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Encyclopedia > History of the Conservative Party

The modern Conservative Party of the United Kingdom traces its origins back to the "Tory" supporters of Duke of York, later King James VII&II, during the 1678-1681 exclusion. The name was originally meant as a pejorative -- a 'Tory' was a type of Irish bandit. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term Tory (from Irish Gaelic tóraighe, an outlaw or guerrilla fighter, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms — literally meaning pursued man) applied to the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... James II of England/VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... The Exclusion Bill crisis ran from 1678 till 1681. ...


The name 'Conservative' was suggested by John Wilson Croker in the 1830s and later officially adopted, but the party is still often referred to as the 'Tory Party' (not least because newspaper editors find it a convenient shorthand when space is limited). The Tories more often than not formed the government from the accession of King George III (in 1760) until the Great Reform Act of 1832. John Wilson Croker (December 20, 1780 - August 10, 1857) was a British statesman and author. ... Events and Trends Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday Dutch-speaking farmers known as Voortrekkers emigrate northwards from the Cape Colony Croquet invented in Ireland Railroad construction begins in earnest in the United States Egba refugees fleeing the Yoruba civil wars found the city of Abeokuta in south-west Nigeria... George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Widening of the franchise in the 19th century led the party to popularise -- some would say vulgarise -- its approach, especially under Benjamin Disraeli, who carried through his own Reform Act in 1867. After 1886 the Conservatives allied with the Liberals who opposed their party's support for Irish Home Rule and held office for all but three of the following twenty years The Conservative suffered a large defeat when the party split over tariff reform in 1906. Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... A tariff is a tax on foreign goods. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


World War I saw an all-party coalition and the Conservatives then stayed in Coalition with half of the Liberals for four years after the armistice. Eventually, grassroots pressure forced the breakup of the Coalition and the party regained power on its own. It again dominated the political scene in the inter-war period, from 1931 in a 'National Government' coalition. However in the 1945 general election the party lost power in a landslide to the Labour Party. Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert Henry Asquith Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... In the United Kingdom the term National Government is in an abstract sense used to refer to a coalition of some or all major political parties. ... Clement Attlee Winston Churchill The United Kingdom General Election of 1945 held on 5 July 1945 but not counted and declared until 26 July 1945 (due to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas) was one of the most significant general elections of the 20th... The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the principal political party of the left in the United Kingdom. ...


After the end of the Second World War, the Conservatives accepted the reality of the Labour government's nationalisation programme, the creation of the 'welfare state', and the high taxes required for all of it. But when they returned to power in 1951 the party oversaw an economic boom and ever-increasing national prosperity throughout the 1950s. The party stumbled in the 1960s and 1970s, and in 1975 Margaret Thatcher became leader and converted it to a monetarist economic programme; after her election victory in 1979 her government became known for its free-market approach to problems and privatisation of public utilities. Here, the Conservatives experienced a high-point, Thatcher leading the Conservatives to two more landslide election victories in 1983 and 1987. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... // Recovering from World War II and its aftermath, the economic miracle emerged in West Germany and Italy. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


However, towards the end of the 1980s, Thatcher's increasing unpopularity and unwillingness to change policies perceived as vote-losing led to her being deposed in 1990 and replaced by John Major who won an unexpected election victory in 1992. Major's government suffered a political blow when the Pound Sterling was forced out of the Exchange Rate Mechanism later that year, which lost the party much of its reputation for good financial stewardship. An effective opposition campaign by the Labour Party led to a landslide defeat in 1997. The 1980s refers to the years of 1980 to 1989. ... 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir John Major, KG, CH, PC (born 30 February 1943) was the leader of the British Conservative Party and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1990 to 1997. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... ISO 4217 Code GBP User(s) United Kingdom Inflation 2. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

The nineteenth century

Origins

The modern Conservative Party arose in the 1830s, but has as an ancestor the Tory Party of the seventeenth, eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Political alignments in those centuries were much looser than now, with many individual groupings. From the 1780s until the 1820s the dominant grouping was that following William Pitt the Younger and his successors, who gradually came to be called Tories. In the late 1820s disputes over political reform broke up this grouping. A government led by the Duke of Wellington collapsed amidst dire election results. Following this disaster Robert Peel set about assembling a new coalition of forces. Peel issued the Tamworth Manifesto in 1834 which set out the basic principles of Conservatism and that year he formed a temporary government. On the fall of Lord Melbourne's government in 1841 Peel took office with a substantial majority and appeared set for a long rule. Events and Trends Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday Dutch-speaking farmers known as Voortrekkers emigrate northwards from the Cape Colony Croquet invented in Ireland Railroad construction begins in earnest in the United States Egba refugees fleeing the Yoruba civil wars found the city of Abeokuta in south-west Nigeria... The term Tory (from Irish Gaelic tóraighe, an outlaw or guerrilla fighter, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms — literally meaning pursued man) applied to the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ... The term Tory (from Irish Gaelic tóraighe, an outlaw or guerrilla fighter, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms — literally meaning pursued man) applied to the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was the Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from December 10, 1834 to April 8, 1835, and again from August 30, 1841 to June 29, 1846. ... The Tamworth Manifesto was a political manifesto issued by Sir Robert Peel in 1835 in Tamworth, which is widely credited by historians as having laid down the principles upon which the modern British Conservative Party is based. ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Conservatism is a political philosophy that usually favors traditional values and strong foreign defense. ... Arms of Lord Melbourne William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC (15 March 1779–24 November 1848) was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830-1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835-1841), and a mentor of Queen Victoria. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Crisis over the Corn Laws

However in 1846 disaster struck when the party split over the repeal of the Corn Laws. Peel and most senior Conservatives favoured repeal, but they were opposed by backbench members representing farming and rural constituencies, led by Lord George Bentinck, Benjamin Disraeli, and Lord Stanley (later the Earl of Derby), who favoured protectionism. Following repeal, the Protectionists combined with the Whigs to overthrow Peel's government. It would be twenty-eight years before a Conservative Prime Minister again had a majority in the House of Commons. 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Corn Laws, in force between 1815 and 1846, were import tariffs ostensibly designed to protect British farmers and landowners against competition from cheap foreign grain imports. ... Lord William George Frederick Cavendish-Bentinck (27 February 1802–21 September 1848), better known as simply Lord George Bentinck, was an English Conservative politician and racehorse owner, best known (with Benjamin Disraeli) for his role in unseating Sir Robert Peel over the Corn Laws. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was an English statesman and literary figure. ... Arms of Edward Smith-Stanley Statue in Parliament Square, London Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, KG, PC (29 March 1799–23 October 1869) was a British statesman, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is to date the longest serving leader of the Conservative... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over...


