FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > History of the Jews in Libya
  History of Libya  
Periods

Ancient Libya Image File history File links Libyseal. ... The Visible history of Libya is a flux of stronger and weaker control by outsiders. ... Since Neolithic times the climate of North Africa has been drying. ...


Islamic Tripolitania
and Cyrenaica
The Age of the Caliphs With tenuous Byzantine control over Libya restricted to a few poorly defended coastal strongholds, the Arab horsemen who first crossed into Pentapolis, Cyrenaica in September 642 encountered little resistance. ...


Ottoman Libya By the beginning of the 15th century the Libyan coast had minimal central authority and its harbours were havens for unchecked bands of pirates. ...


Italian Colony For a fullt treatment of the Italian invasion of 1911, see Italian invasion of Libya. ...


Modern Libya On November 21, 1949, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution stating that Libya should become independent before January 1, 1952. ...

Jews have lived in Libya since the 3rd century BC, when North Africa was under Roman rule. During World War II, Libya's Jewish population was subjected to anti-Semitic laws by the Fascist Italian regime and deportations by German troops. After the war, anti-Jewish violence caused many Jews to leave the country usually for Israel. Under Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi, who has ruled the country since 1969, the situation became a lot worse, which led almost all Jews to emigrate .Al-Gaddafi's attempts to become a respected member of the international community again since the 1990s, have, however, led to a more friendly policy towards Jewish people. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 3rd century BC started on January 1, 300 BC and ended on December 31, 201 BC. // Events The Pyramid of the Moon, one of several monuments built in Teotihuacán Teotihuacán, Mexico begun The first two Punic Wars between Carthage...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The Bundeswehr is the armed forces of Germany. ... Muammar al-Gaddafi visits Brussels in 2004 (photo courtesy of the EC). ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Germans dancing on the Berlin Wall in late 1989, the symbol of the cold war divide falls down as the world unites in the 1990s. ...

Contents

Ancient history

During the Greco-Roman period Libya corresponded approximately with Cyrene and the territory belonging to it. Jews lived there - including many that moved there from Egypt; Augustus granted Cyrene's Jewish population certain privileges through Flavius, the governor of the province. At the time, they had close contact to the Jews in Jerusalem. In 73 BC during the First Jewish-Roman War in Iudaea Province, there was also a revolt by the Jewish community in Cyrene led by Jonathan the Weaver, which was quickly suppressed by the governor Catullus. Jonathan was denounced to the governor of Pentapolis. [1][2] In vengeance, the Romans then killed him and many wealthy Jews in Cyrene. In 115, another Jewish revolt broke out not only in Cyrene, but also in Egypt and Cyprus.[3] Several Libyan Jews from this period are known today, such as Jason of Cyrene, whose work is the source of the Second Book of Maccabees, and Simon of Cyrene, who carried the cross of Jesus as Jesus was taken to his crucifixion.[2] In modern Olympic and amateur wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling is a particular style and variation. ... Cyrene can refer to: The USS Cyrene (AGP-13), a motor torpedo boat tender Cyrene, a figure from Greek mythology Cyrene, a Greek colony in Libya (north Africa) 133 Cyrene, an asteroid Cyrene, fictional character who is the mother of Xena in the series Xena: Warrior Princess See also: Cyrenaica... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... Flavius was the name of a gens in ancient Rome, meaning blonde. The feminine form was Flavia. ... Panoramic view from Mt. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC - 73 BC - 72 BC 71 BC 70... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 13,000? Casualties Unknown 600,000–1,300,000 (mass civilian casualties) The first Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called The Great... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea was a Roman province that extended over Judaea (Palestine). ... Cyrene, the ancient Greek city (in present-day Libya) was the oldest and most important of the five Greek cities in the region and gave eastern Libya the classical name Cyrenaica that it has retained to modern times. ... For persons with a cognomen Catulus, see Lutatius Gaius Valerius Catullus (ca. ... A Pentapolis, from the Greek words penta five and polis city(-state) is geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities. ... Events Roman Empire Trajan was cut off in southern Mesopotamia after his invasion of that region and captures of the Parthian capital Ctesiphon. ... Jason of Cyrene was a Hellenistic Jew who lived about 100 BCE and wrote a history of the times of the Maccabees down to the victory over Nicanor (175-161). ... 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ... According to the Gospel of Mark (15:21-22), Matthew (27:32), and Luke (23:26) Simon of Cyrene (שמעון Hearkening; listening, Standard Hebrew Šimʿon, Tiberian Hebrew Šimʿôn) was compelled by the Romans to carry the cross of Jesus as... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Crucifixion of St. ...


Italian colonization and World War II

In 1911, Libya was colonized by Italy. At the time there were about 21,000 Jews living in the country, mostly in Tripoli. The situation for the Jews was generally good. But, in the late 1930s anti-Semitic laws started being passed by the Fascist Italian regime. Despite the repression Libyan Jews were subject to during this time, one quarter of the population of Tripoli was still Jewish in 1941 and 44 synagogues were maintained in the city. In 1942 as German troops were fighting the Allies in North Africa, they occupied the Jewish quarter of Benghazi, plundered shops, deported more than 2,000 Jews across the desert, where more than one-fifth of them perished, and sent many Jews to work in labor camps.[3] 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... A synagogue (Hebrew: בית כנסת ; beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: שול, shul; Ladino אסנוגה esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... Colourful buildings in the city centre. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ...


