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Encyclopedia > History of the Jews in Hungary

  Part of a series of articles on
Jews and Judaism This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

         

Who is a Jew? · Etymology · Culture Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Image File history File links Menora. ... Who is a Jew? (‎) is a commonly considered question that addresses the question of Jewish identity. ... Look up Jew in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected...

Judaism · Core principles
God · Tanakh (Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim) · Mitzvot (613) · Talmud · Halakha · Holidays · Prayer · Tzedakah · Ethics · Kabbalah · Customs · Midrash This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... Main article: Mitzvah 613 Mitzvot or 613 Commandments (Hebrew: ‎ transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: תפלה, tefillah ; plural תפלות, tefillot ; Yinglish: davening) are the prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). Judaism is very tied to the concept of tzedakah, or charity, and the nature of Jewish giving has created a North American Jewish community that is very philanthropic. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ...

Jewish ethnic divisions
Ashkenazi · Sephardi · Mizrahi Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinct Jewish communities within the worlds ethnically Jewish population. ... Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ...

Population (historical) · By country
Israel · USA · Russia/USSR · Iraq · Spain · Portugal · Poland · Germany · Latin America · France · England · Canada · Australia · Hungary · India · Turkey · Africa · Iran · China
Lists of Jews · Crypto-Judaism Jewish population centers have shifted tremendously over time, due to the constant streams of Jewish refugees created by expulsions, persecution, and officially sanctioned killing of Jews in various places at various times. ... Jews by country Who is a Jew? Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews Sephardi Jews Black Jews Black Hebrew Israelites Y-chromosomal Aaron Jewish population Historical Jewish population comparisons List of religious populations Lists of Jews Crypto-Judaism Etymology of the word Jew Categories: | ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... The history of the Jews in Poland reaches back over a millennium. ... For a list of individuals of Jewish origin by country in Latin America, see List of Latin American Jews. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... African Jew has a variety of meanings: Scattered African groups who have not historically been part of the international Jewish community, but who claim ancestry to ancient Israel or other connections to Judaism and who practice Jewish rituals or those bearing resemblance to Judaism. ... List of Jewish historians List of Jewish scientists and philosophers List of Jewish nobility List of Jewish inventors List of Jewish jurists List of Jews in literature and journalism List of Jews in the performing arts List of Jewish actors and actresses List of Jewish musicians List of Jews in... Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as crypto-Jews. The term crypto-Jew is also used to describe descendants of Jews who still (generally secretly) maintain some Jewish traditions, often while adhering...

Jewish denominations · Rabbis
Orthodox · Conservative · Reform · Reconstructionist · Liberal · Karaite · Humanistic · Renewal  · Alternative Several groups, sometimes called denominations, branches, or movements, have developed among Jews of the modern era, especially Ashkenazi Jews living in anglophone countries. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... Liberal Judaism is a term used by some communities worldwide for what is otherwise also known as Reform Judaism or Progressive Judaism. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Humanistic Judaism is a movement within Judaism that emphasizes Jewish culture and history - rather than belief in God - as the sources of Jewish identity. ... Jewish Renewal is a new religious movement in Judaism which endeavors to reinvigorate modern Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ...

Jewish languages
Hebrew · Yiddish · Judeo-Persian · Ladino · Judeo-Aramaic · Judeo-Arabic The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... The Judæo-Persian languages include a number of related languages spoken throughout the formerly extensive realm of the Persian Empire, sometimes including all the Jewish Indo-Iranian languages: Dzhidi (Judæo-Persian) Bukhori (Judæo-Bukharic) Judæo-Golpaygani Judæo-Yazdi Judæo-Kermani Judæo-Shirazi Jud... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ...

History · Timeline · Leaders
Ancient · Temple · Babylonian exile · Jerusalem (in Judaism · Timeline) · Hasmoneans · Sanhedrin · Schisms · Pharisees · Jewish-Roman wars · Relationship with Christianity; with Islam · Diaspora · Middle Ages · Sabbateans · Hasidism · Haskalah · Emancipation · Holocaust · Aliyah · Israel (History) · Arab conflict · Land of Israel · Baal teshuva Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Main article: Religious significance of Jerusalem Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Judaism and the spiritual homeland of the Jewish people since the 10th century BCE.[1] Jerusalem has long been embedded into Jewish religious consciousness. ... 1800 BCE - The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem). ... The Hasmoneans (Hebrew: , Hashmonaiym, Audio) were the ruling dynasty of the Hasmonean Kingdom (140 BCE–37 BCE),[1] an autonomous Jewish state in ancient Israel. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Schisms among the Jews are cultural as well as religious. ... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) Jewish-Roman wars First War – Kitos War – Bar Kokhba revolt The first... This article discusses the traditional views of the two religions and may not be applicable all adherents of each. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses), the Jewish presence outside of the Land of Israel is a result of the expulsion of the Jewish people out of their land, during the destruction of the First Temple, Second Temple and after the Bar Kokhba revolt. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Not to be confused with Sabaeans, who were ancient people living in what is now Yemen. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... The Land of Israel (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, Masoretic: ʼẸretz YiÅ›rāēl, Hebrew Academy: Éreẓ Yisrael, Yiddish: ) is the divinely ordained and given territory by God as an eternal inheritance to the Jewish people. ... Baal teshuva movement (return [to Judaism] movement) refers to a worldwide phenomenon among the Jewish people. ...

Persecution · Antisemitism
History of antisemitism · New antisemitism This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... New antisemitism is the concept of a new 21st-century form of antisemitism emanating simultaneously from the left, the far right, and radical Islam, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel. ...

Political movements · Zionism
Labor Zionism · Revisionist Zionism · Religious Zionism · General Zionism · The Bund · World Agudath Israel · Jewish feminism · Israeli politics Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Labor Zionism (or Socialist Zionism, Labour Zionism) is the traditional left wing of the Zionist ideology and was historically oriented towards the Jewish workers movement. ... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement, a branch of which is also called Mizrachi, is an ideology that claims to combine Zionism and Judaism, to base Zionism on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... World Agudath Israel (The World Israeli Union) was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi Torah Judaism. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...

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History of the Jews in Hungary concerns the Jews of Hungary and of Hungarian origins. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Contents

Earliest references up to 1095

It is not definitely known when Jews first settled in Hungary. According to apocryphal legend, King Decebalus of Dacia permitted the Jews who aided him in his war against Rome to settle in his territory. A Latin inscription, the epitaph of Septima Maria, discovered within the territory of the ancient province of Pannonia, clearly refers to Jewish matters. But, although it may be unhesitatingly assumed that Jews came to Hungary while the Roman emperors held sway in that country, there is nothing to indicate that at that time they had settled there permanently. In the Hungarian language, the word Jew is zsidó, a term which the Hungarians adopted from the Slavs. Decebalus, from Trajans Column Decebalus (ruled 87 – 106) (Decebal in Romanian) was a Dacian king. ... For other uses, see Dacia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Roman Emperors with the dates they controlled the Roman Empire. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ...


The first historical document relating to the Jews of Hungary is the letter written about 960 to King Joseph of the Khazars by Hasdai ibn Shaprut, the Jewish statesman of Córdoba, in which he says that the Slavic ambassadors promised to deliver the message to the King of Slavonia, who would hand the same to Jews living in "the country of Hungarin," who, in turn, would transmit it farther. About the same time Ibrahim ibn Jacob says that Jews went from Hungary to Prague for business purposes. Dr. Samuel Kohn suggests that Jewish Khazars may have been among the Hungarian troops that under Árpád conquered the country in the second half of the ninth century. Nothing is known concerning the Jews during the period of the Vajdas, except that they lived in the country and engaged in commerce there. King of the Khazars during the 950s and 960s. ... Hasdai (Abu Yusuf ben Yitzhak ben Ezra) ibn Shaprut born about 915 at Jaen; died 970 or 990 at Cordova in Spain, was a Jewish physician, diplomat, and patron of science. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Coat of arms Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Árpád Árpád (c. ... (8th century - 9th century - 10th century - other centuries) Events Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century Viking attacks on Europe begin Oseberg ship burial The Magyars arrive in what is now Hungary, forcing the Serbs and Bulgars south...


Two hundred years later, in the reign of St. Ladislaus (1077-1095), the Synod of Szabolcs decreed (May 20, 1092) that Jews should not be permitted to have Christian wives or to keep Christian slaves. This decree had been promulgated in the Christian countries of Europe since the fifth century, and St. Ladislaus merely introduced it into Hungary. For other monarchs with similar names, please see Ladislaus I (disambiguation). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - Lincoln Cathedral is consecrated. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ...


The Jews of Hungary formed at first small settlements, and had no learned rabbis; but they were strictly observant of all the Jewish religious laws and customs. Jews from Ratisbon (Regensburg) once came into Hungary with merchandise from Russia, and the wheel of their wagon broke on a Friday, near Buda (Ofen) or Esztergom (Gran). By the time they had repaired it and had entered the town, the Jews were just leaving the synagogue; and the unintentional Sabbath-breakers were heavily fined. The ritual of the Hungarian Jews faithfully reflected their German origin. For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ... Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... Basilica in Esztergom. ... A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogē, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ... The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular country. ...


Early history (1100-1300)

King Coloman (1095-1116), the successor of St. Ladislaus, renewed the Szabolcs decree of 1092, adding further prohibitions against the employment of Christian slaves and domestics. He also restricted the Jews to cities with episcopal sees - probably to have them under the continuous supervision of the Church. Soon after the promulgation of this decree, Crusaders came to Hungary; but the Hungarians did not sympathize with them, and Coloman even opposed them. The infuriated Crusaders attacked some cities, and if Gedaliah ibn Yaḥya is to be believed, the Jews suffered a fate similar to that of their coreligionists in France, Germany, and Bohemia. This is a list of all rulers of the Kingdom of Hungary since Árpád. ... Coloman (Hungarian:Könyves Kálmán, Slovak and Croatian: Koloman) (1070 - February 3, 1116) was King of Hungary from 1095 to 1116. ... A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Hungarian may refer to: Hungary or the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Gedaliah ibn Yahya ben Joseph (ca. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ...


The cruelties inflicted upon the Jews of Bohemia induced many of them to seek refuge in Hungary. It was probably the immigration of the rich Bohemian Jews that induced Coloman soon afterward to regulate commercial and banking transactions between Jews and Christians. He decreed, among other regulations, that if a Christian borrowed from a Jew, or a Jew from a Christian, both Christian and Jewish witnesses must be present at the transaction.


During the reign of King Andrew II (1205-1235) there were Jewish Chamberlains and mint-, salt-, and tax-officials. The nobles of the country, however, induced the king, in his Golden Bull (1222), to deprive the Jews of these high offices. When Andrew needed money in 1226, he farmed the royal revenues to Jews, which gave ground for much complaint. The pope (Pope Honorius III) thereupon excommunicated him, until, in 1233, he promised the papal ambassadors on oath that he would enforce the decrees of the Golden Bull directed against the Jews and the Saracens (by this time, the papacy had changed, and the Pope was now Pope Gregory IX; would cause both peoples to be distinguished from Christians by means of badges; and would forbid both Jews and Saracens to buy or to keep Christian slaves. Andrew II of Hungary with queen Gertrude von Andechs-Meranien Andrew II (Hungarian: András or Endre, Slovak: Ondrej, Croatian: ) (c. ... Look up chamberlain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... The Golden Bull of 1222 was a golden bull, or edict, issued by King Andrew II of Hungary. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Pope Honorius III (1148 – March 18, 1227 in Rome), born Cencio Savelli, was Pope from 1216 to 1227. ... For the rugby club Saracens see Saracens (rugby club) The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi. ... Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino dei Conti, was pope from 1227 to August 22, 1241. ...


