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Encyclopedia > History of the Islamic Republic of Iran

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The Islamic republic of Iran originated from Islamic revolution of Iran which resulted in transforming Iran from a monarchy under the Shah (king) Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution and founder of the Islamic Republic.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Farvahar_background. ... edit See Also: Persian Empire History of Iran and Greater Iran (also referred to as the Iranian Cultural Continent by the Encyclopedia Iranica)—- consisting areas from Euphrates in the west to Indus River and Syr Darya in the east and from Caucasus, Caspian sea and Aral Sea in the north... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... “BCE” redirects here. ... edit The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) was an ancient civilization that existed in what is now Iran from roughly 3000 BCE to ? BCE. Research into this civilization is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archaeological project that is uncovering a previously unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Proto-Elamite inscription on it. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... “BCE” redirects here. ... “BCE” redirects here. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abbasid Caliphate (Abbasid Khalifat) and contemporary states and empires in 820. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... The Sajid dynasty was an Islamic dynasty that ruled Azerbaijan from 889-890 until 929. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... edit The Sallarid dynasty (also known as the Musafirids or Langarids) was an Islamic dynasty principally known for its rule of Iranian Azerbaijan and part of Armenia from 942 until 979. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Ghurids (or Ghorids; self-designation: ShansabānÄ«) (Persian: ) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Persians (Tajiks)[1][2] origin. ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian: á¹¢aljÅ«qÄ«yān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Khwarezmid Empire After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Khwarezmian Empire, more commonly known as the empire of the Khwarezm Shahs[1] (Persian: , KhwārezmÅ¡hāḥīān, Kings of Khwarezmia) was a Persianate[2][3][4] Sunni Muslim dynasty... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... The Chupanids, also known as the Chobanids, (سلسله امرای چوپانی, Amir Chupani), were descendants of a Mongol family that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. ... edit The Jalayirids (آل جلایر) were a Mongol descendant dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia [1] after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... The Timurid Empire (blue area) c. ... Flag of the Kara Koyunlu For the district in Turkey, see Karakoyunlu. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1736) was founded by Afghans (Pashuns) from the Ghilzai clan. ... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... This is a timeline of Iranian history. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of the Persian Empire to the establishment of modern day Iran. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarch of Iran from September 16, 1941 until the Iranian Revolution on February... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Ayatollah redirects here. ... Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( ) (Persian: روح الله موسوی خمینی RÅ«ollāh MÅ«savÄ« KhomeynÄ« (September 21, 1902 [1]– June 04, 1989) was a senior Shi`i Muslim cleric, Islamic philosopher and marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi...

Contents

Islamic revolution of Iran

The demonstrations began in January 1978[2] and on January 16, 1979 Mohammad Reza Pahlavi fled. On February 1 Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Tehran from France where he resided, to rapturous greeting by several million Iranians[3] and on February 11 the Pahlavi dynasty collapsed. A revolutionary council and The Provisional Revolutionary Government had governed the country until the new government was established. On April 1, after a landslide victory in a national referendum about 98 percent of Iranians chose the Islamic republic as the form of new government. This new government is based upon the Constitution that was approved in a national referendum in December 1979.[4] is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarch of Iran from September 16, 1941 until the Iranian Revolution on February... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...


Hostage crisis

Iranian students seized the U.S. embassy in Tehran on November 4, 1979, holding 52 embassy employees hostage for a 444 days (see Iran hostage crisis). The Carter administration severed diplomatic relations and imposed economic sanctions on April 7, 1980 and later that month attempted a rescue. A commando mission was aborted on April 25 after mechanical problems grounded rescue helicopters and eight American troops were killed in a mid-air collision. On May 24 the International Court of Justice called for the hostages to be released. Finally the hostages were released 20 January 1981, by Agreement of the Carter Administration, see Algiers Accords Jan. 19, 1981. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... Order: 39th President Term of Office: January 20, 1977–January 20, 1981 Preceded by: Gerald Ford Succeeded by: Ronald Reagan Date of birth: October 1, 1924 Place of birth: Plains, Georgia Date of death: Place of death: First Lady: Rosalynn Carter Political party: Democratic Vice President: Walter Mondale James... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... A hostage is an entity which is held by a captor in order to compel another party to act or refrain from acting in a particular way. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... The Algiers Accords of January 19, 1981 were brokered by the Algerian government between the USA and Iran to resolve the situation that arose by the detention of American citizens in the American embassy in Tehran. ...


