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Encyclopedia > History of the Israel Defense Forces
State of Israel
Geography

Land of Israel · Districts · Cities
Transport · Mediterranean
Dead Sea · Red Sea · Sea of Galilee
Jerusalem · Tel Aviv · Haifa Israeli Coat of Arms Original digital image can be found at the site of the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs: http://www. ... Motto: none Anthem: Hatikvah Capital Jerusalem[1] Largest city Jerusalem Official language(s) Hebrew, Arabic Government President Prime Minister Parliamentary democracy Moshe Katsav Ehud Olmert Independence  Declaration From the United Kingdom 14 May 1948 (05 Iyar 5708) Area  - Total    - Water (%)   20,770 km² (150th) 8,019 sq mi  ~2% Population... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... This article concerns the concept of The Land of Israel (Hebrew: ארץ ישראל Eretz Yisrael) in Jewish and Christian thought throughout the history from its Biblical sources to the present day. ... Map of the districts of Israel There are six main districts of Israel, known in Hebrew as mehozot (מחוזות; singular: mehoz) and fifteen sub-districts known as nafot (נפות; singular: nafa). ... Cities in Israel, by district: // Northern District See also North District, Israel. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Dead Sea at Sunset (from Suwayma, Jordan) The Dead Sea (Hebrew ים המלח) , (Arabic البحر الميت) is the lowest exposed point on the Earths surface. ... Location of the Red Sea Image:Red Seaimage. ... The Sea of Galilee with the Jordan River flowing out of it to the south and into the Dead Sea Kineret redirects here; for the Amgen drug having this tradename, see Anakinra The Sea of Galilee is Israels largest freshwater lake, approximately 53 kilometers (33 miles) in circumference, about... Jerusalem (; Hebrew: Yerushalayim; Arabic: al-Quds, Greek Ιεροσόλυμα), the capital of Israel, is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meters. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Nickname: Red Haifa Official website: www. ...

History of Israel

Zionism · Timeline ·Aliyah · Herzl
Balfour · Mandate · 1947 UN Plan
Independence · Austerity · Refugees
This article discusses the history of the modern State of Israel, from its independence proclamation in 1948 to the present. ... Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian), in small (down) text is written First Palestinian sound movie 1844 Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews by Mordecai Noah, page one. ... Timeline of Zionism in the modern era: 1861 - The Zion Society is formed in Frankfurt, Germany. ... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה; ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... The Balfour Declaration was a letter dated November 2, 1917 from British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization. ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Jewish conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly, at the UN World Headquarters in New York. ... Main article: History of Israel Austerity in Israel: From 1949 to 1959, the state of Israel was, to a varying extent, under a regime of austerity (צנע tsena), during which rationing and similar measures were enforced. ...

Arab-Israeli conflict · Proposals

1948 War · 1949 Armistice · Suez War
Six-Day War · Attrition War
Yom Kippur War · Lebanon War
Peace treaties with: Egypt, Jordan
Combatants State of Israel Arab nations Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United Nations... Geneva Accord October 20, 2003 Road Map for Peace April 30, 2003 The Peoples Voice July 27, 2002 Elon Peace Plan 2002 ... The 1948 Arab-Israeli War is referred to as the War of Independence (Hebrew: מלחמת העצמאות) or as the War of Liberation (Hebrew: מלחמת השחרור) by Israelis. ... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ... Combatants Israel, France, United Kingdom Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan (CoS of the IDF) General Sir Charles Keightley (C-in-C), Vice-Admiral Pierre Barjot (Deputy) Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 45,000 British, 34,000 French, 175,000 Israeli 300,000 Egyptians Casualties 189 Israelis KIA, unknown number WIA, 16 British... Combatants Israel Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Sharif Zaid Ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 50,000 troops (264,000 including mobilized reservists); 197 combat aircraft Egypt 150,000 troops; Syria 75,000; Jordan... The War of Attrition was a limited war fought between Egypt and Israel from 1968 to 1970. ... Combatants Israel Egypt, Syria, (Jordan, Iraq) Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali Strength 415,000 troops; 1,500 tanks, 3,000 armored carriers; 945 artillery units 100 mm and up; 561 airplanes, 84 helicopters; 38 warships. ... Lebanon War (Hebrew: מלחמת לבנון Milkhemet Levanon), also known as the 1982 Invasion of Lebanon or Operation Peace of the Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil in Hebrew), began June 6, 1982, when the Israel Defense Forces invaded southern Lebanon. ...

Israeli-Palestinian conflict

Timeline · Peace process · Peace camp
1st Intifada · Oslo · 2nd Intifada
Barrier · Disengagement Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... This is an incomplete timeline of events in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ... The Israeli peace camp is a collection of political and non-political movements which desire to promote peace, mainly with the Arab neighbours of Israel (the Palestinians, Syria and Lebanon) and encourage co-existence with the Arab citizens of Israel. ... Intifada A poster from 1990 The First Intifada refers to a series of violent incidents between Palestinians and Israelis between 1987 and approximately 1993, when the Oslo accords were signed and the Palestinian National Authority was established. ... The Oslo Accords, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles (DOP), were finalized in Oslo, Norway on August 20, 1993, and subsequently officially signed at a public ceremony in Washington D.C. on September 13, 1993, with Mahmoud Abbas signing for the... The wreckage of a commuter bus in West Jerusalem after a suicide bombing on Tuesday, 18 June 2002. ... The barrier route as of May 2005. ... A map illustrating the four phases of the Gaza disengagement plan. ...

Economy

Science & Tech. · Companies · Tourism
This article does not cite its references or sources. ... . The top 10 Israeli companies by sales are: Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd. ... Tourism in Israel includes a rich variety of historical and religious sites in the Holy Land, as well as modern beach resorts, archaeological tourism, heritage tourism and ecotourism. ...

