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Encyclopedia > History of the Jews in Muslim lands
Part of a series of articles on
Jews and Judaism
         

Who is a Jew? · Etymology · Culture Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Image File history File links Menora. ... Who is a Jew? (Hebrew: ) is a religious, social and political debate on the exact definition of which persons can be considered Jewish. ... Look up Jew in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is becoming very long. ...

Judaism · Core principles
God · Tanakh (Torah / Nevi'im / Ketuvim)
Talmud · Halakha · Holidays
Passover
· Prayer
Ethics · 613 Mitzvot · Customs · Midrash Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... Tanakh ‎ (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... Neviim [נביאים] or Prophets is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... The first page of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Passover (Hebrew: פסח; transliterated as Pesach or Pesah), also called ×—×’ המצות (Chag HaMatzot - Festival of Matzot) is a Jewish holiday which is celebrated in the northern spring. ... Jewish services are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... Main article: Mitzvah 613 mitzvot or 613 Commandments (Hebrew: תריג מצוות transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ... Mitzvah (Hebrew: מצווה, IPA: , commandment; plural, mitzvot; from צוה, tzavah, command) is a word used in Judaism to refer to (a) the commandments, of which there are 613, given in the Torah (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible) or (b) any Jewish law at all. ... Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ...

Jewish ethnic divisions
Ashkenazi · Sephardi · Mizrahi · Lost tribes See related article Judaism by country. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... {{Ethnic group| |image= |group=Sephardi |poptime=>1,700,000 |popplace=Israel: 950,000[1] United States: 150,000 [2] Turkey: 20,000[3] The Netherlands: 270 families Northern Africa: nn Europe (mostly in France): 600,000 Southern Africa: nn Oceania: nn |langs=*Liturgical:,[[Arabic],Sephardic Hebrew *Traditional: Ladino, Judæo... height=28 width=28 thumb->width=28 --> This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... It has been suggested that Israelite Diaspora be merged into this article or section. ...

Population (historical) · By country
Israel · Iran · USA · Russia/USSR · Poland
Canada · Germany · France · England
India · Spain · Portugal · Latin America
Muslim lands · Turkey · Iraq · Syria
Lists of Jews · Crypto-Judaism Jewish population centers have shifted tremendously over time, due to the constant streams of Jewish refugees created by expulsions, persecution, and officially sanctioned killing of Jews in various places at various times. ... Jews by country Who is a Jew? Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews Sephardi Jews Black Jews Black Hebrew Israelites Y-chromosomal Aaron Jewish population Historical Jewish population comparisons List of religious populations Lists of Jews Crypto-Judaism Etymology of the word Jew Categories: | ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... This article is about the history of the Jewish people in England. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as crypto-Jews. The term crypto-Jew is also used to describe descendants of Jews who still (generally secretly) maintain some Jewish traditions, often while adhering...

Jewish denominations · Rabbis
Orthodox · Conservative · Reform
Reconstructionist · Liberal · Karaite
Alternative · Renewal Many Jewish denominations exist within the religion of Judaism; the Jewish community is divided into a number of religious denominations as well as branches or movements. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy Rabbi (Sephardic Hebrew רִבִּי ribbÄ«; Ashkenazi Hebrew רֶבִּי rebbÄ« or rebbÉ™; and modern Israeli רַבִּי rabbÄ«) in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root-word RaV, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished (in... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmudic texts (The Oral Law) and as subsequently developed and applied by the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not include all significant viewpoints. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest stream of Judaism in America and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern Jewish movement marked by views and practices including: Personal autonomy should generally override traditional Jewish law and custom, yet also take into account communal consensus Modern culture is accepted The view that Judaism is an evolving religious civilization Traditional rabbinic modes of study, as well... Liberal Judaism is a term used by some communities worldwide for what is otherwise also known as Reform Judaism or Progressive Judaism. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ... The term Jewish Renewal refers to a set of practices within Judaism that attempt to reinvigorate Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ...