Iran-Iraq War

On September 22, 1980 Iraq invaded Iran. Official U.S. policy sought to isolate Iran, and the U.S. and its allies supplied Iraq with weapons and technology to maintain a balance in the war, as policy of dual containment. Iraq obtained most of its weaponry from the Soviets, China, and France. Members of the Reagan Administration covertly sold anti-tank missiles and spare parts to Iran in what became known as the Iran-Contra affair. is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 5,000 tanks... For meanings of the word balance, see: Look up balance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... President Reagan, with his Cabinet and staff, in the Oval Office (February 4, 1981) Headed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989, the Reagan Administration was conservative, steadfastly anti-Communist and in favor of tax cuts and smaller government. ... The Iran-Contra Affair (also Irangate), was a political scandal occurring in 1987 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration in which members of the executive branch sold weapons to Iran, an avowed enemy, and illegally used the profits to continue funding rebels, the Contras, in Nicaragua. ...


On the 14th of April, 1988, an American guided missile frigate, the Samuel B. Roberts, was damaged after Iran had mined parts of the Persian Gulf. On the 18th of April, the US responded in Operation Praying Mantis by attacking two Iranian oil platforms. In the ensuing battle, two Iranian warships and several armed speedboats were sunk. USS (FFG-58) is one of the final ships in the United States Navys Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided missile frigates. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Iranian frigate IS Sahand (74) attacked by aircraft of U.S. Navy Carrier Air Wing 11 in retaliation for the mining of the guided missile frigate USS . ... An oil platform is a large structure used to house workers and machinery needed to drill and then produce oil and natural gas in the ocean. ...


On July 3, 1988 the USS Vincennes shot down Iran Air Flight 655 en route to Dubai killing all 290 people on board. Eight years later, the United States agreed to pay Iran US$61.8 million in compensation, but denied any responsibility or liability for the incident. See Iran Air Flight 655. The fourth USS Vincennes (CG-49) is a U.S. Navy Ticonderoga class AEGIS guided missile cruiser. ... Iran Air Flight 655 (IR655) was a commercial flight operated by Iran Air that flew from Bandar Abbas, Iran to Dubai, UAE. Towards the end of the Iran Iraq War, On Sunday July 3, 1988, the aircraft flying IR655 was shot down by the U.S. Navy guided missile cruiser... Coordinates: , Emirate Government  - Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Area [1]  - Metro 4,114 km² (1,588. ... Iran Air Flight 655 (IR655) was a commercial flight operated by Iran Air that flew from Bandar Abbas, Iran to Dubai, UAE. Towards the end of the Iran Iraq War, On Sunday July 3, 1988, the aircraft flying IR655 was shot down by the U.S. Navy guided missile cruiser...


After eight years of war with great losses on each side (including bombing of civilians and use of chemical weapons by Iraq) Iran finally agreed to UN Security Council Resolution 598 in 1988 to end the war. Nonetheless, severe fighting continued into the 1990s (and even to the present on a smaller scale [13]) as Kurdish, nationalist, and communist forces fought the Iranian government. Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Post-Khomeini era

The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1980) had brought some 3 million Afghan refugees to Iran. In 1989 Khomeini died and was succeeded by Iran's president, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. The presidency was soon filled by Ali Akbar Rafsanjani, who sought improved relations and with Western nations while somewhat diminishing the influence of revolutionary factions and embarking on a military buildup. A major earthquake hit N Iran on June 21, 1990, killing nearly 40,000 people. When Iraq invaded Kuwait in Aug., 1990, Iran adhered to international sanctions against Iraq. However, Iran condemned the use of U.S.-led coalition forces against Iraq during the Persian Gulf War (1991). As a result of the war and its aftermath, more than one million Kurds crossed the Iraqi border into Iran as refugees. A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی خامنه‌ای) (born July 15, 1939) is the Iran. ... President Rafsanjani Akbar Hashemi Bahramani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی بهرمانی), famously known as Hashemi Rafsanjani (هاشمی رفسنجانی) (born August 25, 1934) is one of the most influential... An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...