Demographics · Culture

Judaism · Israeli Arabs · Kibbutz
Music · Archaeology · Universities
Hebrew · Literature · Israelis This article discusses the demographics of Israel. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Religion in Israel is unique in that Israel is the only country in which Judaism is the religion of the majority of citizens. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: קיבוץ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים, gathering or together) is an Israeli collective community. ... Modern Israeli music is heavily influenced by its constituents, which include Palestinians (see Palestinian music) and Jewish immigrants (see Jewish music) from more than 120 countries around the world have brought their own musical traditions, making Israel a global melting pot. ... The archaeology of Israel is a national passion that also attracts considerable international interest on account of the regions Biblical links. ... There are eight official universities in Israel. ... Hebrew (עִבְרִית ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than seven million people in Israel and Jewish communities around the world. ... Israeli literature is the literature of the people or State of Israel. ...

Laws · Politics

Law of Return · Jerusalem Law
Parties · Elections · PM · President
Knesset · Supreme Court · Courts The Basic Laws of Israel are a key component of Israels uncodified constitution. The State of Israel has no formal constitution. ... The State of Israel is a parliamentary democracy whose political system and main principles are set out in 11 Basic Laws. ... The Law of Return (חוק השבות) is Israeli legislation that allows Jews to settle in Israel and gain citizenship. ... The Jerusalem Law is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Israeli Knesset on July 30, 1980 (17th Av, 5740). ... Political parties in Israel: Israels political system is based on proportional representation which allows for a multi-party system with numerous parties, in which a single party usually has no chance of gaining power by itself, forcing the parties to cooperate and form coalition governments. ... Elections in Israel gives information on election and election results in Israel. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... President of the State of Israel (Hebrew: נשיא המדינה, Nasi Hamedina) is the head of state of Israel, but has a largely ceremonial, figurehead role with real power lying in the hands of the Prime Minister of Israel. ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... Frontal view The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון, Beit Hamishpat Haelyon ) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. ... Judicial branch is an independent branch of the government which includes secular and religious courts. ...

Foreign affairs

UN · Intl. Law · Arab League Foreign relations of Israel deals with some of the following issues: In addition to seeking an end to hostilities with Arab forces, against which it has fought five wars since 1948, Israel has given high priority to gaining wide acceptance as a sovereign state with an important international role. ... Israel and the United Nations have had very mixed relations, since the states founding on May 14, 1948. ... Arguments about the applicability of various elements of international law underlie the debate around the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... From the time it was established in March 1945, the Arab League took an active role in the Arab-Israeli conflict. ...

Israeli Security Forces

Israel Defense Forces
Intelligence Community · Security Council
Police · Border Police · Prison Service The Israeli Security Forces (ISF) are several organizations collectively responsible for Israels security. ... The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... The Israeli Intelligence Community (Hebrew: קהילת המודיעין הישראלית) is the designation given to the complex of organizations responsible for intelligence collection, dissemination, and research for the State of Israel. ... The Israeli National Security Council (Hebrew: המועצה לביטחון לאומי) is a council established by the Prime Ministers Office in 1999 during the prime ministership of Binyamin Netanyahu in the framework of drawing lessons from the Yom Kipur War. ... The Israel Border Police (Hebrew: משמר הגבול, mishmar hagvul) is the combat branch of the Israeli Police. ... The Israel Prison Service (Hebrew: שירות בתי הסוהר, Sherut Batei HaSohar), commonly known as SHABAS, is the Israeli prison service. ...

Portal:Israel

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The history of the Israel Defense Forces is intertwined with history of the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) were formed following the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948 to "defend the existence, territorial integrity and sovereignty of the state of Israel" and "to protect the inhabitants of Israel and to combat all forms of terrorism which threaten daily life". The predecessors to the IDF were the Haganah (in particular, its operative detachment, the Palmach) and the British armed forces, in particular the Jewish Brigade that fought as part of the British army during World War II. 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... The Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948 David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... Haganah Logo (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ההגנה) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in Palestine during the British mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... Palmach badge The Palmach (in Hebrew - פלמח ) was the regular fighting force of the Haganah (the underground army of Jewish settlers during the British Mandate of Palestine). ... This article is about the Jewish Brigade of the British Army that fought in World War II against the Nazi Axis Powers. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II...


After the establishment of the IDF, the two Jewish guerilla armies, the Irgun and Stern gang came under control of the IDF. But they were allowed to operate independently in Jerusalem until the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war after which they eventually disbanded. Jews (Hebrew: יהודים, Yehudim) are followers of Judaism or, more generally, members of the Jewish people (also known as the Jewish nation, or the Children of Israel), an ethno-religious group descended from the ancient Israelites and converts who joined their religion. ... Irgun poster showing their view of the Land of Israel Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai Leumi), Hebrew for National Military Organization, was a militant Zionist group that operated in the British Mandate of Palestine from 1931 to 1948. ... Avraham Stern Lehi (Hebrew acronym for Lohamei Herut Israel, Fighters for the Freedom of Israel) was a radical underground Jewish paramilitary group, a terrorist group according to both its own description and that of its opponents. ... Jerusalem (; Hebrew: Yerushalayim; Arabic: al-Quds, Greek Ιεροσόλυμα), the capital of Israel, is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meters. ... The 1948 Arab-Israeli War is referred to as the War of Independence (Hebrew: מלחמת העצמאות) or as the War of Liberation (Hebrew: מלחמת השחרור) by Israelis. ...

Contents


Timeline and major events

Before 1948

Following the 1947 UN Partition Plan which divided the British Mandate of Palestine, the country became increasingly volatile and fell into a state of civil war between the Jews and Arabs. In accordance with Plan Dalet the Haganah tried to secure the areas alloted to the Jewish state in the partition plan and the blocks of settlements that were in the area alloted to the Arab state. On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Jewish conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly, at the UN World Headquarters in New York. ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight for political power or control of an area. ... Plan Dalet, or Plan D, (in Hebrew, dalet is the fourth letter, similar to d in English), was a plan that the Haganah in Palestine worked out during autumn 1947 to spring 1948. ... Haganah Logo (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ×”×”×’× ×”) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in Palestine during the British mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ...


