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Encyclopedia > History of science in the Middle Ages
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The history of science in the Middle Ages refers to the discoveries in the field of natural philosophy throughout the Middle Ages - the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history. Although the period usually refers to European history, scientific advances in the Eastern World will also be accounted for in the present article. Science is a body of verifiable empirical knowledge, a global community of scholars, and a set of techniques for investigating the universe known as the scientific method. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1020x1508, 359 KB) Book cover Frontispiece of : Tabulae Rudolphinae : quibus astronomicae . ... The sociology and philosophy of science, as well as the entire field of science studies, have in the 20th century been preoccupied with the question of large-scale patterns and trends in the development of science, and asking questions about how science works both in a philosophical and practical sense. ... The historiography of science is the study of the history of science (often overlapping with the history of technology, history of medicine, and history of mathematics), generally in an academic context as part of the discipline of the history of science and technology (HST), history and philosophy of science (HPS... A pseudoscience is any body of knowledge purported to be scientific or supported by science but which fails to comply with the scientific method. ... The Ptolemaic system of celestial motion, from Harmonia Macrocosmica, 1661. ... In prehistoric times, advice and knowledge was passed from generation to generation in an oral tradition. ... We dont have an article called History of science in the Renaissance Start this article Search for History of science in the Renaissance in. ... In the history of science, the scientific revolution was the period that roughly began with the discoveries of Kepler, Galileo, and others at the dawn of the 17th century, and ended with the publication of the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687 by Isaac Newton. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe before the development of modern science. ... Astronomy is probably the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious practices of pre-history: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with astronomy, and not completely separate from it until about 1750‑1800 in the Western... The history of biology dates as far back as the rise of various civilization as classic philosophers did their own ways of biology as a system of understanding life. ... Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and his Wife, by Jacques-Louis David The history of chemistry may be said to begin with the distinction of chemistry from alchemy by Robert Boyle in his work The Skeptical Chymist, which was written after a long and tearfilled talk with his father, and alchymist... ÛEcology is generally spoken of as a new science, having only become prominent in the second half of the 20th Century. ... The growth of physics has brought not only fundamental changes in ideas about the material world, mathematics and philosophy, but also, through technology, a transformation of society. ... The term economics was coined around 1870 and popularized by Alfred Marshall, as a substitute for the earlier term political economy which has been used through the 18th-19th centuries, with Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Karl Marx as its main thinkers and which today is frequently referred to as... Efforts to describe and explain the human language faculty have been undertaken throughout recorded history. ... Antecedents of political science While the study of politics is first found in the Western tradition in Ancient Greece, political science is a late arrival in terms of social sciences. ... The history of psychology consists of a prescientific and a scientific epoch. ... Sociology is a relatively new academic discipline among other social sciences including economics, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... The wheel was invented circa 4000 BC, and has become one of the worlds most famous and most useful technologies. ... Agronomy today is very different from what it was before about 1950. ... The history of computer science began long before the modern discipline of computer science that emerged in the 20th century. ... The History of materials science is rooted in the history of the Earth and the culture of the peoples of the Earth. ... All human societies have medical beliefs that provide explanations for, and responses to, birth, death, and disease. ... Alternative meanings: Timeline is a 1999 science fiction novel by Michael Crichton Timeline is a 2003 film based on the novel. ... Natural philosophy is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe before the development of modern science. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide time into discrete named blocks. ... World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Western Europe entered the Middle Ages with great difficulties that affected the continent's intellectual production dramatically. Most classical scientific treatises of classical antiquity (in Greek) were unavailable, leaving only compilations and summaries that were often corrupted in the process of copying and translating. Notwithstanding, with the beginning of the Renaissance of the 12th century, interest in natural investigation was renewed. Science developed in this golden period of Scholastic philosophy focused on logic and advocated empiricism, perceiving nature as a coherent system of laws that could be explained in the light of reason. A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times Western Europe was largely defined by the Cold War, with the Iron Curtain separating it from Eastern Europe (Warsaw Pact countries). ... It has been suggested that Greco-Roman be merged into this article or section. ... Translation is an activity comprising the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language — the source text — and the production, in another language, of a new, equivalent text — the target text, or translation. ... New technological discoveries allowed the development of the gothic style. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... Empiricism comes from the Greek word εμπειρισμός, a noun meaning a test or trial. The -pir- is ultimately related to the -per- of the Latin words experientia and experimentum, both of which mean experiment, and from which our words experiment and experience come. ...