Rafsanjani was reelected president in 1993. The United States suspended all trade with Iran in 1995, accusing Iran of supporting terrorist groups and attempting to develop nuclear weapons. In 1997, Mohammad Khatami, a moderately liberal Muslim cleric, was elected president. Also in 1997, several European Union countries began renewing economic ties with Iran in the late 1990s; the United States, however, continued to block more normalized relations, arguing that the country had been implicated in international terrorism and was developing a nuclear weapons capacity. In 1999, as new curbs were put on a free press, prodemocracy student demonstrations erupted at Tehran University and other urban campuses. These were followed by a wave of counter demonstrations by conservative factions. President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A cleric is a member of the clergy of a religion, especially one that has trained or ordained priests, preachers, or other religious professionals. ... Broadly, normalization (also spelled normalisation) is any process that makes something more normal, which typically means conforming to some regularity or rule, or returning from some state of abnormality. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران in Persian), also known as Tehran University, is the oldest and largest university of Iran. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Reformers won a substantial victory in the Feb., 2000, parliamentary elections, capturing about two thirds of the seats, but conservative elements in the government forced the closure of the reformist press. Attempts by parliament to repeal restrictive press laws were forbidden by Khamenei. Despite these conditions, President Khatami was overwhelming reelected in June, 2001. Tensions between reformers in parliament and conservatives in the judiciary and the Guardian Council, over both social and economic changes, increased after Khatami's reelection. The word Reformer, when used alone, has several possible meanings in the English language. ... A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی خامنه‌ای) (born July 15, 1939) is the Supreme Leader of Iran. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In law, the judiciary or judicial is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution[1] (Persian: شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی) is a high chamber within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Although the term social is a crucial category in social science and often used in public discourse, its meaning is often vague, suggesting that it is a fuzzy concept. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ...

Year 2001 was name the year of dialogue amongst civilizations after Mohammad Khatami's proposal

On January 29, 2002 in his State of the Union Address United States President George W. Bush labeled Iran, along with Iraq, and North Korea as an "Axis of evil" The speech sparked widespread demonstrations all across Iran. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... 2003 State of the Union address given by U.S. President George W. Bush The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For the movie Behind Enemy Lines II: Axis of Evil, see Behind Enemy Lines II. For cosmic anisotropy, see Anisotropy#Physics. ... A demonstration is the public display of the common opinion of a activist group, often economically, political, or socially, by gathering in a crowd, usually at a symbolic place or date, associated with that opinion. ...


Tensions with the United States increased after the Anglo-American invasion of Iraq in March, 2003, as U.S. officials increasingly denounced Iran for pursuing the alleged development of nuclear weapons. In October, however, Iran agreed, in negotiations with several W European nations, to toughen international inspections of its nuclear installations. Concern over Iran's nuclear program nonetheless continued. Meanwhile, an earthquake, centered on Bam in SE Iran, killed more than 26,000 people in Dec 2003. See Anglo-America for the term denoting mixed English and American influence or heritage or those parts of (or groups within) America which have a tie to or which are influenced by England or simply English-speaking America. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bam or BAM may mean: Bam, Iran Bam Province, Burkina Faso ISO 639 code for Bambara language Bam Margera An onomatopoeia for a sound. ...


In the Feb., 2004, elections, conservatives won control of parliament, securing some two thirds of the seats. Many Iranians, however, were unhappy with the failure of the current parliament to achieve any significant reforms or diminish the influence of the hardliners. In mid-2004 Iran began resuming the processing of nuclear fuel as part of its plan to achieve self-sufficiency in civilian nuclear power production, stating the negotiations with European Union nations had failed to bring access to the advanced nuclear technology that was promised. The action was denounced by the United States as one which would give Iran the capability to develop nuclear weapons. The IAEA said that there was no evidence that Iran was seeking to develop such arms. However, the IAEA also called for Iran to abandon its plans to produce enriched uranium. In Nov., 2004, Iran agreed to suspend uranium enrichment, but also subsequently indicated that it would not be held to the suspension if the negotiations the EU nations failed. An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... Typically, processing describes the act of taking something through an established and usually routine set of procedures to convert it from one form to another, as a manufacturing procedure (processing milk into cheese) or administrative procedure (processing paperwork to grant a mortgage loan). ... Nuclear Fuel Process A graph compairing nucleon number against binding energy Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ...