Jewish languages
Hebrew · Yiddish · Judeo-Persian. Ladino
Judeo-Aramaic · Judeo-Arabic
Juhuri · Krymchak · Karaim · Knaanic
· Yevanic · Zarphatic · Dzhidi The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... The Judæo-Persian languages include a number of related languages spoken throughout the formerly extensive realm of the Persian Empire, sometimes including all the Jewish Indo-Iranian languages: Dzhidi (Judæo-Persian) Bukhori (Judæo-Bukharic) Judæo-Golpaygani Judæo-Yazdi Judæo-Kermani Judæo-Shirazi Jud... Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ... Juhuri, Juwri or Judæo-Tat is the traditional language of the Juhurim or Mountain Jews of the eastern Caucasus Mountains, especially Dagestan. ... Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... Knaanic (also called Canaanic, Leshon Knaan or Judeo-Slavic) was a West Slavic language, formerly spoken in the Czech lands, now the Czech Republic. ... Yevanic, otherwise known as Yevanika, Romaniote and Judeo-Greek, was the language of the Romaniotes, the group of Greek Jews whose existence in Greece is documented since the 4th century BCE. Its linguistic lineage stems from Attic Greek and the Hellenistic Koine (Κοινή Ελ&#955... Zarphatic or Judæo-French (Zarphatic: Tsarfatit) is an extinct Jewish language, formerly spoken among the Jewish communities of northern France and in parts of what is now west-central Germany, in such cities as Mainz, Frankfurt-am-Main, and Aachen. ... Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Iran. ...

Political movements · Zionism
Labor Zionism · Revisionist Zionism
Religious Zionism · General Zionism
The Bund · World Agudath Israel
Jewish feminism · Israeli politics Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Labor Zionism (or Labour Zionism) is the traditional left-wing of the Zionist ideology. ... Revisionist Zionism is a right wing tendency within the Zionist movement. ... Kippot Sruggot: Modern Orthodox Jewish students carry the flag of Israel at a public parade in Manhattan, NY, USA Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement, also called Mizrachi, is an ideology combining Zionism and Judaism, which offers Zionism based on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... World Agudath Israel (The World Israelite Union) was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Orthodox Judaism. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...

History · Timeline · Leaders
Ancient · Temple · Babylonian exile
Jerusalem (In Judaism · Timeline)
Hasmoneans · Sanhedrin · Schisms
Pharisees · Jewish-Roman wars
Diaspora · And Christianity · And Islam
Middle Ages · Kabbalah · Hasidism
Haskalah · Emancipation · Holocaust
Aliyah · Israel (History) · Arab conflict Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith (Judaism) and culture. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... In compiling the history of ancient Israel and Judah, there are many available sources. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... Panoramic view from Mt. ... The city of Jerusalem is significant in a number of religious traditions, including Judaism, Christianity, Islam. ... 1800 BCE - The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem). ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (Hebrew: Hashmonai) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BCE to 37 BCE was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BCE. // The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is recorded in the books... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Schisms among the Jews: // First Temple era Based on the historical narrative in the Bible and archeology, Levantine civilization at the time of Solomons Temple was prone to idol worship, astrology, worship of reigning kings, and paganism. ... The Pharisees (from the Hebrew perushim, from parash, meaning to separate) were, depending on the time, a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews that flourished during the Second Temple Era (536 BCE–70 CE). ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 13,000? Casualties Unknown 600,000–1,300,000 (mass civilian casualties) The first Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called The Great... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile) is the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout Babylonia and the Roman Empire. ... Judaism and Christianity are two closely related Abrahamic religions that are in some ways parallel to each other and in other ways fundamentally divergent in theology and practice. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Jews in the Middle Ages : The history of Jews in the Middle Ages (approximately 500 CE to 1750 CE) can be divided into two categories. ... This article is about traditional Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism). ... It has been suggested that Hasidic philosophy be merged into this article or section. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, intellect, from sekhel, common sense), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... This article describes the history of the modern State of Israel, from its Independence Proclamation in 1948 to the present. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Persecution · Antisemitism
The Holocaust
History of antisemitism
New antisemitism Persecution of Jews includes various persecutions that the Jewish people and Judaism have experienced throughout Jewish history. ... The Eternal Jew (German: Der ewige Jude): 1937 German poster advertising an antisemitic Nazi movie. ... This article is becoming very long. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... New antisemitism is the concept of an international resurgence of attacks on Jewish symbols, as well as the acceptance of antisemitic beliefs and their expression in public discourse, coming from three political directions: the political left, far-right, and Islamism. ...

