 1931-32 | 1932-33 | 1933-34 | 1934-35 | 1935-36... The 1917-18 NHL season was the 1st regular season of the NHL. Each team played 22 games, except for the Montreal Wanderers whose season was cut short due to their arena burning down. ...


The primary conflict involved Toronto Blue Shirts' owner Eddie Livingstone. An ongoing source of controversy among fellow NHA owners, he was often accused of exploiting loopholes in league regulations to create what some viewed as unfair advantages, and had particularly incited the wrath of owners when he merged his two Toronto teams (the Ontarios and the Blue Shirts) after the latter had been deprived of its top players. Livingstone sometimes offered contracts to other teams' members not to play hockey, and once campaigned to kick the Montreal Wanderers out of the league after the team tried to lure two of his top Blue Shirts players. Throughout his battles with owners, Livingstone repeatedly threatened to start a rival league in the United States. The Toronto Hockey Club, known as the Torontos and the Toronto Blue Shirts were a professional National Hockey Association team that played in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Edward J. Livingstone (September 12, 1884 - September 11, 1945) was the founder of the Toronto Blueshirts, a predecessor of the Toronto Maple Leafs of the NHL. Livingstone was born in Toronto, Ontario as the youngest of three children. ... Montreal Wanderers The Montreal Wanderers were a professional hockey team that played in Montreal, Quebec and one of the founding franchises of the National Hockey League in the 1917-18 NHL season. ...

This article is part of the Evolution of the NHL series.

In its final season (1916-17), the National Hockey Association was comprised of six teams: The Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs, Toronto Blue Shirts, and an army team from the Toronto-based 228th Battalion. The team owners met in the Windsor Hotel in Montreal to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917, a day after members of the 228th Battalion, the most popular NHA team, were called into World War I action. Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had all agreed to withdraw from the NHA, to effectively ejecting Livingstone and the Blue Shirts. This article is part of the Evolution of the NHL series. ... This article is part of the Evolution of the NHL series. ... This article is part of the Evolution of the NHL series. ... The International (Professional) Hockey League was the first major professional hockey league, operating from 1904 to 1907. ... This article is part of the Evolution of the NHL series. ... The Ontario Professional Hockey League was an ice hockey league in Canada that was formed in 1907. ... This article is part of the Evolution of the NHL series. ... This article is part of the Evolution of the NHL series. ... The Pacific Coast Hockey Association was a professional ice hockey league in western Canada, operating from 1911 to 1924 when it merged with the Western Canada Hockey League. ... The Western Canada Hockey League (WCHL), founded in 1921, was a major professional ice hockey league originally based in the prairies of Canada. ... World Hockey Association logo The World Hockey Association (French: Association Mondiale de Hockey) was a professional ice hockey league that operated in North America from 1972 to 1979. ... The 1916-17 NHA season was the 8th and final season of the National Hockey Association. ... The Montreal Canadiens (French: ) are a professional ice hockey team based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Montreal Wanderers The Montreal Wanderers were a professional hockey team that played in Montreal, Quebec and one of the founding franchises of the National Hockey League in the 1917-18 NHL season. ... This article is about the original Ottawa Senators. ... This article is on the ice hockey team. ... The Windsor Hotel in 1902 For other uses of Windsor Hotel, see Windsor Hotel (disambiguation). ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1916 in sports, 1918 in sports and the list of years in sports. Football (Australian Rules) Victorian Football League - Collingwood wins the 21st VFL Premiership (Collingwood 9. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


After the resignation of NHA president and Livingstone ally Frank Robinson, Livingstone stopped attending league meetings and sent a lawyer to represent his interests.


On November 9, 1917, it was reported that the Toronto NHA franchise was sold to Charles Querrie of the Toronto Arena corporation. At this point, NHA president Robertson and secretary Calder denied that the NHA would change, dissolve or adopt other subterfuge.[1] This sale never completed.


The November 10, 1917 annual meeting of the NHA was presided over by Mr. Calder and was adjourned without any public statement.


On November 17, 1917, it was announced that Quebec had dropped out, but that NHA league play would continue.