Foreign policy

The Islamic Republic's sponsorhip of Hezbollah in Lebanon has been a major success, however in other areas it has seen setbacks. Author Olivier Roy describes the Islamic Republic's as having "lost most of its allure among non-Iranian Shia's," giving as examples the arrest of the house arrest in Qom in 1995 of the two sons of Grand Ayatollah Shirazi, spiritual leader of the Bahraini Shia; and the close cooperation between the Afghan Shia party Wahdat and the U.S. Army after November 2001.[5]


Economy and human development

Main article: Economy of Iran

Iran's Human Development Index rating (including life expectancy, literacy, education, and standard of living) improved significantly in the years after the revolution, climbing from 0.569 in 1980 to 0.732 in 2002.[6] This is approximately the same rate, and a slightly lower absolute level, than neighbour Turkey. [7] For example the literacy rates "among Iranian women rose from 28% to 80% between 1976 and 1996." [8] The economy of Iran has been improving steadily over the past two decades but a continuing strong labour force growth unmatched by commensurate real economic growth is driving up unemployment to a level considerably higher than the official estimate of 11%. According to experts, annual economic growth above five per...


Economic prosperity, however, has not been a high point of the post-revolutionary era. According to international economic consultant Jahangir Amuzegar, as of 2003:

Despite a 100 percent rise in average annual oil income since the revolution, most indicators of economic welfare have steadily deteriorated. ... Average inflation in the years after the revolution has been at least twice as high as during the 1970s, unemployment has been three times higher, and economic growth is two-thirds lower. As a result, Iran's per capita income has declined by at least 30 percent since 1979. By official admission, more than 15 percent of the population now lives below the absolute poverty line, and private estimates run as high as 40 percent.[9]

Hardship has compelled some children to take odd jobs rather than go to school. [10]


A 2002 study "leaked from Iran's Interior Ministry," reported nearly 90% of respondents dissatisfied with the present government according to Amuzegar. Of this total, 28% wanted "fundamental" changes, 66% "gradual reforms." 10% expressed satisfaction with the status quo.


Society

While the revolution brought about some "re-Islamisation" of Iran, particularly in terms of personal appearance -- beards, hijab -- it has not prompted a reversal of some modernizing trends and a "reversion to traditional patterns of family life," (such as polygamy and the extended family with numerous children).


Despite the lowering of the legal age of marriage for women fell to 9, [11] and the Ayatollah Khomeini's support for early marriage for females,

It is recommended that one hurries in giving husband to a daughter who has attained puberty, meaning that she is of the age of religious accountability. His Holiness, Sadegh [the 6th Imam] salutations to him, bade that it is one of a man's good fortunes that his daughter does not see menses in his own house. [12]

the actual average age of marriage for women rose to 22 by 1996. Thus the age difference between husbands and wives in Iran actually fell between 1980 and 2000, from 7 to 2.1 years. [13] (The man's average age at marriage has remained around 24.4 over the past 20 years, which means greater educational equality between spouses.)


Nor has Islamisation of family law lead to an increase in the number of polygamous families or more frequent divorces. Polygamy has remained at about 2% of permanent marriages during the past 40 years and the divorce rate has decreased slightly since the 1970s.[14]


After Iranian revolution, Iranian women have continued to occupy high positions in political system. In late 1990s, Iranians sent more women to Iranian parliament than Americans sent to U.S. senate.[15]


Scientific development

Main article: Science in Iran

Iran's scientific progress is subject to many problems including funding, international sanctions and management. However in some areas as medicine, surgery, pharmacology, stem cell research and theoretical physics (e.g. string theory), Iranian scientists have found international reputation since the Iranian revolution. Perhaps, nuclear technology and stem cell research were the two fields that have enjoyed special support from the central government and Iranian leadership since the revolution.[16] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells with fluorescent marker. ... This is a discussion of a present category of science. ... Interaction in the subatomic world: world lines of pointlike particles in the Standard Model or a world sheet swept up by closed strings in string theory String theory is a model of fundamental physics whose building blocks are one-dimensional extended objects called strings, rather than the zero-dimensional point...