The year 1240 was the closing one of the fifth millennium of the Jewish era. At that time the Jews were expecting the advent of their Messiah. The Mongol invasion in 1241 seemed to conform to expectation, as Jewish imagination expected the happy Messianic period to be ushered in by the war of Gog and Magog. Béla IV (1235-1270) appointed a Jew, Henul by name, court chamberlain (the Jew Teka had filled this office under Andrew II); and Wölfel and his sons Altmann and Nickel held the castle at Komárom with its domains in pawn. Béla also entrusted the Jews with the mint; and Hebrew coins of this period are still found in Hungary. In 1251 a privilegium was granted by Béla to his Jewish subjects which was essentially the same as that granted by Duke Frederick II the Quarrelsome to the Austrian Jews in 1244, but which Béla modified to suit the conditions of Hungary. This privilegium remained in force down to the Battle of Mohács (1526). In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... The Mongol Invasion of Russia was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... Gog and Magog redirect here. ... Béla IV (1206-1270) was the king of Hungary between 1235 and 1270. ... Altmann or Altman is the name of: Altmann of Passau (bishop) (1020-1091) Dora Altmann (actress) (1881-1971) Elizabeth Altmann (politician) (born 1943) Elisabeth Altmann-Gottheiner (lecturer) (1874-1930) Georges Altman (journalist) (born 1901) Gila Altmann (politician) (born 1949) Howard Altman (journalist) (born 1960) Ida Altman (American historian) (born 1950... Komárom is a city in Hungary on the right bank of the Danube in Komárom-Esztergom county. ... Frederick II, known as the Quarrelsome (German: Friedrich der Streitbare) (1201 – June 15, 1246), from the dynasty of Babenberg, was the duke of Austria and Styria from 1230 to 1246. ... This article is about the better-known Battle of Mohács of 1526. ...


At the Synod of Buda (1279), held in the reign of King Ladislaus IV (1272-1290), it was decreed, in the presence of the papal ambassador, that every Jew appearing in public should wear on the left side of his upper garment a piece of red cloth; that any Christian transacting business with a Jew not so marked, or living in a house or on land together with any Jew, should be refused admittance to the Church services; and that a Christian entrusting any office to a Jew should be excommunicated. Andrew III (1291-1301), the last king of the Árpád dynasty, declared, in the privilegium granted by him to the community of Posonium (Bratislava), that the Jews in that city should enjoy all the liberties of citizens. Ladislaus IV the Cuman (Hungarian: IV László, Slovak: Ladislav IV)(1262 - July 10, 1290), also known as Laszlo IV, king of Hungary, was the son of Stephen V, whom he succeeded in 1272. ... Excommunication is religious censure which is used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Andrew III (Endre) of the Arpad dynasty was king of Hungary 1290-1301 and the last male of Arpads to hold the throne. ... The Arpads or Árpáds (Hungarian: Árpádok, Slovak: Arpádovci, Croatian: Arpadovići) was a dynasty ruling in historic Hungary from the late 9th century to 1301 (with some interruptions, e. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ...


Expulsion, recall, and persecution (1349-1526)

Under the foreign kings who occupied the throne of Hungary on the extinction of the house of Arpad, the Hungarian Jews suffered many persecutions; and at the time of the Black Death (1349) they were expelled from the country. Although the Jews were immediately readmitted, they were again persecuted, and were once more expelled in 1360 by King Louis the Great of Anjou (1342-1382) on the failure of his attempt to convert them to Catholicism. They were graciously received by Alexander the Good of Moldavia and Dano I of Wallachia, the latter affording them special commercial privileges. This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... Louis the Great. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal [1] - is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... Alexandru cel Bun Alexandru cel Bun on a Moldovan coin Alexandru cel Bun (Alexandru I MuÅŸat, Alexander the Kind) was the ruler of Moldavia 1400-1432, son of Roman I MuÅŸat. ...


When, some years later, Hungary was in financial distress, the Jews were recalled. They found that during their absence the king had introduced the custom of Tödtbriefe, i.e., canceling by a stroke of his pen, on the request of a subject or a city, the notes and mortgage-deeds of the Jews. An important office created by Louis was that of "judge of all the Jews living in Hungary," this official being chosen from among the dignitaries of the country, the palatines, and treasurers, and having a deputy to aid him. It was his duty to collect the taxes of the Jews, to protect their privileges, and to listen to their complaints, which last-named had become more frequent since the reign of Sigismund Luxembourg (1387-1437). This article is about the legal mechanism used to secure property in favor of a creditor. ... The palatine (Latin: comes palatii, comes palatinus, later: palatinus (regni), Hungarian: nádorispán/ nádor, Slovak: nádvorný župan/ nádvorný Å¡pán, later: palatín / nádvorník, German: Palatin) was the highest dignitary in the Kingdom of Hungary after the king (a kind of powerful prime minister... Look up Treasurer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... -1... Sigismund, aged approximately 50, depicted by unknown artist in the 1420s — the only contemporary portrait. ...


The successors of Sigismund: Albert (1437-1439), Ladislaus Posthumus (1453-1457), and Matthias Corvinus (1458-1490)—-likewise confirmed the privilegium of Béla IV. Matthias created the office of Jewish prefect in Hungary. The period following the death of Matthias was a sad one for the Hungarian Jews. He was hardly buried, when the people fell upon them, confiscated their property, refused to pay debts owing to them, and persecuted them generally. The pretender John Corvinus, Matthias' illegitimate son, expelled them from Tata, and King Ladislaus II (1490-1516), always in need of money, laid heavy taxes upon them. During his reign, Jews were for the first time burned at the stake, many being executed at Nagyszombat (Trnava) in 1494, on suspicion of ritual murder. Albert II of Habsburg Albert II of Habsburg (August 10, 1397 – October 27, 1439), German ruler, king of Bohemia and Hungary, and (as Albert V) duke of Austria, was born on August 10, 1397, the son of Albert IV of Habsburg, duke of Austria. ... Ladislaus Posthumus (22 February 1440 - 23 November 1457), king of Hungary as Ladislaus V (or VI); king of Bohemia as Ladislaus I; duke of Austria, the only son of Albert II, Holy Roman Emperor, and of Elizabeth, daughter of the emperor Sigismund, was born at Komarom four months after his... Matthias Corvinus (Mátyás in Hungarian), (February 23, 1443 (?) - April 6, 1490) was one of the greatest Kings of Hungary, ruling between 1458 and 1490. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... János Corvinus, or John Corvin, (1473-1504) was the illegitimate son of Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, and one Barbara, supposed to be the daughter of a burgess of Breslau. ... Tata may refer to: Tata Group, a multinational company based in India Tata Motors, one of Indias largest automobile company known for its hatchback motorvehicle Tata Indica Tata Steel, worlds fifth largest steel producer Tata Consultancy Services, Indias largest IT company Tata Airlines, now Air India Tata... Ladislaus Jagellion (in Czech Vladislav Jagellonský, in Hungarian II. Ulászló) was the King of Bohemia from 1471 and the King of Hungary from 1490 until his death in 1516. ... Trnava (Hungarian: Nagyszombat, German: Tyrnau) is a town in western Slovakia, 45 kilometers to the north-east of Bratislava, on the Trnavka river, and at the main Bratislava-Žilina railway and Bratislava-Žilina limited-access highway. ... Trnava (Hungarian: Nagyszombat, German: Tyrnau) is a town in western Slovakia, 45 kilometers to the north-east of Bratislava, on the Trnávka river, and at the main Bratislava-Žilina railway and Bratislava-Žilina limited-access highway. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ...


The Hungarian Jews finally applied to the German Emperor Maximilian for protection. On the occasion of the marriage of Louis II and the archduchess Maria (1512), the emperor, with the consent of Ladislaus, took the prefect, Jacob Mendel, together with his family and all the other Hungarian Jews, under his protection, according to them all the rights enjoyed by his other subjects. Under Ladislaus' successor, Louis II (1516-1526), persecution of the Jews was a common occurrence. The bitter feeling against them was in part augmented by the fact that the baptized Emerich Szerencsés, the deputy treasurer, embezzled the public funds, following the example of the nobles who despoiled the treasury under the weak Louis. Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia. ... Maria of Habsburg Maria of Austria (18 September 1505 – 18 October 1558) is also known variously as Mary, Marie or Maria of Hungary (after her marriage) of Austria (due to her country of origin) of Habsburg (after her family) or of Spain (since her parents where king and queen of...


During the war with the Ottomans (1526-1686)

See also: History of the Jews in Turkey

The Turks vanquished the Hungarians at the Battle of Mohács (August 29, 1526), on which occasion Louis II was slain. When the news of his death reached the capital, Buda, the court and the nobles fled together with some rich Jews, among them the prefect. Although the Turkish Army turned back after the battle, in 1541 it again invaded Hungary to help repel an Austrian attempt to take Buda. By the time the Turkish Army arrived, the Austrians were defeated, but the Turks seized Buda. (I don't know how accurate the story is about Jews handing over the keys to the city, I have never read or heard about that before). When the grand vizier, Ibrahim Pasha, preceding Sultan Suleiman I, arrived with his army at Buda, the representatives of the Jews who had remained in the city appeared garbed in mourning before him, and, begging for grace, handed him the keys of the deserted and unprotected castle in token of submission. The sultan himself entered Buda on September 11; and on September 22 he decreed that all the Jews seized at Buda, Esztergom, and elsewhere, more than 2,000 in number, should be distributed among the cities of the Turkish empire. Jews have lived in the geographic area of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) for more than 2,400 years. ... This article is about the better-known Battle of Mohács of 1526. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... Ibrahim Pasha (Arabic: ابراهيم باشا) ‎ (1789 – 10 November 1848), a 19th century general of Egypt. ... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Basilica in Esztergom. ...


While some of the Jews of Hungary were deported to Turkey, others, who had fled at the approach of the sultan, sought refuge beyond the frontier or in the free royal towns of western Hungary. The widow of Louis II, the queen regent Maria, favored the enemies of the Jews. The citizens of Sopron (Ödenburg) began hostilities by expelling the Jews of that city, confiscating their property, and pillaging the vacated houses and the synagogue. The city of Pressburg (Bratislava) also received permission from the queen (October 9, 1526) to expel the Jews living within its territory, because they had expressed their intention of fleeing before the Turks. The Jews left Pressburg on November 9. For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... In the Holy Roman Empire, an Imperial Free City (in German: Freie Reichsstadt) was a city formally responsible to the Emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which belonged to a territory and were thus governed by one of the many princes and dukes of... For the historical county in the Kingdom of Hungary named Sopron / Ödenburg, Sopron (county). ... A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On that same day the diet at Székesfehérvár was opened, at which János Szapolyai (1526-1540) was elected and crowned king in opposition to Ferdinand. During this session it was decreed that the Jews should immediately be expelled from every part of the country. Zápolya, however, did not ratify these laws; and the Diet held at Pressburg in December 1526, at which Ferdinand of Habsburg was chosen king (1526-1564), annulled all the decrees of that of Székesfehérvár, including Zápolya's election as king. In politics, a diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ... Székesfehérvár (German: Stuhlweißenburg, Latin: Alba Regia, colloquial Hungarian: Fehérvár, Croatian: Stolni Biograd) is a city in central Hungary, located around 65 km southwest of Budapest. ... János Szapolyai or János Zápolya (Croatian: ) (2 February 1487 – July 22, 1540) was King of Hungary, he had a dispute with Archduke Ferdinand I, who also claimed the title King of Hungary between 1526 and 1540. ... Ferdinand in 1531, the year of his election as King of the Romans Ferdinand I (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was an Austrian monarch from the House of Habsburg. ...