v  d  e

Excluding the region of Palestine, and omitting the accounts of Joseph and Moses as unverifiable, Jews have lived in what are now Arab states at least since the Babylonian Captivity (597 BCE), about 2,600 years ago. Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Joseph interprets the dream of the Pharaoh. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt Moses or Mosheh (Hebrew: מֹשֶׁה Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: موسى, ; Geez: ሙሴ Musse) was an early Biblical Hebrew religious leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC 540s BC Events and Trends 598 BC - Jehoaichin succeeds Jehoiakim as King of Judah 598 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem...


After the expansion of Arab Muslims into these lands, Jews, along with Christians and Zoroastrians, typically had the legal status of dhimmi. As such, they were entitled to limited rights, tolerance, and protection, on the condition they pay a special poll tax (the "jizya"), which exempted them from military service, and also from payment of the Zakat alms tax required of Muslims. As dhimmi, Jews were typically subjected to several restrictions, the application and severity of which varied by time and place: prohibitions against proselytizing and marrying Muslim women, and limited access to the legal systems. They sometimes attained high positions in government, notably as viziers and physicians. Jewish communities, like Christian ones, were typically constituted as semi-autonomous entities managed by their own laws and leadership, who carried the responsibility for the community towards the Muslim rulers. The treatment of Jews in Muslim lands was generally better than that in Europe. As a result, many Jews sought refuge in Muslim ruled Middle East and North Africa from persecution in Europe. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... A dhimmi (also zimmi, Arabic: ‎, collectively: أهل الذمة, ahl al-dhimma, the people of the dhimma or pact of protection) was a free (i. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية) is a per capita tax imposed on free non-Muslim adult males who are neither old nor sick nor monks [1], known as dhimmis, in exchange for being allowed to practice their faith, subject to certain conditions, and to enjoy... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Vizir, Wasir, Wazir, Wesir, Wezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages) is an oriental, originally Persian, term for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or Minister, often to a Muslim monarch such as a Caliph, Amir, Malik (king) or Sultan. ... The Doctor by Samuel Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ...


By the late 1940s, conditions of the Jews in many Muslim countries were rapidly worsening through a combination of growing Arab nationalism due to European occupation; Nazi influence in the axis controlled parts of North Africa; and the conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine. The situation came to a head after 1948 Arab-Israeli war, historically the first military struggle between Jews and Muslims. Consequently many Arab states instituted formal laws against their Jewish populations. Within a few decades, most Jews fled Muslim lands, most for the newly created Jewish state, but some went to France or the United States. In 1945 there were between 758,000 and 866,000 Jews living in communities throughout the Arab world. Today, there are fewer than 8,000. In some Arab states, such as Libya (which was once around 3 percent Jewish), the Jewish community no longer exists; in other Arab countries, only a few hundred Jews remain. Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Combatants  Israel Egypt Syria Transjordan  Lebanon Saudi Arabia Iraq Holy War Army Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni† Hasan Salama Fawzi al-Qawuqji Strength 29,677 initially–108,300 by December 1948 Egypt: 10,000 initially rising to 20,000 Iraq... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


Jewish ethnic groups that have lived in the majority-Muslim world include Sephardi, Mizrahi, and Temani. Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are at least 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Sephardim (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew SÉ™fardi, Tiberian Hebrew ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Sfaradim, Tiberian Hebrew ) are a subgroup of Jews, generally defined in contrast to Ashkenazim and/or . ... Mizrachi is also an organisation of the Religious Zionist Movement Mizrahi Jews or Oriental Jews (מזרחי eastern, Standard Hebrew Mizraḥi, Tiberian Hebrew Mizrāḥî; plural מזרחים easterners, Standard Hebrew Mizraḥim, Tiberian Hebrew Mizrāḥîm... Yemenite Jews (תֵּימָנִי, Standard Hebrew Temani, Tiberian Hebrew Têmānî; plural תֵּימָנִים, Standard Hebrew Temanim, Tiberian Hebrew Têmānîm) are those Jews who live, or whose recent ancestors...