On November 26, 1917, representatives of the NHA clubs met at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal. The decision was made to start a new league, the NHL:

  • constitution and rules the same as the NHA
  • Frank Calder elected president and secretary
  • M. J. Quinn of Quebec was named honorary president
  • franchises were granted to Ottawa, Canadiens, Wanderers,
  • Quebec players to be disbursed among the other teams

A Toronto franchise was to be operated 'temporarily' by the Toronto Arena Company while the Toronto ownership situation was resolved. The franchise used the players of the Blue Shirts, including those who had been transferred to other NHA teams for the second half of the 1916-17 NHA season. This was done without the permission of Mr. Livingstone, who would sue for the team's revenues. According to George Kennedy, owner of the Canadiens: Frank Calder (November 17, 1877-February 4, 1943) was the first NHL President (1917-1943). ... The 1916-17 NHA season was the 8th and final season of the National Hockey Association. ...

"The Toronto players belong as a body to the National Hockey League, for they were only loaned to the Toronto Arena Company, though Livingstone tried to make the Arena Company believe that he controlled those players"[2]

The Toronto club played without a nickname for the first season. The Toronto Arena Hockey Club was formed before the next season to operate the temporary franchise.


Early Struggles

The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season. The 1917-18 NHL season was the 1st regular season of the NHL. Each team played 22 games, except for the Montreal Wanderers whose season was cut short due to their arena burning down. ... The Montreal Arena, also known as Westmont Arena was an indoor arena located in Montreal, Canada. ...


Though Livingstone had been shut out, one of his NHA ideas — a proposal for a split regular season — was adopted by the new league and integrated into its playoff system. The Torontos became the first NHL winner of the Stanley Cup, the annual trophy awarded since 1893 to the Canadian hockey champion. A furious Livingstone, meanwhile, failed in his attempt to collect a share of profits from the Arena Company, then sued the Company and the NHL. A playoff in sports (North American professional sports in particular) is a game or series of games played after the regular season is over with the goal of determining a league champion, or a similar accolade. ... The Stanley Cup The Stanley Cup (French: ) is the championship trophy of the National Hockey League (NHL), the major professional ice hockey league in Canada and the United States. ... See also: 1892 in sports, other events of 1893, 1894 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Basketball April 8 - First college basketball game took place in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania when Geneva College defeated the New Brighton YMCA Boat race Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race - Oxford Cricket County...


The dispute lingered on through the 1920s, although a new permanent franchise was sold for Toronto, called the Toronto St. Patricks and ultimately the Toronto Maple Leafs. History has looked back on Livingstone and the NHL's formation with a sense of irony: The man whom league owners had worked so hard to exclude was, in the words of Canadiens owner George Kennedy, the same figure that "made [the NHL] a real league". The Toronto Maple Leafs are a National Hockey League team based in Toronto, Ontario. ... The Toronto Maple Leafs are a professional ice hockey team based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


Quebec to Hamilton to New York

The Quebec Bulldogs would enter play in the NHL in 1919-20 for one season, bringing the number of teams to four. They would only play the one season in Quebec, before moving to Hamilton, Ontario for the 1920-21 season. This transfer was done to counter a possible rival league setting up in Hamilton. The team was renamed the Tigers. At the conclusion of the 1924-25, the Hamilton team had finished first. The team's players went on strike for more pay, and the team was suspended. Montreal and Toronto would play for the championship instead. Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - Representatives 5 MPs and 5 MPPs Area [2]  - City 1,138. ...


The next year, the New York Americans would start play and the Hamilton franchise cancelled. Players of the Tigers were allocated to the Americans, although to be reinstated, they would have to pay a $200 fine apiece. The New York Americans were a NHL hockey team, the third expansion team in league history and the second to play in the United States. ...


Stanley Cup Success

Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning seven of the eight Stanley Cups awarded during its first nine years. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. The 1918-19 NHL season was the second season of the National Hockey League. ... Chart of deaths in major cities The 1918 flu pandemic, commonly referred to as the Spanish flu, was a category 5 influenza pandemic between 1918 and 1920 caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... “Seattle” redirects here. ...


Expansion into United States

The league expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924; the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. In Canada, the league added the Montreal Maroons. The Boston Bruins are a professional ice hockey team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The 1924-25 NHL season was the 8th regular season of the National Hockey League. ... The Pittsburgh Pirates were a professional ice hockey team in the National Hockey League, based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... The 1925-26 NHL season was the 9th regular season of the National Hockey League. ... The New York Rangers are a professional ice hockey team based in New York, New York, U.S.A. They are members of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). ... The Detroit Red Wings are a National Hockey League team based in Detroit, Michigan, USA and Windsor, Ontario. ... The Chicago Blackhawks are a professional ice hockey team based in Chicago, Illinois. ... The 1926-27 NHL season was the tenth season of the National Hockey League. ...