The first Arab-Israeli war

See the main article: 1948 Arab-Israeli War.

David Ben-Gurion proclaimed the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. His first order was the formation of the IDF - The Israel Defence Forces. The 1948 Arab-Israeli War is referred to as the War of Independence (Hebrew: מלחמת העצמאות) or as the War of Liberation (Hebrew: מלחמת השחרור) by Israelis. ... (October 16, 1886 – December 1, 1973; Hebrew: דָּוִד בֶּן גּוּרִיּוֹן) was the first Prime Minister of Israel. ... The Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948 David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ...


The IDF was based on the personnel who had served in the Haganah and the Palmach and was declared as the only legal armed force in Israel. Another main source of manpower were the immigrants from Europe. Some of them Holocaust survivors and others veterans from World War II. Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... Selection at the Auschwitz ramp in 1944, where the German Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation, such as those of the infamous Dr. Josef Mengele. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II...


Following the declaration of independence in 1948, Arab armies invaded Israel. Egypt came from the south, Lebanon and Syria from the north, and Jordan from the east backed by Iraqi and Saudi troops. 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ...

David ben Gurion, Israel's first Prime Minister and Minister of Defense, proclaims the State of Israel, May 14th, 1948
David ben Gurion, Israel's first Prime Minister and Minister of Defense, proclaims the State of Israel, May 14th, 1948

In the initial phase of the war, the IDF was inferior in both numbers and armament. Due to a number of reasons, the Arabs never managed to exploit their superiority in numbers. The Israelis managed to successfully defend themselves in virtually all battlefields with the notable exception of East Jerusalem. After the first truce June 11 to July 8, the Israelis managed to seize the initiative due to new troop enrollments and supplies of arms. Notable achievements of the IDF include the conquest of Eilat (Um Rashrash), Zefat, Nazareth, Haifa and the liberation of the Galilee and the Negev. The war continued until July 20, 1949, when the armistice with Syria was signed. By then the IDF had managed to repel the Egyptians to the Gaza Strip while the Kingdom of Jordan took over the West Bank and east Jerusalem. Caption: Source: jpg of Image:Declaration_of_State_of_Israel_1948. ... Caption: Source: jpg of Image:Declaration_of_State_of_Israel_1948. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... Eilat (Hebrew אֵילַת, Standard Hebrew Elat, Eylat), pop. ... Safed (Hebrew צפת Tzfat, Arabic صفد Safad, other English spellings Zefat,Safad,Tsfat etc. ... The factual accuracy of this article needs to be verified. ... Nickname: Red Haifa Official website: www. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... Ruins in the Negev desert The Negev (Hebrew נֶגֶב;, Tiberian Hebrew Néḡeḇ; Arabic النقب an-Naqab) is the desert region of southern Israel. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday. ... The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, commonly called Jordan, is a country in the Middle East. ... Jerusalem (; Hebrew: Yerushalayim; Arabic: al-Quds, Greek Ιεροσόλυμα), the capital of Israel, is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meters. ...


See 1949 Armistice Agreements. The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ...


1949-1956

(US) Col. Mickey Marcus, organised command structure of IDF; appointed as Israel's first Brigadier General defending Jerusalem 1948
(US) Col. Mickey Marcus, organised command structure of IDF; appointed as Israel's first Brigadier General defending Jerusalem 1948

In those years the IDF started to rebuild itself as a modern army. It acquired heavier weapons and established an armored corps and the Israeli Air Force. This is a PUBLIC photo of Col Mickey Marcus This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This is a PUBLIC photo of Col Mickey Marcus This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Israeli Air Force (IAF) (Hebrew: חיל האוויר Heyl haAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ...


In order to enhance the morale and organization of the army and to combat the resurgent problem with Palestinian infiltration, Unit 101 was formed. It was led by Ariel Sharon (who later became Prime Minister in Israel), and carried out a number of retaliatory strikes on Jordanian territory to deter the infiltrators. After the notorious Qibya Massacre in 1953 it was merged with the Paratroopers Battalions and Sharon became its commander. Unit 101 is regarded as the mother of the IDF's strike force units. Palestinian immigrations into Israel were numerous border-crossings by Palestinian Arabs considered illegal by the Israeli authorities, during the first years of Israeli statehood. ... Unit 101 was an Israeli special operations unit founded and led by Ariel Sharon on orders from Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion in August 1953. ... For more detail of Sharons recent illness, see Illnesses of Ariel Sharon. ... Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Qibya (also spelt Kibya, Qibieh or Qibye) Massacre (also known as Qibya Raid or Qibya Operation was carried out in October 1953 by Israeli troops in a West Bank village. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ... An American Paratrooper using a MC1-B series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and generally operate as part of an airborne force. ...


In those years the IMI Uzi SMG and the FN FAL rifle were issued as standard infantry weapons. The Uzi is a compact, boxy, light-weight submachine gun. ... Fabrique Nationale de Herstal, more often known as Fabrique Nationale and abbreviated simply as FN or FN Herstal originated in the Belgian city of Herstal, near Liège. ... The Fusil Automatique Leger, or Light Automatic Rifle (LAR). ...


The 1956 Sinai campaign

See the main article: Suez Crisis.

From 1954 and 1955 Egypt established a special force unit known as the Fedayeen to terrorize Israel's civilians, such as ambushing civilan buses. It led to the escalation of hostilities over the Israeli-Egyptian border and eventually contributed to the 1956 Suez War. Combatants Israel, France, United Kingdom Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan (CoS of the IDF) General Sir Charles Keightley (C-in-C), Vice-Admiral Pierre Barjot (Deputy) Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 45,000 British, 34,000 French, 175,000 Israeli 300,000 Egyptians Casualties 189 Israelis KIA, unknown number WIA, 16 British... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fedayeen (from Arabic fidāī, plural fidāīyīn فدائيون, one who is ready to sacrifice his life for the cause) describes several distinct, primarily Arab groups at different times in history. ... (Redirected from 1956 Suez War) The Suez Crisis, also known as the Suez War, Suez Campaign or Kadesh Operation was a war fought on Egyptian territory in 1956. ...