See also: Jewish exodus from Arab lands and Jewish refugees

Contents

The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century emigration of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ... In the course of history, Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from Anti-Semitism numerous times. ...

By nation

Arabian Peninsula

There had been, for some long but uncertain period, a significant number of Jews in Arabia. Some Arab historians claim that very large numbers of Jews - as high as 80,000 - arrived after the destruction of the First Temple, to join others already long established in places such as the Oasis of Khaybar as well as the trading colonies in Medina and Mecca (where they even had their own cemetery). Another theory posits that these Jews were refugees from Byzantine persecutions. Regardless, Arab historians mention some 20 Jewish tribes, including two tribes of Kohanim. The Jews spoke Arabic, were organised into clans and tribes just like the Arabs, and seem to have fully assimilated the values and customs of Arab desert society.


Mohammed certainly had contact with the Jews of Arabia, and they feature prominently in the early history of the Muslim movement. One might note the importance of the prophet Abraham within Islam to highlight this connection, although Mohammed downplayed Abraham's Jewish or Christian credentials and instead portrayed him as a common forefather. But whatever influence Jewish religious practice had on Mohammed, politically the Jews did not fare well under his growing influence as a result of their trying to sabotage his newly establish community in Medina. After settling in Medina, Mohammed moved to eliminate the Jewish tribes resident there, as they were quickly perceived by him as a threat to Muslim community in its struggle against its pagan enemies in Mecca. The first group of Jews was forced into exile within a short time of Mohammed's arrival in Medina. The following year saw the expulsion of the second tribe, accused of planning to kill the Prophet by dropping a rock on his head as he rested under a wall outside its village. (Mohammed, who "received divine warning", skillfully evaded the plot). A third group remained, in a weakened position, due to their tolerated status as 'people of the book'.


As historian Albert Hourani notes, the development of the Prophet's teaching may be linked to the changing relationship with the Jews of Medina. Although they formed part of his original alliance with the tribes of Medina, their position inevitably eroded as as Muhammed's claim for his diving mission expanded. The Jews could not accept him as a genuine messenger of God within their own tradition due to his not being of Jewish lineage. Mohammed, in turn, seems to have viewed the nature of Jewish religious practice to have been a corruption or preversion of the revelation entrusted to them by the one God: "you have concealed what you were ordered to make plain", said Mohammed of the Jews, noting their exclusive societal nature and reluctance to prosletyze. They had, in short, greedily held onto a revelation that ought to have been spread to all peoples. It was around this time that Mohammed changed the direction of prayer from Jerusalem to Mecca.


With such official attitudes towards Judaism it is not surprising that he limited tolerance shown towards the Jews in Arabia did not last. In year 20 of the Muslim era, or the year 641 AD, Mohammed's successor the Caliph 'Umar decreed that Jews and Christians should be removed from all but the southern and eastern fringes of Arabia--a decree based on the (sometimes disputed) uttering of the Prophet: "Let there not be two religions in Arabia". The two populations in question were the Jews of the Khaybar oasis in the north and the Christians of Najran.


Jewish expulsion from Arabia, unlike their later expulsions from Christian lands, was nonetheless carried out with a degree of mercy and compassion. The Arabian Jews were assigned lands in Syria and Palestine (while the Christian were sent to Iraq), and they were given time to effect the move. The expulsion was eventually completed, and from then until the modern day the Holy Land of the Hijaz has been forbidden to non-Muslims. Only the Red Sea port of Jedda was permitted as a "religious quarantine area" and continued to have a small complement of Jewish merchants.


