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Encyclopedia > History of the Basque people
History of the Basque people
Prehistory and Antiquity
Basque Prehistory
Basque people in Antiquity
Middle Ages
Duchy of Cantabria
Duchy of Vasconia
County of Vasconia
Battle of Roncevaux Pass
Kingdom of Navarre
Banu Qasi
Basque party wars
Modern Age
The Basque Country in the Early Modern Age
Witch-hunts in the Basque Country
The Basque Country in the Late Modern Age
Carlist Wars
Basque nationalism
ETA
Monarchs
Dukes of Vasconia and Gascony
Kings of Pamplona and Navarre
Lords of Biscay
Counts of Araba
Counts of Lapurdi
Viscounts of Zuberoa
Topical
Navarrese right
Basque navigation
Basque culture
Basque literature
Politics of the Basque Country
Timeline of Basque history
Basque portal


The Duchy of Cantabria was a march created by the Visigoths in Northern Spain to watch their border with the Basques. ... Duchy of Vasconia (red) in time of Eudes the Great (early 8th century) The Duchy of Vasconia (also Wasconia, later Gascony) was a Duchy formed in the 7th century that included the former Roman province of Novempopulania and, at least in some periods, also the Basque lands south of the... The County of Vasconia was a small medieval realm segregated c. ... Combatants Franks Basques Commanders Charlemagne Roland, Eginhard, Anselmus Unknown (speculated: Duke Lop of Vasconia) Strength Major army Unknown (guerrilla party) Casualties Massacre of the Frankish rearguard Unknown (probably few) The Roncevaux Pass (French and English spelling, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) is the site of a famous battle in... Though the details are largely legendary, the Kingdom of Navarre evolved from the county of Pamplona, its traditional capital, when the Vasconic leader Enneco Aresta (Iñigo Arista or Aiza in Spanish) was chosen King in Pamplona (traditionally in 824) and led a local revolt against the Franks. ... The Banu Qasi were a Muslim dynastic family that ruled the region of the Ebro Valley in Spain. ... Sorginak (singular sorgin) are the assistants of the goddess Mari in Basque mythology They are likened to witches or pagan priestesses. ... The Carlist Wars in Spain were the last major European civil wars in which pretenders fought to establish their claim to a throne. ... The Gernika oak is a symbol of Basque freedoms. ... ETA symbol or ETA (Basque for Basque Homeland and Freedom; IPA pronunciation: [), is a terrorist Basque nationalist organization founded in 1959. ... Gascony (French: Gascogne, pronounced  ; Gascon: Gasconha, pronounced ) is an area of southwest France that constituted a royal province prior to the French Revolution. ... This is a list of the kings of Pamplona, later Navarre. ... Lord of Biscay (Basque: Bizkaiko Jauna, Spanish: Señor de Vizcaya) is a historical title of the head of state of the autonomous territory of Biscay, Basque Country. ... Álava province Álava (Basque: Araba) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... The fuero is a Spanish legal term and concept; there is a similar Portuguese term, the foral. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Location of Historical Territory of the Basque Country The Ikurriña, Basque Country flag The Lauburu, Basque Country symbol This article is about the overall Basque domain. ...



The Basque people are an indigenous people inhabiting both Spain and France. Their history is imbricated with that of these countries as well as with other countries historical and present of Europe and the Americas specially. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...

Contents

Origins

First historical references

Location of the ancient tribes ·Red: Basque and other pre-Indoeuropean tribes ·Blue:Celtic tribes
Enlarge
Location of the ancient tribes
·Red: Basque and other pre-Indoeuropean tribes
·Blue:Celtic tribes

In the 1st century AD, Strabo wrote that the northern parts of what are now Navarre (Nafarroa in Basque) and Aragon were inhabited by the Vascones. Despite the evident etymological connection between Vascones and the modern denomination Basque, there is no proof that the Vascones were the the modern Basques' ancestors or spoke the language that has evolved into modern Basque, although this is strongly suggested both by the historically consistent toponymy of the area and by a few personal names on tombstones dating from the Roman period. The Pre-Indo-European population of Europe included an unknown number of ethnic groups in Europe before the coming of the speakers of Indo-European languages. ... A Celtic cross. ... (Redirected from 1st century AD) (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Capital Pamplona (Basque: Iruña) Official language(s) Spanish; Basque co-official in the north of community. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish; Aragonese also used Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... The Vascons (Latin : Vascones) were an ancient people who, before the arrival of the Romans, inhabited the region in what is now Spain, north of the Ebro river (present day Navarre). ... Basque (native name: Euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ...


Three different peoples inhabited the territory of the present Basque Autonomous Community: the Varduli, Caristii and Autrigones. Historical sources do not state whether these tribes were related to the Vascones and/or the Aquitani. Varduli were a tribe that Roman historians report in Northern Hispania west of the Vascones and east of the Caristii and the Deba river. ... Caristii were a tribe reported by Roman historians in Northern Hispania west of the Deba and east of the Nervion rivers. ... Autrigones were a tribe described by Roman historians as living in Northern Hispania between the Cantabrians and the Caristii. ... The Vascons (Latin : Vascones) were an ancient people who, before the arrival of the Romans, inhabited the region in what is now Spain, north of the Ebro river (present day Navarre). ... The Aquitanii (Latin for Aquitanians) were a people of horsemen living in what is now SW France, between the Pyrenees and the Garonne. ...


Recent archaeological finds at Iruña-Veleia (Araba) have brought to light some early Basque texts [1], [2]. Otherwise, the area where a Basque-related language is best attested from an early period is Gascony, to the north of the present-day Basque Country, the ancient inhabitants of which, the Aquitani, may have spoken a language related to Basque. (The extinct Aquitanian language should not be confused with Gascon, the Romance language that has been spoken in Aquitaine since the Middle Ages.) Location of Veleia and other Roman cities in the context of ancient Basque tribes and the modern Basque Country Veleia was an ancient Roman town in the southern Basque Country. ... Álava (Basque Araba, Spanish Álava) is a Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... Map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony. ... The Aquitanii (Latin for Aquitanians) were a people of horsemen living in what is now SW France, between the Pyrenees and the Garonne. ... Aquitanian language was spoken in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne), region later known as Gascony before the Roman conquest and, probably much later until the Upper Middle Ages. ... The Gascon language is an Occitan dialect mostly spoken in Gascony (in the French départements of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, a part of Lot-et-Garonne, a part of Haute-Garonne, and a part of Ariège), and in the small Spanish...