From this point on, and especially after the death of Peel in 1850, the Peelites and Conservatives drifted apart. Most of the Peelites joined with the Whigs and Radicals to form the Liberal Party in 1859, under the leadership of Lord Palmerston. 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Peelites were a breakaway faction of the British Conservative Party, and existed from 1846 to 1859. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... Lord Palmerston and Henry Temple redirect here. ...


Recovery and triumph under Derby and Disraeli

The Conservatives survived as an independent party, even though they would not form another majority government until the 1870s. The modern Conservative Party descends from the Protectionists who broke with Peel in 1846, although they did not reintroduce Protection when they were returned to power. Under the leadership of Derby and Disraeli they consolidated their position and slowly rebuilt the strength of the party. Although Derby led several minority governments in the 1850s and 1860s, the party could not achieve a majority until 1874, after the passage of the Reform Act of 1867, which broadened the franchise. Disraeli's mixed message of patriotism and promises of social reforms managed to win him enough working-class support to win a majority in 1874, but the Conservative hold remained tenuous, and Disraeli was defeated in the election of 1880. It was not until the split in the Liberal Party over Irish home rule in 1886 that the Conservatives were able to achieve truly secure majorities through the defection of the Liberal Unionists. // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... // Events and Trends Technology Production of steel revolutionised by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Science Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species, putting forward the theory of evolution... // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA is built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Contemporary cartoon of Disraeli outpacing Gladstone. ... The 1874 UK general election ended with the Liberals, led by William Gladstone, winning a majority of the votes cast, but Benjamin Disraelis Conservatives winning the majority of seats in the House of Commons, largely because they won a number of uncontested seats. ... The UK general election of 1880 was a general election in the United Kingdom held on the 18 April 1880. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... The Liberal Unionists were a British political party which split away from the Liberals in 1886, and had effectively merged with the Conservatives by the turn of the century, the formal merger being completed in 1912. ...


The Unionist Ascendancy

The Conservatives, now led by Lord Salisbury, remained in power for most of the next twenty years, at first passively supported by the Liberal Unionists and then, after 1895, in active coalition with them. From 1895, unofficially, and after 1912 officially, the Conservative-Liberal Unionist coalition was often simply called the "Unionists". In 1902 Salisbury retired and his nephew Arthur Balfour became Prime Minister. Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (February 3, 1830–August 22, 1903). ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC (25 July 1848 – 19 March 1930) was a British statesman and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1902 until 1905. ...


The party then split on the issue of Tariff Reform. The controversy had been taken up by the Liberal Unionist cabinet minister Joseph Chamberlain, who was Colonial Secretary. Like the earlier schism over the Corn Laws in 1846, the result lead to polarisation within the coalition between those who supported Chamberlain and his 'Imperial Preference', and those who opposed him in defence of the status quo and Free Trade. The split went across both Unionist parties. With the beleaguered Balfour in the middle, the government struggled on for another two years and saw many Unionist MPs defect to the Liberals. These defectors included the future Conservative party leader Winston Churchill in 1904. This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | UK political parties | Historical liberal parties ... The Rt. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... The Corn Laws, in force between 1815 and 1846, were import tariffs ostensibly designed to protect British farmers and landowners against competition from cheap foreign grain imports. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Year 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Early twentieth century

The election of 1906 ended in a landslide defeat for the Unionists and their numbers were reduced to only 157 MPs. Balfour lost his own seat (although he soon returned to Parliament in a by-election) and this left the pro-tariff reformers within the Unionists as a large majority. However, the stroke suffered by Joseph Chamberlain in July 1906 effectively removed him from political influence. The cause of Tariff reform would now be promoted by Chamberlain's son Austen Chamberlain. The UK general election of 1906 was from 12th January – 8th February 1906. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Rt. ...


The Unionists strongly opposed many of the proposed reforms of the new Liberal governments of Campbell-Bannerman and Asquith. In 1910, the Unionist-dominated House of Lords rejected the so-called "People's Budget", leading to a long conflict over the nature and constitutional place of the House of Lords. The Conservatives managed to make up much of their losses in both the January and December elections of 1910. This forced the Liberals to rely on Irish Nationalist votes to maintain their majority. Although the Liberals were able to force through the effective subjugation of the Lords with the Parliament Act of 1911, their advocacy once again cost them support, so that by the time of the outbreak of World War I a Unionist victory in the next election looked possible. Liberal mismanagement of the early phases World War I led to the return of the Unionists to power: first in coalition with Asquith's Liberals, and then, with the split and collapse of the Liberals, the Unionists under Andrew Bonar Law were able to become the dominant party in Lloyd George's coalition government following the 1918 election. Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (7 September 1836 – 22 April 1908) , also known as Andie McDowell, was a British Liberal statesman who served as Prime Minister from December 5, 1905 until resigning due to ill health on April 3, 1908. ... The Right Honourable Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC (12 September 1852–15 February 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Peoples Budget was proposed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George in 1909, and was a key issue of contention between the Liberal government and the House of Lords, ultimately leading to two general elections in 1910 and the enactment of the Parliament Act 1911. ... The UK general election of January 1910 was held from 15th January – 10th February 1910. ... The UK general election of December 1910 was the last held over several days, from 3rd – 19th December 1910. ... The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858–30 October 1923) was a Conservative British statesman and Prime Minister. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the Commonwealth of Nations through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1918 held on 14th December 1918, after the Representation of the People Act 1918. ...


The Baldwin era

Conservative Prime Minister 1923-1924, 1924-1929 & 1935-1937, Stanley Baldwin.
Conservative Prime Minister 1923-1924, 1924-1929 & 1935-1937, Stanley Baldwin.

