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Encyclopedia > History of slavery

The history of slavery covers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout human history. Slavery, generally defined, refers to the "systematic exploitation of labor without consent, and/or to the possession of human beings as property". There is no clear timeline for the formation of slavery in any formalized sense. Slavery can be traced to the earliest records, such as the Code of Hammurabi (ca. 1760 BC), which refers to slavery as an already established institution.[1] Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Slave redirects here. ... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ... The eighteenth century BC was the time period from 1800 BC to 1701 BC. // An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi, one of the earliest known sets of laws 1800 BC - beginning of Iron Age in India[1] 1800 BC — beginning of the Nordic Bronze Age in the periodization system...

Gustave Boulanger's painting The Slave Market.

Contents

Image File history File links Boulanger_Gustave_Clarence_Rudolphe_The_Slave_Market. ... Image File history File links Boulanger_Gustave_Clarence_Rudolphe_The_Slave_Market. ... Gustave Clarence Rodolphe Boulanger (1824-88) was a French figure painter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

The ancient Mediterranean civilizations

Main article: Slavery in antiquity

Slavery in the ancient cultures was known to occur in civilizations as old as Sumer, and found in every such civilization, including Ancient Egypt, the Akkadian Empire, Assyria, Ancient Greece, Rome and parts of its empire, and the Islamic Caliphate. Such institutions were a mixture of debt-slavery, punishment for crime, the enslavement of prisoners of war, child abandonment, and the birth of slave children to slaves.[2] In the Roman Empire, probably over 25% of the population was enslaved.[3] Scholars believe that 30 to 40% of the total population of Italy was enslaved.[4] Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war. ... Sumer (or Šumer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off a familys loans via the labour of family members or heirs. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Child abandonment is the practice of abandoning offspring outside of legal adoption. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


An important exception occurred under the reign of King Cyrus who founded the Achaemenid Empire and liberated slaves in conquered territories. Indeed much of the architectural feats of this period came from invention of coin currency which precipitated wage labor. Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ...


Slavery was an important element in the development of the ancient Greek city-states. Records of slavery in Ancient Greece go as far back as Mycenaean Greece. The treatment of Greek slaves could be said to be harsh, but not extremely brutal. The Spartans had earlier reduced an entire population to a pseudo-slavery called helots. In Ancient Greece about 30% of the population consisted of slaves.[5] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Funerary stele: the slave represented as a shorter person, beside the mistress, Munich Glyptothek Slavery was an essential component of the development of Ancient Greece throughout its history. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... The Helots (in Classical Greek / Heílôtes) were the serfs of Sparta. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ...

Ancient Greek art, showing a slave giving a mother her child.

As the Roman Republic expanded outward, entire populations were enslaved, thus creating an ample supply. The people subjected to Roman slavery came from all over Europe and the Mediterranean. Such oppression by an elite minority eventually led to slave revolts (see Roman Servile Wars); the Third Servile War led by Spartacus was the most famous and severe. Greeks, Berbers, Germans, Britons, Thracians, Gauls (or Celts), Jews, Arabs, and many more were slaves used not only for labor, but also for amusement (e.g. gladiators and sex slaves). If a slave ran away, he was liable to be crucified. By the late Republican era, slavery had become a vital economic pillar in the wealth of Rome. Slavery was so common, and citizenship restricted so firmly (only to native-born adult males), that the slaves in Rome far outnumbered the citizens.[6] This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war. ... A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves. ... The Servile Wars were a series of slave revolts that plagued the late Roman Republic. ... Combatants Army of escaped slaves Roman Republic Commanders Crixus †, Oenomaus †, Spartacus † , Castus †, Gannicus † Gaius Claudius Glaber, Publius Varinius, Gnaeus Clodianus, Lucius Gellius Publicola, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Gnaeus Manlius, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus, Lucius Quinctius, Gnaeus Tremellius Scrofa Strength 120,000 escaped slaves and gladiators... This article is about the historical figure. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of most of the island of Great Britain, and their cultures and languages, the Brythonic languages. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution (which can include religious prostitution) single-owner sexual slavery slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is de facto available... Religious depictions of the crucifixion of Jesus typically show him supported by nails through the palms. ...


Due to Biblical descriptions, the definitions of slavery in the Ancient Egyptian context is hotly debated. Archaeological discoveries by Mark Lehner and Zahi Hawass lead some to claim that the workers who built the pyramids were not enslaved. [4] As practiced in ancient Egypt, slavery was likely more akin to slavery in the medieval world rather than trans-Atlantic slavery: Persons generally became enslaved in ancient Egypt by virtue of being captives (or prisoners) of war, committing criminal or other indecent acts, or indebtedness. Slaves in ancient Egypt could be sold, inherited or offered as gifts, but they could sometimes achieve social rank and take other contracts. Abusers of slaves were known to be brought to court. Dr. Mark Lehner is an American archaeologist with over thirty years experience excavating in Egypt. ... Dr. Zahi Hawass signs an autograph (Aug. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ...


The Vikings and Scandinavia

Main articles: Thrall and Volga trade route

In the Viking era starting c. 793, the Norse raiders often captured and enslaved weaker peoples they encountered. In the Nordic countries the slaves were called thralls (Old Norse: Þræll).[7] The thralls were mostly from Western Europe, among them many Franks, Anglo-Saxons, and Celts. There is evidence of German, Baltic, Slavic and south European slaves as well. The slave trade was one of the pillars of Norse commerce during the 6th through 11th centuries.[8] The Persian traveller Ibn Rustah described how Swedish Vikings, the Varangians or Rus, terrorized and enslaved the Slavs. The slave raids came to an end when Catholicism became widespread throughout Scandinavia. As in the rest of Catholic Europe, the Scandinavian representatives for the church held that a Christian could not morally own another Christian. However, the moral aspect was not considered binding by church representatives in regards to enslavement of Africans. When slavery resurfaced in the post-Viking era in overseas colonies held by the Scandinavian countries, representatives of the church defended it, arguing, among other things, that Africans lacked "humanity" and therefore were better off as slaves, especially if they were converted.[9] The thrall system was finally abolished in the mid-14th century in Scandinavia. Serfdom was never instituted in Norway, Iceland and Sweden.[10][11] An ordinance of 20 June 1788 abolished villenage in Denmark and completely transformed the much-abused hoveri system.[12] Serfdom remained the practice in Swedish Pomerania until July 4, 1806. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In the Middle Ages, the Volga trade route connected Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia with the Caspian Sea. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ibn Rustah (in Persian: ابن رسته) was a 10th century Persian explorer and geographer born in Rosta district, Isfahan, Persia (See Encyclopaedia Iranica [1]). He wrote a geographical compendium. ... Varangian Guardsmen, an illumination from the 11th century chronicle of John Skylitzes. ... The Rus Khaganate was a polity that flourished during a poorly documented period in the history of Eastern Europe (roughly the late 8th and early to mid-9th centuries CE). ... The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Serf redirects here. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Christian Ditlev Frederik, Count Reventlow (1748-1827) was a Danish statesman and reformer, the son of Privy Councillor Christian Ditlev Reventlow, born on March 11, 1748. ... Serf redirects here. ... Swedish Pomerania (Swedish: Svenska Pommern) was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from the 17th to the 19th century, situated on the German Baltic Sea coast. ...


Although the thrall system had been abolished, slavery resurfaced again during the 17th century when Denmark-Norway[13] and Sweden established trade posts in Africa, including the minor Swedish and Danish overseas colonies called Swedish Gold Coast and Danish Gold Coast.[14][15] In the late 18th century, Denmark-Norway set up slave colonies on the Caribbean islands of Saint Croix, Saint Thomas and Saint John[16] and the Swedish King Gustav III established a Swedish slave trade colony on the Caribbean island Saint Barthelemy.[17] In 1803, Denmark-Norway banned export trade in slaves,[18], the first nation to do so, and in 1813 Sweden followed suit.[19] Slavery in the colonies was finally abolished by Sweden (then in union with Norway) in 1847,[20] and by Denmark in 1848.[13] The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, consisting of Denmark and Norway, including Norways possessions Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a term used for the two united kingdoms after their amalgamation as one state in 1536. ... The Swedish Gold Coast was a Swedish colony consisting of settlements of part of the West African Gold Coast (in present-day Ghana, on the Gulf of Guinea). ... The Danish Gold Coast was a part of the Gold Coast (roughly present-day Ghana), which is on the West African Gulf of Guinea (hence the territory is sometimes called Danish Guinea), which was colonized by the Danes, first by the Danish West India Company (a chartered company), later as... West Indies redirects here. ... Saint Croix from space, January 1993 Saint Croix is one of the United States Virgin Islands, a United States territory, in the Caribbean. ... St. ... Also consult Saint Johns. ... Gustav III (13 January 1746 (O.S.) (24 January 1746 (N.S.))–March 29, 1792) was the King of Sweden from February 12, 1771 until his death. ... Throughout the history of Sweden, there have been instances of slave trade. ... Saint-Barthélemy is a French island located in the Caribbean at 17°54N 62°50W . ...


Middle Ages

Chaos and invasion made the taking of slaves habitual throughout Europe in the early Middle Ages. St. Patrick, himself captured and sold as a slave, protested an attack that enslaved newly baptized Christians in his Letter to the Soldiers of Coroticus. In Carolingian Europe approximately 20% of the entire population consisted of slaves.[21] Slavery in early medieval Europe was so common that the Roman Catholic Church repeatedly prohibited it—or at least the export of Christian slaves to non-Christian lands was prohibited at, for example, the Council of Koblenz in 922, the Council of London in 1102, and the Council of Armagh in 1171.[22] William the Conqueror, too, banned export of English slaves. The early medieval slave trade was mainly to the East: the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim world were the destinations, pagan Central and Eastern Europe, along with the Caucasus and Tartary, were important sources. Viking, Arab, Greek and primarily Jewish merchants (known as Radhanites) were all involved in the slave trade during the Early Middle Ages.[23][24][25] Slavery in medieval Europe was the keeping of people in slavery in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Statue of Saint Patrick Saint Patrick (died March 17, 462, 492, or 493), is the patron saint of Ireland. ... The following list of Frankish Kings is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... William I ( 1027 – September 9, 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Middle age is the period of life beyond young adulthood but before the onset of old age. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Tatary or Great Tatary (Latin: Tataria or Tataria Magna) was a name used by Europeans from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate a great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean inhabited by Turkic and... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Radhanites (also Radanites, Arabic al-Radhaniyya) The Radhanites were a medieval group or guild of Jewish merchants. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


So many Slavs (called Saqaliba in the medieval Arab world ) were enslaved for so many centuries that the very name 'slave' derived from their name, not only in English, but in other European languages.[26][27] The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... In the medieval Arab world, the term Saqaliba (سقالبة, sg. ... Arab States redirects here. ...


The Mongol invasions and conquests in the 13th century made the situation worse.[28] The Mongols enslaved skilled individuals, women and children and marched them to Karakorum or Sarai, whence they were sold throughout Eurasia. Many of these slaves were shipped to slave market in Novgorod.[29][30][31] Mongol invasions can refer to: 1205–1209 invasion of Western China 1211–1234 invasion of Northern China 1218–1220 invasion of Central Asia 1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus 1220–1224 of the Cumans 1223–36 invasion of Volga Bulgaria 1231–1259 invasion of Korea 1237... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Harhorin (Хархорин), or Khara Khorum in Classical Mongolian, is a town in Övörhangay aymag, Mongolia. ... Sarai Batu (Old Sarai, Sarai-al-Maqrus) was a capital city of the Golden Horde. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ...


Slave commerce during the Late Middle Ages was mainly in the hands of Venetian and Genoese merchants and cartels, who were involved in the slave trade with the Golden Horde. In 1382 the Golden Horde under Khan Tokhtamysh sacked Moscow, burning the city and carrying off thousands of inhabitants as slaves. Between 1414 and 1423, some 10,000 eastern European slaves were sold in Venice.[32] Genoese merchants organized the slave trade from the Crimea to Mamluk Egypt. For years the Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan routinely made raids on Russian principalities for slaves and to plunder towns. Russian chronicles record about 40 raids of Kazan Khans on the Russian territories in the first half of the 16th century.[33] In 1521, the combined forces of Crimean Khan Mehmed Giray and his Kazan allies attacked Moscow and captured thousands of slaves.[34] Dante by Michelino The Late Middle Ages is a term used by historians to describe European history in the period of the 14th to 16th centuries (AD 1300–1500). ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Tokhtamysh (d. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Mamluk Sultanate, 1250]] History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of  Egypt  Saudi Arabia  Syria  Palestine  Israel  Lebanon  Jordan  Turkey  Libya A Mamluk cavalryman... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... The Khanate of Astrakhan (Xacitarxan Khanate) was a Tatar feudal state that appeared after the collapse of the Golden Horde. ... The list of rulers of Kazan Khanate Olug Moxammat (Ulug Mohammad, Oluğ Möxämmät, Ulu Mukhamed) 1437-1445 Maxmud (Mäxmüd, Mahmudek, Mahmud, Makhmud) 1445 - 1462 or 1466 Xalil (Xälil, Khalil) 1462 or 1466 - 1467 Ibrahim (İbrahim) 1467 - 1479 Ilham (İlham, Ğäli, Ghali, Ali) 1479 - 1484, 1485 - 1487 Moxammat Amin (Möxämmät Ämin... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


In 1441, Haci I Giray declared independance from the Golden Horde and established the Crimean Khanate. For a long time, until the early 18th century, the khanate maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East. In a process called the "harvesting of the steppe", they enslaved many Slavic peasants. About 30 major Tatar raids were recorded into Muscovite territories between 1558-1596.[35] In 1571, the Crimean Tatars attacked and sacked Moscow, burning everything but the Kremlin and taking thousands of captives as slaves.[36] In Crimea, about 75% of the population consisted of slaves.[37] Haci I Giray (Crimean Tatar: ) (died 1466) was the founder and the first ruler of the Crimean Khanate. ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Московское царство or Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ...


Medieval Spain and Portugal were the scene of almost constant warfare between Muslims and Christians. Periodic raiding expeditions were sent from Al-Andalus to ravage the Iberian Christian kingdoms, bringing back booty and slaves. In raid against Lisbon, Portugal in 1189, for example, the Almohad caliph Yaqub al-Mansur took 3,000 female and child captives, while his governor of Córdoba, in a subsequent attack upon Silves, Portugal in 1191, took 3,000 Christian slaves.[38] After the disorders of the passage of the Vandals and Alans down the Mediterranean coast of Hispania from 409, the history of Medieval Spain begins with the Iberian kingdom of the Arian Visigoths (507 – 711), who were converted to Catholicism with their king Reccared in 587. ... Look up warfare in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur (Arabic: ابو يوسف يعقوب المنصور) (c. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... Image:Silves. ...


The Byzantine-Ottoman wars and the Ottoman wars in Europe brought large numbers of Christian slaves into the Islamic world too.[39] After the battle of Lepanto approximately 12,000 Christian galley slaves were freed from the Ottoman Turks.[40] Christians were also selling Muslim slaves captured in war. The Knights of Malta attacked pirates and Muslim shipping, and their base became a centre for slave trading, selling captured North Africans and Turks. Malta remained a slave market until well into the late 18th century. It required a thousand slaves to equip merely the galleys (ships) of the Order.[41][42] Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Turks The Byzantine Ottoman wars was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Turks and the Byzantines that led to the final destruction of the Byzantine empire and the rise of the Ottoman empire. ... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ... Muslim percentage of population by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... // Combatants Holy League: Spain  Republic of Venice Papal States Republic of Genoa Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Don John of Austria Ali Pasha † Strength 206 galleys, 6 galleasses 230 galleys, 56 galliots Casualties 8,000 dead or wounded, 12 galleys lost 20,000 dead or wounded... The Turkish Navy was once the largest sea power in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean; entering the history books of many countries in distant lands such as the British Isles, Scandinavia, Iceland, Labrador, Gulf of Saint Lawrence, Newfoundland and Virginia in the... Muslim percentage of population by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ...