General Moshe Dayan, Chief of Staff of the IDF during the 1956 Suez campaign.
General Moshe Dayan, Chief of Staff of the IDF during the 1956 Suez campaign.

When President Gamal Abdul Nasser, encouraged by support from the Soviet Union, nationalized the Suez Canal, United Kingdom and France sent in their paratroopers, and recaptured the canal. Simultaneously, the IDF launched a full scale attack into Sinai. Israeli armour, equipped with tanks, such as M4 Sherman and AMX-13 quickly defeated the Egyptian forces and took control over the canal. Israel withdrew from Sinai under international pressure, particularly by the USA and its Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles. But the IDF had achieved numerous goals; the borders dramatically tranquilized, Nasser promised to disband the Fedayeen, the Suez Canal was once again open to shipping and maybe most important of all, Israel had illustrated its military strength. The successful war elevated the reputation of the IDF and contributed a lot to the morale of the soldiers. Small public Image of General Moshe Dayan in Uniform File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Moshe Dayan (help· info) (Hebrew: משה דיין) (May 20, 1915 – October 16, 1981), was an Israeli military leader and politician. ... The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... Combatants Israel, France, United Kingdom Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan (CoS of the IDF) General Sir Charles Keightley (C-in-C), Vice-Admiral Pierre Barjot (Deputy) Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 45,000 British, 34,000 French, 175,000 Israeli 300,000 Egyptians Casualties 189 Israelis KIA, unknown number WIA, 16 British... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر) Gamal Abdel Nasser (January 15, 1918 - September 28, 1970) was the second President of Egypt after Muhammad Naguib and is considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history. ... Nationalization or nationalisation is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... 1881 drawing of the Suez Canal. ... An American Paratrooper using a MC1-B series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and generally operate as part of an airborne force. ... General characteristics Length: 5. ... Design work on the AMX-13 light tank began in 1946 at the Atelier de Construction dIssy-les-Moulineaux and the first prototype was completed two years later. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... John Foster Dulles John Foster Dulles (February 2, 1888 – May 24, 1959) was an American statesman who served as Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. ...


1956-1966

Following the successful campaign in Sinai, the IDF used this relative quiet decade to arm on a great scale and increase military professionalism. The main suppliers of weapons were France and USA which sold rifles, tanks and even jet fighters - the renowned Dassault Mirage III to Israel. Former South African Air Force Mirage IIICZ The Dassault Mirage III is a supersonic fighter aircraft designed in France during the 1950s, and manufactured both in France and a number of other countries. ...

Shimon Peres, Israeli (former) Prime Minister and Minister of Defense: Negotiated France's military and nuclear aid for Israel
Shimon Peres, Israeli (former) Prime Minister and Minister of Defense: Negotiated France's military and nuclear aid for Israel

The peak of France's assistance was the construction of the nuclear reactor in Dimona in 1960. Shimon Peres This work is copyrighted. ... Shimon Peres This work is copyrighted. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Dimona is an Israeli city in the Negev desert, 36 kilometers to the south of Beer-Sheva and 35 kilometers west of the Dead Sea in the Southern District of Israel. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ...


The 1967 Six-Day War

See the main article: Six-Day War.

The reasons for the war were the concentration of 100,000 Egyptian troops in the Sinai Peninsula (a demilitarized zone) and the closure of the Straits of Tiran to Israeli ships, which could be devastating to the Israeli economy. Those two steps of Gamal Abdul Nasser were interpreted by the Israeli government as Egyptian preparation for war, a casus belli and after forming a unity government, despite international pressure, the Israelis decided on a massive preemptive strike. Combatants Israel Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Sharif Zaid Ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 50,000 troops (264,000 including mobilized reservists); 197 combat aircraft Egypt 150,000 troops; Syria 75,000; Jordan... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... The Straits of Tiran The Straits of Tiran are the narrow sea passages, about 3 miles wide, formed by the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separates the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر) Gamal Abdel Nasser (January 15, 1918 - September 28, 1970) was the second President of Egypt after Muhammad Naguib and is considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin expression meaning occasion of war. ...


On the morning of June 5, 1967, the Israeli Air Force (IAF) launched a massive airstrike that destroyed the majority of the Egyptian air force on the ground. By noon, the Egyptian, Jordanian and Syrian air forces, with about 450 aircraft, were annihilated. This pre-emptive strike was code-named Operation Red Sheet, Mivtza Sadin Adom. June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... The Israeli Air Force (IAF) (Hebrew: חיל האוויר Heyl haAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... An air force is a military organization that primarily operates in aerial warfare. ... Operation Red Sheet (In Hebrew Mivtza Sadin Adom) was the opening pre-emptive airstrike by Israel at the start of the Six Day War of 1967. ...


The Egyptians presuaded Syria and Jordan to join the war by lying to them and reporting on "amazing victories" at Sinai. The two Arab countries reluctantly joined the war. Jordan by shelling West Jerusalem and Syria by entering Israel from the Golan Heights. Jerusalem (Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushalayim; Arabic: القدس al-Quds; see also names of Jerusalem) is an ancient Middle Eastern city of key importance to the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. ... Sites on the Golan in blue are Israeli settlement communities. ...


Meanwhile, the IDF ground forces quickly overran the Egyptian army in Sinai and were about to reach Alexandria. About 15,000 Egyptian soldiers were killed, 4482 fell into captivity and 80% of the Egyptian tanks were destroyed. 338 Israeli were killed in Sinai and the Israel losses there were about 63 tanks. This article needs to be updated. ...


All of the Sinai peninsula was captured. The IDF later captured the Golan Heights from the Syrians and the West Bank from Jordan. Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Sites on the Golan in blue are Israeli settlement communities. ...