As the lord of Bösing (Pezinok) was in debt to the Jews, a blood accusation was brought against these inconvenient creditors in 1529. Although Mendel, the prefect, and the Jews throughout Hungary protested, the accused were burned at the stake. For centuries afterward Jews were forbidden to live at Bösing. The Jews of Nagyszombat (Trnava) soon shared a similar fate, being first punished for alleged ritual murder and then expelled from the city (February 19, 1539). Pezinok (Hungarian: Bazin, German: Bösing) is a city in southwestern Slovakia. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... Trnava (Hungarian: Nagyszombat, German: Tyrnau) is a town in western Slovakia, 45 kilometers to the north-east of Bratislava, on the Trnávka river, and at the main Bratislava-Žilina railway and Bratislava-Žilina limited-access highway. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ...


In 1541, on the anniversary of the battle of Mohács, Sultan Suleiman I again took Buda by a ruse. This event marks the beginning of Turkish rule in many parts of Hungary, which lasted down to the end of the 17th century. The Jews living in these parts were treated far better than those living under the Habsburgs. During this period, beginning with the second half of the sixteenth century, the community of Ofen (Buda) flourished more than at any time before or after. While the Turks held sway in Hungary, the Jews of Transylvania (at that time an independent principality) also fared well. At the instance of Abraham Sassa, a Jewish physician of Constantinople, Prince Gabriel Bethlen of Transylvania granted a letter of privileges (June 18, 1623) to the Spanish Jews from Turkey. This article is about the better-known Battle of Mohács of 1526. ... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Gabriel Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania (1580-1629) Gabriel (Gabor) Bethlen (Hungarian: Bethlen Gábor, Slovak: Gabriel Betlen) (1580-1629), prince of Transylvania (1613-1629) and leader of a anti-Habsburg insurrection in the Habsburg Royal Hungary on the territory of present-day Slovakia. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1623 (MDCXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


On November 26, 1572, King Maximilian II (1563-1576) intended to expel the Jews of Pressburg (Bratislava), stating that his edict would be recalled only in case they accepted Christianity. The Jews, however, remained in the city, without abandoning their religion. They were in constant conflict with the citizens. On June 1, 1582 the municipal council decreed that no one should harbor Jews, or even transact business with them. The feeling against the Jews in that part of the country not under Turkish rule is shown by the decree of the Diet of 1578, to the effect that Jews were to be taxed double the amount which was imposed upon other citizens. is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II. His Coat of Arms Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor of the Habsburg dynasty (July 31, 1527 – October 12, 1576) was king of Bohemia from 1562, king of Hungary from 1563 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1564 until his death. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ...


By article XV of the law promulgated by the Diet of 1630, Jews were forbidden to take charge of the customs; and this decree was confirmed by the Diet of 1646 on the ground that the Jews were excluded from the privileges of the country, that they were unbelievers, and had no conscience (veluti jurium regni incapaces, infideles, et nulla conscientia praediti). The Jews had to pay a special war-tax when the imperial troops set out toward the end of the sixteenth century to recapture Buda from the Turks. The Buda community suffered much during this siege, as did also that of Székesfehérvár when the imperial troops took that city in September 1601; many of its members were either slain or taken prisoner and sold into slavery, their redemption being subsequently effected by the German, Italian, and Turkish Jews. After the conclusion of peace, which the Jews helped to bring about, the communities were in part reconstructed; but further development in the territory of the Habsburgs was arrested when Leopold I (1657-1705) expelled the Jews (April 24, 1671). He, however, revoked his decree a few months later (August 20). During the siege of Vienna, in 1683, the Jews that had returned to that city were again maltreated. The Turks plundered some communities in western Hungary, and deported the members as slaves. Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting customs duties and for controlling the flow of animals and goods (including personal effects and hazardous items) in and out of a country. ... Decree is an order that has the force of law. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...


Habsburg rule

Further persecution and expulsions (1686-1740)

The imperial troops recaptured Buda on September 2, 1686, most Jewish residents were massacred, some captured and later released for ransom. In the following years the whole of Hungary now came under the rule of the House of Habsburg. As the devastated country had to be repopulated, Bishop Count Leopold Kollonitsch, subsequently Archbishop of Esztergom and Primate of Hungary, advised the king to give the preference to the German Catholics in order that the country might in time become German and Catholic. He held that the Jews could not be exterminated at once, but they must be weeded out by degrees, as bad coin is gradually withdrawn from circulation. The decree passed by the Diet of Pressburg (1687-1688), imposing double taxation upon the Jews, must be enforced. Jews must not be permitted to engage in agriculture, nor to own any real estate, nor to keep Christian servants. Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1686 (MDCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Basilica in Esztergom. ... Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ...


This advice soon bore fruit and was in part acted upon. In August 1690, the government at Vienna ordered Sopron to expel its Jews, who had immigrated from the Austrian provinces. The government, desiring to enforce the edict of the last Diet, decreed soon afterward that Jews should be removed from the office of collector. The order proved ineffective, however; and the employment of Jewish customs officials was continued. Even the treasurer of the realm set the example in transgressing the law by appointing (1692) Simon Hirsch as farmer of customs at Leopoldstadt (Leopoldov); and at Hirsch's death he transferred the office to Hirsch's son-in-law. For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... For the historical county in the Kingdom of Hungary named Sopron / Ödenburg, Sopron (county). ... Leopoldov (-Slovak, German: Leopoldstadt, Hungarian: Lipótvár) is a town in the Trnava Region of Slovakia. ...


The revolt of the Kuruc, under Francis II Rákóczi, caused much suffering to the Hungarian Jews. The Kuruc imprisoned and slew the Jews, who had incurred their anger by siding with the king's party. The Jews of Eisenstadt, accompanied by those of the community of Mattersdorf, sought refuge at Vienna, Wiener-Neustadt, and Forchtenstein; those of Holics (Holíč) and Sasvár (Šaštín) dispersed to Göding (Hodonín); while others, who could not leave their business in this time of distress, sent their families to safe places, and themselves braved the danger. While not many Jews lost their lives during this revolt, it made great havoc in their wealth, especially in Sopron County, where a number of rich Jews were living. The king granted letters of protection to those that had been ruined by the revolt, and demanded satisfaction for those that had been injured; but in return for these favors he commanded the Jews to furnish the sums necessary for suppressing the revolt. The kuruc (Hungarian: kuruczok/kurucok [sg. ... Francis II Rákóczi (painted by Ádám Mányoki) Ferenc (Francis) II Rákóczi (Borsi, March 27, 1676 - Rodosto, Ottoman Empire, April 8, 1735) was the leader of the Hungarian uprising against the Habsburgs in 1703-11 as the prince (fejedelem) of the Estates Confederated for Liberty... The kuruc (Hungarian: kuruczok/kurucok [sg. ... Eisenstadt (Hungarian Kismarton, Croatian Željezno) is a city in Austria, the state capital of Burgenland. ... Mattersdorf may refer to: Mattersburg, a town in Austria formerly known as Mattersdorf Kiryat Mattersdorf, a Jerusalem neighborhood This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Wiener Neustadt (Hungarian: Bécsújhely) is located south of Vienna in the state of Lower Austria. ... Forchtenstein is a town in the district of Mattersburg in Burgenland in Austria. ... Holíč (German: , Hungarian: ) is a small town in the northwestern Slovakia. ... Å aÅ¡tín-Stráže is a town in the Senica District, Trnava Region in western Slovakia. ... Hodonín Hodonín is a town in southeast of Moravia, Czech Republic, Jihomoravský kraj region, on the Morava river. ... Sopron (-Hungarian, in German: Ödenburg) is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary in present-day north-western Hungary and eastern Austria. ...


After the restoration of peace the Jews were expelled from many cities that feared their competition; thus Esztergom expelled them in 1712, on the ground that the city which had given birth to St. Stephen must not be desecrated by them. But the Jews living in the country, on the estates of their landlords, were generally left alone. Basilica in Esztergom. ... St. ...


The lot of the Jews was not improved under the reign of Leopold's son, Charles III (1711-1740). He informed the government (June 28, 1725) that he intended to decrease the number of Jews in his domains, and the government thereupon directed the counties to furnish statistics of the Hebrew inhabitants. In 1726 the king decreed that in the Austrian provinces, from the day of publication of the decree, only one male member in each Jewish family be allowed to marry. This decree, restricting the natural increase of the Jews, materially affected the Jewish communities of Hungary. All the Jews in the Austrian provinces who could not marry there went to Hungary to found families; thus the overflow of Austrian Jews peopled Hungary. These immigrants settled chiefly in the northwestern counties, in Nyitra (Nitra), Pressburg (Bratislava), and Trencsén (Trenčín). Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI, (German Karl VI; in full Karl Josef Franz)Holy Roman Emperor (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Nitra - City Center Nitra (German: ( ); Hungarian: / Nyitria [archaic]) is a city in western Slovakia (and the fourth largest urban settlement in Slovakia) situated at the foot of Zobor Mountain in the Nitra River valley. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... Trenčín (Hungarian: Trencsén, German: Trentschin, Latin: Laugaricio) is a town in western Slovakia (close to the Czech border) at the Váh river. ...


The Moravian Jews continued to live in Hungary as Moravian subjects; even those that went there for the purpose of marrying and settling promised on oath before leaving that they would pay the same taxes as those living in Moravia. In 1734 the Jews of Trencsén bound themselves by a secret oath that in all their communal affairs they would submit to the Jewish court at Ungarisch-Brod (Uherský Brod) only. In the course of time the immigrants refused to pay taxes to the Austrian provinces. The Moravian Jews, who had suffered by the heavy emigration, then brought complaint; and Maria Theresa ordered that all Jewish and Christian subjects that had emigrated after 1740 should be extradited, while those who had emigrated before that date were to be released from their Moravian allegiance. Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Location Uhersky Brod Uherský Brod is a town situated in the south-east of Moravia (Czech: Morava). ... Not to be confused with Maria Theresa of Austria (1816-1867). ... Extradition is a formal process by which a criminal suspect held by one government is handed over to another government for trial or, if the suspect has already been tried and found guilty, to serve his or her sentence. ...


The government could not, however, check the large immigration; for although strict laws were drafted in 1727, they could not be enforced owing to the good-will of the magnates toward the Jews. The counties either did not answer at all, or sent reports bespeaking mercy rather than persecution.


Meanwhile the king endeavored to free the mining-towns from the Jews — a work which Leopold I had already begun in 1693. The Jews, however, continued to settle near these towns; they displayed their wares at the fairs; and, with the permission of the court, they even erected a foundry at Ság (Sasinkovo). When King Charles ordered them to leave (March, 1727), the royal mandate was in some places ignored; in others the Jews obeyed so slowly that he had to repeat his edict three months later. This article is about mineral extractions. ... Location of Hlohovec District in the Trnava Region Sasinkovo is a village and municipality in Hlohovec District in the Trnava Region of western Slovakia. ...


Under Maria Theresa (1740-1780)

In 1735 another census of the Jews of the country was taken with the view of reducing their numbers. There were at that time 11,621 Jews living in Hungary, of which 2,474 were male heads of families, and fifty-seven were female heads. Of these heads of families 35.31 per cent declared themselves to be Hungarians; the rest had immigrated. Of the immigrants 38.35 per cent came from Moravia, 11.05 per cent from Poland, and 3.07 per cent from Bohemia. The largest Jewish community, numbering 770 persons, was that of Pressburg (Bratislava). Most of the Jews were engaged in commerce or industries, most being merchants, traders, or shopkeepers; only a few pursued agriculture. Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Merchants function as professional traders, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves. ...


During the reign of Queen Maria Theresa (1740-1780), daughter of Charles III, the Jews were expelled from Buda (1746), and the "toleration-tax" was imposed upon the Hungarian Jews. On September 1, 1749, the delegates of the Hungarian Jews, except those from Szatmár County, assembled at Pressburg and met a royal commission, which informed them that they would be expelled from the country if they did not pay this tax. The frightened Jews at once agreed to do so; and the commission then demanded a yearly tax of 50,000 gulden. This sum being excessive, the delegates protested; and although the queen had fixed 30,000 gulden as the minimum tax, they were finally able to compromise on the payment of 20,000 gulden a year for a period of eight years. The delegates were to apportion this amount among the districts; the districts, their respective sums among the communities; and the communities, theirs among the individual members. Not to be confused with Maria Theresa of Austria (1816-1867). ... Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Szatmár is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... The guilder (Dutch gulden), represented by the symbol ƒ, was the name of the currency used in the Netherlands from the 15th century until 1999, when it was replaced by the euro (coins and notes were not introduced until 2002). ...