Slavery in Poland was forbidden in the 15th century; in Lithuania, slavery was formally abolished in 1588; they were replaced by the second enserfment. Slavery remained a major institution in Russia until the 1723, when the Peter the Great converted the household slaves into house serfs. Russian agricultural slaves were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679.[43] (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Serf redirects here. ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... A Peasant Leaving His Landlord on Yuriev Day, painting by Sergei V. Ivanov. ...


Portuguese and Spanish explorations

See also: Portuguese Empire, Spanish Empire, Economic history of Portugal, Spanish colonization of the Americas, and Black ladino

The 15th century Portuguese exploration of the African coast is commonly regarded as the harbinger of European colonialism. In 1452, Pope Nicholas V issued the papal bull Dum Diversas, granting Afonso V of Portugal the right to reduce any "Saracens, pagans and any other unbelievers" to hereditary slavery which legitimated slave trade under catholic beliefs of that time. This approval of slavery was reaffirmed and extended in his Romanus Pontifex bull of 1455. These papal bulls came to serve as a justification for the subsequent era of slave trade and European colonialism. Although for a short period as in 1462, Pius II declared slavery to be "a great crime".[44] The followers of the church of England and Protestants did not use the papal bull as a justification. The position of the church was to condemn the slavery of christians, but slavery was regarded as an old established and necessary institution which supplied Europe with the necessary wokforce. In the XVI century African slaves had substituted almost all other ethnicities and religious enslaved groups in Europe.[45] An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... ĢÕãÒòùäÊŞ Ă ßõî ŔûñÑèđ òΝ ýëŗ pæŇţž This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ... Black Ladinos were Spanish-speaking black African slaves born in Latin America, or exiled to the Americas after spending time in Castille or Portugal. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Nicholas V, né Tomaso Parentucelli (November 15, 1397 – March 24, 1455) was Pope from March 6, 1447, to his death. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... In 18 June 1452: Pope Nicholas V issues Dum Diversas, a bull authorising the Portuguese to reduce any non-Christians to the status of slaves. ... Afonso V of Portugal, Conqueror of African strongholds Afonso V, King of Portugal KG (Portuguese pron. ... The Romanus Pontifex[1] is a papal bull written January 8, 1455 by Pope Nicholas V to King Afonso V of Portugal. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...


Among many other European slave markets, Genoa, Venice and Verdun-sur-Meuse were some well known markets, their importance and demand growing after the great plague of the XIII century which decimated much of the European work force.[46] The maritime town of Lagos, Portugal, was the first slave market created in Portugal for the sale of imported African slaves - the Mercado de Escravos, opened in 1444.[47][48] In 1441, the first slaves were brought to Portugal from northern Mauritania.[48] The well-known Prince Henry the Navigator, major sponsor of the Portuguese African expeditions, as of any other merchandise, charged one fifth of the selling price of the slaves imported to Portugal.[48] In the second half of the 16th century, the Crown gave up the monopoly on slave trade and the focus of European trade in African slaves shifted from import to Europe to slave transports directly to tropical colonies in the Americas - in the case of Portugal, especially Brazil.[48] For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Verdun, (German: Wirten) sometimes also called Verdun-sur-Meuse, is a city and commune in northeast France, in the Meuse département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Algarve  - Subregion Algarve  - District or A.R. Faro Mayor Júlio Barroso  - Party PS Area 212. ... Events March 2 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. ... Infante Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu KG (Porto, March 4, 1394 – Sagres, November 13, 1460); pron. ...


Spain had to fight against relatively powerful civilizations of the New World. However, the Spanish conquest of the indigenous peoples in the Americas was also facilitated by the spread of diseases (e.g. smallpox) due to lack of biological immunity.[49] (like the Europeans that had lack of biological immunity to African deseases) Natives were used as forced labor (the Spanish employed the pre-Columbian draft system called the mita),[50] but the diseases caused a labor shortage and so the Spanish colonists were gradually involved in the Atlantic slave trade. Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Mita was mandatory public service by society in ancient South America. ... The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ...


The first Europeans to use African slaves in the New World were the Spaniards who sought auxiliaries for their conquest expeditions and laborers on islands such as Cuba and Hispaniola, where the alarming decline in the native population had spurred the first royal laws protecting the native population (Laws of Burgos, 1512-1513). The first African slaves arrived in Hispaniola in 1501.[51]


Great Britain and Ireland

Main articles: Slavery in Britain and Ireland and Slavery in the colonial United States

During and after Roman times, the practice of slavery was common in England. Anglo-Saxons continued and expanded their slave system, sometimes in league with Norse traders. Chattel slavery of English Christians was discontinued when William of Normandy conquered England in 1066. According to the Domesday Book census in 1086, 10% of England's population was enslaved.[52] The trade in serfs and slaves in England was abolished in 1102. The legal force of the event is actually open to question. The Council of Westminster, a collection of nobles, issued a decree: "Let no one hereafter presume to engage in that nefarious trade in which hitherto in England men were usually sold like brute animals." However, the Council had no legislative powers, and no act of law was valid unless signed by the monarch.[citation needed] and the last form of enforced servitude (villeinage) had disappeared in Britain by the beginning of the 17th century. Slavery resurfaced in that century as a form of punishment against Catholics. // During and after Roman times, the practice of slavery was common in England. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Slave redirects here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... William I ( 1027 – September 9, 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087. ... A line drawing entitled Domesday Book from Andrew Williamss Historic Byways and Highways of Old England. ...


As many as 100,000 Irish men, women and children were forcibly taken to the colonies in the British West Indies and British North America as slaves after the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.[53] In the 17th century, slavery was used as punishment by conquering English Parliament armies against native Catholics in Ireland. Over half of all white immigrants to the English colonies of North America during the 17th and 18th centuries consisted of indentured servants.[54][55] Combatants English Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops English Parliamentarian New Model Army troops and allied Protestants in Ireland Commanders James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (1649 - Dec. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ...


Britain would also play a prominent role in both the Atlantic slave trade massification (slavery was a legal institution in all of the 13 American colonies; the profits of the slave trade and of West Indian plantations amounted to 5% of the British economy at the time of the Industrial Revolution.[56]) and the abolition of slavery. Between 1808 and 1860, the West Africa Squadron seized approximately 1,600 slave ships and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard.[57] Action was also taken against African leaders who refused to agree to British treaties to outlaw the trade, for example against "the usurping King of Lagos", deposed in 1851. Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African rulers.[58] The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... The West Africa Squadron was a unit of the Royal Navy that was involved in the suppression of the slave trade in West Africa. ... For other uses, see Lagos (disambiguation). ...


In 1811, the Arthur William Hodge was the first slave owner executed for the murder of a slave in the British West Indies.[59] He though was not, as some have claimed, the first white person to have been lawfully executed for the killing of a slave.[60][61] Roadtown, Tortola The term British West Indies refers to territories in and around the Caribbean which were colonised by Great Britain. ... Whites redirects here. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Look up kill, killing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Pre-industrial Europe

It became the custom among the Mediterranean powers to sentence condemned criminals to row in the war-galleys of the state (initially only in time of war).[62] The French Huguenots filled the galleys after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 and Camisard rebellion.[63] Galley-slaves lived in unsavoury conditions, so even though some sentences prescribed a restricted number of years, most rowers would eventually die, even if they survived shipwreck and slaughter or torture at the hands of enemies or of pirates.[64] Naval forces often turned 'infidel' prisoners-of-war into galley-slaves. Several well-known historical figures served time as galley slaves after being captured by the enemy -- the Ottoman corsair and admiral Turgut Reis and the Knights Hospitaller Grand Master Jean Parisot de la Valette among them.[65] The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... After the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, a revolt by the Camisards (Occitan camisa, smock or shirtsleeves) broke out in 1702, in the rugged and isolated Cevennes region of south-central France, the traditional heartland of religious heterodoxy (see Cathar). ... A galley slave was a slave rowing in a galley. ... For other uses, see Shipwreck (disambiguation). ... This article is about fatal harm. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Turgut Reis Turgut Reis (1485-1565) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral as well as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey later Pasha of Tripoli. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide... Jean Parisot de Valette Jean Parisot de Valette (born in 1494[?]; died in Malta, 21 August 1568) was born into a noble family in Quercy. ...


In that time second serfdom took place in Eastern Europe during this period (particularly in Austria, Hungary, Prussia, Russia and Poland). Only in 1768 was a law passed in Poland that discontinued the nobility's control of the right to life or death of serfs. Serfdom remained the practice on the most part of territory of Russia until February 19, 1861. Some of the Roma people were enslaved over five centuries in Romania until abolition in 1864 (see Slavery in Romania).[66] Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Language(s) Romani, languages of native region Religion(s) Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ...


Slavery in the French Republic was abolished on February 4, 1794. The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Modern times

Main articles: Forced labor in Germany during World War II and Slavery in modern Africa

Between 1933 and 1945, the Nazi regime created many Arbeitslager (labor camps) in Germany and Eastern Europe. Prisoners in Nazi labor camps were worked to death on short rations and in bad conditions, or killed if they became unable to work. Millions died as a direct result of forced labor under the Nazis. See for instance Eugen Kogon's publication The Theory and Practice of Hell: The German Concentration Camps and the System Behind Them[67] Slavery in Africa, as in some other regions of the world, continues today. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR...


About 12 million forced laborers, most of whom were Eastern Europeans, were employed in the German war economy inside the Nazi Germany.[68][69] More than 2000 German companies profited from slave labor during the Nazi era, including Daimler-Benz, Deutsche Bank, Siemens, Volkswagen, Hoechst, Dresdner Bank, Krupp, Allianz, BASF, Bayer, BMW and Degussa.[70][71] Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Daimler-Benz AG was founded on May 1, 1924 by the merger of Benz & Cie. ... Deutsche Bank AG (pronounced [2]) (ISIN: DE0005140008, NYSE: DB) (literal translation - German Bank) is a leading global investment bank with a broad private clients franchise, headquartered in Frankfurt, Germany. ... Siemens has the following uses: Siemens is a German family name carried by generations of the telecommunications industrialists, including Werner von Siemens, Sir William Siemens, Wilhelm von Siemens and Peter von Siemens Siemens AG is a German electrical and telecommunications company, founded as a telegraph equipment manufacturer by Werner von... VW redirects here. ... Hoechst AG was a company focusing on life sciences, specifically pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and animal health. ... The 1978 Silver Tower houses part of the head office of the Dresdner bank. ... The three rings were the symbol for Krupp, based on the radreifen - the seamless railway wheels patented by Alfred Krupp. ...   SE[1], (ISIN: DE0008404005; IPA pronunciation: [alliˈanʦ], and formerly AG) is a large financial service provider headquartered in Munich, Germany. ... This article is about the German chemical company. ... Bayer AG (IPA pronunciation //) (ISIN: DE0005752000, NYSE: BAY, TYO: 4863 ) is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in Barmen, Germany in 1863. ... For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... Degussa Logo Degussa AG is a multinational chemistry corporation based in Düsseldorf, Germany. ...

Between 1930 and 1960, the Soviet regime created many Lageria (labor camps) in Siberia.[72] There were at least 476 separate camp complexes, each one comprising hundreds, even thousands of individual camps.[73] It is estimated that there may have been 5-7 million people in these camps at any one time. In later years the camps also held victims of Stalin’s purges as well as World War II prisoners. It is possible that approximately 10% of prisoners died each year.[74] Out of the 91,000 Germans captured alive after the Battle of Stalingrad, only 6,000 survived the Gulag and returned home.[75] Many of these prisoners, however, had died of illness contracted during the siege of Stalingrad and in the forced march into captivity.[76] Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... Not by Their Own Will. ... Soviet redirects here. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Josef Stalin Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B...


Probably the worst of the camp complexes were the three built north of the Arctic circle at Kolyma, Norilsk and Vorkuta.[77][78] Prisoners in Soviet labor camps were worked to death on extreme production quotas, brutality, hunger and harsh elements.[79] In all, more than 18 million people passed through the Gulag,[citation needed] with a further millions being deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union.[80][81] The fatality rate was as high as 80% during the first months in many camps. Immediately after the start of the German invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II, the NKVD massacred about 100,000 prisoners who awaited deportation either to NKVD prisons in Moscow or to the Gulag. Michael McFaul, in his New York Times article of June 11,2003, entitled 'Books of the Times;Camps of Terror, Often Overlooked' [5], has this to say about the state of contemporary dialogue on Soviet slavery: The Kolyma (pronounced kah-lee-MAH) region is located in the far northeastern area of the Russian Federation. ... Norilsk downtown was designed in a typical Stalinist style. ... Vorkuta (Russian: ) is a coal mining town in the Komi Republic, Russia, situated just north of the Arctic circle in the Pechora coal basin, at 67°30′N 64°00′E. It had its origin in one of the more notorious concentration camps of the Gulag which was established in... Brutality is a US death metal band. ... Hunger is a feeling experienced when the glycogen level of the liver falls below a threshold, usually followed by a desire to eat. ... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... Forced/Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The massacre of prisoners refers to a series of mass executions committed by Soviet NKVD against prisoners in Poland and parts of the Soviet Union from which the Red Army was withdrawing after the German invasion in 1941 (see Operation Barbarossa). ... Michael McFaul is a professor of Political Science and director of the Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law at Stanford University. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

Nikolai Getman Moving out.[82]

It should now be known to all serious scholars that the camps began under Lenin and not Stalin. It should be recognized by all that people were sent to the camps not because of what they did, but because of who they were. Some may be surprised to learn about the economic function that the camps were designed to perform. Under Stalin, the camps were simply a crueler but equally inefficient way to exploit labor in the cause of building socialism than the one practiced outside the camps in the Soviet Union. Yet, even this economic role of the camps has been exposed before. What is remarkable is that the facts about this monstrous system so well documented in Ms. Applebaum's book are still so poorly known and even, by some, contested. For decades, academic historians have gravitated away from event-focused history and toward social history. Yet, the social history of the gulag somehow has escaped notice. Compared with the volumes and volumes written about the Holocaust, the literature on the gulag is thin. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Getmans painting of Nagaevo, Magadans port Nikolai Getman (Russian: , Ukrainian: ), an artist, was born in 1917 in Kharkiv, Ukraine, and died in Orel, Russia, in 2004. ...

(The article draws attention to Anne Applebaum's Pulitzer Prize winning text GULAG : A History [6]) Anne Applebaum (born 1964) is a journalist and author who has written extensively about issues related to communism and the development of civil society in Eastern Europe and the USSR / Russia. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ...

Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, the impoverished former Eastern bloc countries such as Albania, Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria, Russia, Belarus and Ukraine have been identified as major trafficking source countries for women and children.[83] Young women and girls are often lured to wealthier countries by the promises of money and work and then reduced to sexual slavery.[84] It is estimated that 2/3 of women trafficked for prostitution worldwide annually come from Eastern Europe, three-quarters have never worked as prostitutes before.[85][86] The major destinations are Western Europe (Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, UK, Greece), the Middle East (Turkey, Israel, the United Arab Emirates), Asia, Russia and the United States.[87][88] Trafficking in human beings (or human trafficking) involves the movement of people (mostly women and children) against their will by means of force for the purpose of sexual or labor exploitation. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR...


An estimated 500,000 women from Central and Eastern Europe are working in prostitution in the EU alone.[89] It is estimated that half million Ukrainian women were trafficked abroad since 1991 (80% of all unemployed in Ukraine are women).[90][91] Russia is a major source of women trafficked globally for the purpose of sexual exploitation, Russian women are in prostitution in over 50 countries.[92][93][94] In poverty-stricken Moldova, where the unemployment rate for women ranges as high as 68% and one-third of the workforce live and work abroad, experts estimate that since the collapse of the Soviet Union between 200,000 and 400,000 women have been sold into prostitution abroad — perhaps up to 10% of the female population.[95][96] Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ...