During the Middle Ages the name Vascones and its derivates (including Basque) were extended to cover the entire Basque-speaking population of the present-day Basque Country.


Prehistory: the mainstream view

Although little is known about the prehistory of the Basques before the period of Roman occupation owing to the difficulty in identifying evidence for specific cultural traits, the mainstream view today is that the Basque area shows signs of archaeological continuity since the Aurignacian period. Aurignacian is the name of a culture of the Upper Palaeolithic present in Europe and south west Asia. ...


Many Basque archaeological sites, including cave dwellings such as Santimamiñe, provide evidence for continuity from Aurignacian times down to the Iron Age, shortly before Roman occupation. The possibility therefore cannot be ruled out of at least some of the same people having continued to inhabit the area for thirty millennia. Santimamiñe cave, Kortezubi, Biscay, Basque Country is one of the most important archaeological sites of the Basque Country, including a nearly complete sequence from the Middle Paleolithic to the Iron Age. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


A high concentration of Rh- (a typical European trait) among Basques, who have the highest level worldwide, had already been taken as suggestive of the antiquity and lack of admixture of the Basque genetic stock before the advent of modern genetics, which has confirmed this view. In the 1990s Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza published his findings according to which one of the main European autosomal components, PC 5, was shown to be a typically Basque trait believed to have receded owing to the migration of Eastern peoples during the Neolithic and Metal Ages. [1] [2] Further genetic studies on Y chromosome DNA haplogroups [3] and X chromosome microsatellites [4] also seem to point to Basques being the most direct descendants from prehistoric Western Europeans. However, Mitochondrial DNA have cast some doubt over this theory [5] [6] A blood type is a description of an individuals characteristics of red blood cells due to substances (carbohydrates and proteins) on the cell membrane. ... Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (born January 25, 1922) is an Italian population geneticist born in Genoa, who has been a professor at Stanford University since 1970 (now emeritus). ... An autosome is a non-sex chromosome. ... In statistics, principal components analysis (PCA) is a technique that can be used to simplify a dataset; more formally it is a linear transformation that chooses a new coordinate system for the data set such that the greatest variance by any projection of the data set comes to lie on... In human genetics, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in the DNA of the Y chromosome (called Y-DNA). ... The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in many animal species, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome). ... Microsatellites, or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs), are polymorphic loci present in nuclear DNA that consist of repeating units of 1-4 base pairs in length [1]. They are typically neutral, co-dominant and are used as molecular markers which have wide-ranging applications in the field of genetics, including kinship... Hypothesized map of human migration based on mitochondrial DNA. In human genetics, Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. These haplogroups trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and the subsequent spread across the globe. ...


Some scholars have interpreted the eymologies of Basque words for knife and axe, which contain a root meaning 'stone', as evidence that the Basque language dates back to the stone age.[7]


Alternative theories

The following alternative theories about the prehistoric origins of the Basques have all had adherents at some time but are rejected by many scholars and do not represent the consensus view:

  • Basques as Neolithic settlers: According to this theory, a precursor of the Basque language might have arrived about 6,000 years ago with the advance of agriculture. The only archaeological evidence that could partly support this hypothesis would be that for the Ebro valley area. Genetics also lends little support.
  • Basques arrived together with the Indo-Europeans: Linked to an unproven linguistic hypothesis that includes Basque and some Caucasian languages in a single super-family. Even if such a Basque-Caucasian connection did exist, it would have to be at too great a time depth to be relevant to Indo-European migrations. Apart from a Celtic presence in the Ebro valley during the Urnfield culture, archaeology offers little support for this hypothesis. The Basque language shows few certain Celtic or other Indo-European loans, other than those transmitted via Latin or Romance in historic times.
  • Basques as an Iberian subgroup: Based on occasional use by early Basques of the Iberian alphabet and Julius Caesar's description of the Aquitanians as Iberians. Apparent similarities between the undeciphered Iberian language and Basque have also been cited, but this fails to account for the fact that attempts so far to decipher Iberian using Basque as a reference have failed.

An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Scotland, Europes most complete Neolithic village. ... The Ebro (Greek: Έβρος, Latin: Iberus, Spanish: Ebro, Catalan: Ebre) is Spains most voluminous and second longest river. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European languages. ... The term Caucasian languages is loosely used to refer to a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than 7 million people in the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. ... A Celtic cross. ... The Urnfield culture of central European culture is dated roughly between 1300 BC and 750 BC. The name describes the custom of cremating the dead and placing them in cemeteries. ... Basque (native name: Euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Gāius Jūlius Caesar (IPA: ;[1]), July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... In the geologic timescale, the Aquitanian is the age of the Miocene epoch of the Neogene period of the Cenozoic era of the Fanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 23 million 30 thousand and 20 million 430 thousand years ago, approximatedly. ... The Lady of Baza, made by Iberians The Iberians were an ancient, Pre-Indo-European people who inhabited the east and southeast of the Iberian Peninsula in prehistoric and historic times. ... The Iberian language describes a linguistic group identified with the Iberian civilization (7th century BC – 1st century BC), formed in the eastern and south-eastern regions of the Iberian peninsula. ...

The Basque Country in prehistorical times

Paleolithic

About 35,000 years ago, the lands that are now the Basque Country, together with neighbouring areas such as Aquitaine and the Pyrenees) which may have been culturally Basque in the past, were settled by Homo sapiens, who gradually displaced the region's earlier Neanderthal population. Arriving from Central Europe, the settlers brought the Aurignacian culture with them. Location of Historical Territory of the Basque Country The Ikurriña, Basque Country flag The Lauburu, Basque Country symbol This article is about the overall Basque domain. ... Location Administration Capital Bordeaux Regional President Alain Rousset (PS) (since 1998) Départements Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,309 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2005 est. ... Central Pyrenees. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Binomial name †Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 Synonyms Palaeoanthropus neanderthalensis The Neanderthal (IPA pronunciation: ), (Homo neanderthalensis) or Neandertal was a species of the Homo genus that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia. ... Aurignacian is the name of a culture of the Upper Palaeolithic present in Europe and south west Asia. ...