The queen confirmed this agreement of the commission, except the eight-year clause, changing the period to three years, which she subsequently made five. The agreement, thus ratified by the queen, was brought on November 26 before the courts, which were powerless to relieve the Jews from the payment of this Malkegeld (queen's money), as they called it. is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Jews, thus burdened by new taxes, thought the time ripe for taking steps to remove their oppressive disabilities. While still at Presburg the delegates had brought their grievances before the mixed commission that was called delegata in puncto tolerantialis taxae et gravaminum Judeorum commissio mixta. These complaints pictured the distress of the Jews of that time. They were not allowed to live in Croatia and Slavonia, in Baranya and Heves Counties, or in several free royal towns and localities; nor might they visit the markets there. At Stuhlweissenburg (Székesfehérvár) they had to pay a poll-tax of 1 gulden, 30 kreuzer if they entered the city during the day, if only for an hour. In many places they might not even stay overnight. They therefore begged permission to settle, or at least to visit the fairs, in Croatia and Slavonia and in those places from which they had been driven in consequence of the jealousy of the Greeks and the merchants. Coat of arms Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. ... Baranya (Hungarian, in Croatian and Serbian: Baranja) is the name of an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in present Hungary, and also in the former Kingdom of Hungary. ... Heves is the name of: an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in present Hungary, an administrative county in the former Kingdom of Hungary, a town in Hungary. ... Székesfehérvár (German: Stuhlweißenburg, Latin: Alba Regia, colloquial Hungarian: Fehérvár, Croatian: Stolni Biograd) is a city in central Hungary, located around 65 km southwest of Budapest. ... Berner kreuzer von 1776 The Kreuzer was a silver coin and unit of currency existing in the Southern German states prior to the unification of Germany, and in Austria. ...


The Jews also had to pay heavier bridge-and ferry-tolls than the Christians; at Nagyszombat (Trnava) they had to pay three times the ordinary sum, namely, for the driver, for the vehicle, and for the animal drawing the same; and in three villages belonging to the same district they had to pay toll, although there was no toll-gate. Jews living on the estates of the nobles had to give their wives and children as pledges for arrears of taxes. In Upper Hungary they asked for the revocation of the toleration-tax imposed by the chamber of Zips County (Szepes, Spiš), on the ground that otherwise the Jews living there would have to pay two such taxes; and they asked also to be relieved from a similar tax paid to the Diet. Finally, they requested that Jewish artisans might be allowed to follow their trades in their homes undisturbed. Trnava (Hungarian: Nagyszombat, German: Tyrnau) is a town in western Slovakia, 45 kilometers to the north-east of Bratislava, on the Trnávka river, and at the main Bratislava-Žilina railway and Bratislava-Žilina limited-access highway. ... The word toll has several meanings. ... Pledge is a verb, meaning to promise solemnly, and a noun, meaning the promise or its maker or its object. ... Arrears, or arrearages is a legal term for a type of debt which is overdue after missing an expected payment. ... Spiš (in Latin: Scepusium, in Polish: Spisz, in German: Zips, in Hungarian: Szepes) is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... SpiÅ¡ in Slovakia SpiÅ¡ (-Slovak; Latin: Scepusium, Polish: Spisz, German: , Hungarian: Szepesség) is a region in north-eastern Slovakia, with a very small area in south-eastern Poland. ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ...


The commission laid these complaints before the Queen, indicating the manner in which they could be relieved; and their suggestions were subsequently willed by the queen and made into law.


The queen relieved the Jews from the tax of toleration in Upper Hungary only. In regard to the other complaints she ordered that the Jews should specify them in detail, and that the government should remedy them in so far as they came under its jurisdiction.


The toleration-tax had hardly been instituted when Michael Hirsch petitioned the government to be appointed primate of the Hungarian Jews in order to be able to settle difficulties that might arise among them, and to collect the tax. The government did not recommend Hirsch, but decided that in case the Jews should refuse to pay, it might be advisable to appoint a primate to adjust the matter.


Before the end of the period of five years the delegates of the Jews again met the commission at Pressburg (Bratislava) and offered to increase the amount of their tax to 25,000 gulden a year if the queen would promise that it should remain at that sum for the next ten years. The queen had other plans, however; not only did she dismiss the renewed gravamina of the Jews, but rather imposed stiffer regulations upon them. Their tax of 20,000 gulden was increased to 30,000 gulden in 1760; to 50,000 in 1772; to 80,000 in 1778; and to 160,000 in 1813. Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ...


Under Joseph II (1780-1790)

Joseph II (1780-1790), son and successor of Maria Theresa, showed immediately on his accession that he intended to alleviate the condition of the Jews, communicating this intention to the Hungarian chancellor, Count Franz Esterházy as early as May 13, 1781. In consequence the Hungarian government issued (March 31, 1783) a decree known as the Systematica gentis Judaicae regulatio, which wiped out at one stroke the decrees that had oppressed the Jews for centuries. The royal free towns, except the mining-towns, were opened to the Jews, who were allowed to settle at pleasure throughout the country. The regulatio decreed that the legal documents of the Jews should no longer be composed in Hebrew, or in Yiddish, but in Latin, German, and Hungarian, the languages currently used in the country, and which the young Jews were required to learn within two years. Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... The House of Esterházy was a noble family in the Kingdom of Hungary since the Middle Ages. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Documents written in Hebrew or in Yiddish were not legal; Hebrew books were to be used at worship only; the Jews were to organize elementary schools; the commands of the emperor, issued in the interests of the Jews, were to be announced in the synagogues; and the rabbis were to explain to the people the salutary effects of these decrees. The subjects to be taught in the Jewish schools were to be the same as those taught in the national schools; the same text-books were to be used in all the elementary schools; and everything that might offend the religious sentiment of non-conformists was to be omitted. Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogē, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ...

A medal minted during the reign of Josef II, commemorating his grant of religious liberty to Jews and Protestants.
A medal minted during the reign of Josef II, commemorating his grant of religious liberty to Jews and Protestants.

During the early years Christian teachers were to be employed in the Jewish schools, but they were to have nothing to do with the religious affairs of such institutions. After the lapse of ten years a Jew might establish a business, or engage in trade, only if he could prove that he had attended a school. The usual school-inspectors were to supervise the Jewish schools and to report to the government. The Jews were to create a fund for organizing and maintaining their schools. Jewish youth might enter the academies, and might study any subject at the universities except theology. Jews might rent farms only if they could cultivate the same without the aid of Christians. Image File history File links Josef_II_medal. ... Image File history File links Josef_II_medal. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...


Jews were allowed to peddle and to engage in various industrial occupations, and to be admitted into the guilds. They were also permitted to engrave seals, and to sell gunpowder and saltpeter; but their exclusion from the mining-towns remained in force. Christian masters were allowed to have Jewish apprentices. All distinctive marks hitherto worn by the Jews were to be abolished, and they might even carry swords. On the other hand, they were required to discard the distinctive marks prescribed by their religion and to shave their beards. Emperor Joseph regarded this decree so seriously that he allowed no one to violate it. A peddler, Brit. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ... This article is about the authentication means. ... Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... If youre looking for the TV show, see The Apprentice. ...


The Jews, in a petition dated April 22, 1783, expressed their gratitude to the emperor for his favors, and, reminding him of his principle that religion should not be interfered with, asked permission to wear beards. The emperor granted the prayer of the petitioners, but reaffirmed the other parts of the decree (April 24, 1783). The Jews organized schools in various places, at Pressburg (Bratislava), Óbuda, Vágújhely (Nové Mesto nad Váhom), and Nagyvárad (Oradea). A decree was issued by the emperor (July 23, 1787) to the effect that every Jew should choose a German surname; and a further edict (1789) ordered, to the consternation of the Jews, that they should henceforth perform military service. is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... Óbuda (sometimes written in English as Obuda) was a historical city in Hungary. ... Nové Mesto nad Váhom (-Slovak, German: Neustadt an der Waag / Neustadtl, Hungarian: Vágújhely) is a town in the Trenčín Region of Slovakia. ... Location of Oradea Coordinates: , Country County Status County capital Government  - Mayor Petru Filip (Democratic Party) Area  - County capital 111. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... “Conscript” redirects here. ...


After the death of Joseph II the royal free cities showed a very hostile attitude toward the Jews. The citizens of Pest petitioned the municipal council that after May 1, 1790, the Jews should no longer be allowed to live in the city. The government interfered; and the Jews were merely forbidden to engage in peddling in the city. Seven days previously a decree of expulsion had been issued at Nagyszombat (Trnava), May 1 being fixed as the date of the Jews' departure. The Jews appealed to the government; and in the following December the city authorities of Nagyszombat were informed that the Diet had confirmed the former rights of the Jews, and that the latter could not be expelled. Pest (pronounced pesht) is the eastern, mostly flat part of Budapest, comprising about two thirds of the capitals territory. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Trnava (Hungarian: Nagyszombat, German: Tyrnau) is a town in western Slovakia, 45 kilometers to the north-east of Bratislava, on the Trnávka river, and at the main Bratislava-Žilina railway and Bratislava-Žilina limited-access highway. ...


Toleration and Oppression (1790-1847)

The Jews of Hungary handed a petition, in which they boldly presented their claims to equality with other citizens, to King Leopold II (1790-1792) at Vienna on November 29, 1790. He sent it the following day to the chancelleries of Hungary and Moravia for their opinions. The question was brought before the estates of the country on December 2, and the Diet drafted a bill showing that it intended to protect the Jews. This decision created consternation among the enemies of the latter. Nagyszombat (Trnava) addressed a further memorandum to the estates (December 4) in which it demanded that the Diet should protect the city's privileges. The Diet decided in favor of the Jews, and its decision was laid before the king. Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Trnava (Hungarian: Nagyszombat, German: Tyrnau) is a town in western Slovakia, 45 kilometers to the north-east of Bratislava, on the Trnávka river, and at the main Bratislava-Žilina railway and Bratislava-Žilina limited-access highway. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Jews, confidently anticipating the king's decision in their favor, organized a splendid celebration on November 15, 1790, the day of his coronation; on January 10, 1791, the king approved the bill of the Diet; and the following law, drafted in conformity with the royal decision, was read by Judge Stephen Atzel in the session of February 5: is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


"In order that the condition of the Jews may be regulated pending such time as may elapse until their affairs and the privileges of various royal free towns relating to them shall have been determined by a commission to report to the next ensuing Diet, when his Majesty and the estates will decide on the condition of the Jews, the estates have determined, with the approval of his Majesty, that the Jews within the boundaries of Hungary and the countries belonging to it shall, in all the royal free cities and in other localities (except the royal mining-towns), remain under the same conditions in which they were on Jan. 1, 1790; and in case they have been expelled anywhere, they shall be recalled."


Thus came into force the famous law entitled De Judaeis, which forms the thirty-eighth article of the laws of the Diet of 1790-1791. The De Judaeis law was gratefully received by the Jews; for it not only afforded them protection, but also gave them the assurance that their affairs would soon be regulated. Still, although the Diet appointed on February 7, 1791, a commission to study the question, the amelioration of the condition of the Hungarian Jews was not effected till half a century later, under Ferdinand V (1835-1848), during the session of the Diet of 1839-1840. is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Emperor Ferdinand Ferdinand I Karl Leopold Joseph Franz Marchlin Emperor of Austria King of Hungary and Bohemia (April 19, 1793 – June 29, 1875) succeeded his father (Franz II Holy Roman Emperor/Franz I of Austria) as Emperor and King in 1835 and was forced to abdicate in 1848. ...