Spain (711-1492)

For nearly 700 years, Spain (then Al-Andalus) was ruled by an Islamic Caliphate. For a period of time during the Muslim rule of Spain Jews were generally accepted in Muslim Spanish society and Jewish religious, cultural, and economic life blossomed. Over time, the nature and length of this "Golden Age" has become a subject of debate. Some scholars give starting periods of the Golden Age as either the mid-700s CE (the Muslim conquest of Spain) or 912 (the rule of Abd-ar-Rahman III) and end of the Golden Age as variously 976 (when the Caliphate began to break apart), 1066 (when the Jews of Granada were expelled) or the mid-1100s, with the invasion of the Almohades. The Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain, also known as the Golden Age of Arab Rule in Spain, refers to a period of history during the Muslim occupation of Spain in which Jews were generally accepted in Spanish society and Jewish religious, cultural, and economic life blossomed. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Caliphate (Arabic خلافة Khilafah) is an Islamic federal government which represents political leadership and unity of the Muslim world (Ummah) applying Islamic law (Shariah). ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... Events Orso II Participazio becomes Doge of Venice Patriarch Nicholas I Mysticus becomes patriarch of Constantinople Births November 23 - Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor (+ 973) Abd-ar-rahman III - prince of the Umayyad dynasty Deaths Oleg of Kiev Categories: 912 ... For indivduals with the same or similar name, see Abd-ar-Rahman Abd-ar-Rahman III, Emir and Caliph of Cordoba (912 - 961) was the greatest and the most successful of the princes of the Ummayad dynasty in Spain. ... Events January 10 - Basil II becomes Eastern Roman Emperor, see Byzantine Emperors. ... The Caliphate (Arabic خلافة Khilafah) is an Islamic federal government which represents political leadership and unity of the Muslim world (Ummah) applying Islamic law (Shariah). ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Granada – Greek: (Steph. ... Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Decades: 1050s 1060s 1070s 1080s 1090s - 1100s - 1110s 1120s 1130s 1140s 1150s Years: 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 Events and Trends 1107 Emperor Toba ascends the throne of Japan The great Buddhist centre of learning at Nalanda is... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ...


Ottoman Empire (1326-1800)

Jews have lived in Turkey (and, before that, the Ottoman Empire and other states in Asia Minor) for over two thousand years. For much of the Ottoman period, Turkey was a safe haven for Jews fleeing persecution, and it continues to have a small Jewish population today. Jews have lived in what is now know as Turkey (and, before that, the Ottoman Empire and other former states in Anatolia) for over two thousand years. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to...


Lebanon

In 1948, there were approximately 5,000 Jews in Lebanon, with communities in Beirut, and on villages near Mount Lebanon, Deir al Qamar, Barouk, and Hasbayah. While the French mandate saw a general improvement in conditions for Jews, the Vichy regime placed restrictions on them. The Jewish community actively supported Lebanese independence after World War II and had mixed attitudes toward Zionism. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Beirut ( translit: ) is the capital, largest city, and chief seaport of Lebanon. ... Mount Lebanon, as a geographic designation, is the mountain range that extends across the whole country of Lebanon along about 160 km (100 mi), parallel to the Mediterranean coast and rising to 3,090 m (10,137 ft). ... Deir el Qamar (in Arabic دير القمر, meaning monastery of the Moon) is a village in south-central Lebanon, 5 kilometres outside of Beiteddine, consisting of stone houses with red-tiled roofs. ... Barouk is a village in the Chouf region of Lebanon. ... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later...


Negative attitudes toward Jews increased after 1948, and by 1967, most Lebanese Jews had emigrated - to the United States, Canada, France, and Israel. The remaining Jewish community was particularly hard hit by the civil wars in Lebanon, and by 1967 most Jews had emigrated. In the 1980s, Hezbollah kidnapped several Lebanese Jewish businessmen, and in the 2004 elections, only one Jew voted in the municipal elections. By all accounts, there are fewer than 100 Jews left in Lebanon. 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Hezbollah[1] (Arabic: ‎ ,[2] meaning party of God) is a Shia Islamist militant and political organization based in Lebanon. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Read also Beirut’s last Jews.