After World War II

In the years after the liberation of North Africa by British troops some of the worst anti-Jewish violence occurred. From November 5 to November 7, 1945, more than 140 Jews were killed, many more were injured, almost all synaguoges were looted and 5 were destroyed along with hundreds of homes and businesses in a pogrom in Tripoli.[4][5] In June 1948, rioters killed another 12 Jewish people and destroyed 280 Jewish homes[5]; this time the Jews did, however, attempt to defend themselves with arms.[4] November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The insecurity, which arose from the attacks from the Libyan population as well as the founding of the state of Israel led many Jews to emigrate. From 1948, especially after this became legal in 1949, to 1951, 30,972 Jews moved to Israel, in other words made Aliyah.[3] On December 31, 1958 the Jewish Community Council was ordered to be dissolved by law. In 1961, another law required a special permit to prove true Libyan citizenship, which was, however, denied to all but six Jewish inhabitants of the country.[5] David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ...


Six-Day War

By 1967, the Jewish population of Libya was down to 7,000. After the Six-Day War between Israel and its Arabic neighbours more revolts by the Libyan population led to another series of attacks on Jews. During these attacks 18 people were killed and more were injured. [5] Leaders of the Jewish community then asked King Idris I to allow the entire Jewish population to "temporarily" leave the country; he consented, even urging them to leave. The Italian navy supplied an airlift and the aid of several ships to help evacuate more than 6,000 Jews to Rome in one month; the evacuees were forced to leave their homes, their businesses and most of their possession behind. Of these 6,000 more than 4,000 soon left Italy for Israel or the United States. The ones who remained built up a Jewish community in Rome, which now constists of 15,000 people including many from Libya and their descendants, which have a large influence on the community. [6] 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Idris I (Arabic: إدريس الأول) (March 12, 1890 - May 25, 1983) was the first King of Libya, reigning from 1951 to 1969. ... Marina Militare naval jack Marina Militare (Italian Navy) is one of the four branches of the military forces of Italy. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,500 km²  (580 sq mi...


Qaddafi's rule

By the time Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi came to power in 1969 only about 100 Jews remained in Libya; under his rule, all Jewish property was confiscated, all debts to Jews were cancelled and emigration for Jews was illegalized. Still some Jews succeeded in leaving the country and by 1974, only 20 Jews lived in Libya.[5] In 2002, the last known Jew in Libya, Esmeralda Meghnagi, died and it was thought that the long history of Jewry in Libya had ended[4];in 2002, however, it was discovered that Rina Debach, a then 80-year old woman, who was born and raised in Tripoli, but thought to be dead by her family in Rome, was still living in a nursing home in the country.[6][7] Muammar al-Gaddafi visits Brussels in 2004 (photo courtesy of the EC). ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,500 km²  (580 sq mi... // A nursing home or skilled nursing facility (SNF) is a place of residence for people who require constant nursing care and have significant deficiencies with activities of daily living. ...


In 2004, Qaddafi indicated the Libyan government would compensate Jews, who were forced to leave the country. In October of that year he met with representatives of Jewish organizations to discuss compensation. He did, however, insist that Jews who moved to Israel would not be compensated. [8]Some suspect these moves were motivated by his son Saif al-Islam Qaddafi, who is considered to be a likely successor of his father. In the same year Saif had welcomed Jews back into the country, saying that they are Libyans, that should "leave the land they took from the Palestinians".[9] On December 9, Qaddafi also invited Moshe Kahlon, the deputy speaker of the Knesset, the Israeli parliament, to Tripoli.[10] 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saif al-Islam Qaddafi (Arabic سيف الإسلام القذافي, meaning of name in Arabic: the sword of Islam) is a son of Muammar al-Qaddafi, leader of Libya. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Moshe Kahlon (born November 11, 1960) is an Israeli Likud politician and former Deputy Speaker of the Knesset, the Israeli parliament. ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ...


See also

The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century emigration of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ...

References

  1. ^ Gottheil, Richard; Krauss, Samuel: "Libya" in Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved July 14, 2006.
  2. ^ a b Gottheil, Richard; Krauss, Samuel: "Cyrene" in Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved July 14, 2006.
  3. ^ a b c "History of the Jewish Community in Libya". Retrieved July 1, 2006
  4. ^ a b c Selent, pg 20-21
  5. ^ a b c d e Shields, Jacqueline."Jewish Refugees from Arab Countries" in Jewish Virtual Library.
  6. ^ a b Gruber, Ruth Ellen:"Unknown immigration from Libya has swelled ranks of Italian Jewry" in JTA October 11, 2004. Retrieved July 1, 2006.
  7. ^ Timeline about Jews in Libya
  8. ^ Shuman, Ellis."Gadhafi ready to compensate Jews who fled Libya" in israelinsider September 1, 2004. Retrieved July 1, 2006.
  9. ^ Pommerance, Rachel. "As part of his ‘charm offensive,’ Gadhafi courts former Libyan Jews?" in JTA October 11, 2004. Retrieved July 1, 2006.
  10. ^ Schwartz, Stephen."Is Libya Contagious?" in Weekly Standard December 13, 2004. Retrieved July 1, 2006.

The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... The Jewish Virtual Library, is an online Jewish Encyclopedia which includes about 10,000 articles and 5,000 photographs and maps. ... The Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) is an international news agency serving Jewish community newspapers and media around the world. ... The Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) is an international news agency serving Jewish community newspapers and media around the world. ... The Weekly Standard is an American Conservative political magazine published 48 times per year. ...

Books used

  • (German) Selent, Karl. "Ein Gläschen Yarden-Wein auf den israelischen Golan". ca-ira Freiburg. November 2003. ISBN 3-924627-18-5

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m