With this view the medieval men of science went in search of explanations for the phenomena of the universe and achieved important advances in areas such as scientific methodology and physics, among many others. These advances, however, were suddenly interrupted by the Black Plague and are virtually unknown to the lay public of today, partly because most theories advanced in medieval science are today obsolete, and partly because of the stereotype of Middle Ages as supposedly "Dark Ages". The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. ... Scientific method as envisaged by one of its early exponents, Sir Isaac Newton, is fundamental to the investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ... A Superconductor demonstrating the Meissner Effect Physics (from the Greek, φυσικός (physikos), natural, and φύσις (physis), nature) is the science of the natural world dealing with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces they exert on one another, and the results produced by these forces. ... This article concerns the epidemic of the mid-14th century. ... Obsolescence is when a person or object is no longer wanted even though it is still in good working order. ... Stereotypes are considered to be a group concept, held by one social group about another. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ...

Contents


The Middle Ages: Western World

Early Middle Ages

In the Early Middle Ages, cultural life was concentrated at monasteries.
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In the Early Middle Ages, cultural life was concentrated at monasteries.

See also: Medieval medicine, Medieval philosophy This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Silos-Claustro. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Silos-Claustro. ... The Tikse monastery in Ladakh, India A monastery is the habitation of monks, derived from the Greek word for a hermits cell. ... Astrology played a very important part in Medieval medicine; most university-educated physicians were trained in at least the basics of astrology to use in their practice Medieval medicine was an evolving mixture of the scientific and the spiritual. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The Western Roman Empire, although united by the latin language, still harbored a great number of different cultures that were not completely assimiliated by the Roman culture. Debilitated by migrations, barbarian invasions and the political disintegration of Rome in the 5th century, and isolated of the rest of the world by the spreading of Islam in the 7th century, the European West became a tapestry of rural populations and semi-nomad peoples. The political instability and the downfall of urban life had a strong, negative impact on the cultural life of the continent. The Catholic Church, being the only institution to survive the process, maintained what was left of intellectual strength, especially through monasticism. The Western Roman Empire is the name given to the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian in 286 AD. It would exist intermittently in several periods between the 3rd Century and the 5th Century, after Diocletians Tetrarchy and the reunifications associated with Constantine the... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ... // Overview Events Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor 410: Rome sacked by Visigoths 452: Pope Leo I allegedly meets personally with Attila the Hun and convinces him not to sack Rome 439: Vandals conquer Carthage At some point after 440, the Anglo-Saxons settle in Britain. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God)) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second-largest religion. ... // Overview Events The Roman-Persian Wars end. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... The Roman Catholic Church (commonly known as the Catholic Church) is the Christian Church which is led by the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. The Roman Catholic Church teaches that it is the one holy catholic and apostolic Church founded by Jesus Christ. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ...


The intellectual man of these first centuries was almost always a clergyman for whom the study of nature was but a small part of instruction. These intellectuals lived in an atmosphere that valued faith over reason and was turned much more to the ultimate salvation of the soul than to the study of natural details. Furthermore, the precarious and almost always economically difficult life that was led in the period occupied the average early medieval man with several day-to-day tasks. For this reason, the scientific activity of the time was reduced to citation and commentary of references from antiquity; these commentaries were often filled with technical errors, since the text used as reference - the available works in latin - seldom were without truncated and deturpated information. Partly because of this regression in scientific development, the period from about 476 to about 1000 came to be known in popular culture as the Dark Ages. Nowadays, most modern historians dismiss the use of the term by pointing out that the labelling of this era as "dark" was mostly based on previous ignorance about the period combined with popular stereotypes. Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... The deepest visible-light image of the universe, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. ... The word faith has various uses; its central meaning is similar to belief, trust or confidence, but unlike these terms, faith tends to imply a transpersonal rather than interpersonal relationship – with God or a higher power. ... Reason is a term used in philosophy and other human sciences to refer to the higher cognitive faculties of the human mind. ... In prehistoric times, advice and knowledge was passed from generation to generation in an oral tradition. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... // Events World Population 300 million. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in any given society. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... Stereotypes are considered to be a group concept, held by one social group about another. ...