For the next few years it seemed possible that the Liberals who supported Lloyd George and the Conservatives would merge into a new political grouping. However the reluctance of these Liberals to lose their identity ended this ambition and the moment was lost. From then on the rumblings of discontent within the coalition over issues such as the Soviet Union, trade unions and the Irish issue (leading to the de facto independence for the Irish Free State in 1921 led to many Conservatives hoping to break with Lloyd George. Bonar Law resigned in 1921 contender for party leadership in 1911, Chamberlain was to prove ineffective in controlling his party—even passing up the offer of becoming Prime Minister when Lloyd George indicated he was willing to step down. The party eventually broke free from Lloyd George in October 1922 as the result of a meeting at the Carlton Club. Voting against remaining in the coalition, Chamberlain resigned and was actually replaced by Bonar Law, who had been persuaded by friends and allies to return to lead the party. Rt Honorable Stanley Baldwin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Rt Honorable Stanley Baldwin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867–14 December 1947) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on three separate occasions. ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... The Carlton Club is a gentlemens club in London. ...


After winning the election of 1922, Bonar Law, now terminally ill with throat cancer, was to resign for good from political life in May 1923. He died later that year. Though holding a majority in government, the party was still split, as many of those who stayed to the bitter end of the former coalition had refused to take office in Law's cabinet. Their absence explains why the hitherto unknown Stanley Baldwin was to become leader of the party barely two years after first entering a major ministerial post. The UK general election of 1922 was held on 15th November 1922. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867–14 December 1947) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on three separate occasions. ...


The party reached a new height in the inter-war years under Baldwin's leadership. His mixture of strong social reforms and steady government proved a powerful election combination, with the result that the Conservatives governed Britain either by themselves or as the leading component of the National Government for most of the interwar years and all through World War II. The Conservatives under Baldwin were also the last political party in Britain to gain over 50% of the vote (in the general election of 1931). Yet at the conclusion of hostilities, the British public felt a different party would best guide them through the peace, and the Conservatives were soundly defeated in the 1945 General Election by a resurgent Labour Party. In the United Kingdom the term National Government is in an abstract sense used to refer to a coalition of some or all major political parties. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The UK general election on Tuesday 27 October 1931 was the last in the United Kingdom not held on a Thursday. ... Clement Attlee Winston Churchill The United Kingdom General Election of 1945 held on 5 July 1945 but not counted and declared until 26 July 1945 (due to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas) was one of the most significant general elections of the 20th...


Post war recovery

Conservative Prime Minister 1940-1945 & 1951-1955, Sir Winston Churchill
Conservative Prime Minister 1940-1945 & 1951-1955, Sir Winston Churchill

The party responded to their defeat by accepting many of the Labour government's social reforms whilst also offering a distinctive Conservative edge, and they returned to government in 1951 under Churchill. Churchill remained leader for another four years, during which time the Conservatives showed their acceptance of Labour reforms, though modifying some, such as the denationalisation the steel industry. In 1955 Churchill retired and was succeeded by Sir Anthony Eden. Eden had an immense personal popularity and lengthy experience as Foreign Secretary, but his government ran into a number of troubles on the domestic front as the economy began to overheat. In international affairs the government was confronted by the decision of the Egyptian government of Gamal Abdel Nasser to nationalise the Suez Canal. Eden agreed to a secret collaboration with France and Israel to retake the Canal, but the resulting operation [see Suez Crisis] backfired miserably and left the United Kingdom heavily embarrassed abroad and Eden discredited at home. With his health failing, Eden resigned at the beginning of 1957. PD image from http://www. ... PD image from http://www. ... The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill KG, OM, CH, PC, FRS (November 30, 1874 – January 24, 1965) was a British statesman, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during World War II. At various times an author, soldier, journalist, and politician, Churchill is generally regarded... The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the principal political party of the left in the United Kingdom. ... The 1951 election was held soon after the UK general election, 1950, which Labour won, but with an unworkable majority. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (June 12, 1897– January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary for three periods between 1935 and 1955, including World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957. ... This article is about the former president of Egypt. ... Ships moored at El Ballah during transit Egypt: Site of Suez Canal (top). ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2,900 WIA 2... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The succession was contentious, with Rab Butler as the favourite to succeed. However, it was Harold Macmillan who became the next Prime Minister and leader of the party. Macmillan sought to rebuild the governments' image both at home and abroad, and presided over strong economic growth and a massive expansion in the consumer-product economy. In 1959 he won the general election of that year on this economic success, summed up in the slogan "You've never had it so good." However, rising unemployment and an economic downturn in the early 1960s eroded support for Macmillan's government. It was further rocked in 1963 by the resignation of the Secretary of State for War John Profumo over the Profumo Affair. In October 1963 Macmillan was misdiagnosed with terminal cancer and resigned. Richard Austen Butler, Baron Butler of Saffron Walden, KG, CH, PC, DL (9 December 1902 – 8 March 1982), who invariably signed his name R. A. Butler and was familiarly known as Rab, was a British Conservative politician. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This United Kingdom general election was held on October 8, 1959, and marked a third successive victory for the ruling Conservative party, led by Harold MacMillan. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... John Dennis Profumo, CBE (January 30, 1915 – March 9, 2006), informally known as Jack Profumo, was a British politician and the central figure in the Profumo Affair of 1963, which caused severe damage to the Conservative government of Harold Macmillan and is held to have contributed to its defeat in... The Profumo Affair was a political scandal from 1963 in the United Kingdom that is named after the then-Secretary of State for War John Profumo. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ...


The party at this time lacked a formal process for electing a new leader and Macmillan's resignation took place in the week of the annual Conservative Party Conference. This event rapidly became a American-style convention as leading ministers sought to establish their credentials. Eventually Macmillan formally recommended to the Queen that she appoint the Earl of Home as Prime Minister. Home was appointed and renounced his peerage, becoming Sir Alec Douglas-Home, but was unable to restore the party's fortunes and narrowly lost the 1964 general election. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home1, Baron Home of the Hirsel, KT, PC (July 2, 1903 – October 9, 1995), 14th Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963, was a British Conservative (actually SUP) politician, and served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom for a year from October 1963 to October 1964. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1964 result was a very slim majority for the Labour Party, of 4, and led to their first government since 1951. ...


The Heath years: 1965-1975

Conservative Prime Minister 1970-1974, Edward Heath.
Conservative Prime Minister 1970-1974, Edward Heath.