Iran has some of the most liberal laws on stem cell research.[17] This has helped Iran to place itself among leaders of stem cell technology. However United States, followed by Germany, is by far the world’s leader in the total number of stem cell articles published. [18] In terms of articles per capita basis, Israel is the leading state. Iran with one paper per capita has been ranked 16th along with Czech Republic, Spain, Romania, Switzerland and Turkey. Except for 21 countries, all other states produced no published research in this field till 2007.[19]


Iran had some significant successes in nuclear technology during last few decades, especially in nuclear medicine. However, there is hardly any connection between Iran's scientific society and that of the Iran's nuclear program.[20] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Shown above is the bone scintigraphy of a young woman. ... This article is about Irans civilian nuclear program. ...


Iran's national science budget is about $900 million and it has not been subject to any significant increase since 15 years ago.[21] United States federal budget for 2007 was $25 billion, more than 25 time above Iran's budget. The United States federal budget for fiscal year 2007 is a spending request by President Bush to fund government operations for 2007. ...


President Khatami's reforms

See also: Iranian reform movement The Iranian reform movment (Persian:اصلاح طلبان), or the Reforms Front (Persian: جبههٔ اصلاحات) also known as 2nd of Khordad Front (Persian: جبهه دوم خرداد which refers to the date of Khatamis landslide election victory in the Iranian Calendar) is a political movement by a group of political parties and organizations in Iran who supported Mohammad...


Mohammad Khatami was elected as the President of Iran in 1997 after having based his campaign on a reform program promising implemention of a democratic and more tolerant society, the rule of law and improvement of social rights. After taking office, Khatami faced fierce opposition from his powerful opponents within the unelected institutions of the state which he had no legal power over, and this led to repeated clashed between his government and these institutions (including the Guardian Council, the state radio and television, the police, the armed forces, the judiciary, the prisons, etc.). Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ...


The reforms

See also: Mohammad Khatami's reforms Mohammad Khatami was elected as the President of Iran in 1997 after having based his campaign on a reform program promising implemention of a democratic and more tolerant society, the rule of law and improvement of social rights. ...


The promotion of civil society and the rule of law are the key elements in Khatami's reform program.[22][23]

  • Initiating Iran's city council elections
  • Voicing the idea of civil society and the rule of law
  • Full commitment to Iranian constitution of the time (any revision in the law must be done through legal routes)
  • Calling people to criticize high ranking authorities; (the supreme leader is not a holy personality)
  • Giving permission to newspapers by people of a wide range of political views
  • Reopening the embassies of all European countries
  • Reorganizing the ministry of intelligence of Iran; after the Iran's Chain Murders of Intellectuals
  • Initiating a dialogue between people of different faith inside and outside Iran

President Ahmadinejad

Main article: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

The presidential elections in June, 2005, were won by the hardline conservative mayor of Tehran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who ran on a populist, anticorruption platform. Ahmadinejad and former president Rafsanjani were the leaders after the first round, but in the runoff Ahmadinejad's populist economic policies combined with Rafsanjani's inability to pick up sufficient reformist support assured the former's win. Ahmadinejad's victory gave conservatives control of all branches of Iran's government. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad[1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the 6th and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mahmoud Ahmadinejad[1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the 6th and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the... President Rafsanjani Akbar Hashemi Bahramani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی بهرمانی), famously known as Hashemi Rafsanjani (هاشمی رفسنجانی) (born August 25, 1934) is one of the most influential...


Foreign policy

Main article: Iran's foreign policy
President Ahmadinejad speaking at "The World without Zionism" conference

For current international events related to Iran , see Current international disputes with Iran. ... Image File history File links The_world_without_Zionism. ... Image File history File links The_world_without_Zionism. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is...