In consequence of the petition of the Jews of Pest, the mover of which was Dr. Philip Jacobovics, superintendent of the Jewish hospital, the general assembly of the county of Pest drafted instructions for the delegates on June 10, 1839, to the effect that if the Jews would be willing to adopt the Magyar language they should be given equal rights with other Hungarian citizens. From now on much attention was paid to the teaching of Hungarian in the schools; Moritz Bloch (Ballagi) translated the Pentateuch into Hungarian, and Moritz Rosenthal the Psalms and the Pirkei Avoth. Various communities founded Hungarian reading-circles; and the Hungarian dress and language were more and more adopted. Many communities began to use Hungarian on their seals and in their documents, and some liberal rabbis even began to preach in that language. is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Hungarian (magyar nyelv  ) is a Finno-Ugric language (more specifically an Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Moriz Rosenthal (December 18, 1862 - September 3, 1946) was a Polish-American pianist. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi) (originally meaning songs sung to a harp, from psallein play on a stringed instrument, Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... Pirkei Avoth (Hebrew: Chapters of the Fathers, פרקי אבות ) or simply Avoth is a tractate of the Mishna composed of ethical maxims of the Rabbis of the Mishnaic period. ...


At the sessions of the Diet subsequent to that of 1839-1840, as well as in various cities, a decided antipathy—at times active and at times merely passive—toward the Jews became manifest. In sharp contrast to this attitude was that of Baron József Eötvös, who published in 1840 in the Budapesti Szemle, the most prominent Hungarian review, a strong appeal for the emancipation of the Jews. This cause also found a friend in Count Charles Zay, the chief ecclesiastical inspector of the Hungarian Lutherans, who warmly advocated Jewish interests in 1846. József, baron Eötvös (September 13, 1813 - February 2, 1871), Hungarian writer and statesman, the son of Baron Ignacz Eötvös and the baroness Lilian, was born at Buda. ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ...


Although the session of the Diet convened on November 7, 1847, was unfavorable to the Jews, the latter not only continued to cultivate the Hungarian language, but were also willing to sacrifice their lives and property in the hour of danger. During the Revolution of 1848 they displayed their patriotism, even though attacked by the populace in several places at the beginning of the uprising. On March 19 the populace of Pressburg (Bratislava), encouraged by the antipathies of the citizens—who were aroused by the fact that the Jews, leaving their ghetto around Pressburg Castle (Bratislava Castle), were settling in the city itself—began hostilities that were continued after some days, and were renewed more fiercely in April. is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... —Alexis de Tocqueville, Recollections The European Revolutions of 1848, in some countries known as the Spring of Nations, were the bloody consequences of a variety of changes that had been taking place in Europe in the first half of the 19th century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... For the rapper, see Ghetto (rapper). ... Bratislava Castle The Bratislava Castle (Slovak: Bratislavský hrad) is the main castle of Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia. ...


At this time the expulsion of the Jews from Sopron, Pécs, Székesfehérvár, and Szombathely was demanded; in the last two cities there were pogroms. At Szombathely, the mob advanced upon the synagogue, cut up the Torah scrolls, and threw them into a well. Nor did the Jews of Pest escape, while those at Vágújhely (Nové Mesto nad Váhom) especially suffered from the brutality of the mob. Bitter words against the Jews were also heard in the Diet. Some Jews advised emigration to America as a means of escape; and a society was founded at Pest, with a branch at Pressburg, for that purpose. A few left Hungary, seeking a new home across the sea, but the majority remained. For the historical county in the Kingdom of Hungary named Sopron / Ödenburg, Sopron (county). ... Pécs   (Latin: Quinque Ecclesiae, Croatian: Pečuh, German: Fünfkirchen, Serbian: Pečuj or Печуј, Slovak: Päťkostolie, Turkish: Peçuy, Italian: Cinquechiese) is the fourth largest city of Hungary, located in the south-west of the country. ... Székesfehérvár (German: Stuhlweißenburg, Latin: Alba Regia, colloquial Hungarian: Fehérvár, Croatian: Stolni Biograd) is a city in central Hungary, located around 65 km southwest of Budapest. ... Szombathely (Latin Savaria/Sabaria, German Steinamanger, Slovenian Sombotel) is a city in Hungary. ... The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Nové Mesto nad Váhom (-Slovak, German: Neustadt an der Waag / Neustadtl, Hungarian: Vágújhely) is a town in the Trenčín Region of Slovakia. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


Revolution and emancipation, 1848-1849

Jews and the Hungarian Revolution

Jews entered the national guard as early as March of 1848; although they were excluded from certain cities, they reentered as soon as the danger to the country seemed greater than the hatred of the citizens. At Pest the Jewish national guard formed a separate division. When the national guards of Pápa were mobilized against the Croatians, Leopold Löw, rabbi of Pápa, joined the Hungarian ranks, inspiring his companions by his words of encouragement. Jews were also to be found in the volunteer corps, and among the honvéd and landsturm; and they constituted one-third of the volunteer division of Pest that marched along the Drava against the Croatians, being blessed by Rabbi Schwab on June 22, 1848. Pest (pronounced pesht) is the eastern, mostly flat part of Budapest, comprising about two thirds of the capitals territory. ... Pápa is a historical town in Veszprém county, Hungary, located close to the northern edge of the Bakony Hills. ... Croatian is: Croatian language adjective for that which belongs to Croatia ethnic Croat (deprecated) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Hungarian rabbi; born at Czernahora, Moravia, May 22, 1811; died at Szegedin Oct. ... The Honvéd (lit. ... The Landsturm is the German equivalent of the levee en masse, or general levy of all men capable of bearing arms and not included in the other regularly organized forces, standing army or its second line formations, of Continental nations. ... The Drava at Drávaszabolcs, Hungary The Drava at Vízvár, Hungary The Drava at Maribor, Slovenia Drava or Drave (German: Drau, Slovenian, Croatian and Italian: Drava, Hungarian: Dráva) is a river in southern Central Europe, a tributary of the Danube. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Many Jews throughout the country joined the army to fight for their fatherland; among them, Adolf Hübsch, subsequently rabbi at New York; Solomon Marcus Schiller-Szinessy, afterward lecturer at the University of Cambridge; and Ignatz Einhorn, who, under the name of "Eduard Horn," subsequently became state secretary of the Hungarian Ministry of Commerce. The rebellious Serbians slew the Jews at Zenta who sympathized with Hungary; among them, Rabbi Israel Ullmann and Jacob Münz, son of Moses Münz of Óbuda The conduct of the Jewish soldiers in the Hungarian army was highly commended by Generals Klapka and Görgey. Einhorn estimated the number of Jewish soldiers who took part in the Hungarian Revolution to be 20,000; but this is most likely exaggerated, as Béla Bernstein enumerates only 755 combatants by name in his work, Az 1848-49-iki Magyar Szabadságharcz és a Zsidók (Budapest, 1898). This article is about the state. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Senta (Сента, Hungarian: Zenta) is a city located in Serbia and Montenegro at 45. ... Óbuda (sometimes written in English as Obuda) was a historical city in Hungary. ... György Klapka, or Georg Klapka (7 April 1820–17 May 1892) was a Hungarian soldier. ... Artúr Görgey (January 30, 1818–May 21, 1916), was a Hungarian military leader. ... There have been a number of Hungarian Revolutions: 1848 Hungarian Revolution 1919 Hungarian Revolution 1956 Hungarian Revolution This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


The Hungarian Jews served their country not only with the sword, but also with funds. Communities and individuals, Chevra Kadisha, and other Jewish societies, freely contributed silver and gold, armor and provisions, clothed and fed the soldiers, and furnished lint and other medical supplies to the Hungarian camps. Meanwhile they did not forget to take steps to obtain their rights as citizens. When the Diet of 1847-1848 (in which, according to ancient law, only the nobles and those having the rights of nobles might take part) was dissolved (April 11), and the new Parliament — at which under the new laws the delegates elected by the commons also appeared — was convened at Pest (July 2, 1848), the Jews hopefully looked forward to the deliberations of the new body. A chevra kaddisha (Hebrew: holy society, better translated as burial society) is a loosely structured but generally closed organization of Jewish men and women who see to it that the bodies of Jews are prepared for burial according to halacha (Jewish law) and are protected from desecration, willful or not... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Brief emancipation and aftermath, 1849

Many Jews thought to pave the way for emancipation by a radical reform of their religious life, in agreement with opinions uttered in the Diets and in the press, that the Jews should not receive equal civic rights until they had reformed their religion. This reform had been first demanded in the session of 1839-1840. From this session onward the necessity of a reform of the Jewish religion was generally advocated in the press and in general assemblies, mostly in a spirit of friendliness. Several counties instructed their representatives not to vote for the emancipation of the Jews until they desisted from practising the externals of their religion.


For the purpose of urging emancipation all the Jews of Hungary sent delegates to a conference at Pest on July 5, 1848; there a commission consisting of ten members was chosen, to which was entrusted the task of agitating on behalf of emancipation; but the commission was instructed to make no concessions in regard to the Jewish faith, even if the Parliament should stipulate such as the condition on which civic equality to the Jews would be granted. The commission soon after addressed a petition to the Parliament, but it proved ineffective. Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The emancipation of the Jews, was granted by the national assembly at Szeged on Saturday, the eve of the Ninth of Av (July 28, 1849). The bill, which was quickly debated and immediately became a law, realized all the hopes of the Reform party. The Jews obtained full citizenship; and the Ministry of the Interior was ordered to call a convention of Jewish ministers and laymen for the purpose of drafting a confession of faith, and of inducing the Jews to organize their religious life in conformity with the demands of the time. The bill also included the clause referring to marriages between Jews and Christians, which clause both Kossuth and the Reform party advocated. Szeged and the Tisza river. ... Tisha BAv (תשעה באב tish‘āh bə-āḇ) means the ninth day of the Jewish month of Av, which is a month in the lunar calendar used for purposes of Jewish holidays, etc. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other types of minister, see Minister In Christian churches, a minister is a man or woman who serves a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such persons can minister as a Pastor, Preacher, Bishop, Chaplain, Deacon or Elder. ... In religious organizations , the laity comprises all lay persons, i. ... A Confession of Faith is a statement of doctrine very similar to a creed, but usually longer and polemical, as well as didactic. ... Lajos Kossuth Lajos Louis Kossuth [] (Monok, September 19, 1802–Turin, March 20, 1894) was a Hungarian lawyer, politician and Regent-President of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1849. ...


The Jews enjoyed their civic liberty for just two weeks. When the Hungarian army surrendered at Világos to the Russian troops that had come to aid the Austrians in suppressing the Hungarian struggle for liberty, the Jews were severely punished for having taken part in the uprising. Field Marshal Julius Haynau, the new governor of Hungary, imposed heavy war-taxes upon them, especially upon the communities of Pest and Óbuda, which had already been heavily taxed by Prince Alfred Windischgrätz, commander-in-chief of the Austrian army, on his triumphant entry into the Hungarian capital at the beginning of 1849. The communities of Kecskemét, Nagykőrös, Cegléd, Irsa, Szeged, and Szabadka (Subotica) were punished with equal severity by Haynau, who even laid hands upon the Jews individually, executing and imprisoning several; others sought refuge in emigration. ... Julius Jacob von Haynau (1786 - March 14, 1853), Austrian general, was the natural son of the landgrave--afterwards elector of Hesse-Cassel, William IX of Hesse-Cassel. ... Pest (pronounced pesht) is the eastern, mostly flat part of Budapest, comprising about two thirds of the capitals territory. ... Óbuda (sometimes written in English as Obuda) was a historical city in Hungary. ... Alfred Candidus Ferdinand, Fürst zu Windisch-Graetz (also written zu Windisch-Grätz, or zu Windischgrätz), (May 11, 1787, Brussels — March 21, 1862, Vienna) was an Austrian army officer who distinguished himself throughout the wars fought by the Habsburg Monarchy in the 19th century. ... Kecskemét (IPA: ), (approximate pronounciation, Kech-kem-it), is a city in the central part of Hungary. ... NagykÅ‘rös is a town in Pest county, Hungary. ... Cegléd is a friendly, quiet smalltown approx. ... Albertirsa is a town in the middle of the Great Hungarian Plain. ... Subotica (Суботица, Hungarian: Szabadka, German: Mariatheresiopel) is a city in northern Serbia and Montenegro, in the autonomous region of Vojvodina of the Republic of Serbia. ... Subotica city hall Subotica (Serbian: Суботица or Subotica, Hungarian: Szabadka, Croatian: Subotica, German: Maria-Theresiopel or Theresiopel, Slovak: Subotica, Rusin: Суботица, Romanian: Subotica or Subotita) is a city and municipality in northern Serbia and Montenegro, in the North Bačka District of Vojvodina, Serbia. ... Julius Jacob von Haynau (1786 - March 14, 1853), Austrian general, was the natural son of the landgrave--afterwards elector of Hesse-Cassel, William IX of Hesse-Cassel. ... A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country or region to settle in another. ...