Formation of the Minor League system

When the WHL finally finished in 1926, and its players dispersed to the NHL, other leagues looked to claim "major-league" status, including the American Hockey Association(AHA), forerunner to today's American Hockey League. Most notably, direct competition occurred in Chicago, between the Blackhawks and the Chicago Cardinals. In 1926, the AHA formally filed a Stanley Cup challenge with the Stanley Cup trustees. The trustees ordered the NHL to play the AHL champions, but the NHL, under the direct order of Frank Calder, ignored the order.[3] This would happen again in 1931, when the successor of the AHA, the American Hockey League AHL of the time, would file another challenge, to again be ignored.[4] The NHL would react to both situations by 'blacklisting' the AHL and its players, and trying to freeze it out of common arenas. There were two different American Hockey Associations: American Hockey Association (1926-42) - A minor pro league existing between 1926 and 1942. ... The American Hockey League (AHL) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, that serves as the primary developmental circuit for the National Hockey League (NHL). ...


During this time, the NHL helped to form the Can-Am Pro League and the International Hockey League, signed up as partners with the NHL, subject to the NHL being allowed to draft their players. This system was expanded to the AHL, when the AHL could not compete with the NHL.


The AHL eventually would make peace with the NHL, as both leagues struggled in the 1930s. The AHL would revert to its previous name, the AHA, renounce its major league status, and not compete with the NHL or the other minor leagues. After peace was made in 1932, the top team of the AHA was transferred to Detroit to become the NHL's Red Wings in 1932. None of the other AHA/AHL teams or players made it to the NHL. The AHA would cease to be a competitor when it would shut down during World War Two.


The Great Depression Hits: Contraction

By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams folded, went bankrupt or were sold by owners unable to keep up with costs. The classic NHL shield logo The 1930-31 NHL season was the fourteenth season of the National Hockey League. ... The Great Depression was a dramatic, worldwide economic downturn beginning in some countries as early as 1928. ...


The Detroit Cougars, renamed the Falcons, would file for bankruptcy in 1931 before being bought by James Norris, who would use the players of the Chicago Shamrocks of the AHL. This solved two problems: it took the top competitor out of Chicago, and brought Mr. Norris into the NHL to guarantee the long-term security of Detroit. As Mr. Norris was an AHL owner and competitor, it was a controversial move. Support for the move came from Toronto, where Conn Smythe saw Detroit as a natural competitor.[5] James Norris may refer to: James E. Norris (b. ... Constantine Falkland Kerry Smythe (b. ...


The Montreal Maroons would suspend play after the 1937-38 season. The franchise remained active, though it was never re-activated. It was finally terminated permanently in 1946.


The New York Americans played in New York until 1942, when they suspended due to the war. The NHL franchise continued until 1946 when the NHL disallowed it to restart and terminated the franchise.


The Ottawa Senators would try playing home games in other cities, suspending operations for a season, finally relocating to St. Louis, before being bought out by the league and suspended in 1935. Of the franchises that suspended in the 1930s and 1940s, only the Senators have returned.


The Pittsburgh Pirates would play from 1925 until 1930, then operate for the 1930-31 season as the Philadelphia Quakers before folding. The Pittsburgh Pirates were a professional ice hockey team in the National Hockey League, based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ...


The Norris House League

The entry of Mr. Norris in 1932 as owner of Detroit Red Wings started the era where Mr. Norris would dominate the ownership of the National Hockey League. The NHL prohibited the ownership by an individual in more than one team. However, the NHL did allow corporations to own teams. Mr. Norris owned the Chicago Black Hawks through a corporation, and a partnership with Arthur Wirtz. Mr. Norris was a major share-holder in New York Rangers' owner Madison Square Garden Corporation. Mr. Norris also underwrote mortgages of the Boston Bruins' owner Charles Adams. During the period of his ownership of the Rangers and Black Hawks, neither developed a farm system and neither had much on-ice success.[6] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Madison Square Garden, often abbreviated as MSG, known colloquially simply as The Garden, has been the name of four arenas in New York City, United States. ... The Boston Bruins are a professional ice hockey team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Charles F. Adams (1876–1947) was the first owner of the Boston Bruins (1924–1925) and owner of one of the United States largest grocery store chains. ...