In the end of the 8th century the first attempt at rebuilding Western culture occurred. Charles the Great, having succeeded at uniting a great portion of Europe under his domain, and in order to further unify and strengthen his empire, decided to carry out a reform in education. The English monk Alcuin of York elaborated a project of scholarly development aimed at resuscitating classical knowledge by establishing programs of study beased upon the seven liberal arts: the trivium, or literary education (grammar, rhetoric and dialectic) and the quadrivium, or scientific education (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music). From the year 787 on, decrees began to circulate recommending, in the whole empire, the restoration of old schools and the founding of new ones. Institutionally, these new schools were either under the responsibility of a monastery, a cathedral or a noble court. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Charlemagne (742 or 747 – 28 January 814) (also Charles the Great; from Latin, Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus), son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, was the king of the Franks from 768 to 814 and king of the Lombards from 774 to 814. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... Rabanus Maurus (left), supported by Alcuin (middle), presents his work to Otgar of Mainz Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus or Ealhwine (c. ... In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ... Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. ... Rhetoric (from Greek ρήτωρ, rhêtôr, orator) is the art or technique of persuasion, usually through the use of language. ... Broadly defined, Dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a synthesis of the opposing assertions, or at least a qualitative transformation in the direction of the dialogue. ... Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) in common usage is a branch of (or the forerunner of) mathematics which records elementary properties of certain operations on numerals, though professional mathematicians often treat arithmetic as a synonym for number theory. ... Geometry (Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth, metria = measure) arose as the field of knowledge dealing with spatial relationships. ... Lunar astronomy: the large crater is Daedalus, photographed by the crew of Apollo 11 as they circled the Moon in 1969. ... Music is an art, entertainment, or other human activity which involves organized and audible sound, though definitions vary. ... This article is about the year 787. ... Decree is an order that has the force of law. ... The Tikse monastery in Ladakh, India A monastery is the habitation of monks, derived from the Greek word for a hermits cell. ... A cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Anglican, Roman Catholic and some Lutheran churches, which serves as the central church of a diocese, and thus as a bishops seat. ... A royal or noble court, as an instrument of government broader than a court of justice, comprises an extended household centered on a patron whose rule may govern law or be governed by it. ...


The significance of these measures would only be felt centuries later. The teaching of dialectic (a discipline that corresponds to today's logic) was responsible for the rebirth of the interest in speculative inquiry; from this interest would follow the rise of the Scholastic tradition of Christian philosophy. Moreover, in the 12th and 13th century, many of those schools founded under the auspices of Charles the Great, especially cathedral schools, would become universities. Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Christian philosophy is a catch-all expression for a two-millennia tradition of rational thought that attempts to fuse the fields of philosophy with the religious teachings of Christianity. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees at all levels (bachelor, master, and doctor) in a variety of subjects. ...


High Middle Ages

See Also: Renaissance of the 12th century, Medieval technology The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Download high resolution version (1087x971, 369 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1087x971, 369 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This article is about European institutions. ... New technological discoveries allowed the development of the gothic style. ... During the 12th and 13th century in Europe there was a radical change in the rate of new inventions During the 12th and 13th century in Europe there was a radical change in the rate of new inventions, innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production, and economic...


The cultural scenario starts to change in the 12th century, when the contact with the Arabs after the Reconquista and during the Crusades, (mainly in Sicily and Spain), allowed Europeans access to preserved copies of Greek and Roman works. This period also saw the birth of medieval universities, these universities aided materially in the translation, preservation and propagation of the texts of the ancients and started a new infrastructure which was needed for scientific communities. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... Sicilian disambiguates here; see also Sicilian language or Sicilian Defence. ... History - Ancient history - Ancient Rome This is a List of Ancient Rome-related topics, that aims to include aspects of both the Ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... This article is about European institutions. ...