Following the 1964 defeat, the party formally installed a system for electing the leader. Douglas-Home stepped down in 1965 and the election to succeed him was won by Edward Heath over both Reginald Maudling and Enoch Powell. The party proceeded to lose the 1966 general election. Heath's leadership proved controversial, with frequent calls from many prominent party members and supporters for him to step down, but he persevered. To the shock of almost everyone bar Heath, the party won the 1970 general election. Ted Heath government photo This work is copyrighted. ... Ted Heath government photo This work is copyrighted. ... Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, MBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), soldier and politician, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... The Conservative Party leadership election of July 1965 was held to find a successor to Sir Alec Douglas-Home. ... Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, MBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), soldier and politician, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... Rt. ... Simon Heffers biography of Enoch Powell, published in 1999 John Enoch Powell, MBE, PC, (June 16, 1912 – February 8, 1998) was a right-wing British politician and Conservative Party Member of Parliament (MP) between 1950 and February 1974, and an Ulster Unionist MP between October 1974 and 1987. ... The UK general election in 1966 was called by Harold Wilson because his government, elected in the 1964 election, had an unworkably small majority. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1970 was held on June 18, 1970, and resulted in a surprise loss of power for Labour under Harold Wilson, who was replaced as Prime Minister by the Conservative leader, Edward Heath. ...


As with all British governments in this period, Heath's time in office was difficult. Furthermore, the Heath premiership remains one of the most controversial in the history of the party. Initial attempts to follow monetarist policies (later considered "Thatcherite") failed, with high inflation and unemployment blocking Heath's attempts at reforming the increasingly militant trade unions. The era of 1970's British industrial unrest had arrived. Monetarism is a set of views concerning the determination of national income and monetary economics. ... The Right Honourable Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925) is a British politician and the first woman Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, a position she held from 1979 to 1990. ...


The Troubles in Northern Ireland would lead Heath to suspending the Parliament of Northern Ireland and introducing direct rule as a precursor to establishing a power-sharing executive under the Sunningdale Agreement. This resulted in the Conservative Party losing the support of the Ulster Unionist Party at Westminster, which was to have consequences in later years when the party found itself reliant on tiny Commons majorities. Heath himself considered his greatest success in office to be the United Kingdom's entry into the European Economic Community (or the "Common Market" as it was widely called at the time) but in subsequent years the UK's membership of the EEC was to prove the source of the greatest division in the party. For the UK post-rock band, see Troubles (band) The Troubles is a term used to describe the latest instalment of periodic communal violence involving republican and loyalist paramilitary organisations, the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), the British Army and others in Northern Ireland from the late 1960s until the late... The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the home rule legislature created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which existed from June 7, 1921 to March 30, 1972, when it was suspended. ... Direct Rule is the term given to the running of the day-to-day administration of Northern Ireland directly from Westminster. ... The Sunningdale Agreement on December 9, 1973, was an attempt to end the Northern Ireland troubles by forcing unionists to share power with nationalists. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party ) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland, which formed its government between 1921 and 1972 and was supported by most unionists throughout the Troubles. ... The European Community (EC), most important of two European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


The country suffered a further bout of inflation in 1973 as a result of the OPEC cartel raising oil prices, and this in turn led to renewed demands for wage increases in the coal industry. The government refused to accede to the miner's demands, resulting in a series of stoppages and massive attempts to ration power, including the "Three Day Week". Heath decided to call a snap election on the question of "Who Governs Britain?". However the Conservative Party was unprepared, whilst the miners' unions stated that they did not see how the re-election of the government would change the situation. The Conservatives were further rocked by the death of Iain Macleod and the resignation of Enoch Powell, who denounced the government for taking the country into the EEC and called on voters to back the Labour Party, who had promised a referendum on withdrawal. The February 1974 election produced an unusual result as support for the Liberals, Scottish National Party and Plaid Cymru all surged, Northern Ireland's politics became more localised, whilst the Conservatives won a plurality of votes but Labour had a plurality of seats. With a hung Parliament elected and the Ulster Unionists refusing to support the Conservative party, Heath tried to negotiate with the Liberals to form a coalition, but the attempts foundered on demands that were not acceptable to both parties. Heath was forced to resign as Prime Minister. 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international organization made up of Algeria, Angola, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. ... In 1973, the Three-Day Week was a policy instituted in the United Kingdom by the Conservative government of Ted Heath in response to a long-running energy crisis, which was partly global. ... The Right Honourable Iain Macleod, PC (1913 – 1970) was a UK Conservative politician. ... Simon Heffers biography of Enoch Powell, published in 1999 John Enoch Powell, MBE, PC, (June 16, 1912 – February 8, 1998) was a right-wing British politician and Conservative Party Member of Parliament (MP) between 1950 and February 1974, and an Ulster Unionist MP between October 1974 and 1987. ... Ballots of the Argentine plebiscite of 1984 on the border treaty with Chile A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The UK general election of February 1974 was held on February 28, 1974. ... The Scottish National Party (SNP) (Scottish Gaelic: is a centre-left political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ... Plaid Cymru (pronounced IPA: ) – The Party of Wales, is the principal nationalist political party in Wales. ... Motto:  (Latin for Who will separate us?)[1] Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (de facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official language(s) English (de facto), Ulster Scots, Irish3, Northern Ireland Sign Language, Irish Sign Language Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of... In Parliamentary systems, a hung parliament is one in which no one political party has an outright majority. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP) is a political party in Northern Ireland representing the unionist community, and was the party of government in Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1972. ...


These years were seen as the height of "consensus politics". However, by the 1970s many traditional methods of running the economy, managing relations with trade unions, and so on began to fail—or had outright already failed. This was also a period of Labour-Party ascendancy, as they ruled for nearly twelve out of the fifteen years between 1964 and 1979. Many in the Conservative Party were left wondering how to proceed. 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ...


The Thatcher Years, 1975-1990

Conservative Prime Minister 1979-1990, Margaret Thatcher.
Conservative Prime Minister 1979-1990, Margaret Thatcher.