Several communities petitioned to be relieved of the tax imposed upon them. The ministry of war, however, decided that the communities of Pest, Óbuda, Kecskemét, Czegléd, Nagykőrös, and Irsa should pay this tax not in kind, but in currency to the amount of 2,300,000 gulden. As the communities were unable to collect this sum, they petitioned the government to remit it, but the result was that not only the communities in question but the communities of the entire country were ordered to share in raising the sum, on the ground that most of the Jews of Hungary had supported the Revolution. Only the communities of Temesvár (Timişoara) and Pressburg (Bratislava) were exempted from this order, they having remained loyal to the existing government. The military commission subsequently added a clause to the effect that individuals or communities might be exempted from the punishment, if they could prove by documents or witnesses, before a commission to be appointed, that they had not taken part in the Revolution, either by word or deed, morally or materially. The Jews refused this means of clearing themselves, and finally declared that they were willing to redeem the tax by collecting a certain sum for a national school-fund. Emperor Franz Joseph therefore remitted the war-tax (September 20, 1850), but ordered that the Jews of Hungary without distinction should contribute toward a Jewish school-fund of 1,000,000 gulden; and this sum was raised by them within a few years. County Status County Capital Mayor Gheorghe Ciuhandu, Christian-Democratic Peoples Party, since 1996 Area 129. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... Franz Joseph I (in Hungarian I. Ferenc József, in English Francis Joseph I) (August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and a German prince (Deutscher Fürst). ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Struggles for a second emancipation (1859-1867)

The emancipation of the Jews remained in abeyance while the House of Habsburg held absolute sway in Hungary; but it was again taken in hand when the Austrian troops were defeated in Italy in 1859. In that year the cabinet, with Emperor Franz Joseph in the chair, decreed that the status of the Jews should be regulated in agreement with the times, but with due regard for the conditions obtaining in the several localities and provinces. The question of emancipation was again loudly agitated when the emperor convened the Diet on April 2, 1861; but the early dissolution of that body prevented it from taking action in the matter. is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The decade of absolutism in Hungary (1849-1859) was beneficial to the Jews in so far as it forced them to establish schools, most of which were in charge of trained teachers. The government organized with the Jewish school-fund model schools at Sátoraljaújhely, Temesvár (Timişoara), Pécs, and Pest. In Pest the Israelite State Teachers' Seminary was founded in 1859, the principals of which have included Abraham Lederer, Heinrich Deutsch, and Joseph Bánóczi. The graduates of this institution have rendered valuable services in the cause of patriotism and religious education. Sátoraljaújhely (-Hungarian, Slovak: Nové Mesto pod Å iatrom, German: Neustadt am Zeltberg) is a town located in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county in northern Hungary near the Slovak border. ... County Status County Capital Mayor Gheorghe Ciuhandu, Christian-Democratic Peoples Party, since 1996 Area 129. ... Pécs   (Latin: Quinque Ecclesiae, Croatian: Pečuh, German: Fünfkirchen, Serbian: Pečuj or Печуј, Slovak: Päťkostolie, Turkish: Peçuy, Italian: Cinquechiese) is the fourth largest city of Hungary, located in the south-west of the country. ... Pest (pronounced pesht) is the eastern, mostly flat part of Budapest, comprising about two thirds of the capitals territory. ... Abraham Lederer was a Hungarian educator and writer; born 9 January 1827, at Libochowitz, Bohemia. ... This March 2007 does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... This article is about the teaching of religion. ...


When the Parliament dissolved in 1861, the emancipation of the Jews was deferred to the coronation of Franz Joseph. On December 22, 1867, the question came before the lower house, and on the favorable report of Kálmán Tisza and Zsigmond Bernáth a bill in favor of emancipation was adopted, which was passed by the upper house on the following day. This bill (article xvii of the Laws of the Parliament session of 1867) was received with universal satisfaction not only by the Jews, but also by the whole country. Although an Antisemitic Party was present in the Parliament, it was not taken seriously by the political elite of the country, and their agitation against Jews was not successful (see Tiszaeszlár blood libel). is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The Tiszaeszlár blood libel, also known as the Tiszaeszlár Affair, was a blood libel and trial that set off anti-semitic agitation in Hungary in 1882 - 1883. ...


On October 4, 1877, the Jewish Theological Seminary – University of Jewish Studies opened in Budapest. The university is still functioning, having it's 130th anniversary on October 4 2007. Since it's opening, it has been the only Jewish institute in all of Central and Eastern Europe. is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Országos RabbiképzÅ‘ – Zsidó Egyetem, or Országos Rabbiképzö Intézet / Landesrabbinerschule in Budapest The efforts to found a rabbinical seminary in Hungary reach back to the beginning of the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR...


20th century: success, persecution, and destruction

The number of Jews according to the 1910 census was 5.0% of the 18 million people living in Hungary (Croatia excluded). The capital, Budapest, was 23% Jewish. [1] The list of towns where the Jewish population exceeded 20%: Munkács (Mukachevo) 44%, Máramarossziget (Sighetu Marmaţiei) 37%, Ungvár (Uzhhorod) 31%, Bártfa (Bardejov) 30%, Beregszász (Berehove) 30%, Sátoraljaújhely, Nagyvárad (Oradea), Nyitra (Nitra), Szilágysomlyó (Şimleu Silvaniei), Szatmárnémeti (Satu Mare), Miskolc. In three counties, namely Máramaros, Ugocsa and Bereg, the village population was more than 10% Jewish. Mukacheve (Мукачеве, Ruthenian: Мукачів (Mukachiv), Russian: Мукачево (Mukachevo), Hungarian: Munkács, Slovak and Czech: Mukačevo, German: Munkatsch, Yiddish: Munkacz) is a city in Zakarpattya region of southwestern Ukraine. ... Location of Sighetu MarmaÅ£iei in Romania Location of Sighetu MarmaÅ£iei in MaramureÅŸ Coordinates: , Country County Status Municipality Government  - Mayor Eugenia Godja (Social Democratic Party) Population (2002)  - Total 44,185 Time zone EET (UTC+2)  - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Website: http://www. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Uzhhorod highlighted. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Berehove (Ukrainian: ; Hungarian: ; Rusyn: ; Romanian: ; Russian: , translit. ... Sátoraljaújhely (-Hungarian, Slovak: Nové Mesto pod Å iatrom, German: Neustadt am Zeltberg) is a town located in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county in northern Hungary near the Slovak border. ... Location of Oradea Coordinates: , Country County Status County capital Government  - Mayor Petru Filip (Democratic Party) Area  - County capital 111. ... Nitra - City Center Nitra (German: ( ); Hungarian: / Nyitria [archaic]) is a city in western Slovakia (and the fourth largest urban settlement in Slovakia) situated at the foot of Zobor Mountain in the Nitra River valley. ... Åžimleu Silvaniei (Hungarian: Szilágysomlyó) is a town in Sălaj county, Transylvania, Romania with a population of 16,036 people (2002 census). ... Satu Mare redirects here. ... Nickname: Location of Miskolc in Hungary Coordinates: , Country Hungary Region Northern Hungary County Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Town since 1365 City since 1909 Urban county since 1970 Government  - Mayor Sándor Káli (MSZP) Area  - City 236. ... Capital Máramarossziget History  - Established 1876  - Treaty of Trianon June 4, 1920 Area  - 1910 9,716 km² Population  - 1910 est. ... Ugocsa is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the House of Bëor was the oldest of the Three Houses of Men that had allied with the Elves in the First Age. ...


The Jews of Hungary were fairly well integrated into Hungarian society by the time of the First World War. Class distinction was very significant in Hungary in general, and among the Jewish population in particular. Rich bankers, factory owners, lower middle class artisans and poor factory workers did not mingle easily. In 1926, there were 50,761 Jewish families living in Budapest. 65% of them lived in apartments that contained one or two rooms, 30% had three or four rooms, while 5% lived in apartments with more than 4 rooms. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...

# of households max 1 room 2 rooms 3 rooms 4 rooms 5 rooms min 6 rooms
Jewish= 50,761 25.4% 39.6% 21.2% 9.2% 3.1% 1.5%
Christian = 159,113 63.3% 22.1% 8.4% 3.8% 1.4% 1.0%

[2]


There was also religious division. There were three denominations. Traditionalists ("Status quo ante") were a minority, mainly in the North. Budapest, the South and West had a "Neolog" majority (somewhat between modern US conservative and Reform), with a significant Orthodox (more orthodox than "status quo ante") minority. The East and North of the country were overwhelmingly Orthodox. One can say, in broad terms, that Jews whose ancestors had come from Moravia in the 18th century became Neolog, while Jews whose ancestors had come from Galicia became Orthodox at the split in 1869.


More than 10,000 Jews died and thousands wounded and disabled fighting for Hungary in WW I. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, however, the Communists briefly took power. Leader Béla Kun, was of Jewish ancestry. The regime was crushed after four and a half months by the Rumanian army, and the reactionary forces under Miklós Horthy used military force to take power, launching a series of pogroms known as the White Terror in 1919 (approximately 5,000 Jewish and non-Jewish people murdered). “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Béla Kun Béla Kun (born Béla Kohn) (February 20, 1886, in Szilágycseh, today Cehu Silvaniei, Transylvania, Romania, died August 29, 1938 in the Soviet Union) was a Hungarian Communist politician, who ruled Hungary for a brief period in 1919. ... Horthy redirects here. ... It has been suggested that The White Terror (France) be merged into this article or section. ...


In the first few decades of the 20th Century the Jews were vastly disproportionately represented in the professions relative to their numbers, ampunting to 5% of the population. In 1921 Budapest, 88% percent of the members of the stock exchange and 91% percent of the currency brokers were Jews, many of them ennobled. In interwar Hungary, more than half and perhaps as much as 90 percent of all industry was controlled by a few closely related Jewish banking families. For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ...


Jews represented one-fourth of all university students and 43% percent at Budapest Technological University. In 1920, 60 percent of Hungarian doctors, 51 percent of lawyers, 39 percent of all privately employed engineers and chemists, 34 percent of editors and journalists, and 29 percent of musicians identified themselves as Jews by religion.[3] The Budapest University of Technology and Economics (in Hungarian, Budapesti Műszaki és Gazdaságtudományi Egyetem or in short Műegyetem) is the most significant University of Technology in Hungary. ...