Israeli generals march into Old Jerusalem 1967: Moshe Dayan, center; Yitschak Rabin, right; Uzi Narkiss, left
Israeli generals march into Old Jerusalem 1967: Moshe Dayan, center; Yitschak Rabin, right; Uzi Narkiss, left

On June 7 Israeli troops (the Harel unit; Yerushalmi unit; and elite paratroopers accompanied by tanks) captured the Old City of Jerusalem The conquest of the Western Wall and Temple Mount was considered as the highlights of the war and a dramatical and emotional peak by the Israeli people. The reunifaction of east and west Jerusalem as one city under Jewish control were celebrated widely in Israel. Famous Six Day War PUBLIC PHOTO of (from left to right) Generals Uzi Narkis, Moshe Dayan (Defense Minister), Yitzchak Rabin (Chief of Staff) entering Jerusalem after its capture from Jordan in 1967 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Famous Six Day War PUBLIC PHOTO of (from left to right) Generals Uzi Narkis, Moshe Dayan (Defense Minister), Yitzchak Rabin (Chief of Staff) entering Jerusalem after its capture from Jordan in 1967 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... ... Jerusalem (; Hebrew: Yerushalayim; Arabic: al-Quds, Greek Ιεροσόλυμα), the capital of Israel, is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meters. ... Western Wall by night The Western Wall (Hebrew: הכותל המערבי, HaKotel HaMaaravi), or simply The Kotel, is a retaining wall from the time of the Jewish Second Temple. ... The Temple Mount (Hebrew: (without niqqud: הר הבית), Har haBáyit) or Noble Sanctuary (Arabic: الحرم الشريف, ▶ (help· info)) is a hotly contested religious site in the Old City of Jerusalem. ...


The Six-Day War had great consequences for the state of Israel and the IDF. In six days Israel had tripled its territory and defeated three Arab armies - Egypt, Jordan and Syria. Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Israel Tal, Moshe Peled and Mordechai Gur were admired by the public as "war heroes" while the IAF pilots won unprecedented prestige and were considered to be "the best pilots in the world" (even today, the IAF is considered to be one of the most competent air forces in the world). ▶ (help· info) (or Yitschak Rabin) (or Yitzchak Rabin) (יצחק רבין in Hebrew), (March 1, 1922 – November 4, 1995) was an Israeli politician and general. ... Moshe Dayan (help· info) (Hebrew: משה דיין) (May 20, 1915 – October 16, 1981), was an Israeli military leader and politician. ... Israel Tal (b. ... Mordechai (Mote) Gur (May 6, 1930 - July 16, 1995) was an Israeli politician and the Israeli Defense Forces 10th Chief of Staff. ...


The 1968-1970 War of Attrition

See the main article: War of Attrition.

Israel's pre-emptive strike in the Six Day Wars resulted in a French embargo banning all weapon sales to Israel. Israel overcame the embargo by finding other suppliers (such as the USA) and developing its own weapons - for example: The Kfir fighter jet. The War of Attrition was a limited war fought between Egypt and Israel from 1968 to 1970. ... This article is about the economic term. ... The IAI Kfir on the ground. ...


After the Six-Day War was over, IDF outposts on the Suez Canal were shelled by the Egyptian army. It was a long and bitter war that ended after three years due to Israeli air superiority. 1881 drawing of the Suez Canal. ...


There were also frictions and battles with Syrian forces on the northern border. In the Israeli reprisal operation ("Three Day Battles" June 24 - June 27, 1970) about 350 Syrian soldiers were killed. June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ...


The 1973 Yom Kippur War (1973)

See the main article: Yom Kippur War.

The Yom Kippur War, also known as the "October War" in Arab countries broke Israeli over-confidence created after the victory of the Six-Day War. This time, Jordan stayed out and wasn't involved in the war. The war opened on October 6, 1973, the holiest Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. Combatants Israel Egypt, Syria, (Jordan, Iraq) Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali Strength 415,000 troops; 1,500 tanks, 3,000 armored carriers; 945 artillery units 100 mm and up; 561 airplanes, 84 helicopters; 38 warships. ... Yom Kippur (יום כיפור yom kippūr) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... The Yom Kippur War (also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, the October War and Ramadan War), was fought from October 6 (the day of Yom Kippur) to October 22/24, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Egypt and Syria. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in Leap years). ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Yom Kippur (יום כיפור yom kippūr) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ...


Egypt and Syria attempted to regain the territory under Israeli occupation by force. Their armies launched a joint surprise attack on the Jewish Yom Kippur holiday (the most sacred day of all in which each Jew must atone for his sins, pray and avoid eating and drinking) -- the Syrian forces attacking fortifications in the Golan Heights and the Egyptian forces attacking fortifications around the Suez Canal and on the Sinai Peninsula. The troops inflicted heavy casualties on the Israeli army. After three weeks of fighting, though, and with U.S. air-lifted reinforcements of weapons and equipments (first shipment arrived on October 14, 1973), the IDF pushed the attacking forces back beyond the original lines. Yom Kippur (יום כיפור yom kippÅ«r) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... Sites on the Golan in blue are Israeli settlement communities. ... 1881 drawing of the Suez Canal. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Motto: E pluribus unum (1789 to 1956) (Latin: Out of Many, One) In God We Trust (1956 to present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at federal level; English de facto Government • President • Vice President Federal Republic George... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in Leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ...


In the Golan Heights, small groups of brave tank commanders such as Avigdor Kahalani managed to hold back dozens of Syrian tank. By October 10, the IDF recaptured the entire Golan Heights and on October 11 Israeli armored forces invaded Syria and destroyed the Iraqi reinforcements. On October 22, the Golani infantry brigade captured mount Hermon (an important strategic outpost). Sites on the Golan in blue are Israeli settlement communities. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years). ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... Mount Hermon (top of photo) supplies the bulk of the Jordan River water Mount Hermon (Arabic: Jabalu sh-Shaykh) is a mountain in the Anti-Lebanon range, on the border between Lebanon, Syria, and Israel. ...