Death of Frank Calder

At the NHL general meeting of January 25, 1943 held in Toronto, Mr. Calder suffered a heart attack. He would survive and go home to Montreal to convalesce in Montreal General Hospital. However, he would not leave the hospital and died on February 3, 1943. Red Dutton would take over as NHL president. Mervyn Red Dutton (July 23, 1898 - March 15, 1987) was an NHL player from 1921 to 1936 and NHL President (1943-1946). ...


'Original Six' Era: 1942-1967

Montreal Canadiens in 1942
Montreal Canadiens in 1942
see also: Original Six

With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Black Hawks. World War II had provided many players their first chance to play professional hockey, but after the war, many found themselves relegated to minor leagues. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (760x603, 128 KB) Montreal Canadiens hockey team, October 1942. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (760x603, 128 KB) Montreal Canadiens hockey team, October 1942. ... The Original Six is the term used by fans of ice hockey to refer to the six teams that made up the National Hockey League from the 1942-43 season to the leagues expansion of 1967. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The 1942-43 season was the 26th NHL season. ... The Montreal Canadiens (French: ) are a professional ice hockey team based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... The Toronto Maple Leafs are a professional ice hockey team based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The Detroit Red Wings are a professional ice hockey team based in Detroit, Michigan. ... The Boston Bruins are a professional ice hockey team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The New York Rangers are a professional ice hockey team based in New York, New York, U.S.A. They are members of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). ... The Chicago Blackhawks are a professional ice hockey team based in Chicago, Illinois. ...


During this period, Montreal and Toronto were the dominant teams, with Montreal winning 10 Cups, Toronto 9, Detroit 5, and Chicago once. Toronto had a dynasty in the late 1940s and the 1960s, while Montreal would dominate the 1950s along with Detroit.


Mr. Dutton gave up the job of NHL president in 1946, and Clarence Campbell was elected. He had been assistant to Mr. Calder prior to enlisting for World War Two. Mr Campbell's role as president, unlike Mr. Calder, was to follow the orders of the owners. In a famous quote from Maple Leafs' owner Stafford Smythe, commenting on a complaint over a disciplinary decision, said "Where would we find another Rhodes scholar, graduate lawyer, decorated war hero, and former prosecutor at the Nuremberg trials, who will do what he's told?"[7] Clarence Campbell poses with the Stanley Cup in 1957. ... C. Stafford Smythe (1921-October 13, 1971) was the son of Conn Smythe and co-owner of the Toronto Maple Leafs NHL team. ...


NHL Takes Over the Stanley Cup

In 1948, original Stanley Cup trustee P. D. Ross, and Cooper Smeaton made an agreement with the NHL to take over possession of the Stanley Cup. While there are still trustees of the Cup today, the NHL provides for its maintenance, and its use is governed by the NHL exclusively. After the lockout of 2005, a Canadian court found the agreement of 1948 broke Lord Stanley's intentions. In an out-of-court settlement, the NHL has promised to allow other teams to play for the Cup if it will not use it.


Richard Riot

see: Richard Riot

In 1955, NHL president Clarence Campbell would suspend Montreal Canadiens star Rocket Richard for the playoffs. After announcing the suspension, Mr. Campbell attended the night's game at the Montreal Forum, where he was accosted and the scene became a riot, spilling over to downtown Montreal. The Richard Riot was a riot that had occurred on 17 March 1955 in Montreal, Quebec. ... Clarence Campbell poses with the Stanley Cup in 1957. ... Maurice Richard in his Canadiens uniform Joseph Henri Maurice Richard, also nicknamed Rocket Richard (born August 4, 1921 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, died May 27, 2000 in Montreal, Quebec) was a professional ice hockey player, and played for the Montreal Canadiens from 1942 to 1960. ...