At this stage the Basque Country formed part of the archaeological Franco-Cantabrian province which extended all the way from Asturias to Provence. Throughout this region, which underwent similar cultural developments with some local variation, Aurignacian culture was successively replaced by Gravettian, Solutrean and Magdalenian cultures. Except for the Aurignacian, these all seem to have originated in the Franco-Cantabrian region, which suggests no further waves of immigration into the area during the Paleolithic period. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian have special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Gravettian was an industry of the European Upper Palaeolithic. ... The Solutrean industry was an advanced flint tool making style of the Upper Palaeolithic. ... The Magdalenian, also spelt Magdalénien, refers to one of the later culture of the Upper Palaeolithic in western Europe. ...


Within the present-day Basque Country settlement was limited almost exclusively to the Atlantic area, probably for climatic reasons. Important Basque sites include the following:

  • Santimamiñe (Bizkaia): Gravettian, Solutrean and Magdalenian remains, mural art
  • Bolinkoba (Bizkaia): Gravettian and Solutrean
  • Ermitia (Gipuzkoa): Solutrean and Magdalenian
  • Amalda (Gipuzkoa): Gravettian and Solutrean
  • Koskobilo (Gipuzkoa): Aurignacian and Solutrean
  • Aitzbitarte (Gipuzkoa): Aurignacian, Gravettian, Solutrean and Magdalenian
  • Isturitz (Low Navarre): Gravettian, Solutrean and Magdalenian, mural art
  • Gatzarria (Zuberoa): Aurignacian and Gravettian

Santimamiñe cave, Kortezubi, Biscay, Basque Country is one of the most important archaeological sites of the Basque Country, including a nearly complete sequence from the Middle Paleolithic to the Iron Age. ...

Epipaleolithic and Neolithic

At the end of the Ice Age, Magdalenian culture gave way to Azilian culture. Hunters turned from large animals to smaller prey, and fishing and seafood gathering became important economic activities. The southern part of the Basque Country was first settled in this period. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Azilian is a name given by archaeologists to an industry of the terminal Palaeolithic and early Mesolithic in northern Spain and south western France. ...


Gradually, Neolithic technology started to filter through from the Mediterranean coasts, first in the form of isolated pottery items (Zatoia, Marizulo) and later with the introduction of sheepherding. As in most of Atlantic Europe, this transition progressed slowly. In a draw in a mountainous region, a shepherd guides a flock of about 20 sheep amidst scrub and olive trees. ...


In the Ebro valley, more fully Neolithic sites are found. Anthropometric classification of the remains suggests the possibility of some Mediterranean colonisation here. A comparable situation is found in Aquitaine, where settlers may have arrived via the Garonne. Illustration from The Speaking Portrait (Pearsons Magazine, Vol XI, January to June 1901) demonstrating the principles of Bertillons anthropometry. ... The Garonne (Occitan: Garona) is a river in southwest France, with a length of 575 km (357 miles). ...


In the second half of the 4th millennium BC, Megalithic culture apeared throughout the area. Burials become collective (possibly implying families or clans) and the dolmen predominates, while caves are also employed in some places. Unlike the dolmens of the Mediterranean basin which show a preference for corridors, in the Atlantic area they are invariably simple chambers. Megalithic tomb, Mane Braz, Brittany Bronze age wedge tomb in the Burren area of Ireland A megalith is a large stone which has been used to construct a structure or monument either alone or with other stones. ... Poulnabrone dolmen in County Clare, Ireland For the french TV miniseries, see Dolmen (TV miniseries). ...


Copper and Bronze Ages

Cromlech of Okabe (Lower Navarre)

Use of copper and gold, and then other metals, did not begin in the Basque Country until c. 2500. With the arrival of metal working, the first urban settlements made their appearance. One of the most notable towns on account of its size and continuity was La Hoya in southern Araba, which may have served as a link, and possibly a trading centre, between Portugal (Vila Nova de São Pedro culture) and Languedoc (Treilles group). Concurrently, caves and natural shelters remained in use, particularly in the Atlantic region. T shaped Hunebed D27 in Borger-Odoorn, Netherlands, recent. ... Basse-Navarre (Nafarroa Beherea in Basque) is a former French province, part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Vila Nova de São Pedro is the name of an archaeological site in Portuguese Estremadura where thousands of arrowheads were found inside a fortified site. ... Coat of arms of the province of Languedoc, now being used as an official flag by the Midi-Pyrénees region as well as by the city of Toulouse Languedoc (Lengadòc in Occitan) is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day régions of Languedoc...


Undecorated pottery continued from the Neolithic period up until the arrival of the Bell Beaker culture with its characteristic pottery style, which is mainly found around the Ebro Valley. Building of megalithic structures continued until the Late Bronze Age. approximate extent of the Beaker culture The Bell-Beaker culture (sometimes shortened to Beaker culture, Beaker people, or Beaker folk, German Glockenbecherkultur), ca. ...


In Aquitaine there was a notable presence of the Artenacian culture, a culture of bowmen that spread rapidly through Western France and Belgium from its homeland near the Garonne c. 2400. Artenacian culture, named after the archaeological site of Artenac in Dordogne appeared in the Late Chalcolithic, c. ...


In the Late Bronze Age, parts of the southern Basque Country came under the influence of the pastoralist Cogotas I culture of the Iberian plateau.


Iron Age

In the Iron Age an Indo-European people, probably Celtic, settled on territories adjacent to the Basque region and began to exert influence. Bearers of the late Urnfield culture followed the Ebro upstream as far as the southern fringes of the Basque Country, leading to the incorporation of the Hallstatt culture. The Urnfield culture of central European culture is dated roughly between 1300 BC and 750 BC. The name describes the custom of cremating the dead and placing them in cemeteries. ... The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture during the local Bronze Age, and introduced the Iron Age. ...


In the Basque Country, settlements now appear mainly at points of difficult access, probably for defensive reasons, and had elaborate defence systems. During this phase agriculture seemingly became more important than animal husbandry.


It may be during this period that new megalithic structures, the (stone circle) or cromlech and the megalith or menhir, made their appearance. T shaped Hunebed D27 in Borger-Odoorn, Netherlands, recent. ... A menhir is a large, single upright standing stone (monolith or megalith), of prehistoric European origin. ...


Roman rule

The Romans first reached the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, including the Basque region, under Pompey in the 1st century BC, but Roman rule was not consolidated until the time of the Emperor Augustus. Its laxness suited the Basques well, allowing them to retain their traditional laws and leadership. There is not much evidence of Romanisation, and the survival of the separate Basque language has often been attributed to the fact that the Basque Country, as a poor region, was little developed by the Romans. Pompey, Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir [1] (Classical Latin abbreviation: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS[2], Gnaeus or Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus) (September 29, 106 BC – September 29, 48 BC), was a distinguished military and political leader of the late Roman republic. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... Augustus (Latin: IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•AVGVSTVS;[1] September 23, 63 BC–August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian; Latin: C•IVLIVS•C•F•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS) for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, was the first and among the most important of...