Iraq

Iraqi Jews' constitute one of the world's oldest, and historically most important, Jewish communities. Abraham came from Ur in Babylon, and it was to Babylon that the Jews were exiled around 600 BCE. The descendants of these exiles ensured that Babylonia became the most important Jewish community after the Roman destruction of Jerusalem. The community thrived as the center of Jewish learning until the Middle Ages, when the Mongol invasion, and the subsequent persecutions of the Persians significantly reduced its importance. With the rule of the Ottoman Empire, the life of Iraqi Jews improved, though the community never regained its former importance. Iraqi Jews played an important role in the early days of the country's independence, but the Iraqi Jewish community, numbered at around 150,000 in 1948, was almost entirely driven out of the country by increasing persecution from the 1940s onwards. Today, less than 100 remain. Iraqi Jews constitute one of the worlds oldest, and historically most important, Jewish communities. ... It has been suggested that Abraham (Hebrew Bible) be merged into this article or section. ... UR, Ur, or ur can refer to several things: The City of Ur Úr (letter) of the Ogham alphabet Ur (rune) ᚢ of the runic alphabets Royal Game of Ur Ur, the first known continent Ur- is a German prefix. ... Babylon was a city in Mesopotamia, the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, Iraq, about 50 miles south of Baghdad. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...


Persia and Iran (711-1900)

Main article: Persian Jews

Judaism is the second-oldest religion still existing in Iran (after Zoroastrianism). Today, the largest groups of Persian Jews are found in Israel (100,000) and the United States (45,000) (especially in the Los Angeles area, home to a large concentration of expatriate Iranians). By various estimates, between 11,000 and 30,000 Jews remain in Iran, mostly in Tehran and Hamedan. There are also smaller communities in Western Europe and Australia. A number of groups of Persian Jews have split off since ancient times, to the extent that they are now recognized as separate communities, such as the Bukharan Jews and Mountain Jews. A modern-day synogogue in Iran Persian Jews, Iranian Jews, or the Jews of Persia are Jews historically affiliated with the Persian Empire or the modern country of Iran. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... An expatriate (in abbreviated form, expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of his upbringing or legal residence. ... Tehran (IPA: ; Persian: تهران, Middle Persian: طھران, also transliterated as Teheran or Tehrān), population (as of 2005) 7,314,000 (metropolitan: 12,151,000), and a land area of 658 square kilometers (254 sq mi), is the capital city of Iran (Persia) and the center of Tehran Province. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان ) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... Bukharan Jews (Bukhoran Jews, Bukhari Jews) is a blanket term for Jews from Central Asia who speak Bukhori, a dialect of the Persian language. ... Mountain Jews, or Juhurim, are Jews of the eastern Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan. ...


Tunisia

Tunisia has had a Jewish minority since Roman times. Tunisia was the only Arab country to come under direct German occupation during World War II, where they suffered under a forced labor and random execution policy. After independence in the 1950s, Tunisia's Jewish Community Council was abolished by the government and many Jewish areas and buildings were destroyed for urban rehabilitation. In 1948 the Jewish population was an estimated 105,000. During the Six-Day War, Jews were attacked in riots, and, despite government protection, 7,000 Jews emigrated to France. As of 2004 an estimated 1,500 still remain, particularly on the island of Djerba (noted for its synagogues), comprising the country's largest indigenous religious minority. ... This article describes some ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity; for a consideration of the Jewish religion, refer to the article Judaism. ... The Roman Empire is the name given to both the imperial domain developed by the city-state of Rome and also the corresponding phase of that civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Djerba [1] (also transliterated as Jerba, Jarbah or Girba جزيرة جربة) is the largest island off North Africa, located in the Gulf of Gabes off the coast of Tunisia. ... A synagogue (Hebrew: בית כנסת ; beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: שול, shul; Ladino אסנוגה esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ...