The rediscovery of the works of Aristotle through medieval Jewish and Muslim Philosophy (Maimonides, Avicenna, and Averroes) allowed the development of the new Christian philosophy and method of scholasticism. By 1200 there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of Aristotle, Plato, Euclid, Ptolemy, Archimedes and Galen, that is, of all the intellectually crucial ancient authors except Thucydides. During the thirteenth century the natural philosophy of these texts began to be extended by notable Scholastics such as Robert Grosseteste, Roger Bacon, Albertus Magnus, and Duns Scotus. Aristotle (Ancient Greek: Aristotelēs 384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, who studied with Plato and taught Alexander the Great. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Moshe ben Maimon (March 30, 1135–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... The works of Avicenna, the greatest of the medieval Islamic physicians, played a crucial role in the European Renaissance. ... Averroes Averroes (Ibn Rushd) (1126 – December 10, 1198) was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Christian philosophy is a catch-all expression for a two-millennia tradition of rational thought that attempts to fuse the fields of philosophy with the religious teachings of Christianity. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Aristotle (Ancient Greek: Aristotelēs 384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, who studied with Plato and taught Alexander the Great. ... Plato Plato (Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn) (c. ... Euclid Euclid of Alexandria (Greek: ) (ca. ... Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... Archimedes of Syracuse. ... Claudius Galenus of Pergamum (131-201 AD), better known in English as Galen, was an ancient Greek physician. ... Bust of Thucydides Thucydides (between 460 and 455 BC–circa 400 BC, Greek Θουκυδίδης, Thoukudídês) was an ancient Greek historian, and the author of the History of the Peloponnesian War, which recounts the 5th century BC war between Sparta and Athens. ... Natural philosophy is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe before the development of modern science. ... Scholastic redirects here. ... Robert Grosseteste (c. ... Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum Roger Bacon (c. ... Albertus Magnus (fresco, 1352, Treviso, Italy) Albertus Magnus (1193? – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a Dominican friar who became famous for his universal knowledge and advocacy for the peaceful coexistence of science and religion. ... Blessed John Duns Scotus (c. ...

God creating the universe after geometric and harmonic principles. To seek these principles was therefore to seek and worship God.
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God creating the universe after geometric and harmonic principles. To seek these principles was therefore to seek and worship God.

Scholastics believed in empiricism and supporting Roman Catholic doctrines through secular study, reason, and logic. The most famous was Thomas Aquinas (later declared a "Doctor of the Church"), who led the move away from the Platonic and Augustinian and towards Aristotelianism, but natural philosophy wasn't his main concern. Meanwhile, precursors of the modern scientific method can be seen already on Grosseteste's emphasis on mathematics as a way to understand nature and on the empirical approach admired by Roger Bacon. Image File history File links God-Architect. ... Image File history File links God-Architect. ... Geometry (from the Greek words Ge = earth and metro = measure) is the branch of mathematics first introduced by Theaetetus dealing with spatial relationships. ... Empiricism comes from the Greek word εμπειρισμός, a noun meaning a test or trial. The -pir- is ultimately related to the -per- of the Latin words experientia and experimentum, both of which mean experiment, and from which our words experiment and experience come. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... In Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church is a theologian from whose teachings the whole Christian church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of the Pope or of an ecumenical council. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... St. ... Natural philosophy is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe before the development of modern science. ... Scientific method as envisaged by one of its early exponents, Sir Isaac Newton, is fundamental to the investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ... Mathematics is often defined as the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. ...


Grosseteste was the founder of the famous Oxford franciscan school. He was the first scholastic to fully understand Aristotle's vision of the dual path of scientific reasoning. Concluding from particular observations into a universal law, and then back again: from universal laws to prediction of particulars. Grosseteste called this "resolution and composition". Further, Grosseteste said that both paths should be verified through experimentation in order to verify the principals. These ideas established a tradition that carried forward to Padua and Galileo Galilei in the 17th century. The Oxford Franciscan school was the name given to a group of scholastic philosophers that, in the context of the Renaissance of the 12th century, gave special contribution to the development of science and scientific methodology during the High Middle Ages. ... Aristotle (Ancient Greek: Aristotelēs 384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, who studied with Plato and taught Alexander the Great. ... Location within Italy Tronco Maestro Riviera: a pedestrian walk along a section of the inland waterway or naviglio interno of Padua The city of Padua (Lat. ... Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei (Pisa, February 15, 1564 – Arcetri, January 8, 1642), was an Italian physicist, astronomer, and philosopher who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