First Player's Association

Player's conditions were difficult in the 1950s. While arena owners showed large profits, players shared little in the revenues. The average salary in 1957 was $8000, compared to the average of $5500 for teachers. Players had to pay $900 yearly for their pension, which was controlled by the NHL and its finances kept secret. This would lead to legal action decades later by retired players.[8]


Players were banned during the off-season from playing other sports like they had in the early years of hockey. Players were required to take part in off-season promotion without pay. Player's medical coverage expired two months after injury and left players to pay their own medical expenses during the off-season.[9]


In 1957, a star player of the Detroit Red Wings, Ted Lindsay, would attempt to form the National Hockey League Players Association (NHLPA). Jack Adams, general manager of the Red Wings, would be prominent in breaking the attempted union. Mr. Lindsay's attempt was unsuccessful, and he was traded to the perennial last-place team, the Chicago Black Hawks, before retiring in 1960. Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Robert Blake Theodore Ted Lindsay (born July 29, 1925, in Renfrew, Ontario, Canada) is a former professional ice hockey forward who played for the Detroit Red Wings and Chicago Blackhawks. ... The National Hockey League Players Association or NHLPA is a labour union that represents the interests of the hockey players in the National Hockey League. ... John James Jack Adams (also known as Jovial Jawn) (June 14, 1895 - May 1, 1968) was a ice hockey player, head coach and general manager in the National Hockey League. ...


The players' conditions did not improve, and on the second attempt, the NHLPA would be founded in 1967 and be led for many years by Alan Eagleson, a Toronto lawyer. Robert Alan Eagleson (born April 24, 1933) is a Canadian lawyer, politician, hockey agent and promotor, famous for his role in promoting the 1972 Summit Series between Canada and the Soviet Union, the Canada Cup (now the World Cup of Hockey), and his representation of famous hockey players such as...


Expansion: 1967-2000

1960s: Coast-to-Coast Expansion

Main article: 1967 NHL Expansion

By the 1960s, other pro leagues were fielding teams that were arguably competitive with the NHL's teams. The rise of the Western Hockey League, which was rumoured to be planning to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Each club paid the league $2 million to join. The National Hockey League added six new franchises for the 1967-68 NHL season, doubling the size of the league. ... The Western Hockey League was a minor pro ice hockey league that operated from 1952 to 1974. ... The 1967-68 NHL season was the 51st regular season of the National Hockey League (NHL). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The St. ... The Dallas Stars are a professional ice hockey team based in Dallas, Texas. ... The Los Angeles Kings are a professional ice hockey team based in Los Angeles, California, USA. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). ... The Oakland Seals were a team in the National Hockey League (NHL). ... The Pittsburgh Penguins are a professional ice hockey team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ...


The six new franchises were placed in a separate division, the West Division. The winner of the East would play the West. This format led to anti-climactic Stanley Cup Finals as the West Division teams were no match for the Original Six clubs.


Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises. Vancouver had applied for the initial round of expansion, but were turned down. Expansion fees had increased and were now $6 million. The Vancouver Canucks are a professional ice hockey team based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... The Buffalo Sabres are a professional ice hockey team based in Buffalo, New York. ...


1970s: NHL vs. WHA competition

In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. Though the NHL refused its challenge for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. In response, the NHL accelerated its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year to block WHA franchises from newly constructed arenas in those markets, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. That, along with continued financial instability that resulted in the relocation of two franchises for the 1976-77 season, caused a planned expansion for 1976 to Denver and Seattle to be cancelled. The 1972-73 WHA season was the first regular season of the now defunct World Hockey Association (WHA). ... World Hockey Association logo The World Hockey Association (French: Association Mondiale de Hockey) was a professional ice hockey league that operated in North America from 1972 to 1979. ... The Stanley Cup The Stanley Cup (French: ) is the championship trophy of the National Hockey League (NHL), the major professional ice hockey league in Canada and the United States. ... The New York Islanders are a professional ice hockey team based in Uniondale, New York, a hamlet located on Long Island. ... The Atlanta Flames were a National Hockey League (NHL) team based in Atlanta, Georgia from 1972 to 1980. ... The Kansas City Scouts was an ice hockey franchise that played in the National Hockey League from 1974-1976 out of Kansas City, Missouri. ... The Washington Capitals are a professional ice hockey team based in Washington, D.C.. They are members of the Southeast Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). ...


The two leagues fought for the services of players until a merger was agreed to following the 1978-79 season. The WHA folded, and four of the its remaining six teams joined the NHL as expansion teams: The Hartford Whalers, Quebec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. As of 2006, the Oilers were the last of the WHA teams still playing in the city where they began: the Nordiques became the Colorado Avalanche in 1995, the Jets moved to Phoenix as the Coyotes a year later, and the Whalers became the Carolina Hurricanes in 1997. The Hartford Whalers (known as the New England Whalers as a World Hockey Association (WHA) franchise from 1972-79), was a National Hockey League (NHL) team that played from 1979-97. ... The Quebec Nordiques (in french Nordiques de Québec, pronounced ; translated into English as Northmen or Northerners) were a professional ice hockey team based in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. ... The Edmonton Oilers are a professional ice hockey team based in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ... The Winnipeg Jets were an ice hockey franchise that existed in both the World Hockey Association and the National Hockey League from 1972 to 1996. ... The Colorado Avalanche are a professional ice hockey team based in Denver, Colorado, United States. ... The Phoenix Coyotes are a professional ice hockey team based in the Phoenix suburb of Glendale. ... The Carolina Hurricanes are a professional ice hockey team based in Raleigh, North Carolina. ...