Heath remained leader of the party despite growing challenges to his mandate. At the time there was no system for challenging an incumbent, leader but after renewed pressure and a second general election defeat a system was put in place and Heath agreed to holding a leadership election to allow him to renew his mandate. Few both inside and out of the party expected him to be seriously challenged, let alone defeated. However Margaret Thatcher stood against Heath and in a shock result outpolled him on the first ballot, leading him to withdraw from the contest. Thatcher then faced off four other candidates to become the first woman to lead a major British political party. Thatcher had much support from the monetarists, led by Keith Joseph. The Conservatives capitalised on the Winter of Discontent and the growing inflation rate, not to mention the humiliating bailout of the UK economy by the IMF in 1976, and won the 1979 general election with a majority of 43. Thatcher, thereby became the UK's first woman Prime Minister. Download high resolution version (421x640, 33 KB)Picture of Margeret Thatcher Source: http://memory. ... Download high resolution version (421x640, 33 KB)Picture of Margeret Thatcher Source: http://memory. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925), is the former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ... Harold Wilson Edward Heath The United Kingdom general election of October 1974 took place on 10 October 1974. ... The Conservative Party Leadership Election was held during early February, 1975. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925), is the former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ... Monetarism is a set of views concerning the determination of national income and monetary economics. ... Keith Sinjohn Joseph, Baron Joseph, Bt, CH , PC (17 January 1918–10 December 1994) was a British barrister, politician, and Conservative Cabinet Minister under three different Ministries. ... The Winter of Discontent is a nickname given to the British winter of 1978–79, during which there were widespread strikes by Trade unions demanding larger pay rises for their members. ... The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that oversees the global financial system by observing exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering financial and technical assistance when requested. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Margaret Thatcher James Callaghan David Steel BBC Election 1979 Titles The United Kingdom general election of 1979 was held on May 3, 1979 and is regarded as a pivotal point in 20th century British politics. ...


Thatcher soon introduced controversial and difficult, but ultimately successful, economic reforms after two decades of decline. The Falklands War, the perceived "loony left" nature of the Labour Party, and the intervention of the centrist SDP-Liberal Alliance all contributed to her party winning the 1983 general election in a landslide, gaining a majority of 144. Again, due to the perceived "loony left" nature of the Labour Party and the intervention of the SDP-Liberal Alliance, Thatcher won the 1987 general election with another large majority of 102. Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Sir John Fieldhouse Sir John Woodward Margaret Thatcher Leopoldo Galtieri Mario Menéndez Casualties 258 killed [1] 777 wounded 59 taken prisoner 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner The Falklands War (Spanish: ) was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the United Kingdom... Loony left is a pejorative term usually for people or organisations with far-left politics, but sometimes used merely as a name for left-wing people; from a right-wing perspective -possibly from the press; particularly the tabloid newspapers. ... The SDP-Liberal Alliance was an electoral alliance of the Social Democratic Party and the Liberal Party in the UK that ran from 1981 to 1988, when the bulk of the two parties merged to form the Social and Liberal Democrats, later referred to as simply the Liberal Democrats. ... The UK general election, 1983 was held on June 9, 1983 and gave the Conservatives and Margaret Thatcher the most decisive election victory since that of Labour in 1945. ... The SDP-Liberal Alliance was an electoral alliance of the Social Democratic Party and the Liberal Party in the UK that ran from 1981 to 1988, when the bulk of the two parties merged to form the Social and Liberal Democrats, later referred to as simply the Liberal Democrats. ... Margaret Thatcher Neil Kinnock David Steel Election 1987 Titles The United Kingdom general election of 1987 was held on 11 June 1987 and was the third consecutive victory for the Conservative Party under the leadership of Margaret Thatcher. ...


The second and third terms were dominated by privatisations of Britain's many state-owned industries, including British Telecom in 1984, the bus companies in 1985, British Gas in 1986, British Airways in 1987, British Leyland, and British Steel in 1988. In 1984 Mrs. Thatcher also successfully concluded five-year long negotiations over Britain's budget to the European Economic Community. (See UK rebate.) BT Group plc (which trades as just BT, and is commonly known by its former name, British Telecom) is the privatised former British state telecommunications operator. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is about the former gas monopoly in the United Kingdom for infromation about the successor companies please see Centrica, BG Group and Transco. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Leyland Motor Corporation (often abbreviated to simply BL), was a Britain in 1968. ... British Steel is a large British steel producer, privatised in 1988 under the Thatcher government. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The European Community (EC), most important of two European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The UK rebate is a rebate on the UKs contribution to the EU budget paid back to the UK government by the European Union. ...


In 1989, the Community Charge (frequently referred to as the "poll tax") was introduced to replace the ancient system of rates (based on property values) which funded local government. This unpopular new charge was a flat rate per adult no matter what their circumstances; it seemed to be shifting the tax burden disproportionately onto the poor. Once again Thatcher's popularity sagged, but this time the Conservatives thought it might cost them the election. Michael Heseltine, a former cabinet member, challenged her for the leadership in 1990. She won the first round, but not enough to win outright, and after taking soundings from cabinet members, she announced her intention not to contest the second ballot. In the ensuing second ballot, the Chancellor of the Exchequer John Major beat Heseltine and Douglas Hurd. 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ... Michael Heseltine walks out of the cabinet meeting having resigned, January 9, 1986 Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC (born 21 March 1933) is a British Conservative politician and businessman. ... The 1990 Conservative Party leadership election in the United Kingdom took place in November 1990 following the decision of former Trade and Industry Secretary Michael Heseltine to stand against the incumbent Conservative leader and Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British cabinet minister responsible for all financial matters. ... Sir John Major, KG, CH, PC (born 30 February 1943) was the leader of the British Conservative Party and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1990 to 1997. ... Douglas Richard Hurd, Baron Hurd of Westwell, CH, CBE, PC (born 8 March 1930), is a senior British Conservative politician and novelist, who served in the governments of Margaret Thatcher and John Major between 1979 and his retirement in 1995. ...


The Major years: 1990-1997

Major introduced a replacement for the Community Charge, the Council Tax, and continued with the privatisations, and went on to narrowly win the 1992 election with a majority of 21. The Council Tax is the main form of local taxation in England, Scotland and Wales. ... The UK general election, 1992 was held on April 9, 1992, and was the fourth victory in a row for the Conservatives. ...