However, there was a significant Roman presence in the garrison of Pompaelo (modern Pamplona, Iruñea in Basque), a city south of the Pyrenees founded by and named after Pompey. Conquest of the area further west followed a fierce Roman campaign against the Cantabri (see Cantabrian Wars). There are archaeological remains from this period of garrisons protecting commercial routes all along the Ebro river, and along a Roman road between Asturica and Burdigala. Pamplona (Basque: Iruñea or Iruña) is the capital city of Navarre, Spain. ... Cantabri was an ancient tribe which inhabited the north coast of Spain near Santander and Bilbao and the mountains behind a district hence known as Cantabria. ... The Cantabrian Wars (29 BC-19 BC) occurred during the Roman conquest of the ancient province of Cantabria. ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... A Roman road in Pompeii Road Construction on Trajans Column The Roman roads were essential for the growth of their empire, by enabling them to move armies. ... Episcopal Palace of Astorga Astorga is a town in Spain, in the province of León. ... Bordeaux (Bordèu in Gascon) is a France. ...


Many Basques joined the Roman legions, and were often deployed far away to guard the Empire. A unit of Varduli was stationed on Hadrian's Wall in the north of Britain for many years, and earned the title fida (faithful) for some now forgotten service to the emperor. Romans apparently entered into alliances (foedera, singular foedus) with many local tribes, allowing them almost total autonomy within the Empire. [8] The Roman legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... Varduli were a tribe that Roman historians report in Northern Hispania west of the Vascones and east of the Caristii and the Deba river. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Livy mentions the natural division between the Ager and the Saltus Vasconum, i.e. between the fields of the Ebro basin and the mountains to the north. Historians agree that Romanization was significant in the fertile Ager but almost null in the Saltus, where Roman towns were scarce and generally small. [9] A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... The Ebro (Greek: Έβρος, Latin: Iberus, Spanish: Ebro, Catalan: Ebre) is Spains most voluminous and second longest river. ...


The Bagaudae[10] seem to have produced a major impact on Basque history in the late Empire. In the late 4th century and throughout the 5th century, the Basque region from the Garonne to the Ebro escaped Roman control in the midst of revolts. Several Roman villas (Liédena, Ramalete) were burned to the ground. The proliferation of mints is interpreted as evidence for an inner limes around Vasconia, where coins were minted for the purpose of paying troops. [11] After the fall of the Empire, the struggle against Rome's Visigoth allies continued. Bagaudae (also spelled Bacaudae) was the name for groups of peasant insurgents during the Crisis of the Third Century, particularly in Gaul. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Garonne (Occitan: Garona) is a river in southwest France, with a length of 575 km (357 miles). ... The Ebro (Greek: Έβρος, Latin: Iberus, Spanish: Ebro, Catalan: Ebre) is Spains most voluminous and second longest river. ... The limes Germanicus, 2nd century. ... Gascony (French: Gascogne, pronounced  ; Gascon: Gasconha, pronounced ) is an area of southwest France that constituted a royal province prior to the French Revolution. ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ...


Middle Ages

Early Middle Ages

Main article: Duchy of Vasconia

In 407 AD, Basque troops under Roman command defeated the Vandals, Alans and Swabians at the Pyrenees, but two years later these tribes crossed the Basque homelands into Hispania without resistance. In 418 Rome gave the provinces of Aquitania and Hispania Tarraconensis to the Visigoths, as foederati (allies). Duchy of Vasconia (red) in time of Eudes the Great (early 8th century) The Duchy of Vasconia (also Wasconia, later Gascony) was a Duchy formed in the 7th century that included the former Roman province of Novempopulania and, at least in some periods, also the Basque lands south of the... // Events Gunderic becomes king of the Vandals and the Alans after the death of his father Godgisel Gratianus of Britain is assassinated and Constantine III takes his place at the head of the mutinous Roman garrison in Britain. ... The Vandals traditional reputation: a colored steel engraving of the Sack of Rome (455) by Heinrich Leutemann (1824-1904), c 1860-80 Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Swabians (German: Schwaben or Schwabenland) is both a historically grown and linguistic (see Swabian German) group in Germany. ... Roman theater at Mérida; the statues are replicas Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra and Gibraltar) and to two provinces created there in the period of the Roman Republic: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. ... // Events December 28 - Boniface succeeds Zosimus as Pope Council of Carthage - discussion of Biblical canon Births Deaths December 26 - Pope Zosimus In Other Fields 418 is the area code for telephone numbers in the Quebec City region of the province of Quebec of Canada. ... Gallia Aquitania, a province of The Roman Empire Gallia Aquitania, in ancient geography, was a province of the Roman Empire, located in present-day southwest France and bordered by the provinces of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Narbonensis, and Hispania Tarraconensis. ... Roman Imperial province of Hispania Tarraconensis, 120 AD Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania. ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ...


While the Visigoths seem to have claimed the Basque territory since early on, all the chronicles point to their systematic failure to subdue it, punctuated only by sporadic military successes. The years between 435 and 450 saw a succession of confrontations between Basque rebels and Romano-Gothic troops, the best documented of which were the battles of Toulouse, Araceli (Basque Uharte-Arakil) and Turiasum. [10] Events August 3 - Nestorius is exiled by Imperial edict to a monastery in a Sahara oasis. ... Events August 25 - Marcian proclaimed Eastern Roman Emperor by Aspar and Pulcheria. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Midi-Pyrénées Département Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004... Uharte-Arakil is a town located in the province of Navarra, in the autonomous community of Navarra, in the North of Spain. ... Tarazona is a municipality (pop. ...