Controversy concerning remarks about Israel

President Mahmoud Ahmedinejad also made several controversial statements about the Holocaust and Israel. However his remarks did not enjoy support from Iranian leaders. Iran’s foreign minister denied that Tehran wanted to see Israel "wiped off the map," as has widely been reported in the Western press, saying "Ahmadinejad had been misunderstood." It was asserted that the correct translation of Ahmadinejad's remark was, "the regime currently occupying Jerusalem will be erased from the pages of time," as was the case in the downfall of the Communist government of the USSR, which fell due to its own structural failures, not to outside military force. Iran's stated policy on Israel is to urge a one-state solution through a countrywide referendum in which a government would be elected that all Palestinians and all Israelis would jointly vote for; which would normally be an end to the "Zionist state". Iran's supreme leader Ayatollah Khamenei, rejecting any attack on Israel, called for a referendum in Palestine. Ahmadinejad himself has also repeatedly called for such solution.[24][25][26][27] Moreover Khamenei`s main advisor in foreign policy, Ali Akbar Velayati said that Holocaust was a genocide and a historical reality. [28] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Ali Akbar Velayati Ali Akbar Velayati (علی‌اکبر ولایتی; born June 25, 1945 in Tehran) is an Iranian politician and a pediatrician, currently an Advisor in International Affairs to the Supreme Leader. ...


Controversy about Iran's nuclear program

After, in Aug., 2005, Iran resumed converting raw uranium into gas, a necessary step for enrichment, the IAEA passed a resolution that accused Iran of failing to comply with the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and called for the agency to report Iran to the UN Security Council. The timetable for the reporting, however, was left undetermined. Iran's stated position is that it is in full compliance with the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, that it has allowed the IAEA inspections beyond what is required, and that it has no ambitions to build atomic weapons. General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a treaty, opened for signature on July 1, 1968, restricting the possession of nuclear weapons. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a treaty, opened for signature on July 1, 1968, restricting the possession of nuclear weapons. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


Resolving the Management and Planning Organisation of Iran

In July 2007, the Management and Planning Organisation of Iran was dissolved after a direct order of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. The organization was a 60 years old, scientific planning body that had a supervisory role in addition to its responsibility to allocate the national budget. Although the MPO was a state body whose head was appointed by the president, it was relatively independent organisation.[29]


President Ahmadinejad, however, established a new budget planning body directly under his control, a move that may give him a freer hand to implement populist policies blamed for driving up prices.[30]


Economist Fariborz Raiis-Dana said that the decision dealt the coup de grace to the structure of the national management organization. Iranian MP Esmaeil Gramimoqaddam said that the president's directive is illegal and the parliament opposes his decision. "The president is not authorized to order an alteration or merger of an organization. This is the parliament's job," he added. [31]


Family planning and population policy

See also: Family planning in Iran

In October 2006, President Ahmadinejad opposed encouraging families to limit themselves to just two children, stating that Iran could cope with 50 million more people than the current 70 million.[32] In remarks that have drawn criticism, he told MPs he wanted to scrap existing birth control policies which discouraged Iranian couples from having more than two children.[32] Critics reacted with alarm and said the president’s call was ill-judged at a time when Iran was struggling with surging inflation and rising unemployment, estimated at around 11%. Mr Ahmadinejad’s call for an increased birth rate is reminiscent of a demand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini 1979. The policy was effective in increasing population growth, but was eventually reversed in response to the resultant economic strain.[32] During the Iran-Iraq war between 1980 and 1988, a large population was viewed as a comparative advantage for Iran. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( ) (Persian: روح الله موسوی خمینی RÅ«ollāh MÅ«savÄ« KhomeynÄ« (September 21, 1902 [1]– June 04, 1989) was a senior Shi`i Muslim cleric, Islamic philosopher and marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi...


2007 Gas Rationing Plan in Iran

See main article: 2007 Gas Rationing Plan in Iran 2007 Gas Rationing Plan in Iran was launched by president Mahmoud Ahmadinejads cabinet to reduce that countrys fuel consumption. ...


2007 Gas Rationing Plan in Iran was launched by president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's cabinet to reduce that country's fuel consumption. Although Iran is one of the world's largest producers of petroleum, kleptocracy, rapid increases in demand and limited refining capacity has forced the country to import about 40% of its gasoline, at an annual cost of up to $7 billion.[33][34] Mahmoud Ahmadinejad[1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the 6th and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Kleptocracy (sometimes Cleptocracy) (root: Klepto+cracy = rule by thieves) is a pejorative, informal term for a government that is primarily designed to sustain the personal wealth and political power of government officials and their cronies (collectively, kleptocrats). ... “Petrol” redirects here. ...