Major's government was beset by scandals, crisis, and missteps. Many of the scandals were purely about the personal lives of politicians which the media attempted to construe as hypocrisy, but the Cash for Questions affair and the divisions over EU were substantive. In 1995, Major resigned as Leader of the Conservative Party in order to trigger a leadership election which he hoped would give him a renewed mandate, and quieten the Maastricht rebels (e.g. Iain Duncan Smith, Bill Cash, Bernard Jenkin). John Redwood, then Secretary of State for Wales, stood against Major and gained around a fifth of the leadership vote. He was one of the people whom Major inadvertently referred to as 'bastards' during a television interview. Major was pleased that Michael Heseltine had not stood against him and gave him the position of Deputy Prime Minister as a result. The cash-for-questions affair was a controversial political scandal in 1990s Britain. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1995 Conservative leadership election was initiated when incumbent leader and Prime Minister John Major resigned as leader on June 22, 1995, in order to face down critics within his party. ... Rt. ... William Nigel Paul Cash, usually known as Bill Cash (born on May 10, 1940, in London, England) is a Roman Catholic British Conservative politician, Member of Parliament and opposition front-bencher. ... The Honourable Bernard Christison Jenkin (born 9 April 1959) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... The Right Honourable John Redwood Dr. John Alan Redwood (born June 15, 1951 in Dover, Kent) is a British Conservative Party politician, Member of Parliament for Wokingham and formerly Shadow Secretary of State for Deregulation in the Shadow Cabinet. ... Michael Heseltine walks out of the cabinet meeting having resigned, January 9, 1986 Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC (born 21 March 1933) is a British Conservative politician and businessman. ... A Deputy Prime Minister is a member of a nations cabinet who can take the position of acting Prime Minister when the real Prime Minister is temporarily absent. ...


As the term went on, with by-elections being consistently lost by the Conservatives, their majority declined and eventually vanished entirely. Getting every vote out became increasingly important to both sides, and on several occasions ill MPs were wheeled into the Commons to vote. Eventually, the Government became a technical minority. The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...


As predicted, the general election of May 1997 was a win for the Labour Party, but the magnitude of the victory surprised almost everyone. There was a swing of 20% in some places, and Labour achieved a majority of 179 with 43% of the vote to the Conservatives' 31%. Tactical voting against the Conservatives is believed to have caused around 40 seats to change hands. They lost all their seats outside of England, with prominent members such as Michael Portillo and Malcolm Rifkind among the losses. Major resigned within 24 hours. The UK general election, 1997 was held on 1 May 1997. ... In voting systems, tactical voting (or strategic voting) occurs when a voter misrepresents his or her sincere preferences in order to gain a more favorable outcome. ... Michael Denzil Xavier Portillo PC (born 26 May 1953) is an English journalist, broadcaster, and former Conservative politician. ... The Rt Hon. ...


It is often said that the Conservatives lost the 1997 election due to EU party-policy divisions. However, it is likely that the European question played only a small or insignificant part in the result. Accusations of "Tory sleaze", apathy towards a government that had been in power for nearly two decades, and a rebranded "New" Labour Party with a dynamic and charismatic leader (Tony Blair) are all probable factors in the Conservative defeat. For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the UK Labour Party, and Member of the UK Parliament...


Tory "sleaze"

A number of political scandals in the 1990s (building on previous examples in the 1980s) created the impression of what is described in the British press as "sleaze": a perception, peaking towards the end of the Major era, that the Conservatives were associated with political corruption and hypocrisy. In particular the successful entrapment of Graham Riddick and David Tredinnick in the "cash for questions" scandal, the contemporaneous misconduct as a minister by Neil Hamilton (who lost a consequent libel action against The Guardian), and the convictions of former Cabinet member Jonathan Aitken and former party deputy chairman Jeffrey Archer for perjury in two separate cases leading to custodial sentences damaged the Conservatives' public reputation. Persistent unsubstantiated rumours about the activities of the party treasurer Michael Ashcroft did not help this impression. This is a list of British political scandals, real or alleged: 1700s South Sea Bubble (1720) 1910s Marconi scandal of insider trading by Rufus Isaacs and others (1912) 1920s Zinoviev Letter (1924) 1930s Jimmy Thomas budget leak (1936) 1940s Hugh Dalton budget leak (1947) John Belcher corruptly influenced - led to... This article is very long Some browsers may have difficulty rendering this article. ... The 1980s refers to the years of 1980 to 1989. ... World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. Blue colors indicate little corruption, red colors indicate much corruption In broad terms, political corruption is the misuse by government officials of their governmental powers for illegitimate... Hypocrisy is the act of condemning another person, where the stated basis for the criticism is the breach of a rule which also applies to the critic and of which the critic is in breach to a similar or greater extent. ... Graham Riddick was the Conservative Party member of Parliament for Colne Valley in West Yorkshire, England from 1987 to 1997. ... David Arthur Stephen Tredinnick (born 19 January 1950) is a Conservative politician in the United Kingdom. ... Mostyn Neil Hamilton (born March 9, 1949) is a former barrister, teacher and Conservative MP in the United Kingdom. ... Jonathan William Patrick Aitken (born August 30, 1942) is a former Conservative Member of Parliament, British government minister and convicted perjurer. ... Jeffrey Howard Archer, Baron Archer of Weston-super-Mare (born 15 April 1940) is an English author and former politician. ... Perjury is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under oath or affirmation in a court of law or in any of various sworn statements in writing. ... Michael Anthony Ashcroft, Baron Ashcroft KCMG (born March 4, 1946) is a British businessman and politician who has been a member of the House of Lords since 2000. ...


At the same time a series of revelations about the private lives of various Conservative politicians also grabbed the headlines and both the media and the party's opponents made little attempt to clarify the distinction between financial conduct and private lives.


John Major's "Back to Basics" morality campaign back-fired on him by providing an excuse for the British media to expose "sleaze" within the Conservative Party and, most damagingly, within the Cabinet itself. A number of ministers were then revealed to have committed sexual indiscretions, and Major was forced by media pressure to dismiss them. In September 2002 it was revealed that, prior to his promotion to the cabinet, Major had himself had a longstanding extramarital affair with a fellow MP, Edwina Currie. Sir John Major, KG, CH, PC (born 30 February 1943) was the leader of the British Conservative Party and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1990 to 1997. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Edwina Currie Edwina Currie Jones née Cohen, (born 13 October 1946) is a former British Member of Parliament. ...