Duchy of Vasconia (red) in time of Eudes the Great (early 8th century)
Duchy of Vasconia (red) in time of Eudes the Great (early 8th century)

However, the Franks displaced the Visigoths from Aquitaine in 507, placing the Basques between the two warring kingdoms. Both Franks and Visigoths attacked Vasconia (mentioned by that name in the Visigothic chronicle and as Wasconia in the Frankish one) in c. 580, with unequal success. Soon afterwards, they created their respective marches: the Duchy of Cantabria in the south and the Duchy of Vasconia in the north. After further fighting, the Duchy of Vasconia was consolidated as an independent polity between 660 and 678. A personal union with the Duchy of Aquitaine ensured several decades of peace only interrupted by occasional Visigothic campaigns. Image File history File links Duchy_of_Vasconia. ... Image File history File links Duchy_of_Vasconia. ... Odo (or Eudes) (c. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... Events Battle of Vouillé: Clovis I defeats the Visigoths near Poitiers, ends Visigothic power in Gaul. ... Events Around this time, the historian Jordanes writes several books. ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to an area along a border, e. ... The Duchy of Cantabria was a march created by the Visigoths in Northern Spain to watch their border with the Basques. ... Duchy of Vasconia (red) in time of Eudes the Great (early 8th century) The Duchy of Vasconia (also Wasconia, later Gascony) was a Duchy formed in the 7th century that included the former Roman province of Novempopulania and, at least in some periods, also the Basque lands south of the... Events Childeric II proclaimed king of Austrasia. ... Events Pope Agatho succeeds Pope Donus. ... The persons who held the title of Duke of Aquitaine (French: Duc dAquitaine}, which became part of France in 1449 but was an independent duchy before that date, with the years they held it, were: // Kings and Dukes of Aquitaine Edward III claimed the title of King of France...


The Muslim invasion of 711 and the rise of the Carolingian dynasty posed new threats for this state and eventually led to its downfall and breakup. The Muslim conquests represent a century of rapid Arab and Islamic expansion that took place from the death of Mohammed in 632 to the Battle of Tours in 732, during which time a vast Muslim empire and area of influence would come to stretch from India, across the Middle East... See also: phone number 711. ... The following list of Frankish Kings is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ...


Vasconia's submission to the Franks was interrupted by frequent oubreaks of resistance, the best known of which today is the first Battle of Roncevaux (Orreaga in Basque). The Basque-Muslim state of the Banu Qasi (meaning "heirs of Cassius" in Arabic), founded c. 800 near Tudela (Tutera in Basque), helped to maintain peace between the Basques and Al Andalus. The Roncevaux Pass (Roncesvaux in English, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) is the site of a famous battle in 778 in which Hroudland (later changed to Roland), prefect of Brittany March was defeated by the Basques. ... The Banu Qasi were a Muslim dynastic family that ruled the region of the Ebro Valley in Spain. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... Tudela is a town and municipality in Spain, in the northern province of Navarra. ... Al-Andalus (Arabic: الأندلس) was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims from 711 to 1492. ...


After Charlemagne's death, his son Louis the Pious provoked a new rebellion led by Gartzia Semeno. A relative of the latter, Enecco Arista (Basque Eneko Aritza, i.e. Eneko the Oak), took power in Pamplona c. 824 with the defeat of the Franks by the Pamplonese and Banu Qasi at the third Battle of Roncevaux.[12] A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... García I Jiménez (Basque: Gartzia Semeno, Gascon: Gassia Semen, French: Garsias and Garsie Siguin) was the Duke of Gascony as leader of the Gascons from 816 to his death in 818. ... King Eneko Aritza (Iñigo Iñiguez Arista, in Basque, Eneko Aritza) (c. ... Though the details are largely legendary, the Kingdom of Navarre evolved from the county of Pamplona, its traditional capital, when the Vasconic leader Enneco Aresta (Iñigo Arista or Aiza in Spanish) was chosen King in Pamplona (traditionally in 824) and led a local revolt against the Franks. ... Events Iñigo Arista revolts against the Franks and establishes the kingdom of Navarre (approximate date). ...


High Middle Ages

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The Kingdom of Pamplone in the early 10th century
Main article: Kingdom of Navarre

The Kingdom of Pamplona, as this newly formed Basque state came to be known, consolidated its Frankish and Muslim borders before turning its attention to its western neighbours. In 905, the Cronica Albeldense states that the territory ruled by Pamplona included Nájera and possibly the province of Araba (referred to as Arba).[13] Though the details are largely legendary, the Kingdom of Navarre evolved from the county of Pamplona, its traditional capital, when the Vasconic leader Enneco Aresta (Iñigo Arista or Aiza in Spanish) was chosen King in Pamplona (traditionally in 824) and led a local revolt against the Franks. ... Though the details are largely legendary, the Kingdom of Navarre evolved from the county of Pamplona, its traditional capital, when the Vasconic leader Enneco Aresta (Iñigo Arista or Aiza in Spanish) was chosen King in Pamplona (traditionally in 824) and led a local revolt against the Franks. ... Alternate meaning: Area code 905 Events Births Deaths Categories: 905 ... Najera (Nájera in Spanish, Naiara in Basque) is a city located in the Rioja Alta district of La Rioja, Spain upon the river Najerilla. ... Álava (Basque Araba, Spanish Álava) is a Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ...


Under Sancho III the Great (1000-1035), Pamplona controlled the entire southern Basque Country; indeed, its power extended from Burgos and Santander to Northern Aragon. Through marriage Sancho also became the acting Earl of Castile and held a protectorate over Gascony and Leon. Sancho III of Navarre (c. ... // Events World Population 300 million. ... Events Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark. ... The cathedral Our Lady of Burgos. ... For alternate uses, see Santander. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish; Aragonese also used Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... This is a list of counts, kings, and queens of Castile. ... Map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony. ... The city of León was founded by the Roman Seventh Legion (for unknown reasons always written as Legio Septima Gemina, or twin seventh legion). It was the headquarters of that legion in the late empire and was a center for trade in gold which was mined at Las M...


Following Sancho III's death, Castile and Aragon became separate kingdoms ruled by his sons, who were responsible for the first partitioning of Pamplona. However, the kingdom was restored in 1157 under García Ramírez the Restorer, who fought Castile for control of the western half of the realm. A peace treaty signed in 1179 ceded La Rioja and the northeastern part of present-day Old Castile to the Castilian crown. In return, this pact acknowledged that Araba, Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa belonged to Navarre. A former kingdom in modern-day Spain, Castile (Spanish: Castilla; usually pronounced Cast-EEL in English) now compromises the regions of Old Castile in the north-west, and New Castile in the center of the country. ... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury... García VI Ramírez (died 21 November 1150, Lorca), called the Restorer (Spanish: el Restaurador), was lord of Monzón, and in 1134 became King of Navarre. ... Events Third Council of the Lateran condemned Waldensians and Cathars as heretics, institutes a reformation of clerical life, and creates the first ghettos for Jews Afonso I is recognized as the true King of Portugal by Portugal the protection of the Catholic Church against the Castillian monarchy Philip II is... Old Castille (Spanish: Castilla la Vieja) is an historic region of Spain, which included territory that later corresponded to the provinces of politically, Santander (now Cantabria), Burgos, Logroño (now La Rioja), Soria, Segovia, and Ávila, to which some scholars add Valladolid and Palencia. ... Vizcaya province Vizcaya (Basque Bizkaia) is a province of northern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... Guipúzcoa province Guipúzcoa (Basque Gipuzkoa, Spanish Guipúzcoa, in English sometimes as Guipuscoa) is a province of northern Spain, in the northeastern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ...