On the ice, the decade was dominated by the Canadiens, who won the Cup six times. Boston would win twice in 1970 and 1972, its first wins in 30 years. The Philadelphia Flyers would be the first of the teams from the 1967 expansion to win the Cup, winning in 1974 and 1975. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Mr. Campbell would retire as NHL president in 1977, to be succeeded by John Ziegler. John A. Ziegler, Jr (born February 9, 1934 in Grosse Pointe, Michigan) is a former President of the NHL. In 1977, Ziegler became the fourth president of the NHL, succeeding Clarence Campbell. ...


1980s: Two Dynasties

The 1980s were dominated by two teams, the New York Islanders and the Edmonton Oilers. The Islanders would win the first four Cups of the decade, the Oilers would win four, leaving one each for Montreal and Calgary. The decade was dominated by offense, as exemplified by the offense-first play of Edmonton, boasting Wayne Gretzky and the goal-scoring prowess of Mike Bossy for the Islanders. The New York Islanders are a professional ice hockey team based in Uniondale, New York, a hamlet located on Long Island. ... The Edmonton Oilers are a professional ice hockey team based in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ... Wayne Douglas Gretzky, OC (born January 26, 1961) is a retired Canadian professional ice hockey player who is currently part-owner and head coach of the Phoenix Coyotes. ... Michael Mike Bossy (born in Montreal, Quebec, on January 22, 1957) was an ice hockey player who played for the New York Islanders during their four-year reign as Stanley Cup champions in the early 1980s. ...


1990s: Expansion to 30 teams

In the late 1980s, the NHL would adopt a plan to expand. The NHL invited in proposals in 1989, for teams to start play in 1992. While this process was in place, the Minnesota North Stars club was in financial trouble. This was resolved with the team splitting into two: the Dallas Stars would take the bulk of the players, and the owner of the North Stars would gain a new franchise in San Jose, California, known as the Sharks. The Minnesota North Stars were a team in the National Hockey League between 1967 and 1993. ... The Dallas Stars are a professional ice hockey team based in Dallas, Texas. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ...


In December 1991, the process led to the Ottawa Senators rejoining the NHL along with the new Tampa Bay Lightning. This decision, while lucrative as each team paid $50 million to join, did not satisfy the NHL owners' plan, as the NHL was not gaining good TV markets in the States. A policy was made, and followed by new president Gil Stein to identify key markets and place teams there with local ownership. The Ottawa Senators (French: ) are a professional ice hockey team based in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. ... The Tampa Bay Lightning are a professional ice hockey team based in Tampa, Florida. ... Gil Stein is a former NHL President (1992-1993). ...


In 1993, as part of this strategy, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim and Florida Panthers. In a bit of controversy, these teams were added following a courting of Walt Disney Company CEO Michael Eisner and Blockbuster Video owner Wayne Huizenga by Gary Bettman, the new Commissioner of the NHL and Gil Stein. Special arrangements were made to compensate the Los Angeles Kings for the Anaheim expansion within its area; half of the $50 million expansion fee went to the Kings. The Mighty Ducks of Anaheim, commonly referred to as the Anaheim Mighty Ducks, are a professional ice hockey team based in Anaheim, California. ... The Florida Panthers are a professional ice hockey team based in the Ft. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Harry Wayne Huizenga (born on December 29, 1937) is an American who has built several companies into multi-billion dollar enterprises, mostly through an aggressive process of acquisitions. ... Gary Bruce Bettman (born on June 2, 1952 in Queens, New York City) is a Jewish American lawyer who has served as commissioner of the National Hockey League since February 1, 1993. ...