William Hague: 1997-2001

The ensuing leadership election was contested by five candidates. The electorate for the contest consisted solely of the 165 Conservative MPs who had been returned to the House of Commons. The candidates were Kenneth Clarke, William Hague, John Redwood, Peter Lilley and Michael Howard, with Stephen Dorrell launching an initial bid but withdrawing before polling began, citing limited support, and backing Clarke. Clarke was the favoured candidate of the Europhile left of the party, while the three latter candidates divided right-wing support roughly equally. Hague, who had initially supported Howard, emerged second as a compromise candidate and won the final ballot after Redwood and Clarke negotiated a joint ticket which was derided as an Instability Pact by their opponents (punning on the economic Stability Pact of the European Community). This image is used with permission courtesey of the Conservative Party - see Wikipedia:Pictures from conservatives. ... William Jefferson Hague (born March 26, 1961) is a British politician, the Member of Parliament for Richmond, North Yorkshire, former leader of the Conservative Party, and current Shadow Foreign Secretary. ... Final round William Hague - 90 Kenneth Clarke - 72 Hague becomes Leader ... Kenneth Harry Clarke, QC, MP, (born 2 July 1940) is a leading Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom. ... William Jefferson Hague (born March 26, 1961) is a British politician, the Member of Parliament for Richmond, North Yorkshire, former leader of the Conservative Party, and current Shadow Foreign Secretary. ... The Right Honourable John Redwood Dr. John Alan Redwood (born June 15, 1951 in Dover, Kent) is a British Conservative Party politician, Member of Parliament for Wokingham and formerly Shadow Secretary of State for Deregulation in the Shadow Cabinet. ... The Right Honourable Peter Bruce Lilley (born August 23, 1943, Hayes, Kent) is a British MP. He currently represents the constituency of Hitchin and Harpenden and, prior to boundary changes, represented St Albans which was its predecessor seat. ... The Rt Hon. ... The Right Honourable Stephen James Dorrell (born March 25, 1952) is an English politician and Conservative Member of Parliament for Charnwood. ... A Europhile is a term for a person who wants to increase cooperation between governments within the European Union. ... The European Community (EC), most important of two European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


At first William Hague portrayed himself as a moderniser with a common touch. However by the time the 2001 general election came he concentrated on Europe, asylum seekers and tax cuts whilst declaring that only the Conservative Party could "Save the Pound". Though a master debater who would regularly trounce Tony Blair in the Commons, his leadership tenure was beset by poor publicity and stumbles. He was seen as a political lightweight by many, and was widely mocked for his claim that he drank 14 imperial pints of beer in a day in his youth. Despite a low turnout, the election resulted in a net gain of a single seat for the Conservative Party and William Hague's resignation as party leader. Tony Blair William Hague Charles Kennedy The UK general election, 2001 was held on 7 June 2001 and was dubbed the quiet landslide by the media. ...


Iain Duncan Smith: 2001-2003

The 2001 leadership election was conducted under a new leadership electoral system designed by Hague. This resulted in five candidates competing for the job: Michael Portillo, Iain Duncan Smith, Kenneth Clarke, David Davis and Michael Ancram. The drawn-out and at times acrimonious election saw Conservative MPs select Iain Duncan Smith and Ken Clarke to be put forward for a vote by party members. As Conservative Party members are characteristically Eurosceptic, Iain Duncan Smith was elected, even though opinion polls showed that the public preferred Ken Clarke, a member of the Tory Reform Group. (Main article: 2001 Conservative leadership election.) Used with permission courtesey of the Conservative Party - see Wikipedia:Pictures from conservatives. ... Used with permission courtesey of the Conservative Party - see Wikipedia:Pictures from conservatives. ... Rt. ... The 2001 Conservative leadership election was held after the United Kingdom Conservative Party failed to make any in-road into the Labour governments lead in the 2001 general election, party leader William Hague resigned. ... Michael Denzil Xavier Portillo PC (born 26 May 1953) is an English journalist, broadcaster, and former Conservative politician. ... Rt. ... Kenneth Harry Clarke, QC, MP, (born 2 July 1940) is a leading Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom. ... David Davis, the name of several people, may refer to: David Davis (British politician) (born 1948), Conservative MP in British Parliament and Conservative leadership candidate in 2005 David Davis (Supreme Court justice) (1815–1886), Supreme Court Justice and U.S. Senator from Illinois David Davis (Australian politician) (born 1962), Liberal... Michael Ancram The Most Honourable Michael Andrew Foster Jude Kerr, 13th Marquess of Lothian, PC, QC (born 7 July 1945), known as Michael Ancram, is a UK Conservative Party politician. ... The Tory Reform Group (TRG) is a group within the United Kingdoms Conservative Party, that uphold the One Nation Tory vision, which they describe[citation needed] as being the promotion of: Social justice Political progress Prosperity for all // Europe The TRG is commonly seen as being pro-European. ... After the United Kingdom Conservative Party failed to make any in-road into the Labour governments lead in the 2001 general election, party leader William Hague resigned. ...


Iain Duncan Smith (often known as IDS) was a strong Eurosceptic but this did not define his leadership - indeed it was during his tenure that Europe ceased to be an issue of division in the party as it united behind calls for a referendum on the proposed European Union Constitution. Duncan Smith's Shadow Cabinet contained many new and unfamiliar faces but despite predictions by some that the party would lurch to the right the team instead followed a pragmatic moderate approach to policy. Euroscepticism (a portmanteau word derived from European and scepticism) has become a general term for opposition to the process of European integration. ... The Treaty establishing a constitution for Europe is a proposed constitutional treaty for the European Union. ... The Shadow Cabinet (also called the Shadow Front Bench) is a senior group of opposition spokespeople in the Westminster system of government who together under the leadership of the Leader of the Opposition (or the leader of other smaller opposition parties) form an alternative cabinet to the governments, whose...