In the Sinai Peninsula, Israeli armour barely managed to stop the overwhelming Egyptian attack. The Egyptians attacked with 2,000 tanks while there were only 300 Israeli tanks to defend the area. Israeli armored forces suffered heavy casualties on the first three days and were forced to withdraw from the Suez Canal outposts. Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... 1881 drawing of the Suez Canal. ...

General Ariel Sharon (right with head-bandage) at the front, with General Moshe Dayan (left, with eyepatch) Minister of Defense during 1973 war
General Ariel Sharon (right with head-bandage) at the front, with General Moshe Dayan (left, with eyepatch) Minister of Defense during 1973 war

After being reinforced by reserve forces, the IDF launched a counter-attack. On October 14, General Ariel Sharon managed to cross over the Suez Canal and cause havoc in the logistic back areas of the Egyptian army. On October 24, after Israeli troops were 101 km away from Cairo, and under heavy international pressure, a cease-fire treaty was signed and the war was over. General Ariel Sharon with head-bandage and General and Defense Minister Moshe Dayan in background during 1973 Yom Kippur War. ... General Ariel Sharon with head-bandage and General and Defense Minister Moshe Dayan in background during 1973 Yom Kippur War. ... For more detail of Sharons recent illness, see Illnesses of Ariel Sharon. ... Theres also a song called Bandages by the American alternative rock group Hot Hot Heat which appears on the 2002 album Make Up the Breakdown. ... Moshe Dayan (help· info) (Hebrew: משה דיין) (May 20, 1915 – October 16, 1981), was an Israeli military leader and politician. ... An eyepatch is a small patch, usually of black cloth, that is worn in front of one eye and usually attached around the head by an elastic band or by a string. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in Leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For more detail of Sharons recent illness, see Illnesses of Ariel Sharon. ... 1881 drawing of the Suez Canal. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... Modern Cairo Cairo (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the capital city of Egypt (and previously the United Arab Republic) and has a metropolitan area population of approximately 15. ...


The price of the war was heavy. 2,700 Israelis were killed and 5,600 were wounded. About 300 Israeli soldiers were taken captive. The Egyptians paid a higher price, with 12,000 dead, 35,000 wounded and 8,400 taken captive. 3,000 Syrian soldiers were killed, 5,600 were wounded and 411 taken captive.


In Israel, the war caused a public outrage, forcing the government to appoint an investigation commission. The Agranat Commission found serious flaws in the functioning of the intelligence forecasting branch, which failed to foresee the war and ignored various warnings. The Chief of Staff, David Elazar ("Dado") resigned after harsh criticism by the commission. Although the commission praised Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir on her leadership during the war, she resigned following the war and was replaced by Yitzhak Rabin. The Agranat Commission was an official Commission of Inquiry appointed by the Israeli government to investigate the circumstances leading to the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War. ... David (Dado) Elazar (1925 - 1976), was the ninth Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces, serving in that capacity from 1972 to 1974. ... Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Golda Meir (Hebrew: (help· info)) (b. ... ▶ (help· info) (or Yitschak Rabin) (or Yitzchak Rabin) (יצחק רבין in Hebrew), (March 1, 1922 – November 4, 1995) was an Israeli politician and general. ...


1974-1978

Until 1974, the IDF was countering Syrian and Egyptian attacks meant to weaken IDF posts on the border and force the Israeli government to withdraw. However, the IDF managed to sustain low casualties. The IDF reprisal strikes on the Egyptians and Syrians inflicted heavy casualties. After international negotiations in 1974, the attacks stopped. 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ...


Following the French embargo and the US air-lift of supplies, weapons and ammunition, the IDF started to base itself upon American and Israeli made weapons and technologies. The American M16 assault rifle entered service along with the Galil assault rifle - an Israeli variant of the Soviet AK-47. M14 were issued as sniper rifles along with surplus of M1 Carbines given to the Police. This article is about the economic term. ... M16 is the U.S. Military designation for a family of rifles derived from the ArmaLite AR-15. ... The Galil is one of the standard assault rifles used by the Israel Defense Forces. ... Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g. ... The M14 rifle is an American selective fire battle rifle firing 7. ... The M1 Carbine (formally the United States Carbine, Caliber . ...


In those years the IDF invested most of its efforts in countering international terror, such as the Munich Massacre, committed by the PLO following its deportion from Jordan to Lebanon in the "Black September" of 1970. The PLO focused mainly on hijacking airlines and kidnapping and its terrorists hijacked several commercial airline flights. One of the Black September terrorists on the balcony of the Israeli team quarters at the Olympic village The Munich Massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist organization Black September – a group with... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ...

In 1976, a group of PLO terrorist hijacked an airliner with 83 Israeli passengers and held them hostages in the Entebbe airport in Uganda. Israeli elite SF unit - Sayeret Matkal - went on a complex hostages-rescue operation and managed to save 80 of the passengers, with only one soldier lost, the commander, colonel Jonathan Netanyahu, brother of Benjamin Netanyahu. The operation, officially called Operation Johnathan but widely referred as Operation Entebbe, is regard by many military experts as one of the brightest and successful covert operation ever conducted. Detail from book cover showing Yoni Netanyahu. ... Jonathan Netanyahu, known in Hebrew as Yonatan Yoni Netanyahu (Hebrew:יונתן נתניהו) (March 13, 1946 – July 4, 1976) was an Israeli war hero. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1976 calendar). ... Entebbe Airport, Uganda, scene of Operation Entebbe Operation Entebbe took place on the night of July 3 and early morning of July 4, 1976. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1976 calendar). ... Entebbe is a city in Uganda with a population of approximately 90,500. ... Sayeret (Hebrew סיירת, pl. ... Colonel is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ... Jonathan Netanyahu, known in Hebrew as Yonatan Yoni Netanyahu (Hebrew:יונתן נתניהו) (March 13, 1946 – July 4, 1976) was an Israeli war hero. ... (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין נְתַנְיָהוּ (without niqqud: בנימין נתניהו), Hebrew transliteration written in English: Binyamin Netanyahu, nicknamed Bibi) (born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel. ... Operation Entebbe, actually called Operation Thunderball/Thunderbolt (and afterwards renamed Operation Jonathan after the raid commander, Col. ... Entebbe Airport, Uganda, scene of Operation Entebbe Operation Entebbe took place on the night of July 3 and early morning of July 4, 1976. ...