Morocco

Moroccan Jews constitute an ancient community. Upon independence in 1956, there were around 265,000 Jews, according to the census. Many Jews with deep ties with France emigrated to France. Others exited France to other Western Francophone countries (esp. Belgium and Switzerland) as well as Québec (French-speaking Canada). They were mostly economic migrants. The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ...


Although the vast majority of Jews left after independence, 5,500 Jews remain in Morocco. Several decades ago, popular Moroccan society itself was deeply anti-Semitic; whether it still is and if so to what degree is not known[citation needed]. There have been anti-Semitic attacks against Moroccan Jews (including homicides) and a major Al Qaeda attack on Moroccan Jewish targets in recent years. Nevertheless, Jews are now treated very well by the Moroccan government, and receive special privileges from the royal family, especially the late Hassan II.


Egypt

Egyptian Jews constitute perhaps the oldest Jewish community in the world. The Jewish population of Egypt is now somewhere from 100-1000 people, down from between 75,000 and 100,000 in 1948. They include some Karaite Jews. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Egyptian Jews constitute perhaps the oldest Jewish community in the world. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ...


Algeria

Jews and Judaism have a rather long history in Algeria. However, following the brutal conflict of the 1990s there – in particular, the rebel Armed Islamic Group's 1994 declaration of war on all non-Muslims in the country – most of the thousand-odd Jews previously there, living mainly in Algiers and to a lesser extent Blida, Constantine, and Oran, emigrated. The Algiers synagogue was abandoned after 1994. These Jews themselves represented the remainder of only about 10,000 who had chosen to stay there in 1962; most of Algeria's 140,000 Jews, having been granted French citizenship in 1870, left the country for France when it attained independence, together with the pied-noirs. Jews and Judaism have a rather long history in Algeria. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from French Groupe Islamique Armé; Arabic al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah al-Musallah) is a militant Islamist group with the declared aim of overthrowing the Algerian government and replacing it with an Islamic state. ... Nickname: al-Bahjah Location of Algiers within Algeria Algiers 944 A.D. Area    - City 273 km² Population    - City (2003) around 2. ... Blida (Arabic: البليدة) is a major town of Algeria, chief town of the department(Wilaya) of Blida, 45 km south-west of Algiers. ... Position of Constantine in Algeria. ... View of Oran Oran (population 700,000) (Arabic: , Wahran) is a city in northwest Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean Sea coast. ... Nickname: al-Bahjah Location of Algiers within Algeria Algiers 944 A.D. Area    - City 273 km² Population    - City (2003) around 2. ... A synagogue (Hebrew: בית כנסת ; beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: שול, shul; Ladino אסנוגה esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Pied-noir is a term for the former French colonists of North Africa, especially Algeria. ...


Libya

The area now known as Libya was the home of one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world, dating back to at least 300 BCE. In 1948, about 38,000 Jews lived there.


A series of pogroms started in November of 1945, when more than 140 Jews were killed in Tripoli and most synagogues in the city looted. The pogroms continued in June of 1948, when 15 Jews were killed and 280 Jewish homes destroyed.[1][2][3] Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ...


Upon Libya's independence in 1951, most of the Jewish community emigrated from Libya. After the Suez Crisis in 1956, another series of pogroms forced all but about 100 Jews to flee. When Muammar al-Qaddafi came to power in 1969, all remaining Jewish property was confiscated and all debts to Jews cancelled.[4] 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 300,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2,900 WIA 2... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi 1 — pronounced Gaddafi — (Arabic: معمر القذافي ) (born c. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ...