Slavery in Muslim World

Main article: Arab slave trade
13th century slave market in Yemen

Historians say the Arab slave trade began in the 1th century and lasted more than millennium.[97][98] The Arab or Middle Eastern slave trade is thought to have originated with trans-Saharan slavery.[99][100] Arab, Indian, and Oriental traders were involved in the capture and transport of slaves northward across the Sahara desert and the Indian Ocean region into Arabia and the Middle East, Persia, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent.[101][102] The slave trade from East Africa to Arabia was dominated by Arab and African traders in the coastal cities of Zanzibar, Dar Es Salaam and Mombasa.[102][103] The Moors, starting in the 8th century, raided coastal areas of the Mediterranean, and became known as the Barbary pirates. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islam and slavery. ... 13th century slave market in Yemen The major juristic schools of Islam traditionally accepted the institution of slavery. ... Image File history File links Slaves_Zadib_Yemen_13th_century_BNF_Paris. ... Image File history File links Slaves_Zadib_Yemen_13th_century_BNF_Paris. ... A millennium (pl. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islam and slavery. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070... Dar es Salaam (دار السلام), formerly Mzizima, is the largest city (pop. ... Mombasa is the second largest city in Kenya, lying on the Indian Ocean. ... For other uses, see moor. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Male slaves were employed as servants, soldiers, or laborers, while female slaves were traded to Middle Eastern countries and kingdoms by Arab, Indian, or Oriental traders, some as domestic servants, others as sex slaves.[104][105][106] Some historians estimate that between 11 and 17 million slaves crossed the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Sahara Desert from 650 to 1900 AD.[107][108] A poster featuring an illustration of a stereotypical uniformed maid A domestic worker, or simply domestic, is a servant who works within their employers household. ... Sex Slaves (Sex Slave$) is a 2005 documentary by Ric Esther Bienstock which was created in association with CBC, Channel 4 and Canal D. It provides a first hand account of international human trafficking by going to the countries such as Moldova and Ukraine where girls are recruited, then following... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Sahara is the worlds second largest desert (second to Antarctica), over 9,000,000 km² (3,500,000 mi²), located in northern Africa and is 2. ...


Racist opinions occurred in the works of some Persian and Arab-Muslim historians and geographers: so in the 14th century CE, the Tunisian Ibn Khaldun could write: - :"...the Negro nations are, as a rule, submissive to slavery, because (Negroes) have little that is (essentially) human and possess attributes that are quite similar to those of dumb animals..."[109][110] In the same period, the Egyptian Al-Abshibi (1388-1446) wrote, "It is said that when the [black] slave is sated, he fornicates, when he is hungry, he steals."[111] This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ...


In 1400 Timur the Lame invaded Armenia and Georgia. More than 60,000 people from the Caucasus were captured as slaves, and many districts of Armenia were depopulated.[112] For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... For the term Caucasian referring to all white people, see Caucasian race. ...


From 1569 the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth suffered a series of Tatar invasions, the goal of which was to loot, pillage and capture slaves into jasyr. The borderland area to the south-east was in a state of semi-permanent warfare until the 18th century. Some researchers estimate that altogether more than 3 million people, predominantly Ukrainians but also Circassians, Russians, Belarusians and Poles, were captured and enslaved during the time of the Crimean Khanate.[113][114] Russian conquest of the Crimea led to the abolition of slavery by the 1780s.[115] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Tatar invasions of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the middle ages to early modern period. ... Jasyr means prisoner amongst the Cossacks which derives from the Arabic word esr via Turkish or the Tatar language. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess (Çerkes), and is not the self-designation of any people. ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ...

Capt. William Bainbridge paying tribute to the Dey of Algiers. Gradually in the 18th century slave raids became less frequent, but the Barbary pirates continued to enslave captured crews. Payments in ransom and tribute to the Barbary states amounted to 20% of United States government annual revenues in 1800.[116]

Slavery was an important part of Ottoman society. In Istanbul, about 1/5 of the population consisted of slaves.[37] As late as 1908 women slaves were still sold in the Ottoman Empire.[117] In the middle of the 14th century, Murad I built his own personal slave army called the Kapıkulu. The new force was based on the sultan's right to a fifth of the war booty, which he interpreted to include captives taken in battle. The captive slaves were converted to Islam and trained in the sultan's personal service. In the devşirme (translated "blood tax" or "child collection"), young Christian boys from the Balkans were taken away from their homes and families, converted to Islam and enlisted into special soldier classes of the Ottoman army. These soldier classes were named Janissaries, the most famous branch of the Kapıkulu. The Janissaries eventually became a decisive factor in the Ottoman invasions of Europe.[118] Most of the military commanders of the Ottoman forces, imperial administrators and de facto rulers of the Ottoman Empire, such as Pargalı İbrahim Pasha and Sokollu Mehmet Paşa, were recruited in this way.[119][120] By 1609 the Sultan's Kapıkulu forces increased to about 100,000.[121] William Bainbridge paying tribute to the Dey. ... William Bainbridge paying tribute to the Dey. ... William Bainbridge (1774-1833). ... The Moorish ambassador of the Barbary States to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I of England. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Blood tax (from Topkape Saraj); gravure that depicts young boys forcibly taken from their families to grow up in captivity and later become the elite of the Ottoman army. ... Balkan redirects here. ... The military of Ottoman Empire was structured in three organizational structures Army, Navy, and Air Force. ... The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish: ينيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning new soldier) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ... Ä°brahim Pasha Palace to the west of Sultanahmet Square, facing former Hippodrome, in Ä°stanbul, today Turkish-Islamic Art Museum - www. ... Mehmed-paÅ¡a Sokolović (Turkish: Sokollu Mehmet PaÅŸa) (born 1506, Sokolovići1 – died 1579, Istanbul) was an important 16th century Ottoman statesman of Bosnian origins. ...


Mamluks were a slave soldiers who converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. The first mamluks served the Abbasid caliphs in 9th century Baghdad. Over time they became a powerful military caste, and on more than one occasion they seized power for themselves, for example, ruling Egypt in the from 1250-1517. From 1250 Egypt had been ruled by the Bahri dynasty of Kipchak Turk origin. White slaves from the Caucasus served in the army and formed an elite corp of troops eventually revolting in Egypt to form the Burgi dynasty. Mamluks were mainly responsible for the expulsion of the Crusaders from Palestine and preventing the Mongol Ilkhanate of Persia and Iraq from entering Egypt.[122] An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... A Norwegian soldier (a Corporal, armed with an MP-5) A soldier is a person who has enlisted with, or has been conscripted into, the armed forces of a sovereign country and has undergone training and received equipment to defend that country or its interests. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Sultanate المماليك البحرية was a Mamluk dynasty of Kipchak Turk origin that ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1382 when they were succeeded by the Burji dynasty, another group of Mamluks. ... Kipchaks (also Kypchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. Their language was also known as Kipchak. ... Whites redirects here. ... For the term Caucasian referring to all white people, see Caucasian race. ... The Burji dynasty ruled Egypt from 1382 until 1517. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ...


The Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail "the Bloodthirsty" (1672-1727) raised a corps of 150,000 black slaves, called his Black Guard, who coerced the country into submission.[123] Moulay Ismail the Bloodthirsty (1675-1727) was a Moroccan ruler. ... Black Guard (in Arabic, Abid, from a root meaning slave) were the corps of negro slave-soldiers assembled by the Alaouite sultan of Morocco, Mawlay Ismail (reigned 1672-1727). ...


Nautical traders from the United States became targets, and frequent victims, of the Barbary pirates, as soon as that nation began trading with Europe and refused to pay the required tribute to the North African states.[124][125] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In response to the Hazara uprising of 1892, the Afghan Emir Abdur Rahman declared a "Jihad" against the Shiites. The large army defeated the rebellion at its center, in Oruzgan, by 1892 and the local population was severely massacred. According to S. A. Mousavi, "thousands of Hazara men, women, and children were sold as slaves in the markets of Kabul and Qandahar, while numerous towers of human heads were made from the defeated rebels as a warning to others who might challenge the rule of the Amir". Until the 20th century, some Hazaras were still kept as slaves by the Pashtuns; although Amanullah Khan banned slavery in Afghanistan during his reign,[126] the tradition carried on unofficially for many more years.[127] Language(s) Hazaragi/Dari (Hazaragi and Dari dialects) Religion(s) Shia, some Sunni Related ethnic groups Mongol, Turkic, Iranian The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central region of Afghanistan, called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... Amir Abdur Rahman Khan Abdur Rahman Khan “Abdur Rahman” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Orūzgān (Pashto: ؤروزگان, also spelt Oruzgan or Uruzgan) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... King Amanullah Khan Ghazi Amir Amanullah Khan (June 1, 1892 - April 25, 1960) was the ruler of Afghanistan from 1919 to 1929. ...


Modern times

Child Slavery: Trafficked children as young as 2 years old are forced to work up to 18 hours a day as camel jockeys across the Arab countries of the Middle East

The Arab or Middle Eastern slave trade continued into the early 1900s,[128] and by some accounts continues to this day. As recently as the 1950s, Saudi Arabia had an estimated 450,000 slaves, 20% of the population.[129][130] It is estimated that as many as 200,000 children and women have been taken into slavery in Sudan during the Second Sudanese Civil War.[131][132] In Mauritania it is estimated that up to 600,000 men, women and children, or 20% of the population, are currently enslaved, many of them used as bonded labor.[133] Slavery in Mauritania was finally criminalized in August 2007.[134] Image File history File linksMetadata Camel_jockey_ansarburney. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Camel_jockey_ansarburney. ... Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... Slavery in the Sudan has a long history, beginning in ancient Egyptian times and continuing up to the present. ... Combatants Sudanese Government (North Sudan) Sudan Peoples Liberation Army Commanders Gaafar Nimeiry Sadiq al-Mahdi Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir John Garang Casualties Not Released 1. ... Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off loans with direct labor instead of currency or goods. ... Slavery in Africa, as in some other regions of the world, continues today. ...


The Arab trade in slaves continued into the 20th century. Written travelogues and other historical works are replete with references to slaves owned by wealthy traders, nobility and heads of state in the Arabian Peninsula well into the 1920s. Slave owning and slave-like working conditions have been documented up to and including the present, in countries of the Middle East. Though the subject is considered taboo in the affected regions, a leading Saudi government cleric and author of the country's religious curriculum has called for the outright re-legalization of slavery[135][136].


Children as young as two years old are used for slavery as child camel jockeys across the Arab countries of the Middle East. Although strict laws have been introduced recently in Qatar and UAE, thanks to better awareness of the issue and lobbying by human rights organisations such as the Ansar Burney Trust, the use of children still continues in outlying areas and during secret night-time races. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Many of the Iraqi women fleeing the Iraq War are turning to prostitution, others are trafficked abroad, to countries like Syria, Jordan, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, and Iran.[137] In Syria alone, an estimated 50,000 Iraqi refugee girls and women, many of them widows, are forced into prostitution.[138] Cheap Iraqi prostitutes have helped to make Syria a popular destination for sex tourists. The clients come from wealthier countries in the Middle East - many are Saudi men.[139] High prices are offered for virgins.[140] For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Whore redirects here. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Africa

Main articles: African slave trade and Slavery in modern Africa
Two slightly differing Okpoho manillas as used to purchase slaves

In most African societies, there was very little difference between the free peasants and the feudal vassal peasants. Vassals of the Songhay Muslim Empire were used primarily in agriculture; they paid tribute to their masters in crop and service but they were slightly restricted in custom and convenience. These people were more an occupational caste, as their bondage was relative. In the Kanem Bornu Empire, vassals were three classes beneath the nobles. Marriage between captor and captive was far from rare, blurring the anticipated roles.[102]. The slave trade in Africa has existed for thousands of years. ... Slavery in Africa, as in some other regions of the world, continues today. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 998 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Two very similar Okhapo variety of Manillas from Nigeria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 998 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Two very similar Okhapo variety of Manillas from Nigeria. ... The Songhai are an ethnic group living in western Africa. ...


French historian Fernand Braudel noted that slavery was endemic in Africa and part of the structure of everyday life. "Slavery came in different disguises in different societies: there were court slaves, slaves incorporated into princely armies, domestic and household slaves, slaves working on the land, in industry, as couriers and intermediaries, even as traders" (Braudel 1984 p. 435). During the 16th century, Europe began to outpace the Arab world in the export traffic, with its slave traffic from Africa to the Americas. The Dutch imported slaves from Asia into their colony in South Africa. Later, the United Kingdom, which held vast colonial territories on the African continent (including southern Africa), made the practice of slavery illegal throughout its empire. The end of the slave trade and the decline of slavery was imposed upon Africa by its European conquerors. Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ... Arab States redirects here. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... A replica of the slave ship the Zong, moored by Tower Bridge to mark 200 years since the Slave Trade Act 1807 (April 2007). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


The nature of the slave societies differed greatly across the continent. There were large plantations worked by slaves in Egypt, the Sudan and Zanzibar, but this was not a typical use of slaves in Africa as a whole. In most African slave societies, slaves were protected and incorporated into the slave-owning family.[citation needed] Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070...

13th century Africa - simplified map of the main states, kingdoms and empires

In Senegambia, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved. In early Islamic states of the western Sudan, including Ghana (750-1076), Mali (1235–1645), Segou (1712–1861), and Songhai (1275-1591), about a third of the population were slaves. In Sierra Leone in the 19th century about half of the population consisted of slaves. In the 19th century at least half the population was enslaved among the Duala of the Cameroon, the Igbo and other peoples of the lower Niger, the Kongo, and the Kasanje kingdom and Chokwe of Angola. Among the Ashanti and Yoruba a third of the population consisted of slaves. The population of the Kanem was about a third-slave. It was perhaps 40% in Bornu (1396–1893). Between 1750 and 1900 from one- to two-thirds of the entire population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of slaves. The population of the Sokoto caliphate formed by Hausas in the northern Nigeria and Cameroon was half-slave in the 19th century. It is estimated that up to 90% of the population of Arab-Swahili Zanzibar was enslaved. Roughly half the population of Madagascar was enslaved.[141][142][143][144][145][146][147] Image File history File links Africa_en. ... Image File history File links Africa_en. ... The name also refers to the geographic region around the two countries, covering the watershed of the Senegal River and Gambia River. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Some of the cities in Mali which were under the control of the Bambara Empire. ... The Songhai Empire, (ca. ... The Duala (or Douala) are an ethnic group of Cameroon. ... The Igbo, sometimes (especially formerly) referred to as the Ibo/Ebo, are an ethnic group in West Africa numbering in the tens of millions. ... Map of Niger River with Niger River basin in green The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa, extending over 2500 miles (about 4180 km). ... The Kingdom of Congo (now usually rendered as Kingdom of Kongo to maintain distinction from the present-day Congo nations) Capital Mbanza-Kongo, Angola; re-named São Salvador in the late 16th century; re-named back to Mbanza-Kongo in 1975 Religion Christianity with some traditional practices Government Monarchy... External links Chokwe people African Art : Chokwe Chokwe, Bantu art Categories: Ethnic group stubs | Chokwe | Ethnic groups of Africa | Ethnic groups of the Democratic Republic of the Congo ... For other uses, see Ashanti (disambiguation). ... The Yoruba (Yorùbá in Yoruba orthography) are a large ethno-linguistic group or ethnic nation in Africa; the majority of them speak the Yoruba language (èdèe Yorùbá; èdè = language). ... The Kanem Empire existed in modern Chad and Libya. ... The Bornu Empire (1396-1893) was a pre-colonial African state of Niger from 1389 to 1893. ... The Fulani War of 1804-1810, also known as the Fulani Holy War or Jihad of Usman dan Fodio, was a military conquest in present day Nigeria and Cameroon. ... Location of Sokoto in Nigeria, Sokoto is a city located in the extreme northwest of Nigeria, near to where the Sokoto River and Rima River meet. ... The Hausa are a Sahelian people chiefly located in the West African regions of northern Nigeria and southeastern Niger. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Swahili are a people and culture found on the coast of East Africa, mainly the coastal regions and the islands of Kenya and Tanzania, and north Mozambique. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070...