In those years the IAF received a new generation of warplanes. In 1977 the first F-15 Eagle American warplanes arrived in Israel and only a year later, they logged their first kill in the world when IAF F-15s shot down Syrian MiG (Mikoyan-Gurevich) fighters. In 1980 the F-16 Fighting Falcon arrived and the model's first aerial kill was also credited to the Israeli Air Force. For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... The Boeing (formerly McDonnell Douglas) F-15 Eagle is an American-built all-weather tactical fighter designed to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. ... Mikoyan, Mikoyan-Gurevich, or MiG (Russian: Микоян, Микоян-Гуревич or МиГ) is a Russian military aircraft manufacturer. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft designed in the United States. ... The Israeli Air Force (IAF) (Hebrew: חיל האוויר Heyl haAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ...


1978 Operation Litani

See the main article: Operation Litani

Because of waves of terrorist attacks (most notable is the road massacre of 37 civilians) coming from the PLO in Lebanon, the IDF undertook Operation Litani, a wide-ranging and thorough anti-terrorist operation which included occupying part of Southern Lebanon in 1978. Operation Litani was the official name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani river. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... Operation Litani was the official name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani river. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ...


1979-1981

In 1979 the first Israeli-made Merkava Mk1 main battle tank entered into service. The tank was fully developed and manufactured by Israel and exceeded the enemies' tanks in every parameter. It first saw active service in Lebanon and proved to be great success. This page refers to the year 1979. ... Merkava (Hebrew: ) is a series of main battle tanks developed and manufactured by Israel for the Israel Defense Forces. ...


In 1979 the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty was signed, when Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat agreed on peace in return for Israel giving the entire Sinai Peninsula to Egypt. The peace agreement, still valid today, closed the bitter southern front and let the IDF focus on the raging northern border. This page refers to the year 1979. ... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... Menachem Wolfovitch Begin (August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) ( name in Hebrew: (help· info) ) became the 6th Prime Minister of Israel in May 1977. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ...

Israeli F-16 flying above the ancient fortress of Masada.
Enlarge
Israeli F-16 flying above the ancient fortress of Masada.

In 1981 the Israeli Air Force destroyed Iraq's Osiraq nuclear reactor. The Israeli government suspected that the Iraqis would use the nuclear reactor to build atomic weapons (WMD). On June 7, four F-16 fighters, covered by F-15 jets, flew 1,100 km to Iraq from Israel, and bombed the nuclear reactor, thus, thwarting the Iraqi nuclear program and severely holding back the Iraqi plans for getting a nuclear bomb. Open photo of Israeli F-16 flying over Masada File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Open photo of Israeli F-16 flying over Masada File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States and used by dozens of countries all over the world. ... This article is about the Judean fortress. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Israeli Air Force (IAF) (Hebrew: חיל האוויר Heyl haAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... Osiraq was a 40 MW light water nuclear materials testing reactor (MTR) in Iraq. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Weapons of Mass Destruction is also the name of rapper Xzibits 2004 album. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ...


1982 Operation Peace for Galilee

See the main article: 1982 Invasion of Lebanon.

On 6 June 1982, following an assassination attempt against its ambassador in London by the Abu Nidal Organization, Israeli forces under direction of Defense Minister Ariel Sharon invaded southern Lebanon in their "Operation Peace for the Galilee." They eventually reached as far north as the capital Beirut in an attempt to drive the PLO forces out of the country. The 1982 Invasion of Lebanon, dubbed Operation Peace for Galilee (Shlom HaGalil in Hebrew), began June 6, 1982, when the Israel Defence Force invaded southern Lebanon purportedly in response to the Abu Nidal organizations assassination attempt against Israels ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov, and to halt... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the British city. ... Abu Nidal in 1976 in a photograph released by the Israeli army, one of only a handful of photographs of him known to exist. ... For more detail of Sharons recent illness, see Illnesses of Ariel Sharon. ... Central Beirut Beirut (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the capital, largest city, and chief seaport of Lebanon. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ...


Although the Israelis did succeed in driving the PLO from Beirut and out of Lebanon, this operation was a disaster because of the ignorance of the Israelis about the ground situation in Lebanon. As a result of this, the IDF unwittingly became just one of the many players in the bitter tribal conflicts between the different enthnic and religious communities and completely failed to secure any kind of peace between Isreal and Lebanon. Syria's efforts in this direction also paid fruit as it was very resentful of Israeli incursions in what it considered to be its sphere of influence.


Ultimately this fiasco led to the resignation of both the then Defense Minister Ariel Sharon as well as that of Prime Minister Begin's.


Appendices

List of Chiefs of the General Staff

The Chief of the General Staff (in Hebrew: רמטכ"ל, pronounced: Ramatkal) is the highest commander of the IDF and answers to the Defense minister and the Prime minister. All Ramatkals have the rank of Lieutenant General or General (in Hebrew: רב אלוף, pronounced: Rav Aluf). Insignia of the Rav Aluf The Ramatkal (Hebrew: רמטכל, abbr. ... The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... A defence minister (Commonwealth English) or defense minister (American English) is a cabinet portfolio (position) which regulates the armed forces in a sovereign nation. ... Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ...