In 1199, while Navarre's King Sancho VI the Wise was away on an embassy to Tlemcen, Castile invaded and annexed the western Basque Country, leaving Navarre landlocked. Castile divided this territory into the three modern provinces, but permitted these to retain a large degree of self-government and their traditional Navarrese rights, encapsulated in special charters called fueros, which all Castilian (and later, Spanish) kings have since sworn to uphold on oath. Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... Sancho VI Garces, (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Fueros is a Spanish legal term and concept; there is a similar Portuguese term, Forals. ...


Basque sailors

Basque fishing sites in Canada in the 16th and 17th centuries (click to enlarge)
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Basque fishing sites in Canada in the 16th and 17th centuries (click to enlarge)

Basques played an important role in early European ventures into the Atlantic Ocean. The earliest document to mention Basque whaling dates from 670, long before the first Viking raids. In 1059, whalers from Lapurdi are recorded to have presented the oil of the first whale they captured to the viscount. Apparently the Basques were averse to the taste of whale meat themselves, but did successful business selling it, and the blubber, to the French, Castilians and Flemings. Basque whalers used longboats or traineras which they rowed in the vicinity of the coast or from a larger ship. The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne explorers, traders, and warriors of the Norsemen who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of the British Isles, France and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ... Labourd (Lapurdi in Basque; from Latin Lapurdum) is a former French province and part of the present-day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; a...


Whaling and cod-fishing are probably responsible for early Basque contact with both the North Sea and Newfoundland. The date most frequently mentioned for the first arrival of Basque sailors in Newfoundland is 1372. Historical sources also document the presence of Basque fishermen in Iceland as early as 1412. Species Gadus morhua Gadus macrocephalus Gadus ogac Cod is the common name for the genus Gadus of fish, belonging to the family Gadidae, and is also used in the common name of a variety of other fishes. ... Newfoundland —   (stress on final syllable; for mispronunciations, see Newfoundland travel guide from Wikitravel)— (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


In Europe the rudder seems to have been a Basque invention, to judge from three masted ships depicted in a 12th century fresco in Estella (Navarre; Lizarra in Basque), and also seals preserved in Navarrese and Parisian historical archives which show similar vessels. The first mention of use of a rudder was referred to as steering "à la Navarraise" or "à la Bayonnaise". [14] Estella can refer to: Estella, a character in Charles Dickens Great Expectations Estella, Spain Estella, Wisconsin This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Late Middle Ages

The Basque Country in the Late Middle Ages was ravaged by bitter partisan wars between local ruling families. In Navarre these conflicts became polarised in a violent struggle between the Agramont and Beaumont parties. In Bizkaia, the two major warring factions were named Oinaz and Gamboa. (Cf. the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Italy). High defensive structures ("towers") built by local noble families, few of which survive today, were frequently razed by fires, sometimes by royal decree. Dante by Michelino The Late Middle Ages is a term used by historians to describe European history in the period of the 14th and 15th centuries (1300–1500 A.D.). The Late Middle Ages were preceded by the High Middle Ages, and followed by the Early Modern era (Renaissance). ... // Beaumont can refer to: Places In Australia Beaumont, South Australia, a suburb of Adelaide In Belgium Beaumont, Belgium, in the province of Hainaut In Canada Beaumont, Alberta, Canada In France Beaumont, Ardèche, in the Ardèche département Beaumont, Corrèze, in the Corrèze département Beaumont, Gers... The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting, respectively, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in Italy during the 12th century and 13th century. ... The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting, respectively, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in Italy during the 12th century and 13th century. ... Raze is a dance music group assembled by instrumentalist and producer Vaughan Mason. ...


From the Renaissance Era to the nineteenth century

The Gernika oak is a symbol of Basque freedoms.
The Gernika oak is a symbol of Basque freedoms.

As the Middle Ages drew to a close, the lands inhabited by the Basques were alotted to either France and Spain. Most of the Basque population ended up in Spain, and the resulting situation continues to this day. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (749x1147, 136 KB)Gernikako Arbola, the Gernika oak I took the picture in 1997, I think. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (749x1147, 136 KB)Gernikako Arbola, the Gernika oak I took the picture in 1997, I think. ... Gernikako Arbola (the Guernica tree in Basque) is an oak tree that symbolizes traditional freedoms for the Biscayne people, and by extensions the Basque people. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


However, Basques in the present-day Spanish provinces of Navarra, Guipúzcoa, Vizcaya and Álava and in the portion of Navarre that was parcelled out to France managed to retain a large degree of self-government within their respective provinces, practically functioning as separate nation-states. The fueros recognised separate laws, taxation and courts in each province.


Basques serving under the Spanish flag became renowned sailors, teaching the Dutch to use the harpoon for whaling at the end of the 16th century. Many Basque sailors on Spanish ships were among the first Europeans to reach North America. A great many early European settlers in Canada and the United States were of Basque origin. Whaling harpoon. ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


Back in the Basque Country, the Protestant Reformation made some inroads and was supported by Queen Jeanne d'Albret of Low Navarre. The printing of books in Basque, mostly on Christian themes, was introduced in the 16th century by the Basque-speaking bourgeoisie around Bayonne in the northern Basque Country. However, Protestants were persecuted by the Spanish Inquisition. In the northeast, the Protestant Navarrese king converted to Roman Catholicism and went on to become King Henry IV of France. The Protestant Reformation was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... Jeanne dAlbret Jeanne dAlbret (January 7, 1528 – June 9, 1572) was Queen of Navarre from 1555 to 1572, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, duke of Vendome and mother of Henry IV of France. ... Basse-Navarre (Nafarroa Beherea in Basque) is a former French province, part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Bayonne. ... The Spanish Inquisition was established in 1478 by Ferdinand and Isabella to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and was under the direct control of the Spanish monarchy. ... Henry IV (French: Henri IV; December 13, 1553 – May 14, 1610), was the first monarch of the Bourbon dynasty in France. ...