The Anti-Slavery Society estimated that there were 2,000,000 slaves in the early 1930s Ethiopia, out of an estimated population of between 8 and 16 million.[148] Slavery continued in Ethiopia until the brief Second Italo-Abyssinian War in October 1935, when was abolished by order of the Italian occupying forces.[149] In response to pressure by Western Allies of World War II Ethiopia officially abolished slavery and serfdom after regaining its independance in 1942. On August 26, 1942 Haile Selassie issued a proclamation outlawing slavery.[150][151] Combatants Kingdom of Italy Ethiopian Empire Commanders Benito Mussolini Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Rodolfo Graziani Haile Selassie Ras Imru Strength 800,000 combatants (only ~330,000 mobilized) ~250,000 combatants Casualties 10,000 killed1 (est. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ...


Elikia M’bokolo, April 1998, Le Monde diplomatique. Quote:"The African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes. Across the Sahara, through the Red Sea, from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries (from the ninth to the nineteenth)." He continues: "Four million slaves exported via the Red Sea, another four million through the Swahili ports of the Indian Ocean, perhaps as many as nine million along the trans-Saharan caravan route, and eleven to twenty million (depending on the author) across the Atlantic Ocean"[152] This monthly magazine is not to be mistaken for the daily Le Monde. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Swahili (also called Kiswahili; see Kiswahili for a discussion of the nomenclature) is an agglutinative Bantu language widely spoken in East Africa. ... The Great Mosque of Djenné, founded in 800, an important trading base, now a World Heritage Site Trans-Saharan trade, refers to trade across the Sahara between Mediterranean countries and West Africa. ...


North Africa

Barbary pirates

See also: Arab slave trade
The Slave Market (c. 1884), painting by Jean-Leon Gerome

According to Robert Davis between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa and Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 19th centuries.[153] The coastal villages and towns of Italy, Portugal, Spain and Mediterranean islands were frequently attacked by them and long stretches of the Italian, Portuguese and Spanish coasts were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants; after 1600 Barbary pirates occasionally entered the Atlantic and struck as far north as Iceland.[154] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islam and slavery. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 418 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 860 pixel, file size: 105 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 418 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 860 pixel, file size: 105 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Jean-Léon Gérôme (May 11, 1824 - 1904) was a French painter who produced many works in a historical, Orientalist style. ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This is a list of islands in the Mediterranean Sea: // == Australia is the biggest island!! == This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1544, Khair ad Din captured Ischia, taking 4,000 prisoners in the process, and deported to slavery some 9,000 inhabitants of Lipari, almost the entire population.[155] In 1551, Turgut Reis (known as Dragut in the West) enslaved the entire population of the Maltese island Gozo, between 5,000 and 6,000, sending them to Libya. When pirates sacked Vieste in southern Italy in 1554 they took an 7,000 slaves. In 1555, Turgut Reis sailed to Corsica and ransacked Bastia, taking 6000 prisoners. In 1558 Barbary corsairs captured the town of Ciutadella (Minorca), destroyed it, slaughtered the inhabitants and carried off 3,000 survivors to Istanbul as slaves.[156] In 1563 Turgut Reis landed at the shores of the province of Granada, Spain, and captured the coastal settlements in the area like Almuñécar, along with 4,000 prisoners. Barbary pirates frequently attacked the Balearic islands, resulting in many coastal watchtowers and fortified churches being erected. The threat was so severe that island of Formentera became uninhabited.[157][158][159] Khair ad Din A statue in Barbaros Park near the ferry stop in BeÅŸiktaÅŸ Khair ad Din (circa 1475-1546) was an Ottoman-Turkish admiral and privateer who served in the Ottoman Empire and in the Barbary Coast. ... The island of Ischia near Naples, Italy. ... Slave redirects here. ... Lipari Castle above the town of Lipari. ... Turgut Reis Turgut Reis (1485-1565) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral as well as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey later Pasha of Tripoli. ... Gozo (Maltese: Għawdex) is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea, the island is part of the Southern European country Malta and is the second largest after the island of Malta itself within the archipelago. ... Province of Foggia Vieste is a town and comune in the province of Foggia in the Apulia region of southeast Italy. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Location within France Bastia (French & Corsican: Bastia), is a town and commune of northern Corsica, in France. ... Ciudadella, Minorca Ciutadella (Spanish: Ciudadela) is town on the western side of Minorca. ... Capital Maó Official languages Catalan & Spanish Area  -  Total 694. ... This article is about fatal harm. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Almuñécar Playa Velilla Promenade and Hotel Helios, Playa San Cristobal, Almuñécar Excavated ruins of the Phoenecian fish salting factory within the Majuelo Park The Roman aqueduct at Torrecuevas near the source of the Rio Verde about 4 km north of Almuñécar The Roman aqueduct in the Rio... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ...


In Portugal for instance, the coastal city of Nazaré was raided several times during until the 16th century when the local fortress was built (according to Pedro Penteado and his book based in the historical eclesiastic diaries of Nazaré). The city of Lisbon built the Torre de Belém to defend the capital against these pirates. There are places that have the name Nazaré : In Brazil Nazaré, Bahia Nazaré, Tocantins Related: Nazaré Paulista, São Paulo In Portugal Nazaré, a municipality This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Belém Tower Belém Tower, or Torre de Belém, is a 5-storey fortified lighthouse located in the Belém district of Lisbon, Portugal. ...


Between 1609 and 1616 England alone had a staggering 466 merchant ships lost to Barbary pirates. Slave-taking persisted into the 19th century when Barbary pirates would capture ships and enslave the crew.[160][161] Even the United States was not immune. In 1783 the United States made peace with, and gained recognition from, the British monarchy, and in 1784 the first American ship was seized by pirates from Morocco. Payments in ransom and tribute to the Barbary states amounted to 20% of United States government annual revenues in 1800.[162] It was not until 1815 that naval victories in the Barbary Wars ended tribute payments by the U.S., although some European nations continued annual payments until the 1830s.[163] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... The Barbary Wars (or Tripolitan Wars) were two wars between the United States of America and Barbary States in North Africa in the early 19th century. ...


Among the most important slave markets where Pirates operated in the Mediterranean Europe were the ports of Majorca, Toulon, Marseille, Genoa, Pisa, Leghorn and Malta. In Africa,the most important were the ports of Morrocos, Tripoli, Algiers and Tunis.[164]


Sub-Saharan Africa

Main article: African slave trade
Slaves being transported in Africa, 19th century engraving.

David Livingstone wrote of the slave trade: The slave trade in Africa has existed for thousands of years. ... Download high resolution version (924x536, 259 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (924x536, 259 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and explorer in central Africa. ...

"To overdraw its evils is a simple impossibility.... We passed a slave woman shot or stabbed through the body and lying on the path. [Onlookers] said an Arab who passed early that morning had done it in anger at losing the price he had given for her, because she was unable to walk any longer. We passed a woman tied by the neck to a tree and dead.... We came upon a man dead from starvation.... The strangest disease I have seen in this country seems really to be broken heartedness, and it attacks free men who have been captured and made slaves."

Livingstone estimated that 80,000 Africans died each year before ever reaching the slave markets of Zanzibar.[165][166][167][168] Zanzibar was once East Africa's main slave-trading port, and under Omani Arabs in the 19th century as many as 50,000 slaves were passing through the city each year.[169] Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070...

Slavery in Zanzibar. 'An Arab master's punishment for a slight offence. The log weighed 32 pounds, and the boy could only move by carrying it on his head.' Unknown photographer, c. 1890.[170]

Prior to the 16th century, the bulk of slaves exported from Africa were shipped from East Africa to the Arabian peninsula. Zanzibar became a leading port on this trade. Arab slave traders differed from European ones in that they would often conduct raiding expeditions themselves, sometimes penetrating deep into the continent. They also differed in that their market greatly preferred the purchase of female slaves over male ones. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Arabia redirects here. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070...


The increased presence of European rivals along the East coast led Arab traders to concentrate on the overland slave caravan routes across the Sahara from the Sahel to North Africa. The German explorer Gustav Nachtigal reported seeing slave caravans departing from Kukawa in Bornu bound for Tripoli and Egypt in 1870. The slave trade represented the major source of revenue for the state of Bornu as late as 1898. The eastern regions of the Central African Republic have never recovered demographically from the impact of nineteenth-century raids from the Sudan and still have a population density of less than 1 person/km.[171] During the 1870s, European initiatives against the slave trade caused an economic crisis in northern Sudan, precipitating the rise of Mahdist forces. Mahdi’s victory created an Islamic state, one that quickly reinstituted slavery.[172][173] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Gustav Nachtigal. ... Kukawa (previously Kuka) is a town in northeastern Nigeria, close to Lake Chad. ... The Bornu Empire (1396-1893) was a pre-colonial African state of Niger from 1389 to 1893. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Combatants British Empire:  United Kingdom British India Australia[1]  Egypt Italy[2] Belgium[3] Mahdist Sudan Commanders Charles George Gordon â€  Herbert Kitchener Muhammad Ahmad Abdullah  The Mahdist War was a colonial war of the late 19th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Middle Passage, the crossing of the Atlantic to the Americas, endured by slaves laid out in rows in the holds of ships, was only one element of the well-known triangular trade engaged in by Portuguese, Dutch, French and British. Ships having landed slaves in Caribbean ports would take on sugar, indigo, raw cotton, and later coffee, and make for Liverpool, Nantes, Lisbon or Amsterdam. Ships leaving European ports for West Africa would carry printed cotton textiles, some originally from India, copper utensils and bangles, pewter plates and pots, iron bars more valued than gold, hats, trinkets, gunpowder and firearms and alcohol. Tropical shipworms were eliminated in the cold Atlantic waters, and at each unloading, a profit was made. This article is about the slave trade route. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... An historic example of three way trade in the North Atlantic Triangular trade is a historical term indicating trade between three ports or regions. ... West Indies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... Traditional city flag City coat of arms Motto: Favet Neptunus eunti (Latin: Shall Neptune favour the traveller) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Pays de la Loire Department Loire-Atlantique (44) Mayor Jean-Marc Ayrault  (PS) (since 1989) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...


The Atlantic slave trade peaked in the late 18th century, when the largest number of slaves were captured on raiding expeditions into the interior of West Africa. These expeditions were typically carried out by African kingdoms, such as the Oyo empire (Yoruba), Kong Empire, Kingdom of Benin, Kingdom of Fouta Djallon, Kingdom of Fouta Tooro, Kingdom of Koya, Kingdom of Khasso, Kingdom of Kaabu, Fante Confederacy, Ashanti Confederacy, Aro Confederacy and the kingdom of Dahomey.[174][175] Europeans rarely entered the interior of Africa, due to fear of disease and moreover fierce African resistance. The slaves were brought to coastal outposts where they were traded for goods. The people captured on these expeditions were shipped by European traders to the colonies of the New World. As a result of the War of Spanish Succession, the United Kingdom obtained the monopoly (asiento de negros) of transporting captive Africans to Spanish America. It is estimated that over the centuries, twelve to twenty million people were shipped as slaves from Africa by European traders, of whom some 15 percent died during the terrible voyage, many during the arduous journey through the Middle Passage. The great majority were shipped to the Americas, but some also went to Europe and the south of Africa. The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... Oyo (Ọyọ in Yoruba orthography, pronounced ) is the name of a Yoruba city in modern-day Nigeria and also of the loose empire which that city controlled in the 17th and 18th centuries. ... The Yoruba (Yorùbá in Yoruba orthography) are a large ethno-linguistic group or ethnic nation in Africa; the majority of them speak the Yoruba language (èdèe Yorùbá; èdè = language). ... The Kong Empire (1710-1895), also known as the Wattara Empire or Ouattara Empire for its founder, was a pre-colonial African state centered in north eastern Cote dIvoire that also encompassed much of present-day Burkina Faso. ... --168. ... The Kingdom of Fouta Djallon or the Kingdom of Fuuta Jallon was a pre-colonial West African state in modern Guinea. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Kingdom of Koya or Koya Temne or Temne Kingdom (1505-1896) was a pre-colonial African state in the north of present-day Sierra Leone. ... Khasso or Xaaso was a West African kingdom of the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries, occupying territory in what is today Senegal and the Kayes Region of Mali. ... The Kingdom of Kaabu or Gabu or N’Gabu (1546-1867) was a Mandinka Kingdom of Guinea Bissau that rose to prominence in the region thanks to its origins as a former province of the Mali Empire. ... The Fante Confederacy can refer either to the loose alliance of the Fante states in existence at least since the eighteenth century, or it can refer to the briefly lived Confederation formed in 1868 and dissolved in 1874. ... For other uses, see Ashanti (disambiguation). ... National motto: Official language Igbo, Ibibio, Ijaw, Delta Ibo, Urhobo, Isoko, Itsekiri, and etc. ... Dahomey was a kingdom in Africa, situated in what is now the nation of Benin. ... Tropical diseases are infectious diseases that either occur uniquely in tropical and subtropical regions (which is rare) or, more commonly, are either more widespread in the tropics or more difficult to prevent or control. ... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ... An asiento was similar to a patent in early modern England. ... Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Americas of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... This article is about the slave trade route. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Before the arrival of the Portuguese, slavery had already existed in Kingdom of Kongo. Despite its establishment within his kingdom, Afonso I of Kongo believed that the slave trade should be subject to Kongo law. When he suspected the Portuguese of receiving illegally enslaved persons to sell, he wrote letters to the King João III of Portugal in 1526 imploring him to put a stop to the practice.[176] The Kingdom of Congo (now usually rendered as Kingdom of Kongo to maintain distinction from the present-day Congo nations) Capital Mbanza-Kongo, Angola; re-named São Salvador in the late 16th century; re-named back to Mbanza-Kongo in 1975 Religion Christianity with some traditional practices Government Monarchy... Afonso I (often spelled Affonso as he did in his own letters) Mvemba a Nzinga of Kongo (c1456 - 1542 or 1543), who reigned from 1509 to late 1542 or 1543, was the son of king Nzinga a Nkuwu, who was ruling in 1483 when the Portuguese arrived, and was baptized... John III (Portuguese: João III pron. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ...


The kings of Dahomey sold their war captives into transatlantic slavery, who otherwise would have been killed in a ceremony known as the Annual Customs. As one of West Africa's principal slave states, Dahomey became extremely unpopular with neighbouring peoples.[177][178][179] Like the Bambara Empire to the east, the Khasso kingdoms depended heavily on the slave trade for their economy. A family's status was indicated by the number of slaves it owned, leading to wars for the sole purpose of taking more captives. This trade led the Khasso into increasing contact with the European settlements of Africa's west coast, particularly the French.[180] Benin grew increasingly rich during the 16th and 17th centuries on the slave trade with Europe; slaves from enemy states of the interior were sold, and carried to the Americas in Dutch and Portuguese ships. The Bight of Benin's shore soon came to be known as the "Slave Coast".[181] Dahomey was a kingdom in Africa, situated in what is now the nation of Benin. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Every year in the Kingdom of Dahomey, a huge festival in honor of the ancestors was organized called the annual customs. In the customs, the king would assemble the entire court, foreign dignitaries, and the populace. ... The Bambara Empire (also Bamana Empire or Ségou Empire) was a large kingdom based at Ségou, now in Mali. ... Khasso was a West African kingdom of the nineteenth century, occupying territory in what is today Senegal and the Kayes Region of Mali. ... The slave trade in Africa has existed for thousands of years. ... For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


In the 1840s, King Gezo of Dahomey said:[182] Dahomey was a kingdom in Africa, situated in what is now the nation of Benin. ...

"The slave trade is the ruling principle of my people. It is the source and the glory of their wealth…the mother lulls the child to sleep with notes of triumph over an enemy reduced to slavery…"

200th anniversary of the British act of parliament abolishing slave trading, commemorated on a British two pound coin.

In 1807, the UK Parliament passed the Bill that abolished the trading of slaves. The King of Bonny (now in Nigeria) was horrified at the conclusion of the practice:[183] // Obverse of the commemorative £2 coin The British commemorative two pound (£2) coin was minted from the same composition as the £1 coin, i. ...