General Moshe Ya'alon Chief of Staff (2002-2005)
General Moshe Ya'alon Chief of Staff (2002-2005)
  1. Yaakov Dori (1948-1949)
  2. Yigael Yadin (1949-1952)
  3. Mordechai Maklef (1952-1953)
  4. Moshe Dayan(1953-1958)
  5. Chaim Laskov (1958-1961)
  6. Tzvi Tzur (1961-1964)
  7. Yitzhak Rabin (1964-1968)
  8. Chaim Bar-Lev (1968-1972)
  9. David Elazar (1972-1974)
  10. Mordechai Gur (1974-1978)
  11. Rafael Eitan (1978-1983)
  12. Moshe Levi (1983-1987)
  13. Dan Shomron (1987-1991)
  14. Ehud Barak (1991-1995)
  15. Amnon Lipkin-Shahak (1995-1998)
  16. Shaul Mofaz (1998-2002)
  17. Moshe Ya'alon (2002-2005)
  18. Dan Halutz (2005-)

Official photo of current Israeli Chief of Staff Moshe Yaalon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Official photo of current Israeli Chief of Staff Moshe Yaalon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... General Moshe Yaalon, Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces (2002-2005) Lieutenant-General Moshe Yaalon (often nicknamed Boogie) (born 1950) was the 17th Chief of Staff (רמטכל) of the Israeli Defence Force. ... Yaakov Dori (1899-1973) was the first Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). ... Yigael Yadin (March 20, 1917 - June 28, 1984) was an Israeli archeologist, politician, and the second Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). ... Mordechai Motke Maklef was the third Chief-of-Staff of the Israel Defence Force (IDF) and later, director-general of many important public companies in the Israeli economy. ... Moshe Dayan (help· info) (Hebrew: משה דיין) (May 20, 1915 – October 16, 1981), was an Israeli military leader and politician. ... Chaim Laskov (1919-1983) was an Israeli public figure and the fifth Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces. ... Tzvi Tzur ( צבי צור in Hebrew ) (1923 - December 28, 2004) was the Israel Defense Forces 6th Chief of Staff and an Israeli public figure. ... â–¶ (help· info) (or Yitschak Rabin) (or Yitzchak Rabin) (יצחק רבין in Hebrew), (March 1, 1922 – November 4, 1995) was an Israeli politician and general. ... Chaim Kidoni Bar-Lev (November 16, 1924 - May 7, 1994) was a Jewish army officer during Israels pre-state and early statehood eras. ... David (Dado) Elazar (1925 - 1976), was the ninth Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces, serving in that capacity from 1972 to 1974. ... Mordechai (Mote) Gur (May 6, 1930 - July 16, 1995) was an Israeli politician and the Israeli Defense Forces 10th Chief of Staff. ... Rafael Eitan (January 11, 1929 – November 23, 2004) was an Israeli general, former chief of staff of the Israeli Defence Forces and later a politician and a Knesset member. ... Moshe Levi (born 1936) was the 12th Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) from 1983-1987 . ... Dan Shomron (born 1937) was the 13th Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces, from 1987 to 1991. ... Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born February 12, 1942, in Mishmar HaSharon kibbutz, then British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli politician and was the 10th Prime Minister of Israel from 1999 to 2001. ... Amnon Lipkin-Shahak (Hebrew: אמנון ליפקין-שחק, born March 18th, 1944) was the chief of staff of the Israel Defense Forces, and later Israeli Minister of Tourism and Transport. ... Shaul Mofaz during a meeting with U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld on November 10, 2003. ... General Moshe Yaalon, Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces (2002-2005) Lieutenant-General Moshe Yaalon (often nicknamed Boogie) (born 1950) was the 17th Chief of Staff (רמטכל) of the Israeli Defence Force. ... General Dan Halutz (Hebrew: דן חלוץ) (born 1948 in Tel Aviv) to an Iranian-Jewish family, is an Israeli General and former Israeli Air Force commander. ...

Other famous generals and soldiers


Israel Defense Forces
Corps, Commands, Directorates & Branches
Branches: Navy | Air Force | GOC Army Headquarters
Commands: Northern Command | Central Command | Southern Command | Home Front Command
Directorates: General Staff | Military Intelligence | Human Resources | Computer Service | Technology and Logistics | Operations | Planning
Consultant & Attachment to General Staff: Financial Advisor to the Chief of Staff | Womens' Affairs advisor | Military Rabbinate | Military Advocate General | Military Court of Appeals | Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories
IDF corps
Ground forces Armor Corps | Artillery Corps | Engineering Corps | Field Intelligence Corps
Infantry corps: Infantry Corps | 900 Brigade | Paratroopers Brigade | Golani Brigade | Nahal Brigade | Givati Brigade | Bislmach Brigade
Combat support corps: Ordnance Corps | Medical Corps | Intelligence Corps | C4I Corps
Rear-line corps: Education and Youth Corps | Adjutant Corps | Logistics Corps | Military Police | General Corps
Additional Information
History of the Israel Defense Forces | Military equipment of Israel | Israel Defense Forces ranks | Israeli Military decorations
Israel Defense Forces checkpoint | Israeli military prison
See Also
Israeli Security Forces | Mossad | Shabak | Police | Border Police | Intelligence Community | National Security Council

  Results from FactBites:
 
History of the Israel Defense Forces - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2872 words)
The history of the Israel Defense Forces is intertwined with history of the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) were formed following the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948 to "defend the existence, territorial integrity and sovereignty of the state of Israel" and "to protect the inhabitants of Israel and to combat all forms of terrorism which threaten daily life".
Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Israel Tal, Moshe Peled and Mordechai Gur were admired by the public as "war heroes" while the IAF pilots won unprecedented prestige and were considered to be "the best pilots in the world" (even today, the IAF is considered to be one of the most competent air forces in the world).
EH.Net Encyclopedia: A Brief Economic History of Modern Israel (2929 words)
Israel was fortunate in receiving large sums of capital inflows: U.S. aid in the forms of unilateral transfers and loans, German reparations and restitutions to individuals, sale of State of Israel Bonds abroad, and unilateral transfers to public institutions, mainly the Jewish Agency, which retained responsibility for immigration absorption and agricultural settlement.
Thus, while employment in Israel was a major contributor to the economy of the Palestinians, its effects on the Israeli economy, except for the sectors of construction and agriculture, were not large.
Economic fluctuations in Israel have usually been associated with waves of immigration: a large flow of immigrants which abruptly increases the population requires an adjustment period until it is absorbed productively, with the investments for its absorption in employment and housing stimulating economic activity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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