The Holocaust

"There is no doubt that this persecution of Jews in Hungary and their expulsion from enemy territory is probably the greatest and most horrible crime ever committed in the whole history of the world...."
Winston Churchill, July 11, 1944

By 1920 the Terror had ended, but Horthy's government passed a number of anti-Jewish measures that led to the exclusion and isolation of the Jewish community, including those limiting Jews to five percent or less of university slots. These policies grew more repressive. For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


Starting in 1938, Hungary under Horthy passed a series of anti-Jewish measures The first, promulgated on May 29,1938, restricted the number of Jews in each commercial enterprise, in the press, among physicians, engineers and lawyers to twenty percent. The second anti-Jewish law (May 5, 1939), for the first time, defined Jews racially: people with 2,3 or 4 Jewish-born grandparents were declared Jewish. Their employment in government at any level was forbidden, they could not be editors at newspapers, their numbers were restricted to six per cent among theater and movie actors, physicians, lawyers and engineers. Private companies were forbidden to employ more than 12% Jews. 250,000 Hungarian Jews lost their income.


In the elections of May 28-29, Nazi and Arrow Cross parties received one quarter of the votes and 52 out of 262 seats. Their support was even larger, usually between 1/3 and 1/2 of the votes, where they were on the ballot at all, since they were not listed in large parts of the country [4]


The "Third Jewish Law" (August 8, 1941) prohibited intermarriage and penalized sexual intercourse between Jews and non-Jews.

"Selection" on the Judenrampe, Auschwitz, May/June 1944. To be sent to the right meant slave labor; to the left, the gas chambers. This image shows the arrival of Hungarian Jews from Carpatho-Ruthenia, many of them from the Berehov ghetto. It was taken by Ernst Hofmann or Bernhard Walter of the SS. Note the physician in the white coat between the columns, Gyorgy Havas, helping select who is to live or die. Courtesy of Yad Vashem http://www1.yadvashem.org/exhibitions/album_auschwitz/home_auschwitz_album.html "The Auschwitz Album.]"
"Selection" on the Judenrampe, Auschwitz, May/June 1944. To be sent to the right meant slave labor; to the left, the gas chambers. This image shows the arrival of Hungarian Jews from Carpatho-Ruthenia, many of them from the Berehov ghetto. It was taken by Ernst Hofmann or Bernhard Walter of the SS. Note the physician in the white coat between the columns, Gyorgy Havas, helping select who is to live or die. Courtesy of Yad Vashem http://www1.yadvashem.org/exhibitions/album_auschwitz/home_auschwitz_album.html "The Auschwitz Album.]"

According to "Magyarország történelmi kronológiája",[5] the census of January 1941 found that 6.2% of the population of 13,644,000, i.e. 846,000 people, were considered Jewish according to the racial laws of that time. From this number, 725,000 were Jewish by religion (184,000 in Budapest, 217,000 in the pre-1938 countryside, and 324,000 in the "reunited" Northern Transylvania, Carpatho-Ruthenia and southern Slovakia). In April 1941, Hungary annexed the Bácska (Bačka) and Muraköz (Međimurje County) regions from the occupied Yugoslavia, with 1,025,000 people including 16,000 Jews. It is not clear whether the 10-20,000 Jewish refugees were counted in the January census. They and anyone who could not prove legal residency, about 20,000 people, were handed over to the Germans in July, and were massacred in Kameniec-Podolsk (Kamianets-Podilskyi) at the end of August. Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... For other uses, see Gas chamber (disambiguation). ... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in PreÅ¡ov kraj... Berehove (Ukrainian: ; Hungarian: ; Rusyn: ; Romanian: ; Russian: , translit. ... New Yad Vashem museum building designed by Safdie Yad Vashem (Hebrew: ‎; Holocaust Martyrs and Heroes Remembrance Authority) is Israels official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust established in 1953 through the Memorial Law passed by the Knesset, Israels parliament. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in PreÅ¡ov kraj... Bačka (Serbian: Бачка or Bačka, Hungarian: Bácska, Croatian: Bačka, Slovak: Báčka, German: Batschka) is an area of the Pannonian plain lying between the rivers Danube and Tisa. ... MeÄ‘imurje (MeÄ‘imurska županija) is a triangle-shaped county in the northernmost part of Croatia. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Location Government Country Oblast Raion Ukraine Khmelnytsky Oblast Kamianets-Podilskyi Raion Geographical characteristics Area  - City km² Population  - City (2004) 99,068 Coordinates , , Other Information Postal Code 32300—32318 Dialing Code +380-3849 Sister cities Ejmiatsin Kamianets-Podilskyi (Ukrainian: , translit. ...


In the Újvidék (Novi Sad) massacre, 3,000 Serbs and 1,000 Jews were murdered, and approximately 42,000 Jewish forced laborers were killed at the Soviet front in 1942-43. Nevertheless, the Hungarian Prime Ministers, and especially Regent Horthy, continually resisted German pressure and refused to allow the deportation of Hungarian Jews to the German extermination camps in occupied Poland. This "anomalous" situation lasted until March 19, 1944, when German troops occupied Hungary, and on March 23, 1944, the Sztójay quisling government was installed. During the the four days' interregnum following the German occupation, László Endre and László Baky were put in charge of the Ministry of the Interior. For other uses, see Novi Sad (disambiguation). ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma (Gypsies... Quisling, after Norwegian fascist politician Vidkun Quisling, is a term used to describe traitors and collaborationists. ...


A few days later, the Ruthenia, Upper Hungary, and Northern Transylvania were placed under military command, amounting to an additional 320,000 Jews. On April 9, Prime Minister Sztojay and the Germans obligated Hungary to place at the disposal of the Reich 300,000 Jewish laborers. Five days later, on April 14, Endre, Baky, and Eichmann decided to deport all the Jews of Hungary.


SS Colonel Adolf Eichmann, the "chief operating officer" in charge of the murder of all Jews in the world, set up his staff in the Majestic Hotel and proceeded rapidly in rounding up Jews from all of the Hungarian provinces, outside of Budapest and its suburbs. The Yellow Star and Ghettoization laws, and Deportation were accomplished in less than 8 weeks with the enthusiastic help of the Hungarian authorities, particularly the gendarmerie (csendőrség). The first transports to Auschwitz began on May 15, 1944. Even as Soviet troops were rapidly approaching the Hungarian border, and Eichmann and his staff knew that Germany had by then lost the war, the trains continued to roll to Auschwitz. Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (equivalent to Lieutenant Colonel). ... Compulsory Jewish badge under the Nazi occupation of Europe: the Star of David with the word Jew inside (this one in German) A yellow badge, also referred to as a Jewish badge, was a mandatory mark or a piece of cloth of specific geometric shape, worn on the outer garment... A gendarmerie or gendarmery (pronounced ) is a military body charged with police duties among civilian populations. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ...


By July 8, 437,402 Jews had been deported in 151 trains, according to Edmund Veesenmayer's official German reports.[citation needed] One hundred and thirty six trains were sent to Auschwitz, where 90% of the people were exterminated on arrival. Because the crematoria couldn't cope with the number of corpses, and special pits were dug near them, where bodies were simply burned. It has been estimated that one third of the murdered victims at Auschwitz were Hungarian.[citation needed] For most of this time period, 12,000 Jews were delivered to Auschwitz in a typical day, among them the future writer and Nobel Prize-winner Elie Wiesel, at age 15. The devotion to the cause of the "final solution" of the Hungarian gendarmes surprised even Eichmann himself, who supervised the operation with only twenty officers and a staff of 100, which included drivers, cooks, etc.[6] The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Elie Wiesel (born Eliezer Wiesel on September 30, 1928)[1] is a Hungarian-French-Jewish novelist, political activist, Nobel Laureate and Holocaust survivor. ... Adolf Eichmann (March 19, 1906 — June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking official in Nazi Germany, and served as an Obersturmbannführer in the S.S.. He was largely responsible for the logistics of the extermination of millions of people during the Holocaust, in particular Jews, which was called the final...


According to Winston Churchill, in a letter to his Foreign Secretary dated July 11, 1944, "There is no doubt that this persecution of Jews in Hungary and their expulsion from enemy territory is probably the greatest and most horrible crime ever committed in the whole history of the world...."[7] Churchill redirects here. ...



The relative safety of the Jews of Budapest is particularly noteworthy. The Pope, the King of Sweden, and, in strong terms, President Franklin D. Roosevelt urged the halt to the deportations. The deportation of the Jews of Budapest, scheduled for July 5, was halted before Admiral Horthy finally ordered the suspension of all deportation on July 8, and as a result almost 100,000 Jews of Budapest survived. For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... FDR redirects here. ...


Nonetheless, the decision was opposed by Endre, Baky and the Germans. To forestall a Nazi coup d'etat, Horthy ordered the remaining parts of the army and the gendarmerie that were still loyal to him to Budapest. Nonetheless, another 30,000 Jews were deported from the Trans-Danubian region and the outskirts of Budapest. On October 15, 1944 the antisemitic Hungarian fascist Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian: Nyilas] staged a coup. In the two months between November 1944 and February 1945, the Arrow Cross shot 10,000 to 15,000 Jews on the banks of the Danube. A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party Senior members of the Arrow Cross Party. ...



Soviet troops liberated the Budapest ghetto on January 18, 1945. The Budapest ghetto was a ghetto where Jews were forced to live in Budapest, Hungary during the Second World War. ...


By the end of the war in Hungary on April 4, 1945, from an original population of almost 900,000 people considered Jewish inside the borders of 1941-44, about 255,000 survived.[8]


The Kastner Affair

 This short section requires expansion. 

Joel Brand

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The Gold Train

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Raoul Wallenberg

At this time, one of the most daring figures of the Holocaust emerged onto the stage: Raoul Wallenberg. Using his staff to prepare Protective Passports under the authority of the Swedish Legation Wallenberg saved the lives of thousands of Jews. At one point, he appeared personally at the train station, insisting that many Jews on the train be removed, and presenting the Arrow Cross guards with the Protective Passports for many on the train. Carl Lutz, of the Swiss Legation, also saved many people in a similar manner. Raoul Gustav Wallenberg (August 4, 1912 – July 16, 1947?)[1][2][3] was a Swedish humanitarian sent to Budapest, Hungary under diplomatic cover to rescue Jews from the Holocaust. ... Raoul Gustav Wallenberg (August 4, 1912 – July 16, 1947?)[1][2][3] was a Swedish humanitarian sent to Budapest, Hungary under diplomatic cover to rescue Jews from the Holocaust. ... Carl Lutz (1895-1975) was the Swiss Consul in Budapest, Hungary from 1942 until the end of World War II. He had the initiative to save Hungarian Jews from deportation by allowing them to emigrate to Palestine under protection of a Swiss safe-conduct. ...


Communist rule

It is [perhaps over-]estimated that inside the post-war borders of Hungary, 190,000 people of Jewish descent were living at the end of 1945. The last census that asked about religion was in 1949 until the renewal of this question in 2001, when 12,871 people claimed to be "Israelite" vs 133,861 in 1949. (Source: http://www.nepszamlalas2001.hu/eng/volumes/26/tables/load1_1.html)


Under Communist rule, from 1948 to 1988, Zionism was outlawed and Jewish observance was curtailed. The previous upper class, Jews and anti-Semites alike, were expelled from the cities to the provinces for 6-12 months in the early 1950's. This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ...


However, the reality is more complex. The Communist governments of Béla Kun (mid-1919) and Mátyás Rákosi (1948-1954) included a large number of (atheist) Jews in prominent and influential decision-making positions. Certain Hungarian Communists who did have a Jewish background like Mátyás Rákosi and Ernő Gerő (Prime Minister and effective head of state in 1956) had totally repudiated Judaism (per pure Communist doctrine, which was strictly atheistic) and sometimes expressed anti-Semitic attitudes themselves. Béla Kun Béla Kun (born Béla Kohn) (February 20, 1886, in Szilágycseh, today Cehu Silvaniei, Transylvania, Romania, died August 29, 1938 in the Soviet Union) was a Hungarian Communist politician, who ruled Hungary for a brief period in 1919. ... Portrait of Mátyás Rákosi Mátyás Rákosi (born March 14, 1892 as Mátyás Rosenfeld –February 5, 1971) was a Hungarian politician and the leader of Hungary from 1945 to 1956 through his post as General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party. ... Portrait of Mátyás Rákosi Mátyás Rákosi (born March 14, 1892 as Mátyás Rosenfeld –February 5, 1971) was a Hungarian politician and the leader of Hungary from 1945 to 1956 through his post as General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party. ... ErnÅ‘ GerÅ‘ (1898 - 1980) was a Hungarian Communist leader in the period after World War II and briefly leader of Hungary in 1956. ...