"We think this trade must go on. That is the verdict of our oracle and the priests. They say that your country, however great, can never stop a trade ordained by God himself."

Some historians conclude that the total loss in persons removed, those who died on the arduous march to coastal slave marts and those killed in slave raids, far exceeded the 65–75 million inhabitants remaining in Sub-Saharan Africa at the trade's end.[citation needed] Others believe that slavers had a vested interest in capturing rather than killing, and in keeping their captives alive; and that this coupled with the disproportionate removal of males and the introduction of new crops from the Americas (cassava, maize) would have limited general population decline to particular regions of western Africa around 1760–1810, and in Mozambique and neighbouring areas half a century later. There has also been speculation that within Africa, females were most often captured as brides, with their male protectors being a "bycatch" who would have been killed if there had not been an export market for them. Yuca redirects here. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Population decline is the reduction over time in a regions census. ... Bride kidnapping, also known as marriage by abduction or marriage by capture, is a form of forced marriage practiced in a few traditional cultures, in countries including Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, the Caucasus region, Ethiopia and Rwanda. ...


During the period from late 19th and early 20th centuries, demand for the labor-intensive harvesting of rubber drove frontier expansion and slavery. The personal monarchy of Belgian King Leopold II in the Congo Free State saw mass killings and slavery to extract rubber.[184] Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II, King of the Belgians through a dummy non-governmental organization, the Association Internationale Africaine. ...


Modern times

Main article: Slavery in modern Africa

Slavery in Mauritania was legally abolished by laws passed in 1905, 1961, and 1981, but it has never been criminalised,[185] and several human rights organizations report that the practice continues there. In Niger, slavery is also a current phenomenon; a study has found that more than 800,000 people are still slaves, almost 8% of the population.[186] Descent-based slavery, where generations of the same family are born into bondage, is traditionally practised by at least four of Niger’s eight ethnic groups. It is especially rife among the warlike Tuareg, in the wild deserts of north and west Niger, who roam near the borders with Mali and Algeria.[187] Slavery in Africa, as in some other regions of the world, continues today. ... Slavery in Mauritania persists despite its abolition in 1980 and affects the descendants of black Africans abducted into slavery before generations, who live now in Mauritania as black Moors or haratin and who partially still serve the white Moors, or bidhan, as slaves. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The largest ethnic groups in Niger are the Hausa, who also constitute the major ethnic group in northern Nigeria, and the Zarma Songhay (also spelled Djerma-Songhai), who also are found in parts of Mali. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ...


The trading of children has been reported in modern Nigeria and Benin. In parts of Ghana, a family may be punished for an offense by having to turn over a virgin female to serve as a sex slave within the offended family. In this instance, the woman does not gain the title or status of "wife". In parts of Ghana, Togo, and Benin, shrine slavery persists, despite being illegal in Ghana since 1998. In this system of ritual servitude, sometimes called trokosi (in Ghana) or voodoosi in Togo and Benin, young virgin girls are given as slaves to traditional shrines and are used sexually by the priests in addition to providing free labor for the shrine. Slavery in Sudan continues as part of an ongoing civil war. Evidence emerged in the late 1990s of systematic slavery in cacao plantations in West Africa; see the chocolate and slavery article.[182] Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is... Ritual servitude is practiced in Ghana, Togo, and Benin where traditional religious shrines take young girls in payment for services, or in religious atonement for alleged misdeeds of a family member —almost always a male. ... Slavery in the Sudan has a long history, beginning in ancient Egyptian times and continuing up to the present. ... Combatants Sudanese Government (North Sudan) Sudan Peoples Liberation Army Commanders Gaafar Nimeiry Sadiq al-Mahdi Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir John Garang Casualties Not Released 1. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Chocolate and slavery are alleged to be linked in contemporary chocolate plantations in west Africa. ...


The Americas

Among indigenous peoples

In Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica the most common forms of slavery were those of prisoners-of-war and debtors. People unable to pay back a debt could be sentenced to work as a slave to the person owed until the debt was worked off. Warfare was important to the Maya society, because raids on surrounding areas provided the victims required for human sacrifice, as well as slaves for the construction of temples.[188] Most victims of human sacrifice were prisoners of war or slaves.[189] [190] Slavery was not usually hereditary; children of slaves were born free. In the Inca Empire, workers were subject to a mita in lieu of taxes which they paid by working for the government. Each ayllu, or extended family, would decide which family member to send to do the work. It is unclear if this labor draft or corvee counts as slavery. The Spanish adopted this system, particularly for their silver mines in Bolivia.[191] In the structure of the Aztec society, Slaves or tlacotin (distinct from war captives) also constituted an important class. ... The Repartimiento de Mercancias was a colonial labor system imposed upon the indigenous population of Spanish America. ... Slavery in the Spanish colonies began with local Natives. ... Slavery in Canada was first practised by some aboriginal nations, who routinely captured slaves from neighbouring tribes as part of their laws of war. ... This article is about the culture area. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... It has been suggested that Maya women be merged into this article or section. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... Mita was mandatory public service by society in ancient South America. ... Ayllu were the basic political unit of pre-Inca and Inca life. ... Corvée, or corvée labor, is a term used in feudal societies. ...


Other slave-owning societies and tribes of the New World were, for example, the Tehuelche of Patagonia, the Comanche of Texas, the Caribs of Dominica, the Tupinambá of Brazil, the fishing societies, such as the Yurok, that lived along the coast from what is now Alaska to California, the Pawnee and Klamath.[192] The Haida and Tlingit, who live along the Pacific Northwest coast (now Alaska and British Columbia) were traditionally known as fierce warriors and slave-traders, raiding as far as California. Slavery was hereditary, the slaves being prisoners of war. Among some Pacific Northwest tribes about a quarter of the population were slaves.[193][194] Patagonian camp, 1838 Tehuelches is the collective name of the native tribes of Patagonia. ... For other uses, see Comanche (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Island Carib, who lived on the islands of the Caribbean. ... Tupi Antigo (or Tupinamba) is a extinct Tupi language which was spoken by Indian tribesmen in the coast of Brazil. ... Yurok (also Weitspekan) is an Algic language. ... The Pawnee (also Paneassa, Pari, Pariki) are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the Platte, Loup and Republican Rivers in present-day Nebraska. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the people. ... A Tlingit totem pole in Ketchikan ca. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Brazil

Slavery in Brazil, Jean Baptiste Debret.
A Guaraní family captured by Indian slave hunters. By Jean Baptiste Debret

Slavery was a mainstay of the Brazilian colonial economy, especially in mining and sugar cane production. Brazil obtained 37% of all African slaves traded, and more than 3 million slaves were sent to this one country. Starting around 1550, the Portuguese began to trade African slaves to work the sugar plantations, once the native Tupi people deteriorated. Although Portuguese Prime Minister Marquês de Pombal abolished slavery in mainland Portugal on the February 12th, 1761, slavery continued in her overseas colonies. Slavery was practice among all classes. Slaves were owned by upper and middle classes, by the poor, and even by other slaves.[195] Slavery in Brazil, Debret During the colonial epoch, slavery [1] was a mainstay of the Brazilian economy, especially in mining and sugar cane production. ... The Monument to the Bandeiras, a stone sculpture group by Victor Brecheret, located in São Paulo, Brazil Bandeirantes were participants in the Bandeiras, expeditions organised by the inhabitants of the then poor village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga together with allied Indians to enslave other Indians... Image File history File links 024debret. ... Image File history File links 024debret. ... Jean Baptiste Debret (1768-1848), a French artist, produced many valuable lithographs depicting the peoples of Brazil. ... Image File history File links A Guarani family captured by Indian slave hunters. ... Image File history File links A Guarani family captured by Indian slave hunters. ... For other uses, see Guaraní (disambiguation). ... The indigenous people of Brazil (povos indígenas in Portuguese) comprise a large number of distict ethnic groups who inhabited the countrys present territory prior its discovery by Europeans around 1500. ... Jean Baptiste Debret (1768-1848), a French artist, produced many valuable lithographs depicting the peoples of Brazil. ... The Economic history of Brazil covers various economic events and traces the changes in the Brazilian economy of the course of the history of Brazil From Portugals discovery of Brazil in 1500 until the late 1930s, the Brazilian economy relied on the production of primary products for exports. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Tupinambá redirects here. ... Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Marquis of Pombal (in Portuguese, Marquês de Pombal), (13 May 1699 – 15 May 1782) was a Portuguese statesman. ...


From São Paulo the Bandeirantes, adventurers mostly of mixed Portuguese and native ancestry, penetrated steadily westward in their search for Indian slaves. Along the Amazon river and its major tributaries, repeated slaving raids and punitive attacks left their mark. One French traveler in the 1740s described hundreds of miles of river banks with no sign of human life and once-thriving villages that were devastated and empty. In some areas of the Amazon Basin, and particularly among the Guarani of southern Brazil and Paraguay, the Jesuits had organized their Jesuit Reductions along military lines to fight the slavers. In the mid to late 19th century, many Amerindians were enslaved to work on rubber plantations.[196][197][198] This article is about the city. ... The Monument to the Bandeiras, a stone sculpture group by Victor Brecheret, located in São Paulo, Brazil Bandeirantes were participants in the Bandeiras, expeditions organised by the inhabitants of the then poor village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga together with allied Indians to enslave other Indians... This article is about the river. ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The Jesuit Reductions were a particular version of the general Spanish colonial strategy of building reducciones de indios in order to civilise and catechise the native populations of South America. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ...


Resistance and abolition

Escaped slaves formed Maroon communities which played an important role in the histories of Brazil and other countries such as Suriname, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Jamaica. In Brazil the Maroon villages were called palenques or quilombos. Maroons survived by growing vegetables and hunting. They also raided plantations. At these attacks, the maroons would burn crops, steal livestock and tools, kill slavemasters, and invite other slaves to join their communities. Body of Ndyuka Maroon child brought before a shaman, Suriname 1955 A Maroon (from the word marronage or American/Spanish cimarrón: fugitive, runaway, lit. ... A palenque was a type of village hidden in the jungles of Spanish America. ... A quilombo (from the Kimbundu word kilombo) is a Brazilian hinterland settlement founded by Quilombolas, or Maroons and, sometimes, a minority of marginalised Portuguese, Brazilian aboriginals, and/or other non-black, non-slave Brazilians. ... A sugarcane plantation at Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, 2005 A plantation is a large tract of monoculture, as a tree plantation, a cotton plantation, a tea plantation or a tobacco plantation. ...


Jean-Baptiste Debret, a French painter who was active in Brazil in the first decades of the 19th Century, started out with painting portraits of members of the Brazilian Imperial family, but soon became concerned with the slavery of both blacks and indigenous inhabitants. His paintings on the subject (two appear on this page) helped bring attention to the subject in both Europe and Brazil itself. Jean Baptiste Debret Jean-Baptiste Debret (1768-1848) was a French painter, who produced many valuable lithographs depicting the peoples of Brazil. ...


The Clapham Sect, a group of evangelical reformers, campaigned during much of the 19th century for the United Kingdom to use its influence and power to stop the traffic of slaves to Brazil. Besides moral qualms, the low cost of slave-produced Brazilian sugar meant that British colonies in the West Indies were unable to match the market prices of Brazilian sugar, and each Briton was consuming 16 pounds (7 kg) of sugar a year by the 19th century. This combination led to intensive pressure from the British government for Brazil to end this practice, which it did by steps over several decades. The Clapham Sect was an influential group of like-minded social reformers in England at the beginning of the nineteenth century (active c. ... Look up evangelist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


First, foreign slave trade was banned in 1850. Then, in 1871, the sons of the slaves were freed. In 1885, slaves aged over 60 years were freed. The Paraguayan War contributed to end slavery, since slaves enlisted in exchange for freedom. In Colonial Brazil, slavery was more a social than a racial condition. In fact, some of the greatest figures of the time, like the writer Machado de Assis and the engineer André Rebouças had black ancestry. Combatants Paraguay Uruguay, Argentina, Empire of Brazil Commanders Francisco Solano López † José E. Díaz Pedro II of Brazil Duke of Caxias Bartolomé Mitre Venancio Flores Strength at the beginning of the war ca. ... Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis (June 21, 1839 - September 29, 1908) was a Brazilian realist novelist, poet and short-story writer born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ... André Rebouças (1838-1898) was a mulatto Brazilian engineer also known for his work in the abolitionist movement. ...


Brazil's 1877-78 Grande Seca (Great Drought) in the cotton-growing northeast led to major turmoil, starvation, poverty and internal migration. As wealthy plantation holders rushed to sell their slaves south, popular resistance and resentment grew, inspiring numerous emancipation societies. They succeeded in banning slavery altogether in the province of Ceará by 1884.[199] Slavery was legally ended nationwide on May 13 by the Lei Aurea ("Golden Law") of 1888. In fact, it was an institution in decadence at these times, as since the 1880s the country had begun to use European immigrant labor instead. Brazil was the last nation in the Western Hemisphere to abolish slavery. is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lei Áurea (Golden Law) was the law that finally abolished slavery in Brazil, passed on May 13, 1888. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ...


Modern times

However, in 2004 the government acknowledged to the United Nations that at least 25,000 Brazilians work under conditions "analogous to slavery." The top anti-slavery official puts the number of modern slaves at 50,000.[200] More than 1,000 slave laborers were freed from a sugar cane plantation in 2007 by the Brazilian government, making it the largest anti-slavery raid in modern times in Brazil.[201] UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Other South American countries

During the period from late 19th and early 20th centuries, demand for the labor-intensive harvesting of rubber drove frontier expansion and slavery in Latin America and elsewhere. Indigenous people were enslaved as part of the rubber boom in Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, and Brazil.[202] In Central America, rubber tappers participated in the enslavement of the indigenous Guatuso-Maleku people for domestic service.[203] Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ...


British and French Caribbean

Slavery was commonly used in the parts of the Caribbean controlled by France and the British Empire. The Lesser Antilles islands of Barbados, St. Kitts, Antigua, Martinique and Guadeloupe, which were the first important slave societies of the Caribbean, began the widespread use of African slaves by the end of the 17th century, as their economies converted from sugar production.[204] Among white Caribbeans there exists an underclass known as Redlegs; the descendants of English, Scottish and Irish indentured servants, and prisoners imported to the island.[205][206] The Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series of 1701 records 25,000 slaves in Barbados, of which 21,700 were white.[207] Slavery in the British and French Caribbean refers to slavery in the parts of the Caribbean dominated by France or the British Empire. ... West Indies redirects here. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Location of the Lesser Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean Islands of the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbees,[1] are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas and Greater Antilles form the West Indies. ... Saint Kitts and Nevis has one of the longest written histories in the Caribbean, both islands being amongst Europes first colonies in the archipelago. ... The Caribbean The history of the Caribbean reveals the significant role the region played in the colonial struggles of the European powers between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Redlegs was a term used to refer to the class of poor whites that lived on colonial Barbados, St. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ... Prisoner may refer to the following: A person incarcerated in a prison or similar facility. ...


By the middle of the 18th century, British Jamaica and French Saint-Domingue had become the largest slave societies of the region, rivaling Brazil as a destination for enslaved Africans. Due to overwork and tropical diseases, the death rates for Caribbean slaves were greater than birth rates. The conditions led to increasing numbers of slave revolts, escaped slaves forming Maroon communities and fighting guerrilla wars against the plantation owners. Campaigns against slavery began during the period of the Enlightenment and grew to large proportions in Europe and United States during the 19th century (see Abolitionism). Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ... In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent (e. ... A slave revolt, like a rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves. ... Body of Ndyuka Maroon child brought before a shaman, Suriname 1955 A Maroon (from the word marronage or American/Spanish cimarrón: fugitive, runaway, lit. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... This article is about crop plantations. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ; Polish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ...