Soon after Mr. Bettman took office, the NHL's traditional conferences and divisions were renamed to reflect geography (like the NBA) rather than the league's history (i.e., the Wales and Campbell Conferences, and the Adams, Patrick, Norris, and Smythe Divisions). In addition, the league adopted a two-referee system; goal lines, blue lines, and defensive-zone circles were moved, and the playoff format was altered so that teams were now bracketed and seeded by conference (also like the NBA), as opposed to the previous bracketing and seeding by division. Prince of Wales Trophy on display at the Hockey Hall of Fame The Prince of Wales Trophy, or simply the Wales Trophy, is a National Hockey League trophy awarded to the Eastern Conference playoff champions. ... Clarence S. Campbell Bowl at the Hockey Hall of Fame The Clarence S. Campbell Bowl, or the Campbell Trophy, is a National Hockey League trophy awarded to the Western Conference playoff champions. ...


In 1993-1994, the NHL entered its greatest period of growth and landed a 5-year contract with FOX/ESPN. The expansions were due in part to Wayne Gretzky's popularity, and Mr. Bettman capitalized on it by reaching out to a broadcast partner which would give the NHL national exposure. This differed significantly from Mr. Bettman's predecessor, John Ziegler, who saw little future in national television, instead having each team rely on regional coverage. Some even predicted that the NHL could overtake Major League Baseball in popularity (which suffered greatly from a strike during that time). The 1993-94 NHL season was the 77th regular season of the National Hockey League. ... FOX NHL Saturday (or The NHL on FOX) is a former TV show that televised National Hockey League games on the Fox Broadcasting Company and produced by Fox Sports. ... ESPN National Hockey Night is a Super NES action game where the player is cast right straight into NHL action on his TV screen. ... Wayne Douglas Gretzky, OC (born January 26, 1961) is a retired Canadian professional ice hockey player who is currently part-owner and head coach of the Phoenix Coyotes. ... John A. Ziegler, Jr (born February 9, 1934 in Grosse Pointe, Michigan) is a former President of the NHL. In 1977, Ziegler became the fourth president of the NHL, succeeding Clarence Campbell. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


In 1998, with the league having reached an agreement with the IOC, NHL players were finally able to compete in the Olympic Winter Games in Nagano, Japan. This marked the first time that all NHL players were able to compete in the Olympics. To serve as a tie-in to the Olympics, the All-Star Game altered the format to become a match-up of players from North America against players from everywhere else in the world (effectively Europe). This format was abandoned in 2003 when the All-Star Game returned to the traditional conference vs. conference format. The 1997-98 NHL season was the 81st regular season of the National Hockey League. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... The 1998 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVIII Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1998 in Nagano, Japan. ... Categories: Host cities of the Winter Olympic Games | Cities in Nagano Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... The National Hockey League All-Star Game (French: Match des Étoiles de la Ligue Nationale de Hockey) is an exhibition hockey game that marks the midway point of the National Hockey Leagues regular season, with many of the leagues star players playing against each other. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The 2002-03 NHL season was the 86th regular season of the National Hockey League. ...


Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), Atlanta Thrashers (1999), Minnesota Wild, and Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams. The Atlanta club marked a return to Atlanta of the NHL after the Flames had relocated to Calgary. The Minnesota Wild returned the NHL to Minneapolis-St. Paul, historically a hotbed of hockey interest. The NHL had promised to return after the Stars had relocated, though the franchises are unrelated historically. The Nashville Predators are a professional ice hockey team based in Nashville, Tennessee. ... The Atlanta Thrashers are a professional ice hockey team based in Atlanta, Georgia. ... The Minnesota Wild are a professional ice hockey team based in Saint Paul, Minnesota. ... The Columbus Blue Jackets are a professional ice hockey team based in Columbus, Ohio, United States. ...


While the NHL has more teams in the United States than in Canada, teams' rosters are still dominated by Canadians, with over half of NHL players on the 2005-06 roster, having been born in Canada, though in the 1970s Canadians had accounted for roughly 95% of all NHL players.


2000s: Finances and Labour Dominate

The new millennia brought economic issues to the fore. Several economic factors brought a squeeze on revenues to member clubs. Ottawa and Buffalo would go bankrupt, and most clubs lost money on a yearly basis. Canadian clubs felt squeezed by the low Canadian dollar. The NHL TV revenues declined. On top of this, the NHL's agreement with its players was due to be renegotiated. This led to the lockout of the 2004-2005 season.


Labour issues

There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005.


The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled. The National Hockey League Players Association or NHLPA is a labour union that represents the interests of the hockey players in the National Hockey League. ... The 1991-92 NHL season was the 75th regular season of the National Hockey League. ...