In 2004 Libya unilaterally invited Jews to return and receive compensation for their original property, on condition that they leave their property in Israel to Palestinians.[1]. Libyan Jews' reaction to the offer of return has been negative; they view it as a stunt intended to improve Libya's standing in both the Western and Arab worlds, cite concerns about religious freedoms, and point out the lack of human rights and democracy in Libya that make such an offer highly unattractive. However, the compensation offer has attracted guarded interest.[2][3]


Although the main synagogue in Tripoli was renovated in 1999, it has not reopened for services. The last Jew in Libya, Esmeralda Meghnagi, died in February of 2002. Israel is home to about 40,000 Jews of Libyan descent, who maintain unique traditions.[5] [6] 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...


Bahrain

Bahrain's tiny Jewish community, mostly the descendants of immigrants who entered the country in the early 1900s from Iraq, numbered 600 in 1948. Over the next few decades, most left for other countries, especially England; some 36 remain (as of 2006.)[7] Bahraini Jews constitute another one of the worlds oldest, and todays smallest, Jewish communities. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ...


Relations between Jews and Muslims are generally considered good, with Bahrain being the only state on the Arabian peninsular where there is a specific Jewish community. Bahrain is the only Gulf state with a synagogue. One member of the community, Rouben Rouben, who sells TV sets, DVD players, copies, fax machines and kitchen appliances from his downtown showroom, said “95 percent of my customers are Bahrainis, and the government is our No. 1 corporate customer. I’ve never felt any kind of discrimination.”


Members play a prominent role in civil society: Ebrahim Nono was appointed in 2002 a member of Bahrain's upper house of parliament, the Consultative Council, while a Jewish woman heads a human rights group, the Bahrain Human Rights Watch Society. According to the JTA news agency, the active Jewish community is "a source of pride for Bahraini officials".[8] The Consultative Council (majlis al-shura) is the name given to the upper house of the National Assembly, the main legislative body of Bahrain. ... The Bahrain Human Rights Watch Society (BHRWS) is a Bahraini human rights organization established in November 2004 which has been at the forefront of efforts to protect housemaids, fight for women’s rights and confront Islamist campaigns to restrict personal freedoms. ...


See also

  • Jews of the Bilad el-Sudan (West Africa)

Jews of the Bilad el-Sudan יהודים הבילד אל-סודן (Hebrew) describes West African Jewish communities who either had their connection with known Jewish communities from the Middle East, North Africa, Spain, and Portugal. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Libya Wants the Jews to Return "Home" April 14, 2004 (INN)
  2. ^ Libya Invites the Jews Who Fled To Come Home by Eric J. Greenberg April 30, 2004 The Forward
  3. ^ Libyan Jews claim £100m for seized wealth by Inigo Gilmore January 11, 2004 (The Telegraph)

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Treatment of Jews in Arab/Islamic Countries (1338 words)
When the Jews of Medina refused to convert and rejected Muhammad, two of the major Jewish tribes were expelled; in 627, Muhammad's followers killed between 600 and 900 of the men, and divided the surviving Jewish women and children amongst themselves.
Jews were generally viewed with contempt by their Muslim neighbors; peaceful coexistence between the two groups involved the subordination and degradation of the Jews.
When Jews were perceived as having achieved too comfortable a position in Islamic society, anti-Semitism would surface, often with devastating results: On December 30, 1066, Joseph HaNagid, the Jewish vizier of Granada, Spain, was crucified by an Arab mob that proceeded to raze the Jewish quarter of the city and slaughter its 5,000 inhabitants.
Jews_ Islam (1351 words)
When the Jews of Medina refused to convert and rejected Muhammad, two of the major Jewish tribes were expelled; in 627, Muhammad's followers killed between 600 and 900 of the men, and divided the surviving Jewish women and children amongst themselves.
Jews were generally viewed with contempt by their Muslim neighbors; peaceful coexistence between the two groups involved the subordination and degradation of the Jews.
When Jews were perceived as having achieved too comfortable a position in Islamic society, anti­Semitism would surface, often with devastating results: On December 30, 1066, Joseph HaNagid, the Jewish vizier of Granada, Spain, was crucified by an Arab mob that proceeded to raze the Jewish quarter of the city and slaughter its 5,000 inhabitants.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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