See also

edit See Also: Persian Empire History of Iran and Greater Iran (also referred to as the Iranian Cultural Continent by the Encyclopedia Iranica)—- consisting areas from Euphrates in the west to Indus River and Syr Darya in the east and from Caucasus, Caspian sea and Aral Sea in the north... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article addresses the roots and the developmental history of Islamic fundamentalism in Iran. ... This article is about Irans civilian nuclear program. ... Flag of the United Nations Flag of Islamic Republic of Iran United Nations Security Council Resolution 1747 was adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) on 24 March 2007. ...

References

  1. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica.
  2. ^ The Iranian Revolution.
  3. ^ Ruhollah Khomeini, Encyclopedia Britannica.
  4. ^ Iran Islamic Republic, Encyclopedia Britannica.
  5. ^ Roy, Olivier, Globalized Islam, Columbia University Press, 2004, p.67-8
  6. ^ Iran: Human Development Index
  7. ^ Turkey: Human Development Index
  8. ^ Roy, Olivier, Globalized Islam : the Search for a New Ummah, Columbia University Press, 2004, p.14
  9. ^ "Iran's Crumbling Revolution", Jahangir Amuzegar. Foreign Affairs. Jan/Feb 2003., V.82, N.1
  10. ^ [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZVJgeSOHW6k&mode=related&search= video of "Labour children in Iran" بچه های کار در ايران ]
  11. ^ Council Of Guardians Rules 9 Years Is Girls' Marriage Age accessed 7-26-2007
  12. ^ Fatwa #2459 from A Clarification of Questions : An Unabridged Translation of Resaleh Towzih al-Masael by Ayatollah Sayyed Ruhollah Mousavi Khomeini; Translated by J. Borujerdi, with a Foreword by Michael M. J. Fischer and Mehdi Abedi; Westview Press/ Boulder and London, c1984)
  13. ^ see Marie Ladier-Fouladi, Population et politique en Iran, Paris: Institut national d'etudes demographiques, 2003.
  14. ^ Marie Ladier-Fouladi, cited in Azadeh Kian-Thiebaut, Femmes iranieenes entre islam, Etat, famille, Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose, 2000, pp.128, 149.
  15. ^ [1]
  16. ^ [2]
  17. ^ [3]
  18. ^ [4]
  19. ^ [5]
  20. ^ Nature: Prof Reza Mansouri comments on Nuclear issue and existing hostilities toward Iranian scientists
  21. ^ [6]
  22. ^ [7]
  23. ^ [8]
  24. ^ http://www.president.ir/eng/ahmadinejad/cronicnews/1385/05/12/#b2
  25. ^ http://www.president.ir/eng/ahmadinejad/cronicnews/1385/04/12/index-e.htm#b1
  26. ^ http://www.president.ir/eng/ahmadinejad/cronicnews/1385/03/22/#b1
  27. ^ http://www.president.ir/eng/ahmadinejad/cronicnews/1385/03/12/#b1
  28. ^ [9]
  29. ^ [10]
  30. ^ [11]
  31. ^ [12]
  32. ^ a b c Tait, Robert (October 23, 2006). Ahmadinejad urges Iranian baby boom to challenge west. Guardian Unlimited. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-05-03. “Iran’s president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, has called for a baby boom to almost double the country’s population to 120 million and enable it to threaten the west. In remarks that have drawn criticism, he told MPs he wanted to scrap existing birth control policies which discouraged Iranian couples from having more than two children. Women should work less and devote more time to their “main mission” of raising children, Mr Ahmadinejad said....Mr Ahmadinejad’s call for a higher birth rate echoes a similar demand by the late Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini after the triumph of Iran’s Islamic revolution in 1979.
  33. ^ "Q&A: Petrol rationing in Iran", BBC News, 2007-06-27. Retrieved on 2007-07-02. 
  34. ^ "Iran bans negative petrol stories", BBC News, 2007-06-28. Retrieved on 2007-07-02. 

 
 

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