On October 27 Iain Duncan Smith began to face calls within his own party to either resign as leader or face a vote of confidence. Under the rules of the Conservative party, the backbench Conservative 1922 Committee would review the leadership, and in order for this to take place the chairman of the committee, Sir Michael Spicer must be presented with 25 letters proposing a vote. October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament to give members of parliament a chance to register their confidence for a government by means of a parliamentary vote. ... In British politics, the 1922 Committee consists of all backbench Conservative Members of Parliament, though when the party is in opposition, frontbench MPs other than the party leader may also attend its meetings. ... Sir Michael William Hardy Spicer (born January 22, 1943, Bath) is the British member of Parliament for West Worcestershire. ...


On 28 October sufficient letters were presented to the chairman of the 1922 Committee to initiate a vote of confidence in Iain Duncan Smith. The vote came on 29 October, and IDS lost 90 to 75. October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Michael Howard: 2003-2005

Image:Photo-michaelhoward-nov2003-1.jpg

Duncan Smith remained as caretaker leader until Michael Howard, MP for Folkestone and Hythe, was elected to the post of leader (as the only candidate) on 6 November 2003. The Rt Hon. ... The Rt Hon. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Folkestone Harbour, picture taken from the golf court Folkestone (pronounced fōkstun) is a coastal resort town in the Shepway district of Kent, England. ... Hythe is a small coastal market town, on the edge of Romney Marsh, in the District of Shepway on the south coast of Kent. ... The Conservative Party performed poorly in the 2001 UK General Election. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Howard announced radical changes to the way the Shadow Cabinet would work. He slashed the number of members by half, with Theresa May and Tim Yeo each shadowing two government departments. Minor departments still have shadows but have been removed from the cabinet, and the post of Shadow Leader of the House of Commons was abolished. The role of party chairman was also split into two, with Lord Saatchi responsible for the party machine, and Liam Fox handling publicity. Michael Portillo was offered a position but refused, due to his plans to step down from Parliament at the next election. The Shadow Cabinet (also called the Shadow Front Bench) is a senior group of opposition spokespeople in the Westminster system of government who together under the leadership of the Leader of the Opposition (or the leader of other smaller opposition parties) form an alternative cabinet to the governments, whose... Theresa May The Right Honourable Theresa Mary May (born in Eastbourne, Sussex on October 1, 1956 as Theresa Mary Brasier) is a British politician, former chairman of the Conservative Party, and Member of Parliament for Maidenhead. ... Tim Yeo Timothy Stephen Kenneth Yeo (born March 20, 1945) is a British Conservative politician, Member of Parliament for South Suffolk. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Lord Saatchi Maurice Saatchi, Baron Saatchi, born June 21, 1946 is the co-founder of advertising agencies Saatchi and Saatchi and M&C Saatchi. ... Conservative MP Liam Fox Dr Liam Fox (born September 22, 1961) is a UK Conservative politician, currently Shadow Defence Secretary and Member of Parliament for Woodspring. ... Michael Denzil Xavier Portillo PC (born 26 May 1953) is an English journalist, broadcaster, and former Conservative politician. ...


Also, a panel of "grandees", including John Major, Iain Duncan Smith, William Hague and, notably, Kenneth Clarke has been set up to advise the leadership as they see fit. Sir John Major, KG, CH, PC (born 30 February 1943) was the leader of the British Conservative Party and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1990 to 1997. ... Rt. ... William Jefferson Hague (born March 26, 1961) is a British politician, the Member of Parliament for Richmond, North Yorkshire, former leader of the Conservative Party, and current Shadow Foreign Secretary. ... Kenneth Harry Clarke, QC, MP, (born 2 July 1940) is a leading Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom. ...


On 2 January 2004, influenced by Saatchi, Howard defined a personal credo and list of core beliefs of the party. At the party conference of October 2004, the Conservatives presented their "Timetable For Action" that a Conservative government would follow. January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Timetable For Action is a policy document by the U.K. Conservative Party, in which leader Michael Howard spells out some key actions he would take if elected Prime Minister, within the first hour, day, week, and month of a Conservative government. ...

The logo of the Conservative Party during the Howard years
The logo of the Conservative Party during the Howard years

In the 2005 general election, the Conservative Party made a partial recovery by a net gain of 31 seats, with the Labour majority falling to 66. Image File history File links New-conservative-logo. ... Image File history File links New-conservative-logo. ... Barring a change in the law, the next general election in the United Kingdom must be held some time before June 30, 2006. ...


The day after, on May 6, Howard announced that he believed himself too old to lead the party into another election campaign, and he would therefore be stepping down to allow a new leader the time to prepare for the next election. Howard said that he believed that the party needed to amend the rules governing the election of the Party leader, and that he would allow time for that to happen before resigning. See Conservative Party (UK) leadership election, 2005 May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... David Cameron, the eventual winner of the contest. ...


The 2005 campaign received criticism from its main financial backer, Michael Spencer. In an interview with The Times Tim Collins claimed that the specific reasons the party won more seats may not repeat themselves in the next general election:: The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... Timothy William George Collins CBE (born May 7, 1964) is a British politician. ...

  • The unpopularity of Tony Blair. This helped the Liberal Democrats and hence the Conservative Party in close fights. Blair will not be standing at the next election.
  • The left-of-Labour policies of the Liberal Democrats helped Conservatives in Conservative/Lib Dem marginal seats.
  • Labour's campaign in their marginal seats was poor.

David Cameron: 2005 to present

David Cameron (6 December 2005 - ) won the subsequent leadership campaign. Cameron beat his closest rival David Davis by a margin of more than two to one, taking 134,446 votes to 64,398, and has announced his intention to reform and realign the Conservative Party in a manner similar to that achieved by the Labour Party in opposition under Tony Blair. British opinion polls have since swung in the Conservative's favour and place Cameron ahead of either Blair or Blair's most likely successor Gordon Brown; the perceived realignment of the Conservatives seems also to have caused a leadership crisis within the Liberal Democrats, who might have most to lose from a resurgent Conservative Party. David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician, Leader of the Conservative Party, and Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Davis, the name of several people, may refer to: David Davis (British politician) (born 1948), Conservative MP in British Parliament and Conservative leadership candidate in 2005 David Davis (Supreme Court justice) (1815–1886), Supreme Court Justice and U.S. Senator from Illinois David Davis (Australian politician) (born 1962), Liberal... Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is the Chancellor of the Exchequer of the United Kingdom and a Labour Party politician. ...


 
 

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