North America

Main Articles: Slavery in Colonial America, Slavery in Canada, History of slavery in the United States, Atlantic slave trade, Indian slavery, Slavery among the Cherokee, History of slavery in Kentucky, History of slavery in Missouri The origins of slavery in Colonial America are complex and there are several theories that have been proposed to explain the trade. ... Slavery in Canada was first practised by some aboriginal nations, who routinely captured slaves from neighbouring tribes as part of their laws of war. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... Indian slavery was the practice of using indigenous peoples of the Americas as slaves, which existed with the Spanish from the earliest days on the Caribbean islands they first settled. ... Cherokee Citizens of the Cherokee Nation of Diverse Ancestry (2007) The Cherokee Freedmen controversy is an on-going political and tribal dispute among the Cherokee Nation and the Cherokee Freedmen (descendants of the former slaves of Cherokee citizens). ... The history of slavery in Kentucky dates from the earliest permanent European settlements in the state until the end of the Civil War. ... Categories: | ...


Early events

The first slaves used by Europeans in what later became United States territory were among Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón's colonization attempt of North Carolina in 1526. The attempt was a failure, lasting only one year; the slaves revolted and fled into the wilderness to live among the Cofitachiqui people.[7] Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón (1475? - 1526) Spanish explorer A licentiate and sugar planter on Hispaniola, Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón commanded six vessels with 500 colonists, supplies and livestock, sailing from Santo Domingo in mid-July, 1526. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ...


The first historically significant slave in what would become the United States was Estevanico, a Moroccan slave and member of the Narváez expedition in 1528 and acted as a guide on Fray Marcos de Niza's expedition to find the Seven Cities of Gold in 1539. Estevanico (ca. ... The Narváez expedition was a Spanish attempt to install Pánfilo de Narváez as adelantado (governor) of Spanish Florida during the years 1527 – 1528. ... This was left by Marcos de Niza in 1539 at what is now Phoenix South_Mountain_Park Marcos de Niza (c. ... Quivira and Cíbola are two of the fantastic Seven Cities of Gold existing only in a myth that originated around the year 1150 when the Moors conquered Mérida, Spain. ...


In 1619 twenty Africans were brought by a Dutch soldier and sold to the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia as indentured servants. It is possible that Africans were brought to Virginia prior to this, both because neither John Rolfe our source on the 1619 shipment nor any contemporary of his ever says that this was the first contingent of Africans to come to Virginia and because the 1625 Virginia census lists one black as coming on a ship that appears to only have landed people in Virginia prior to 1619.[208]The transformation from indentured servitude to racial slavery happened gradually. It was not until 1661 that a reference to slavery entered into Virginia law, directed at Caucasian servants who ran away with a black servant. It was not until the Slave Codes of 1705 that the status of African Americans as slaves would be sealed. This status would last for another 160 years, until after the end of the American Civil War with the ratification of the 13th Amendment in December 1865. At Jamestown Settlement, replicas of Christopher Newports 3 ships are docked in the harbour. ... An indentured servant (also called a bonded laborer) is a labourer unde from the employer in exchange for an extension to the period of their indenture, which could thereby continue indefinitely. ... This article is about the Virginia colonist. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Only a fraction of the enslaved Africans brought to the New World ended up in British North America-- perhaps 5%. The vast majority of slaves shipped across the Atlantic were sent to the Caribbean sugar colonies, Brazil, or Spanish America. Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Americas of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ...


Slavery in American Colonial Law

This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

Development of slavery

The shift from indentured servants to African slaves was prompted by a dwindling class of former servants who had worked through the terms of their indentures and thus became competitors to their former masters. These newly freed servants were rarely able to support themselves comfortably, and the tobacco industry was increasingly dominated by large planters. This caused domestic unrest culminating in Bacon's Rebellion. Eventually, chattel slavery became the norm in regions dominated by plantations. Bacons Rebellion or the Virginia Rebellion was an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. ...


Many slaves in British North America were owned by plantation owners who lived in Britain. The British courts had made a series of contradictory rulings on the legality of slavery[210] which encouraged several thousand slaves to flee the newly-independent United States as refugees along with the retreating British in 1783. The British courts having ruled in 1772 that such slaves could not be forcibly returned to North America (see James Somersett and Somersett's Case for a review of the Somerset Decision), the British government resettled them as free men in Sierra Leone. See Black Loyalists. British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ... James Somersett or Somerset was a slave who was brought by his owner from Virginia to England. ... James Somersett or Somerset was a slave who was brought by his owner from Virginia to England. ... Black Loyalists is the name given to formerly enslaved Africans or to free people of color of the North American continent who remained loyal to Britain during the American Revolutionary War. ...


Several slave rebellions took place during the 17th and 18th centuries. A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves. ...


Early United States law

Through the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 (also known as the Freedom Ordinance) under the Continental Congress, slavery was prohibited in the territories north of the Ohio River. In the East, though, slavery was not abolished until later. The importation of slaves into the United States was banned on January 1, 1808;[211] but not the internal slave trade, nor involvement in the international slave trade externally. Northwest Territory (1787). ... The Continental Congress was the first national government of the United States. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Aggregation of northern free states gave rise to one contiguous geographic area, north of the Ohio River and the old Mason-Dixon line. This separation of a free North and an enslaved South launched a massive political, cultural and economic struggle. View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... For the fictional character, see Mason Dixon (Rocky Balboa character). ...


Refugees from slavery fled the South across the Ohio River to the North via the Underground Railroad, and their presence agitated Northerners. Midwestern state governments asserted States Rights arguments to refuse federal jurisdiction over fugitives. Some juries exercised their right of jury nullification and refused to convict those indicted under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. This article is about a 19th-century slave escape route. ... In American politics and constitutional law, states rights are guaranteed by the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, (i. ... Jury nullification refers to a rendering of a not guilty verdict by a trial jury, disagreeing with the instructions by the judge concerning what is the law, or whether such law is applicable to the case, taking into account all of the evidence presented. ... The Fugitive Slave Law or Fugitive Slave Act was passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850 between Southern slaveholding interests and Northern Free-Soilers and abolitionists. ...


The Dred Scott decision of 1857 asserted that one could take one's property anywhere, even if one's property was chattel and one crossed into a free territory. It also asserted that African Americans could not be citizens, as many Northern states granted blacks citizenship, who (in some states) could even vote. This was an example of Slave Power, the plantation aristocracy's attempt to control the North. While traditionally, this has been viewed as turning Northern public opinion against the South, it should be noted that pro-slavery forces made gains in the 1858 elections and it was the anti-slavery Republicans who were on the defensive on the issue. After the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, armed conflict broke out in Kansas Territory, where the question of whether it would be admitted to the Union as a slave state or a free state had been left to the inhabitants. The radical abolitionist John Brown was active in the mayhem and killing in "Bleeding Kansas." The true turning point in public opinion is better fixed at the LeCompton Constitution fraud. Pro-slavery elements in Kansas had arrived first from Missouri and quickly organized a territorial government that excluded abolitionists. Through the machinery of the territory and violence, the pro-slavery faction attempted to force an unpopular pro-slavery constitution through the state. This infuriated Northern Democrats, who supported popular sovereignty, and was exacerbated by the Buchanon administration reneging on a promise to submit the constitution to a referendum - which it would surely fail. Anti-slavery legislators took office under the banner of the Republican Party. Holding States do not have the right to claim an individuals property that was fairly theirs in another state. ... Personal property is a type of property. ... The Slave Power was the term used in the Northern United States in the period 1840-1865 to describe the political power of the slaveholding class in the South. ... This 1856 map shows slave states (grey), free states (red), and US territories (green) with Kansas in center (white). ... map of Kansas Territory Kansas Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854 to January 29, 1861, when Kansas became the 34th U.S. state admitted to the Union. ... John Brown, ca. ... Bleeding Kansas, sometimes referred to in history as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a series of violent events, involving Free-Staters (anti-slavery) and pro-slavery Border Ruffian elements, that took place in the Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ...


Civil War

Peter, a slave from Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1863. The scars are a result of a whipping by his overseer, who was subsequently discharged. It took two months to recover from the beating.

Approximately one Southern family in four held slaves prior to war. According to the 1860 U.S. census, about 385,000 individuals[212] (i.e. 1.4% of White Americans in the country, or 4.8% of southern whites) owned one or more slaves.[213][214] 95% of blacks lived in the South, comprising one third of the population there as opposed to 1% of the population of the North. Consequently, fears of eventual emancipation were much greater in the South than in the North.[215] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1558x2581, 685 KB) Description : Cicatrices de flagellation sur un esclave (2 avril 1863, Baton Rouge, États-Unis) Source : Archive national des États-Unis - National Archives and Records Administration Baton Rouge, La. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1558x2581, 685 KB) Description : Cicatrices de flagellation sur un esclave (2 avril 1863, Baton Rouge, États-Unis) Source : Archive national des États-Unis - National Archives and Records Administration Baton Rouge, La. ... For the Canadian restaurant, see Baton Rouge (restaurant). ... Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ... A European American, or a Euro-American, is an American of European descent. ...


In the election of 1860, the Republicans swept Abraham Lincoln into the Presidency (with only 39.8% of the popular vote) and legislators into Congress. Lincoln however, did not appear on the ballots in most southern states and his election split the nation along sectional lines. After decades of controlling the Federal Government, the Southern states seceded from the U.S. (the Union) to form the Confederate States of America. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia...


Northern leaders like Lincoln viewed the prospect of a new Southern nation, with control over the Mississippi River and the West, as unacceptable. This led to the outbreak of the Civil War, which spelled the end for chattel slavery in America. However, in August of 1862 Lincoln replied to editor Horace Greeley stating his objective was to save the Union and not to either save or destroy slavery. He went on to say that if he could save the Union without freeing a single slave (or by freeing all the slaves) he would do it. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 was a reluctant gesture, that proclaimed freedom for slaves within the Confederacy, although not those in strategically important border states or the rest of the Union. However, the proclamation made the abolition of slavery an official war goal and it was implemented as the Union captured territory from the Confederacy. Slaves in many parts of the south were freed by Union armies or when they simply left their former owners. Many joined the Union Army as workers or troops, and many more fled to Northern cities. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American editor of a leading newspaper, a founder of the Liberal Republican Party, reformer and politician. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Emancipation Proclamation Reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. ... In a European context, the term Border states policy, and Border states in a specific sense, refer to attempts during the interbellum to unite the countries that had won their independence from Imperial Russia due to the Russian Revolution, the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, and ultimately the defeat of Imperial... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ...


Illegally, slaves within the United States remained enslaved until the final ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution on December 6, 1865 (with final recognition of the amendment on December 18), eight months after the cessation of hostilities. Only in the Border state of Kentucky did a significant slave population remain by that time. Amendment XIII in the National Archives The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit slavery and, with limited exceptions (those convicted of a crime), prohibits involuntary servitude. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the failure of Reconstruction, freed slaves in the United States were treated as second class citizens. For decades after their emancipation, many former slaves living in the South sharecropped and had a low standard of living. In some states, it was only after the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s that blacks obtained legal protection from racial discrimination (see segregation). For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Chopping cotton on rented land near White Plains, Greene County, Ga. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ...


Modern times

Although slavery has been illegal in the United States for nearly a century and a half, the United States Department of Labor occasionally prosecutes cases against people for false imprisonment and involuntary servitude. These cases often involve illegal immigrants who are forced to work as slaves in factories to pay off a debt claimed by the people who transported them into the United States. Other cases have involved domestic workers. The United States Department of Labor is a Cabinet department of the United States government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, re-employment services, and some economic statistics. ... False imprisonment is a tort, and possibly a crime, wherein a person is intentionally confined without legal authority. ... Involuntary servitude is the condition of a person laboring to benefit another against his will due to coercive influence directed toward him. ... Illegal immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently, in violation of the law or without documents permitting an immigrant to settle in that country. ... It has been suggested that servant (domestic) be merged into this article or section. ...


Asia

Indian subcontinent

Main articles: History of slavery in India and Muslim Slave System in Medieval India

The Greek historian Arrian writes in his book Indica: The history of slavery in India (or the Indian subcontinent) is complicated by the presence of factors which relate to the definition, ideological and religious perceptions, difficulties in obtaining and interpreting written sources, and perceptions of political impact of interpretations of written sources (See introductory discussion in Levi, (9)). If... Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... Indica is the name of an ancient book about India written by Arrian, one of the main ancient historians of Alexander the Great. ...

"This also is remarkable in India, that all Indians are free, and no Indian at all is a slave. In this the Indians agree with the Lacedaemonians. Yet the Lacedaemonians have Helots for slaves, who perform the duties of slaves; but the Indians have no slaves at all, much less is any Indian a slave." Laconia (Λακωνία; see also List of traditional Greek place names), also known as Lacedaemonia, was in ancient Greece the portion of the Peloponnese of which the most important city was Sparta. ... Helots were Peloponnesian Greeks who were enslaved under Spartan rule. ...

Though any formalised slave trade has not existed in South Asia, unfree labor has existed for centuries in the Medieval ages, in different forms. The most common forms have been kinds of bonded labor. During the epoch of the Mughals, debt bondage reached its peak, and it was common for money lenders to make slaves of peasants and others who failed to repay debts. Under these practices, more than one generation could be forced into unfree labor; for example, a son could be sold into bonded labor for life to pay off the debt, along with interest. Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off loans with direct labor instead of currency or goods. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ...


The early Arab invaders of Sind in the 700's, the armies of the Umayyad commander Muhammad bin Qasim, are reported to have enslaved tens of thousands of Indian prisoners, including both soldiers and civilians. [216][217] In the early eleventh-century Tarikh al-Yamini, the Arab historian Al-Utbi recorded that in 1001 the armies of Mahmud of Ghazna conquered Peshawar and Waihand, "in the midst of the land of Hindustan", and captured some 100,000 youths.[218][219] Later, following his twelfth expedition into India in 1018-19, Mahmud is reported to have returned to with such a large number of slaves that their value was reduced to only two to ten dirhams each. This unusually low price made, according to Al-Utbi, "merchants [come] from distant cities to purchase them, so that the countries of Central Asia, Iraq and Khurasan were swelled with them, and the fair and the dark, the rich and the poor, mingled in one common slavery". Elliot and Dowson refers to "five hundred thousand slaves, beautiful men and women.".[220] [221] [222] Later, during the Delhi Sultanate period (1206-1555), references to the abundant availability of low-priced Indian slaves abound. Levi attributes this primarily to the vast human resources of India, compared to its neighbours to the north and west (Mughal Indian population being approximately 12 to 20 times that of Turan and Iran at the end of 16th century) .[223]. Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi (Arabic: محمد بن قاسم) (c. ... Mahmud of Ghazni (971-April 30, 1030), also know as Yamin ul-Dawlah Mahmud (in full: Yamin ul-Dawlah Abd ul-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Sebük Tigin) was the ruler of Ghazni from 997 until his death. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ...


Arab slave traders also brought slaves as early as the first century AD from Africa. Most of the African slaves were brought however in the 17th century and were taken into Western India. The Siddi people are of mainly East African descent. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islam and slavery. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Not to be confused with the Hindu term Siddhi (though sometimes spelt in the same way). ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ...


Much of the northern and central parts of the subcontinent was ruled by the so-called Slave Dynasty of Turkic origin from 1206-1290: Qutb-ud-din Aybak, a slave of Muhammad Ghori rose to power following his master's death. For almost a century, his descendants ruled presiding over the introduction of Tankas and building of Qutub Minar. The Slave dynasty (Urdu: سلطنت غلامان) served as the first Sultans of Delhi in India from 1206 to 1290. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Qutb-ud-din Aybak was a ruler of Medieval India, the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Slave dynasty (also known as the Mamluk dynasty). ... Muhammad of Ghor or Muhammad Ghori (originally named Muizz-ad-din) (1162 - 1206) was a Persian conqueror and sultan between 1171 and 1206. ... At 72. ...