Self-government in the northern Basque Country came to an abrupt end when the French Revolution centralised government and abolished the local privileges that had been granted by the ancien régime. While this development pushed some Basques to counter-revolutionary positions, others actively participated in the process, and a Basque constitutional project was drawn up by the Basque revolutionary Garat. This issue brought the Basque Country into the Convention War of 1793, when all the Basque territories were nominally French for a time. When the Napoleonic Army invaded Spain some years later it encountered little difficulty in keeping the southern Basque provinces loyal to the occupier. Because of this lack of resistance (see the Battle of Vitoria), the southern Basque Country was the last part of Spain controlled by the French until the burning of San Sebastian on August 31, 1813. The French Revolution (1789–1799/1804) was a vital period in the history of French, European and Western civilization. ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Vitoria was fought on June 21, 1813 during the Peninsular War, between 78,000 British, Portuguese and Spanish troops, with 96 guns, under the Marquis of Wellington, and 58,000 French with 153 guns under King Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jourdan. ... The town of San Sebastian was burned on August 31st, 1813. ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Political Spain in 1854, after the first Carlist War
Political Spain in 1854, after the first Carlist War

In Spain, ironically, the fueros were upheld by the traditionalist, and nominally absolutist, Carlists all through the civil wars of the 19th century, in opposition to the victorious constitutional forces. The southern Basque provinces, including Navarre, were the backbone of revolts seeking to crown Carlos, the male heir to the Spanish throne who had promised to defend the Basque foral System, and his descendants after him. Image File history File links 1850espanya. ... Image File history File links 1850espanya. ... Carlism was a conservative political movement in Spain, purporting to establish an alternative branch of the Bourbons in the Spanish throne. ... Fueros is a Spanish legal term and concept; there is a similar Portuguese term, Forals. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Carlism is a traditionalist, legitimist political movement in Spain seeking, among other things, the establishment of a separate line of the Bourbon family on the Spanish throne. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fueros is a Spanish legal term and concept; there is a similar Portuguese term, Forals. ...


Fearing that they would lose their self-government or fueros under a modern, liberal constitution, Basques in Spain rushed to join the traditionalist army, which was financed largely by the governments of the Basque provinces. The opposing Isabeline Army had the vital support of British, French (notably the Algerian legion) and Portuguese forces, and the backing of these governments. The Irish legion (Tercio) was virtually annihilated by the Basques in the Battle of Oriamendi.


As differences grew between the Apostolic (official) and Navarrese (Basque-based) parties within the Carlist camp in the course of the First Carlist War, the latter signed an armistice, the terms of which included a promise by the Spaniards to respect Basque self-government. Spain's failure to keep this promise led to the Second Carlist War, which concluded in a similar way. The final outcome was that the Basque provinces, including Navarre, lost most of their autonomy, while keeping control over taxation through the Ley Paccionada. Indeed, they still retain this power today in the form of the so-called conciertos fiscales between the Basque provinces and the Spanish government in Madrid. At the beginning of the 18th century, King Philip V of Spain promulgated the Salic Law, which declared illegal the inheritance of the Spanish crown by women. ... The Carlist Wars in Spain were the last major European civil wars in which pretenders fought to establish their claim to a throne. ...


Thus the wars that brought new freedoms to large parts of Spain resulted in the abolition of most (though not all) of Basques' traditional liberties. Although the Basque provinces of Spain today have greater autonomy than other mainland territories, they still have far less freedom than their ancestors under the present-day Spanish regime.


On the other hand, one consequence of the transfer of the Spanish customs border from the southern boundary of the Basque Country to the Spanish-French border was the inclusion of Spain's Basque provinces in a new Spanish market, the protectionism of which favoured the birth and growth of Basque industry.

Fernand Braudel Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ...

Late Modern history

Late nineteenth century

High quality iron ore mainly from western Bizkaia, previously worked in small traditional forges around the western Basque Country, was now exported to Britain for industrial processing. Then, given the momentum of new market conditions, Bizkaia acquired its own modern blast furnaces, opening the doors to local industrialisation and even heavier mining. The large numbers of workers which both required were initially drawn from the Basque countryside and the peasantry of nearby Castile and Rioja, but increasingly immigration began to flow from the remoter impoverished regions of Galicia and Andalusia. The Basque Country, hitherto a source of emigrants to France, Spain and America, faced for the first time in recent history the prospect of a massive influx of foreigners possessing different languages and cultures as a side-effect of industrialisation. Most of these immigrants spoke Spanish; practically all were very poor. A blast furnace is a type of furnace for smelting whereby the combustion material and ore are supplied with air from the bottom of the chamber such that the chemical reaction does not take place only at the surface. ...


In this period Bizkaia reached one of the highest mortality rates in Europe. While the new proletariat's wretched working and living conditions were providing a natural breeding ground for the new socialist and anarchist ideologies and political movements characteristic of the late nineteenth century, the end of the century also saw the birth of a new brand of Basque nationalism and the founding, in 1895, of the Basque Nationalist Party. The PNV, pursuing the goal of independence or self-government for a Basque state (Euzkadi), represented an ideology which combined Christian-Democratic ideas with abhorrence towards Spanish immigrants whom they perceived as a threat to the ethnic, cultural and linguistic integrity of the Basque race while also serving as a channel for the importation of new-fangled, leftist (and "un-Basque") ideas. The Gernika oak is a symbol of Basque freedoms. ... The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ... Christian Democracy is a heterogeneous political ideology and movement. ...


The early twentieth century

In 1931, the newly formed Spanish republic granted self-government to Catalonia, which had a strong independence movement and its own vigorous linguistic and cultural identity. The Basques had to wait several years longer, in fact until the Spanish Civil War was underway, to be belatedly granted similar rights. 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... Anthem: Els Segadors Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan, Spanish and Aranese Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 6th  32,114 km²  6. ... Combatants Spanish Republic CNT-FAI UGT POUM Soviet Union International Brigades Spanish State Falangists Carlists Fascist Italy Nazi Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Casualties Civilians killed/wounded = hundreds of thousands The Spanish Civil War, which lasted from July 17, 1936 to April...