A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004. The 1994-95 NHL lockout came after a year of NHL hockey that was played without a collective bargaining agreement. ... The 1994-95 NHL season was the 78th regular season of the National Hockey League. ... The NHL collective bargaining agreement is the basic contract between the National Hockey League (NHL) team owners and the NHL Players Association (NHLPA), designed to be arrived at through the typical labour-management negotiations of collective bargaining. ... // On January 28, International Olympic Committee Vice-President Kim Un-yong is arrested on charges of corruption in Seoul. ...


Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season. The National Hockey League Players Association or NHLPA is a labour union that represents the interests of the hockey players in the National Hockey League. ... Euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season. // Athletics Mens 100 metres - Asafa Powell of Jamaica sets a new world record of 9. ... The NHL collective bargaining agreement is the basic contract between the National Hockey League (NHL) team owners and the NHL Players Association (NHLPA), designed to be arrived at through the typical labour-management negotiations of collective bargaining. ... The modernized NHL shield logo was introduced for the 2005-06 season. ...


Post 2005 lockout

On the ice, the New Jersey style of play was considered to be a major factor in declining interest. The league, to relaunch itself after the lockout, made several changes to limit defensive play, and also limit goaltender equipment in size. The league also adopted an unbalanced schedule, where inter-conference play was reduced, to reduce expenses and travel.


On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. This was the first time in league history that all teams played on the same day. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. In the 2005-06 season, the NHL as a whole saw its attendance rise from the totals of 2004, as most teams were able to retain the majority of season ticket holders. In particular, the Pittsburgh Penguins, Carolina Hurricanes, and Buffalo Sabres all saw large gains. However, the Chicago Blackhawks, New York Islanders, St. Louis Blues, and Washington Capitals all had flat attendance. But other teams had either rises or a depletion in attendance from the previous NHL season. is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Athletics Mens 100 metres - Asafa Powell of Jamaica sets a new world record of 9. ... The Pittsburgh Penguins are a professional ice hockey team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... The Carolina Hurricanes are a professional ice hockey team based in Raleigh, North Carolina. ... The Buffalo Sabres are a professional ice hockey team based in Buffalo, New York. ... The Chicago Blackhawks are a professional ice hockey team based in Chicago, Illinois. ... The New York Islanders are a professional ice hockey team based in Uniondale, New York, a hamlet located on Long Island. ... The St. ... The Washington Capitals are a professional ice hockey team based in Washington, D.C.. They are members of the Southeast Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). ...


Today's Challenges

The NHL still wishes to have the TV exposure that other sports have in the United States. The NHL is broadcast nationally on weekends after football season ends, and has partial coverage of the playoffs nationally. In Canada, the television audiences are still strong, with a nationally televised games on weekends all season long.


On the ice, the rule changes lead to increased scoring for the 2005-2006 season, but a small decline occurred for 2006-2007 season. A permanent competition committee now exists, composed of management and players to oversee play.


The unbalanced schedule remains controversial, however the NHL managers have agreed to revisit the schedule after the 2007-08 season.


Several clubs are not profitable, ( a prime example is the Nashville Predators franchise, which is currently being sold ) especially those considered to not be in 'traditional hockey markets' or recent expansions. The Nashville Predators are a professional ice hockey team based in Nashville, Tennessee. ...


References

  1. ^ [Coleman], pg. 328
  2. ^ from "Trying Hard to Wreck Pro Hockey", Montreal Star: pg. 6, October 1, 1918 as quoted in Holzman, page 371.
  3. ^ [Holzman], pg. 286.
  4. ^ [Holzman], pg. 315.
  5. ^ [Holzman], pg. 326.
  6. ^ Cruise, David (1991). Net Worth: exploding the myths of pro hockey. Viking. ISBN 0670831174. 
  7. ^ [Cruise], pg. 41
  8. ^ [Cruise], pgs. 84-88
  9. ^ [Cruise], pgs. 84-88
  • Coleman, Charles (1966-1969). The Trail of the Stanley Cup, vols. 1-3, 1893-1967. 
  • Holzman, Morey (2002). Deceptions and Doublecross:How the NHL Conquered Hockey. Dundurn Press. 
  • McFarlane, Brian (1997). Brian McFarlane's History of Hockey. Champaign, IL: Sports Publishing Inc.. ISBN 1-57167-145-5. 

See also


 
 

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