According to Sir Henry Bartle Frere (who sat on the Viceroy's Council), there were an estimated 8,000,000 or 9,000,000 slaves in India in 1841. In Malabar, about 15% of the population were slaves. Slavery was abolished in both Hindu and Muslim India by the Indian Slavery Act V. of 1843. Provisions of the Indian Penal Code of 1861 effectively abolished slavery in India by making the enslavement of human beings a criminal offense.[224][225][226][227] Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere, 1st Baronet (March 29, 1815 - May 29, 1884) was a British administrator. ... [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Islam in India is the second-most practiced religion after Hinduism. ... Indian Penal Code (IPC, Hindi: भारतीय दण्ड संहिता, Urdu-in-devanagari: ताज़ीरात-ए-हिन्द ) provides a penal code for all of India including Jammu and Kashmir, where it was renamed the Ranbir Penal Code (RPC). ...


Modern times

According to Human Rights Watch, there are currently more than 40 million bonded laborers in India,[228] who work as slaves to pay off debts; a majority of them are Dalits.[229] There are also an estimated 5 million bonded workers in Pakistan.[230] As many as 200,000 Nepali girls, many under 14, have been sold into the sex slavery in India. Nepalese women and girls, especially virgins, are favored in India because of their fair skin and young looks.[231][232] Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off a familys loans via the labor of family members or heirs. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... Motto: à¤œà¤¨à¤¨à¥€ जन्मभूमिष्च स्वर्गादपि गरीयसी  (Sanskrit) Mother and motherland are dearer than the heavens Anthem: Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka Capital (and largest city) Kathmandu (Nepal Bhasa: येँ) Official languages Nepali Demonym Nepali Government Interim government  -  King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev  -  Interim Head of State Girija Prasad Koirala  -  Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala Unification December... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution (which can include religious prostitution) single-owner sexual slavery slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is de facto available...


China

Slavery in China has repeatedly come in and out of favor. Due to the enormous population of the region throughout most of its history, China has relatively had an almost unlimited workforce of cheap labor. Thus, the economy would naturally rely on a system of serfdom, slavery, or a combination of both. Approximately 5% of China's population was enslaved in ancient Han China (206 BC–220 AD) and slavery continued in China until the early 20th century.[233] Slavery in China was finally abolished in 1910.[234] Serf redirects here. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220...


Japan

Main article: Slavery in Japan

Slavery in Japan was, for most of its history, indigenous, since the export and import of slaves was restricted by Japan being a group of islands. Korean slaves were shipped to Japan during the Japanese invasions of Korea in the 16th century.[235][236] The export of a slave from Japan is recorded in 3rd century Chinese document, although the system involved is unclear. These slaves were called seiko (生口?), lit. "living mouth". Slavery in Japan involved only indigenous Japanese during most of the history of the country, since the export and import of slaves was restricted by the fact that Japan is a group of islands. ... Belligerents Korea under the Joseon Dynasty, China under the Ming Dynasty, Jianzhou Jurchens Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea King Seonjo Crown Prince Gwanghae Yi Sun-sin†, Gwon Yul, Yu Seong-ryong, Yi Eok-gi†, Won Gyun†, Kim Myeong-won, Yi Il, Sin Rip†, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Si-min... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


In the 8th century, a slave was called nuhi (奴婢?) and series of laws on slavery was issued. In an area of present-day Ibaraki Prefecture, out of a population of 190,000, around 2,000 were slaves; the proportion is believed to have been even higher in western Japan. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... For the city, see Ibaraki, Osaka. ...


By the time of the Sengoku period (1467-1615), the attitude that slavery was anachronistic had become widespread. However, notably, in a meeting with Catholic priests, Oda Nobunaga was presented with a black slave, the first recorded encounter between a Japanese and an African. With the arrival of the leading Jesuit Francis Xavier in 1549, Catholicism developed as a major religious force in Japan. The tolerance towards Western "padres" was initially linked to trade concerned and part of that trade was slaves. There arose concern about the slavery of mainly Japanese women between the Christian Dyamo and the Portuguese Maranos, involving around 500,000 Japanese, mainly in a trade for gunpowder [237][238] which affected Hideyoshi's reaction to Christianity. In 1588, Toyotomi Hideyoshi ordered all slave trading to be abolished. This was continued by his successors. “Sengoku” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Saint Francis Xavier (Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa; Spanish: San Francisco Javier; Portuguese: São Francisco Xavier; Chinese: 聖方濟各沙勿略) (7 April 1506 - 2 December 1552) was a Spanish pioneering Roman Catholic Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... The Maranos was a Jewish secret fraternity which arose in Spain in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries during the persecution of the Jewish minority in that country. ... Hideyoshi redirects here. ...


Modern times

As the Empire of Japan annexed Asian countries, from the late 19th century onwards, archaic institutions including slavery were abolished in those countries. However, during the Pacific War of 1937-45, the Japanese military used millions of civilians and prisoners of war as forced labor, on projects such as the Burma Railway. Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The Bridge over the River Kwai Map of the Burma Railway The Burma Railway, also known also as the Death Railway, the Thailand-Burma Railway and similar names, is a 415 km (258 mi) railway between Bangkok, Thailand and Rangoon, Burma (now Myanmar), built by the Empire of Japan during...


According to a joint study by historians including Zhifen Ju, Mitsuyoshi Himeta, Toru Kubo and Mark Peattie, more than 10 million Chinese civilians were mobilized by the Kōa-in (Japanese Asia Development Board) for forced labor.[239] According to the Japanese military's own record, nearly 25% of 140,000 Allied POWs died while interned in Japanese prison camps where they were forced to work (U.S. POWs died at a rate of 37%).[240][241] More than 100,000 civilians and POWs died in the construction of the Burma-Siam Railway.[242] The U.S. Library of Congress estimates that in Java, between 4 and 10 million romusha (Japanese: "manual laborer"), were forced to work by the Japanese military.[243] About 270,000 of these Javanese laborers were sent to other Japanese-held areas in South East Asia. Only 52,000 were repatriated to Java, meaning that there was a death rate of 80%. (For further details, see Japanese war crimes.)[244] Poster of Manchukuo promoting harmony between Japanese, Han Chinese and Manchu. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... The Bridge over the river Kwai Map of the Death Railway The Death Railway (known also as Thai-Burma Railway or Burma Railway) was a railway built from Thailand to Burma (now Myanmar) by the Japanese during World War II to complete the route from Bangkok to Rangoon and support... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Romushas were Indonesian forced laborers during the Japanese occupation in World War II. The word is Japanese and (reportedly) translates to wood log, indicating the disposable nature of the Indonesian labor force. ... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ...


Approximately 5,400,000 Koreans were conscripted into forced labor from 1939 to 1945. About 670,000 of them were taken to Japan, where about 60,000 died between 1939 and 1945 due mostly to exhaustion or poor working conditions. Many of those taken to Karafuto Prefecture (modern-day Sakhalin) were trapped there at the end of the war, stripped of their nationality and denied repatriation by Japan; they became known as the Sakhalin Koreans.[245] The total deaths of Korean forced laborers in Korea and Manchuria for those years is estimated to be between 270,000 and 810,000.[246] Karafuto (樺太) is the Japanese name for the southern part of the island of Sakhalin or the entire island of Sakhalin. ... Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ... Sakhalin Koreans trace their roots back to immigrants from Gyeongsang and Jeolla provinces in the late 1930s and early 1940s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


As many as 200,000 women,[247] mostly from Korea and China, and some other countries such as the Philippines, Taiwan, Burma, the Dutch East Indies, Netherlands,[248] and Australia[249] were forced into sexual slavery during the World War II. (See Comfort women) This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is... Alternate Japanese name Chinese name Korean name Comfort women ) or military comfort women ) is a euphemism for the thousands of women who were forced into sexual slavery for Japanese military brothels during World War II.[1] There is still some disagreement about exactly how many women were victimized. ...


Korea

Indigenous slaves existed in Korea. Slavery was officially abolished with the Gabo Reform of 1894 but remained extant in reality until 1930. During the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910) about 30% to 50% of the Korean population were slaves.[250] Slavery was hereditary, as well as a form of legal punishment.[251] There was a slave class with both government and privately owned slaves, and the government occasionally gave slaves to citizens of higher rank. Privately owned slaves could be inherited as personal property. During poor harvests and famine, many peasants would voluntarily become slaves in order to survive. In the case of private slaves they could buy their freedom.[252][253][254][255] This article is about the Korean civilization. ... The Gabo Reform or Gabo Gyeongjang (갑오 경장; 甲午更張) describes a series of sweeping reforms introduced into Korea (at that time called Joseon) in 1894, during the reign of King Gojong. ... Joseon redirects here. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ...


Southeast Asia

There was a large slave class in Khmer Empire who built the enduring monuments in Angkor Wat and did most of the heavy work.[256] Slaves had been taken captive from the mountain tribes.[257] People unable to pay back a debt to the upper ruling class could be sentenced to work as a slave too.[258] Between the 17th and the early 20th centuries one-quarter to one-third of the population of some areas of Thailand and Burma were slaves.[259] Map of Asia and Europe c. ... The main entrance to the temple proper, seen from the eastern end of the Naga causeway Angkor Wat (or Angkor Vat) (Khmer: អង្គរវត្ត), is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia, built for King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century as his state temple and capital city. ... Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off a familys loans via the labor of family members or heirs. ...


In Siam, the war captives became the property of the king. During the reign of Rama III (1824-1851), there were an estimated 46,000 war slaves. Slaves from independent hill populations were "hunted incessantly and carried off as slaves by the Siamese, the Anamites, and the Cambodians" (Colquhoun 1885:53).[260] For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Categories: People stubs | Thai monarchs ...


Yi people in Yunnan practiced a complicated form of slavery. People were split into the Black Yi (nobles, 7% of the population), White Yi (commoners), Ajia (33% of the Yi population) and the Xiaxi (10%). Ajia and Xiaxi were slave castes. The White Yi were not slaves but had no freedom of movement. The Black Yi were famous for their slave-raids on Han Chinese communities. After the 1959 some 700,000 slaves were freed.[261][262][263] The Yi people (own name in the Liangshan dialect: ꆈꌠ, official transcription: Nuosu, IPA: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; the older name Lolo is now considered derogatory in China, though used officially in Vietnam as Lô Lô and in Thailand as Lolo) are a modern ethnic group in China, Vietnam, and Thailand. ... Yunan redirects here. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


Slaves in Toraja society in Indonesia were family property. Sometimes Torajans decided to become slaves when they incurred a debt, pledging to work as payment. Slaves could be taken during wars, and slave trading was common. Torajan slaves were sold and shipped out to Java and Siam. Slaves could buy their freedom, but their children still inherited slave status. Slaves were prohibited from wearing bronze or gold, carving their houses, eating from the same dishes as their owners, or having sex with free women—a crime punishable by death. Slavery was abolished in 1909 by the Dutch East Indies government.[264][265] The Toraja are an ethnic group indigenous to a mountainous region of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. ... This article is about the Java island. ... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Modern times

There are currently an estimated 300,000 women and children involved in the sex trade throughout Southeast Asia.[266] It is common that Thai women are lured to Japan and sold to Yakuza-controlled brothels where they are forced to work off their price.[267][268] Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... For other uses, see Yakuza (disambiguation). ...


According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), an estimated 800,000 people are subject to forced labor in Myanmar.[269] In November of 2006, the International Labor Organization announced it will be seeking "to prosecute members of the ruling Myanmar junta for crimes against humanity" over the continuous forced labor of its citizens by the military at the International Court of Justice.[270] For other meanings of the ILO abbreviation, see ILO (disambiguation). ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ...


Central Asia and Caucasus

Russian conquest of the Caucasus led to the abolition of slavery by the 1860s[271][272] and the conquest of the Central Asian Islamic khanates of Bukhara, Samarkand, and Khiva by the 1870s.[273] A notorious slave market for captured Russian and Persian slaves was centred in the Khanate of Khiva from the 17th to the 19th century.[274] When the Russian troops took Khiva in 1873 there were 29,300 Persian slaves, captured by Turkoman raiders.[275][276] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Central Asia is a region of Asia. ... Khanate of Bukhara was a feudal state in Central Asia during the 16th–18th centuries. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Khiva (alternative names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chiwa and Chorezm) is the former capital of Khwarezmia, which lies in the present-day Khorezm Province of Uzbekistan. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Khiva (alternative names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chiwa and Chorezm) is the former capital of Khwarezmia, which lies in the present-day Khorezm Province of Uzbekistan. ... The Turkmen (Türkmen or Түркмен, plural Türkmenler or Түркменлер) are a Turkic people found primarily in the Central Asian states of Turkmenistan and Afghanistan and in northeastern Iran. ...


Oceania

In the first half of the nineteenth century, small-scale slave raids took place across Polynesia to supply labor and sex workers for the whaling and sealing trades, with examples from both the westerly and easterly extremes of the Polynesian triangle. By the 1860s this had grown to a larger scale operation with Peruvian slave raids in the South Sea Islands to collect labor for the guano industry. Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... ... The Polynesian Triangle is a geographical region of the Pacific Ocean anchored by Hawaii, Rapa Nui and New Zealand. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Look up Polynesia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ...


Hawaii

Ancient Hawaii was a caste society. People were born into specific social classes. Kauwa were the outcast or slave class. They are believed to have been war captives, or the descendents of war captives. Marriage between higher castes and the kauwa was strictly forbidden. The kauwa worked for the chiefs and were often used as human sacrifices at the luakini heiau. (They were not the only sacrifices; law-breakers of all castes or defeated political opponents were also acceptable as victims.)[277] Early Polynesians settled in Hawaiʻi circa A.D. 7th century, having traveled from Tahiti and Marquesas on double-hulled voyaging canoes Ancient Hawaiʻi refers to the period of Hawaiian history preceding the unification of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi by Kamehameha the Great in 1810. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... Luakini: in Hawaii, a temple where human and animal blood sacrifices are made. ...


Aotearoa / New Zealand

In traditional Māori society of Aotearoa, prisoners of war became taurekareka, slaves, unless released, ransomed or tortured.[278] With some exceptions, the child of a slave remained a slave. As far as it is possible to tell, slavery seems to have increased in the early nineteenth century, as a result of increased numbers of prisoners being taken by Māori military leaders such as Hongi Hika and Te Rauparaha in the Musket Wars, the need for labor to supply whalers and traders with food, flax and timber in return for western goods, and the missionary condemnation of cannibalism. Slavery was outlawed when the British annexed New Zealand in 1840, immediately prior to the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, although it did not end completely until government was effectively extended over the whole of the country with the defeat of the Kingi movement in the Wars of the mid 1860s. This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... For other uses, see Aotearoa (disambiguation). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Hongi Hika (1772?–1828) was a New Zealand Maori rangatira (chief) and war leader of the Ngapuhi iwi (tribe). ... Te Rauparaha (1760s?-1849) was a Maori Chief and War Leader of the Ngati Toa tribe who took a leading part in the Musket Wars. ... The Musket Wars were a series of battles fought between various tribal groups of Maori in the early 1800s, primarily on the North Island in New Zealand. ... Cannibal redirects here. ... One of the few extant copies of the Treaty of Waitangi The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty signed on February 6, 1840 by representatives of the British Crown, and Māori chiefs from the North Island of New Zealand. ... Te Arikinui Dame Te Atairangikaahu. ... The Māori Wars, now more commonly being referred to as The Land Wars and also as the New Zealand Wars, refers to a series of conflicts that happened in New Zealand between 1845 and 1872. ...


Chatham Islands

One group of Polynesians who migrated to the Chatham Islands became the Moriori who developed a largely pacifist culture. It was originally speculated that they settled the Chathams direct from Polynesia, but it is now widely believed they were disaffected Māori who imigrated from the South Island of New Zealand. [279] [280] [281] [282] Their pacifism left the Moriori unable to defend themselves when the islands were invaded by mainland Māori in the 1830s. Some 300 Moriori men, women and children were massacred and the remaining 1,200 to 1,300 survivors were enslaved.[283][284] Polynesia (from Greek, poly = many and nesi = island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands in the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... The Chatham Islands from space. ... Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rekohu in the Moriori language), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. ...