Basque nationalists and leftists in Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa sided with the Spanish republicans, but many in Navarre, a Carlist stronghold, supported General Francisco Franco's insurgent forces. (The latter were known in Spain as "Nacionales"—usually rendered in English as "Nationalists"—which can be highly misleading in the Basque context). One of the greatest atrocities of this war, immortalised by Picasso's emblematic mural, was the bombing by German planes of Gernika, a Bizkaian town of great historical and symbolic importance, at Franco's bidding. The Gernika oak is a symbol of Basque freedoms. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Left-Right politics. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo (4 December 1892 – 20 November or possibly 19 November[1] 1975), abbreviated “Francisco Franco y Bahamonde” and commonly known as “Generalísimo Francisco Franco” (pron. ... The Condor Legion (Legión Cóndor in Spanish) was a unit of Nazi Germanys air force which was sent as volunteers to support the Nationalists (i. ... Guernica or Guernica y Lumo (Basque Gernika-Lumo, pronounced in IPA [gernika]) is a small city in the Spanish Basque Country that was the meeting place of the Biscayne assembly under an oak tree, the Gernikako Arbola, which was a symbol of traditional freedoms of the Basque people. ... Vizcaya province Vizcaya (Basque Bizkaia) is a province of northern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ...


In 1937, the troops of the new Basque Autnomous Government surrendered to Franco's fascist Italian allies in Santoña on condition that the life and liberty of the Basque soldiers was respected. This agreement was subsequently betrayed by the Spanish fascists.[15] 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Eusko Gudarostea was the name of the Basque national army during the Spanish civil war. ... The Corpo Truppe Volontarie (Division of Volunteer Troops) was an Italian expeditionary force which was sent to Spain when Franco during the Spanish Civil War. ... Santoña is a village in the western coast the autonomous community of Cantabria, on the north coast of Spain. ...


The Franco dictatorship

With the war over, the new dictator began his drive to consolidate Spain as a monolithic nation-state. Franco's regime passed harsh laws against all minorities in the Spanish state, including Basques, aimed at wiping out their cultures and languages. Calling Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa "traitor provinces", he abolished what remained of their autonomy. Navarre and Araba were allowed to conserve a small local police force and limited tax prerogatives. The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...


Two developments during the Franco dictatorship (1939-1975) deeply affected life in the Basque Country in this period and afterwards. One was a new wave of immigration from the poorer parts of Spain to Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa during the sixties and seventies in response to the region's escalating industrialisation. The resulting imposition of Spanish language and cultural values and widespread attitudes of Spanish political chauvinism represented further obstacles to Basque attempts to resist the Spanish regime's offensive to stamp out expressions of a distinctive Basque identity.


Secondly, Spanish persecution provoked a strong backlash in the Basque Country from the sixties onwards, notably in the form of a new separatist movement, Basque Country And Freedom, better known by its Basque initials ETA, which eventually turned to the use of arms as a form of protest. But ETA was only one component of a broad social, cultural, political and language movement rejecting Spanish domination but also sharply criticising the inertia of the Basque Country's own conservative nationalists (organised in the PNV). To this day the dialectic between these two political orientations, the abertzale (patriotic or nationalist) Left and the PNV, dominate the nationalist part of the Basque political spectrum, the rest of which is occupied by Spanish parties. For other meanings of ETA, see Eta. ...


The present

Franco's authoritarian regime continued until his death in 1975, after which a new Spanish constitution provided for the union of three provinces, Araba, Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa, in the guise of the Basque Autonomous Community, while Navarre, which was not allowed to opt into the BAC, was made into a separate autonomous region. Between 1979 and 1983, the Spanish government granted the Basque Autonomous Community limited self-governing powers ("autonomy") including its own elected parliament, police force, school system and control over taxation. These were part of the self-rule "package" the Spanish government agreed to hand over to the Basques, but twenty-five years on Madrid has yet to deliver other promised powers that formed part of the agreement. Ertzaintza is the police force of the Basque Country, one of the autonomous communities of Spain. ... Education in the Basque Country is entirely free from the age of 3, and compulsory between 6 and 16 years. ...


These half-hearted changes, which have repeatedly been rejected by the Abertzale Left, did not satisfy the national aspirations of many Basques, nor did they bring peace to the Basque Country. Spain still exerts extensive influence over Basque life, some spheres of which, such as harbour authorities, customs, employment, the armed forces and foreign relations, remain entirely under Spanish jurisdiction. The central state apparatus, including Spanish politicians, the judiciary and Spain's police, army and prisons, have continued to persecute members and sympathisers of the abertzale movement and to obstruct Basques' attempts to construct their own cultural and political structures or to articulate and defend a national sovereignty project. Spurred on by this conflict, various forms of Basque pro-independence activism, pursuing objectives supported by part of the population, have also continued thoughout the thirty years since Franco's death.


See also

Basque Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Basque (native name: Euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Location of Historical Territory of the Basque Country The Ikurriña, Basque Country flag The Lauburu, Basque Country symbol This article is about the overall Basque domain. ...

References

  1. ^ Genes, pueblos y lenguas, L.L. Cavalli-Sforza, 1996 ISBN 84-8432-084-7
  2. ^ European Genetic Variation (with Cavalli-Sforza's PC maps)
  3. ^ Estimating the Impact of Prehistoric Admixture on the Genome of Europeans, Isabelle Dupanloup et al.
  4. ^ MS205 Minisatellite Diversity in Basques: Evidence for a Pre-Neolithic Component, Santos Alonso and John A.L. Armour
  5. ^ Temporal Mitochondrial DNA Variation in the Basque Country: Influence of Post-Neolithic Events, A. alzualde et al.
  6. ^ The Mitochondrial Lineage U8a Reveals a Paleolithic Settlement in the Basque Country (Gonzalez, et al; May 2006)
  7. ^ Chapter 1.
  8. ^ Alianzas (Auñamendi Encyclopedia)
  9. ^ Saltus Vasconum (Auñamendi Encyclopedia)
  10. ^ a b Bagaudas (Auñamendi Encyclopedia)
  11. ^ Mikel Sorauren, Historia de Navarra, el Estado Vasco, 1998, ISBN 84-7681-299-X
  12. ^ Ducado de Vasconia (Auñamendi Encyclopedia)
  13. ^ [http://www.ih.csic.es/departamentos/medieval/fmh/albeldensia.htm Crónica Albeldense (CSIC)
  14. ^ T. Urainqui & J.M. de Olaizola, La Navarra Marítima, 1998, ISBN 84-7681-293-0
  15. ^ Espainako Gerra Zibilia Euskal Herrian

External links


 
 

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