Under the tuition of Grosseteste and inspired by the writings of Arab alchemists who had preserved and built upon Aristotle's portrait of induction. Bacon described a repeating cycle of observation, hypothesis, experimentation, and the need for independent verification. He recorded the manner in which he conducted his experiments in precise detail so that others could reproduce and independently test his results - a cornerstone of the scientific method, and a continuation of the work of researchers like Al Battani. For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Aristotle (Ancient Greek: Aristotelēs 384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, who studied with Plato and taught Alexander the Great. ... Induction or inductive reasoning, sometimes called inductive logic, is the process of reasoning in which the premises of an argument support the conclusion, but do not ensure it. ... Observation is an activity of an intelligent living being, to sense and assimiliate the knowledge of a phenomenon in its framework of previous knowledge and ideas. ... A hypothesis (from ancient Greek hypotithenai, to put under, to suppose) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. ... In the scientific method, an experiment is a set of actions and observations, performed to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods. ... Scientific method as envisaged by one of its early exponents, Sir Isaac Newton, is fundamental to the investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ... Al Battani (ca. ...

Optic studies from Robert Grosseteste's De Natura Locorum. The diagram shows light being refracted by a spherical glass container full of water.
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Optic studies from Robert Grosseteste's De Natura Locorum. The diagram shows light being refracted by a spherical glass container full of water.

Bacon and Grosseteste conducted experiments into optics, although much of it was similar to what was being done at the time by Arab scholars. Bacon did make a major contribution to the development of science in medieval Europe by writing to the Pope to encourage the study of natural science in university courses and compiling several volumes recording the state of scientific knowledge in many fields at the time. He described the possible construction of a telescope, but there is no strong evidence of his having made one. Image File history File links Grosseteste-optics. ... Image File history File links Grosseteste-optics. ... See also list of optical topics. ... Robert Grosseteste (c. ... See also: List of optical topics Optics (appearance or look in ancient Greek) is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light and the interaction of light with matter. ... The Pope (from Greek: pappas, father; from Latin: papa, Papa, father) is the head of the Catholic Church, which considers him the successor of St. ... 50 cm refracting telescope at Nice Observatory. ...


Late Middle Ages

The first half of the 14th century saw the scientific work of great thinkers. The logic studies by William of Occam led him to postulate the principle known today as Occam's Razor. According to Occam, philosophy should only concern itself with subjects on which it could achieve real knowledge, a principle often referred to as parsimony. This should lead to a decline in fruitless debates and move philosophy toward experimental science. Dante by Michelino The Late Middle Ages is a term used by historians to describe European history in the period of the 14th and 15th centuries (1300–1500 CE). ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... Hello, I am Sam, Sam I am. ... William of Ockham Occams Razor (also spelled Ockhams Razor) is a principle attributed to the 14th-century English logician and Franciscan friar William of Ockham. ... Parsimony, in the general sense, means taking extreme care at arriving at a course of action; or unusual or excessive frugality, extreme economy or stinginess. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Science For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ...


By the time, some scholars, such as Jean Buridan, started to question the received wisdom of Aristotle's mechanics, he developed the theory of impetus which was the first step towards the modern concept of inertia. Buridan anticipated Isaac Newton when he wrote: Jean Buridan, in Latin Joannes Buridanus (1300 - 1358) was a French priest who sowed the seeds of religious scepticism in Europe. ... Aristotle (Ancient Greek: Aristotelēs 384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, who studied with Plato and taught Alexander the Great. ... Impetus is an obsolete scientific theory of motion, largely developed by Jean Buridan in the 14th century. ... The principle of inertia is one of the fundamental laws of classical physics which are used to describe the motion of matter and how it is affected by applied forces. ... Sir Isaac Newton, PRS, (4 January [O.S. 25 December 1642] 1643 – 31 March [O.S. 20 March] 1727) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, alchemist, inventor and natural philosopher who is generally regarded as one of the most influential scientists in history. ...