Rapa Nui / Easter Island

The isolated island of Rapa Nui/Easter Island was inhabited by the Rapanui, who suffered a series of slave raids from 1805 or earlier, culminating in a near genocidal experience in the 1860s. The 1805 raid was by American sealers and was one of a series that changed the attitude of the islanders to outside visitors, with reports in the 1820s and 1830s that all visitors were receiving a hostile reception. In December 1862 Peruvian slave raiders took between 1,400 and 2,000 islanders back to Peru to work in the guano industry; this was about a third of the island's population and included much of the island's leadership, the last ariki-mau and possibly the last who could read Rongorongo. After intervention by the French ambassador in Lima, the last 15 survivors were returned to the island, but brought with them smallpox, which further devastated the island.. Easter Island and its location Easter Island (Polynesian: Rapa Nui (Great Rapa), Spanish: Isla de Pascua) is an island in the south Pacific Ocean belonging to Chile. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... The Rapanui or Rapa Nui (Big Rapa) are the native Polynesian inhabitants of Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean (the island itself is also called Rapa Nui). ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ... Rongorongo or ko hau rongo rongo (Rapa Nui kohau rongorongo wooden messenger, talking wood) is the undeciphered script of Easter Island. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ...


Abolitionist movements

Main article: Abolitionism
Proclamation of the abolition of slavery by Victor Hughes in the Guadeloupe, the 1st November 1794

Slavery has existed, in one form or another, through the whole of human history. So, too, have movements to free large or distinct groups of slaves. Moses led Israelite slaves from ancient Egypt according to the Biblical Book of Exodus - possibly the first detailed account of a movement to free slaves. However, abolitionism should be distinguished from efforts to help a particular group of slaves, or to restrict one practice, such as the slave trade. This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ...


Persian Empire

The Persian Empire was the first civilization to prohibit the systematic enslavement of conquered non-combattant population. Cylinder of Cyrus the Great containing the Decree on the conquered non-combattant population, now kept in the British Museum: Persia redirects here. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ...

"... And as long as I am the monarch, I will never let anyone take possession of movable and landed properties of the others by force or without compensation. As long as I am alive, I shall prevent unpaid, forced labor. Today, I announce that everyone is free to choose a religion. People are free to live in all regions and take up a job provided that they never violate other's rights. No one may be penalized for his or her relatives' faults. I prevent slavery and my governors and subordinates are obliged to prohibit exchanging men and women as slaves within their own ruling domains. Such a tradition should be exterminated the world over. ..."[285]

Britain

In 1772, the Somersett Case (R. v. Knowles, ex parte Somersett)[286] of the English Court of King's Bench ruled that slavery was unlawful in England (although not elsewhere in the British Empire). A similar case, that of Joseph Knight, took place in Scotland five years later and ruled slavery to be contrary to the law of Scotland. One of the ancient courts of England, the Kings Bench (or Queens Bench when the monarch is female) is now a division of the High Court of Justice of England and Wales. ... Slave redirects here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Joseph Knight was a slave born in Africa and sold in Jamaica to a Scottish owner. ...


Following the work of campaigners in the United Kingdom, the Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade was passed by Parliament on March 25, 1807, coming into effect the following year. The act imposed a fine of £100 for every slave found aboard a British ship. The intention was to outlaw entirely the Atlantic slave trade within the whole British Empire. The Slave Trade Act (citation ) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed in 1807 the long title of which is An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade. Main article: Atlantic slave trade The act abolished the slave trade in the British empire. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ...


The Slavery Abolition Act, passed on August 23, 1833, outlawed slavery itself in the British colonies. On August 1, 1834 all slaves in the British West Indies, were emancipated, but still indentured to their former owners in an apprenticeship system which was finally abolished in 1838.[287] Categories: | | ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Britain abolished slavery in both Hindu and Muslim India by the Indian Slavery Act V. of 1843.[288] This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Islam in India is the second-most practiced religion after Hinduism. ...


Domestic slavery practised by the educated African coastal elites (as well as interior traditional rulers) in Sierra Leone was abolished in 1928. A study found practices of domestic slavery still widespread in rural areas in the 1970s.[289][290]


France

There were slaves in mainland France, but the institution was never fully authorized there. However, slavery was vitally important in France's Caribbean possessions, especially Saint-Domingue. In 1793, unable to repress the massive slave revolt of August 1791 that had become the Haitian Revolution, the French Revolutionary commissioners Sonthonax and Polverel declared general emancipation. In Paris, on February 4, 1794, Abbé Grégoire and the Convention ratified this action by officially abolishing slavery in all French territories. Napoleon sent troops to the Caribbean in 1802 to try to re-establish slavery. They succeeded in Guadeloupe, but the ex-slaves of Saint-Domingue defeated the French army and declared independance. The colony became Haiti, the first black republic, on January 1, 1804. West Indies redirects here. ... Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ... Combatants Haiti France Commanders Toussaint Louverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines Charles Leclerc, vicomte de Rochambeau, Napoleon Bonaparte Strength Regular army: <55,000, Volunteers: <100,000 Regular army: 60,000, 86 warships and frigates Casualties Military deaths: unknown, Civilian deaths: <100,000 Military deaths: 57,000 (37,000 combat; 20,000 yellow... Leger-Félicité Sonthonax, son of a prosperous French merchant, was a revolutionary affiliated with the Girondin party. ... Étienne Polverel was one of two French Revolutionary Civil Commissioners who ended slavery in Saint-Domingue in 1793 during the Haitian Revolution. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Henri Grégoire Henri Grégoire (December 4, 1750-May 20, 1831) was a French Revolutionary leader and constitutional bishop of Blois. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


Slavery is defined as a crime against humanity by a French law of 2001.[291] In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ...


United States

Slaves in the United States who escaped ownership would often make their way north up through Canada via the "Underground Railroad". The more famous of the African American abolitionists include former slaves Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth and Frederick Douglass. Many more people who opposed slavery and worked for abolition were northern whites, such as William Lloyd Garrison and John Brown. Slavery was legally abolished in 1865 by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. This article is about a 19th-century slave escape route. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Harriet Tubman (c. ... Sojourner Truth (c. ... Frederick Douglass, ca. ... William Lloyd Garrison William Lloyd Garrison (December 12, 1805–May 24, 1879) was a prominent United States abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. ... John Brown, ca. ... Amendment XIII in the National Archives The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit slavery and, with limited exceptions (those convicted of a crime), prohibits involuntary servitude. ...


The British designated Sierra Leone in Africa as a destination country for former slaves of the British Empire, and some Americans hoped to send freed American slaves to Liberia in a similar kind of "repatriation".


While abolitionists agreed on the evils of slavery, there were differing opinions on what should happen after African Americans were freed. Some abolitionists, worried about the difficulties of integrating numerous uneducated people into a hostile environment, hoped to send freed people to Africa. By the time of Emancipation, most African-Americans were now native to the United States and did not want to leave. They believed that their labor had made the land theirs as well as that of the whites; trade unions feared competition in supplying an affordable labor force against former slaves. Most freed people stayed in the United States by choice.[citation needed] The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ...


Twentieth century worldwide

The 1926 Slavery Convention, an initiative of the League of Nations, was a turning point in banning global slavery. Article 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948 by the UN General Assembly, explicitly banned slavery. The United Nations 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery was convened to outlaw and ban slavery worldwide, including child slavery. In December 1966, the UN General Assembly adopted the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which was developed from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 8 of this international treaty bans slavery. The treaty came into force in March 1976 after it had been ratified by 35 nations. As of November 2003, 104 nations had ratified the treaty. 1926 Slavery Convention - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organisation Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ... ... Parties to the ICCPR: members in green, non-members in grey The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976. ...


According to the British Anti-Slavery Society, "Although there is no longer any state which recognizes any claim by a person to a right of property over another, there are an estimated 27 million people throughout the world, mainly children, in conditions of slavery."[292][293][294][295]

See also: List of notable opponents of slavery‎

This is a listing of notable opponents of slavery. ...

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  245. ^ Lankov, Andrei. "Stateless in Sakhalin", The Korea Times, 2006-01-05. Retrieved on 2006-11-26. 
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  247. ^ Congress backs off of wartime Japan rebuke
  248. ^ Comfort Women Were 'Raped': U.S. Ambassador to Japan
  249. ^ Abe ignores evidence, say Australia's 'comfort women'
  250. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica - Slavery
  251. ^ Edward Willett Wagner - The Harvard University Gazette
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  254. ^ Korean Nobi
  255. ^ Nobi: Rescuing the Nation from Slavery
  256. ^ Cambodia Angkor Wat
  257. ^ Windows on Asia
  258. ^ Khmer Society - Angkor Wat
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  260. ^ Slavery in Nineteenth-Century Northern Thailand
  261. ^ The Yi Nationality
  262. ^ General Profile of the Yi
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  264. ^ Tana Toraja Traditional Settlement
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  268. ^ A modern form of slavery: Trafficking of Burmese Women and Girls into Brothels in Thailand
  269. ^ ILO cracks the whip at Yangon
  270. ^ "ILO seeks to charge Myanmar junta with atrocities", Reuters, 2006-11-16. Retrieved on 2006-11-17. 
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  272. ^ Georgia in the Beginning of Feudal Decomposition. (XVIII cen.)
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  274. ^ Adventure in the East - TIME
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  276. ^ Slave of the Caucasus
  277. ^ Kapu System and Caste System of Ancient Hawai'i
  278. ^ Maori Prisoners and Slaves in the Nineteenth Century
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  283. ^ Moriori - The impact of new arrivals - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand
  284. ^ New Zealand A to Z |Chatham Islands
  285. ^ History of Iran: Cyrus Charter of Human Rights
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  287. ^ This Day at Law: Slavery abolished in the British Empire
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  290. ^ Response The 1833 Abolition of Slavery Act didn't end the vile trade
  291. ^ (French) Loi n° 2001-434 du 21 mai 2001 tendant à la reconnaissance de la traite et de l'esclavage en tant que crime contre l'humanité. French National Assembly (May 21, 2001). Retrieved on 2006-04-26.
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  293. ^ BBC Millions 'forced into slavery'
  294. ^ Slavery: Modern Slavery: Debt Bondage & Slave Exploitation
  295. ^ The Skin Trade - TIME

Erik Pontoppidan (August 24, 1698 in Aarhus - December 20, 1764) was a Danish author, prelate, historian and antiquary. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Xlibris is a Philadelphia-based self-publishing and on-demand printing services provider. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City* Founded 1728 Incorporated 1781 Government  - Mayor Thomas Tomzak Area  - City  10. ... The Virginia Gazette (also called simply Virginia Gazette) is the local newspaper of the City of Williamsburg and James City County, Virginia. ... The University of Mary Washington (formerly Mary Washington College) is a coeducational, selective, state-funded, four-year liberal arts college and a member of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges in Fredericksburg, Virginia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

General
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Other

Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... Coolie refers to unskilled laborers from Asia of the 1800s to early 1900s who were sent to the United States, Australia, New Zealand, North Africa and the West Indies. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ... Serf redirects here. ... Wage slavery is a term used to refer to a hierarchical social condition in which a person chooses a job but only within a coerced set of choices (i. ... The slave trade in Africa has existed for thousands of years. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islam and slavery. ... The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... Blackbirding refers to the recruitment of people through trickery and kidnappings to work on plantations, particularly the sugar cane plantations of Queensland (Australia) and Fiji[1] , as well as in the early days of the pearling industry in Broome. ... The coastwise slave trade existed along the eastern coastal areas of North America. ... Throughout the history of Sweden, there have been instances of slave trade. ... Slavery in Africa, as in some other regions of the world, continues today. ... For other uses, see Human trafficking (disambiguation). ... . ... The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish: ينيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning new soldier) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Mamluk Sultanate, 1250]] History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of  Egypt  Saudi Arabia  Syria  Palestine  Israel  Lebanon  Jordan  Turkey  Libya A Mamluk cavalryman... In the medieval Arab world, the term Saqaliba (سقالبة, sg. ... The Anti-Slavery Society was founded in Britain in 1823. ... The United States National Slavery Museum is a non-profit organization based in Fredericksburg, Virginia, that is fundraising and campaigning to establish a national museum on slavery in America. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 2004 was declared the International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition by the United Nations General Assembly. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The battle of Fort Sumter was the first stage in a conflict that had been brewing for decades. ... The requested page title was invalid, empty, an incorrectly linked inter-language or inter-wiki title, or contained illegal characters. ... In the history of slavery, asiento (or assiento, meaning assent ) refers to the permission given by the Spanish government to other countries to sell slaves to the Spanish colonies, from the years 1543-1834. ... The Monument to the Bandeiras, a stone sculpture group by Victor Brecheret, located in São Paulo, Brazil Bandeirantes were participants in the Bandeiras, expeditions organised by the inhabitants of the then poor village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga together with allied Indians to enslave other Indians... Fazendas were coffee estates that spread within the interior of Brazil between 1840 and 186, which created major export commodities for Brazilian trade, but also led to intensification of slavery in Brazil. ... Kholops (Холопы in Russian) were feudally dependant people in Russia between the 10th and early 18th centuries. ... Pedro Blanco (?-1854) was a notorious Spanish slave trader based in Gallinas on the coast of Sierra Leone in the second quarter of the 19th century. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sambos Grave is the burial site of a young African cabin boy or slave, in the small village of Sunderland Point, near Heysham and Overton, Lancashire. ... The slave narrative is a literary form which grew out of the experience of enslaved Africans in the New World. ... A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves. ... Slave ships were cargo boats specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves, especially newly captured African slaves. ... It is sometimes said that slavery at common law did not exist, often on the basis of pronouncements such as those attributed (incorrectly) to Lord Mansfield, that the air of England is too pure for any slave to breathe. ... The William (or Willie) Lynch Speech (or Letter) is a text of unknown origin which drew widespread attention when it circulated throughout the Internet during the 1990s. ... The History of Liverpool can be traced back to 1190 when the place was known as Liuerpul, possibly meaning a pool or creek with muddy water. ... For other uses, see Guaraní (disambiguation). ... A Peasant Leaving His Landlord on Yuriev Day, painting by Sergei V. Ivanov. ...

External links

  • UN.GIFT - Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking
  • Slave Trade Archives Project, UNESCO
  • Parliament & The British Slave Trade 1600 - 1807
  • Digital History - Slavery Facts & Myths
  • Muslim Slave System in Medieval India
  • Arab Slave Trade
  • Scotland and the Abolition of the Slave Trade - schools resource
  • African Holocaust Society - Anti-slavery and self-determination working to educate via media
  • The Forgotten Holocaust: The Eastern Slave Trade
  • Teaching resources about Slavery and Abolition on blackhistory4schools.com
  • African history by Africans
  • "What really ended slavery?" Robin Blackburn, author of a two-volume history of the slave trade, interviewed by International Socialism
Robin Blackburn (born 1940) is a British socialist historian, a former editor of New Left Review, and author of a number of works on Marxism and the history of Slavery in the New World. ... International Socialism (ISJ) is a quarterly journal of socialist theory published by the Socialist Workers Party (Britain) and currently edited by Chris Harman. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Ultimate Slavery - American History Information Guide and Reference (7961 words)
Slavery in the ancient Mediterranean cultures was a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war.
Slavery in the Americas during the 17th century was an institution that made little distinction as to the race of the enslaved or the free man. But by the 18th century, the overwhelming number of enslaved "fl" persons was such that white and Native American slavery was less common.
Slavery under European rule began with importation of white European slaves (or indentured servants), was followed by the enslavement of local aborigines in the Caribbean, and eventually was primarily replaced with Africans imported through a large slave trade as the native populations declined through disease.
History of slavery - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6505 words)
Slavery in the ancient Mediterranean cultures was known to occur in civilizations as old as Sumer, and found in every such civilization, including Ancient Egypt, the Akkadian Empire, Assyria, Greece, Rome, parts of the Roman Empire and the Islamic Caliphate.
Slavery in Japan was, for most of its history, indigenous, since the export and import of slaves was restricted by Japan being a group of islands.
Slavery was outlawed on English Annexation of New Zealand in 1840, immediately prior to the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, although it did not end completely until government was effectively extended over the whole of the country with the defeat of the King movement in the New Zealand Wars of the mid 1860s.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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