During the 1919-1920 "White terror" period and the 1956 uprising, the backlash targeted not only Communist party members but Jews in general, and there were lynchings. On the other hand, some of the armed rebel leaders in 1956 were Jewish (István Angyal, an Auschwitz survivor, was executed on December 1,1958), and the uprising was supported by a number of Jewish writers too (for instance, Tibor Déry was imprisoned from 1957 to 1961). After the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, about 20,000 or so Jews fled the country. By 1967, only about 80,000-90,000 Jews (including non-religious Jews) remained in the country, with the number dropping further before the country's Communist regime collapsed in 1989. There have been a number of Hungarian Revolutions: 1848 Hungarian Revolution 1919 Hungarian Revolution 1956 Hungarian Revolution This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Under the milder communist regime of János Kádár (ruled 1957-1988) leftist Jewish intelligentsia remained an important and vocal part of Hungarian art and sciences. Diplomatic relations with Israel were severed in 1967, but it was not followed by antisemitic campaigns as in Poland or the Sovietunion. János Kádár, né Giovanni Csermanek (his Italian first name was due to the laws of Fiume, his father denied paternity and refused to support his mother Borbála[1]) (May 26, 1912–July 6, 1989), was the communist leader of Hungary from 1956 to 1988, and twice...


Today

Most estimates about the number of Jews in Hungary range from 50,000 to 100,000; intermarriage rates are around 60%. (On the other hand, only 12,871 people declared Jewish religion in the census of 2001). Hungary boasts a number of synagogues, including the Dohány Street Synagogue, which is the largest synagogue in Europe. Jewish education is well organized: there are three Jewish high schools (Lauder Javne, Wesselényi and Anna Frank). Hungary is also home to the Jewish Theological Seminary – University of Jewish Studies. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... Országos RabbiképzÅ‘ – Zsidó Egyetem, or Országos Rabbiképzö Intézet / Landesrabbinerschule in Budapest The efforts to found a rabbinical seminary in Hungary reach back to the beginning of the 19th century. ...


Anti-Semitism as well as racism towards the Roma population has been a problem in Hungary since the fall of communism. There was a peak in 1992, before the departure of the strongly antisemitic wing of the ruling MDF party. There was a second peak when the ruling FIDESZ party needed the parliamentary support of MIÉP between 1998 and 2002. The economic situation has been deteriorating in 2007, and the extreme elements established a paramilitary organization, complete with Nyilas-like unifroms and armbands. Their main task for now is to stir up hatred against the Gypsy population. The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...


Although violence against individuals is rare, hatred of Jews is usually exhibited by destroying tombstones or vandalizing synagogues. Soccer games continue to see significant antisemitic messaging, including banners saying "send goose-eaters (libások) home", the massive exhibitions of Heil Hitler!, and imitation of the sound of steam engines (going to Auschwitz). The reason is that one of the teams in the premier league, MTK is considered Jewish. Adolf Hitler and others at a Nazi party rally, Nuremberg, Germany, performing the salute. ...


Most of the Jews in Hungary are secular.[citation needed] Since the fall of Communism in 1989, there has been a modest spiritual revival of Jewish observance. In 2003, Slomó Köves became the first Orthodox Rabbi to be ordained in Hungary since the Holocaust. The ceremony was attended by Rabbi Shlomo Amar, the Chief Rabbi of Israel, as well as, the President of Hungary, Ferenc Mádl. Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Rabbi Shlomo Amar Rabbi Shlomo Amar (1948 - ) is the current Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel, appointed in 2003. ... President Ferenc Mádl Ferenc Mádl (born January 29, 1931 in the village of Bánd in Veszprém County) was the President of Hungary, between August 4, 2000 and August 5, 2005. ...


The reasons for anti-semitism in Hungary are complex, similarly to other regions. However there are some unique characteristics. Some Hungarians believe that the local Jewry is strongly affiliated with the small, but influential, political party Alliance of Free Democrats, also called SZDSZ. The SZDSZ party takes a liberal political stand[opinion needs balancing], which includes organization of homosexual street rallies, unlimited abortion, sterilization rights for individuals, decriminalization of illegal drugs, total privatization of state-run public utility services, and absolute separation of church and state.[citation needed]. One has to add that almost none of the leaders of SzDSz are actually Jewish. Stylized party logo Simple party logo The Alliance of Free Democrats - the Hungarian Liberal Party (Hungarian: Szabad-Demokraták szövetsége - a Magyar Liberális Párt, abbreviation SZDSZ) is a liberal party in Hungary, led by Gábor Kuncze. ... Party logo The Alliance of Free Democrats (Hungarian: Szabad Demokraták Szövetsége, or SZDSZ) is a liberal party in Hungary, led by Gábor Kuncze. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Panamanian motor vessel Gatun during the largest cocaine bust in United States Coast Guard history (20 tons), off the coast of Panama. ... A public utility is a company that maintains the infrastructure for a public service. ...


Some political conservatives and a significant part of the Hungarian population[citation needed] believe that these aims are meant to demolish the very foundations of the Hungarian nation, by destroying rural and religious traditions. The far right alleges that this agenda is part of a secret Jewish domination plan.[citation needed] This proposed logo for the US Information Awareness Office was dropped due to fears that its Masonic symbolism would provoke conspiracy theories. ...


Hungary has received significant Israeli investments since 1990, especially in heavy-industry and finance. Jewish intellectuals have enjoyed a strong media presence, prompting nationalists and anti-globalization advocates to declare that the government is losing power to international corporations.[citation needed] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


In April 1997, the Hungarian parliament passed a Jewish compensation act that returns property stolen from Jewish victims during the Nazi and Communist eras. Under this law, property and monetary payment were given back to the Jewish public heritage foundation and to Jewish victims of the Holocaust. [1]


External links

Raoul Gustav Wallenberg (August 4, 1912 – July 16, 1947?)[1][2][3] was a Swedish humanitarian sent to Budapest, Hungary under diplomatic cover to rescue Jews from the Holocaust. ...

See also

This article addresses the History of the Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia. ... // In Hungary, the Great Depression induced a drop in the standard of living and the political mood of the country shifted further toward the right. ... This is a list of Hungarian Jews. ... The Budapest ghetto was a ghetto where Jews were forced to live in Budapest, Hungary during the Second World War. ... See also the history of Europe, the history of present-day nations and states, Hungary before the Magyars, and Hungary. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party Senior members of the Arrow Cross Party. ... Dr. Rudolf Vrba in 1997. ... Walter Edward Guinness, 1st Baron Moyne (29 March 1880 - 6 November 1944) was a British politician. ... Shoes on the Danube Promenade is the work of sculptor Gyula Pauer [[2]]. Budapest, Danube Promenade Memorial in Budapest near to the Hungarian Academy of Sciences on the Danube Promenade. ...

References

  1. ^ Pest was more Jewish than Buda. In 1926, the districts I,II,III of Buda were Jewish 8%,11%,10% respectively. Downtown Pest (Belváros, district IV then) was 18% Jewish. Districts V (31%), VI (28%), VII (36%), VIII (22%),IX (13%) had large Jewish populations, while district X had 6%.
  2. ^ Magyar Zsidó Lexikon. Budapest, 1929.
  3. ^ All these figures are from Yuri Slezkine. The Jewish Century. Princeton, 2004. ISBN 0-691-11995-3
  4. ^ see http://www.vokscentrum.hu/valaszt/index.php?jny=hun&mszkod=111000&evvalaszt=1939 . For instance, the support for Nazi parties was above 43% in the election districts of Zala, Győr-Moson, Budapest surroundings, Central and Northern Pest-Pilis, and above 36% in Veszprém, Vas, Szabolcs-Ung, Sopron, Nógrád-Hont,Jász-Nagykun, Southern Pest town and Buda town. The Nazi parties were not on the ballot mainly in the Eastern third of the country and in Somogy,Baranya, Tolna, Fejér. Their smallest support was in Békés county (15%), Pécs town (19%), Szeged town (22%) and in Northern Pest town (27%). For a map, click on http://www.vokscentrum.hu/valaszt/terkep.php?mszkod=111201&evvalaszt=1939&jny=hun
  5. ^ Volume 3, p.979, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1982
  6. ^ (Deportáltakat Gondozó Országos Bizottság)
  7. ^ [http://cgi.stanford.edu/group/wais/cgi-bin/index.php?p=6855 "Winston Churchill's The Second World War and the Holocaust's Uniqueness," Istvan Simon]
  8. ^ Braham, Randolph L. A Magyarországi Holokauszt Földrajzi Enciklopediája [The Geographic Encyclopedia of the Holocaust in Hungary]. Budapest:Park Publishing, 3 vol. (2006). Vol 1, p. 91.

Texts

Hapsburg rule

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Holocaust

  • Braham, Randolph L.. The Holocaust in Hungary: A Selected and Annotated Bibliography, 1984-2000. Boulder:Social Science Monographs; Distributed by Columbia University Press, 2001. ISBN 0880334819
  • Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (Rev. and enl. ed.) 2 Vols. Boulder:Social Science Monographs; Distributed by Columbia University Press, 2001. ISBN 0880332476 [Hungarian translation available.]
The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... History of the Jews in Europe. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... There are no known Jews in Montenegro, and few Jews have ever lived in the area[1]. References ^ Antisemitism and Jewish Identity in Serbia after the 1991 Collapse of the Yugoslav State, Laslo Sekelj History of the Jews in Europe History of the Jews in: Albania â€¢ Andorra â€¢ Armenia â€¢ Austria â€¢ Azerbaijan... The history of the Jews in Poland reaches back over a millennium. ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire once hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... Jews first arrived in what is now the Republic of Serbia in Roman times. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The earliest date at which Jews arrived in Scotland is not known. ... The Jews of Northern Ireland have lived primarily in Belfast, where the Belfast Hebrew Congregation was established in 1870. ... The History of the Jews in Wales includes evidence of Jewish communities in Wales dating from the Middle Ages. ... World map of dependent territories. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... ... Jews first arrived in what is now the Republic of Serbia in Roman times. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... The borders of the continents are the limits of the several continents of the Earth, as defined by various geographical, cultural, and political criteria. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ...  The African plate, shown in pinkish-orange The African Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of Africa and extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ...

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The Virtual Jewish History Tour -- Hungary (2961 words)
Jews have lived in Hungary since the time of the Roman Empire, even before the Magyar (Hungarian) tribes arrived and conquered the land in the 9th century.
This led to the dispersion of Hungarian Jews in the Balkan region.
The number of Jews in Hungary continued to decrease and, in the 1970's, declined to 60,000 (50,000 lived in Budapest), which was still the second or third largest community in Eastern Europe.
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Jews played a considerable role in the development of the capitalistic economy of Hungary, and from the 1880s large numbers entered the liberal professions, and also contributed to literary life, in particular in journalism.
In the classification of the inhabitants according to nationality, the overwhelming majority of the Jews in Hungary declared themselves members of the Hungarian nation; Jewish nationality was not officially recognized and the Jews thus became a party in the struggle between the ruling Magyar nation and the national minorities of Hungary.
The Jews were permitted to add a few items of food and clothing to their scanty baggage during the inventory, which in most cases was accompanied by gendarme brutality and looting by the civilian auxiliary personnel.
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