...after leaving the arm of the thrower, the projectile would be moved by an impetus given to it by the thrower and would continue to be moved as long as the impetus remained stronger than the resistance, and would be of infinite duration were it not diminished and corrupted by a contrary force resisting it or by something inclining it to a contrary motion

Thomas Bradwardine and his partners: the Oxford Calculators of Merton College, distinguished kinematics from dynamics, emphasizing kinematics, and investigating instantaneous velocity. They first formulated the mean speed theorem: a body moving with constant velocity travels distance and time equal to an accelerated body whose velocity is half the final speed of the accelerated body. They also demonstrated this theorem -- essence of "The Law of Falling Bodies" -- long before Galileo is credited with this. Thomas Bradwardine (c. ... Merton College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ... In physics, kinematics is the branch of mechanics concerned with the motions of objects without being concerned with the forces that cause the motion. ... The word dynamics can refer to: a branch of mechanics; see dynamics (mechanics) the volume of music; see dynamics (music) DYNAMIC+ This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei (Pisa, February 15, 1564 – Arcetri, January 8, 1642), was an Italian physicist, astronomer, and philosopher who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ...


In his turn, Nicole Oresme showed that the reasons proposed by the physics of Aristotle against the movement of the earth were not valid and adduced the argument of simplicity for the theory that the earth moves, and not the heavens. In the whole of his argument in favor of the earth's motion Oresme is both more explicit and much clearer than that given two centuries latter by Copernicus. He was also the first to assume that color and light are of the same nature and the discoverer of the curvature of light through atmospheric refraction; even though, up to now, the credit for this latter achievement has been given to Hooke. Nicolas Oresme (c. ... Nicolaus Copernicus (in Latin; Polish Mikołaj Kopernik, German Nikolaus Kopernikus - February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system in a form detailed enough to make it scientifically useful. ... Atmospheric refraction is the deviation of light or other electromagnetic wave from a straight line as it passes through the atmosphere due to the variation in air density as a function of altitude. ... Hooke may refer to a number of things: The scientist Robert Hooke Hooke village in Dorset, England The River Hooke, also in Dorset This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ...


However, a series of events that would be known as the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages was under its way. When came the Black Death of 1348, it sealed a sudden end to the previous period of massive scientific change. The plague killed a third of the people in Europe, especially in the crowded conditions of the towns, where the heart of innovations lay. Recurrences of the plague and other disasters caused a continuing decline of population for a century. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... Events April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ...


Renaissance of the 15th century

Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man, an example of the blend of art and science during the Renaissance
Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man, an example of the blend of art and science during the Renaissance
See also: Renaissance

The 15th century saw the beginning of the cultural movement of the Renaissance. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (894x1250, 147 KB)Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (894x1250, 147 KB)Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci. ... Leonardo da Vinci (Vinci, Italy, April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519, Cloux, France) was an Italian Renaissance polymath: an architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. ... The Vitruvian Man is a famous drawing with accompanying notes by Leonardo da Vinci made around the year 1490 in one of his journals. ... In the traditional view, the Renaissance is understood as an historical age that was preceded by the Middle Ages and followed by the Reformation. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... In the traditional view, the Renaissance is understood as an historical age that was preceded by the Middle Ages and followed by the Reformation. ...


The rediscovery of ancient texts was accelerated after the Fall of Constantinople, in 1453, when many Byzantine scholars had to seek refuge in the West, particularly Italy. Also, the invention of printing was to have great effect on European society: the facilitated dissemination of the printed word democratized learning and allowed a faster propagation of new ideas. Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Constantine XI† Mehmed II Strength 7,000 100,000 Casualties Entire garrison killed or captured Unknown, but heavy The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of the Byzantine capital by the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29... Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: ) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The folder of newspaper web offset printing press Printing is a process for production of texts and images, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. ...


But this initial period is usually seen as one of scientific backwardness. There were no new developments in physics or astronomy, and the reverence for classical sources further enshrined the Aristotelian and Ptolemaic views of the universe. Humanism stressed that nature came to be viewed as an animate spiritual creation that was not governed by laws or mathematics. At the same time philosophy lost much of its rigour as the rules of logic and deduction were seen as secondary to intuition and emotion. Aristotle (Ancient Greek: Aristotelēs 384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, who studied with Plato and taught Alexander the Great. ... Ptolemy, one of Alexander the Greats generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexanders death in 323 BC. In 305 BC he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as Soter (saviour). ... Humanism is a broad category of active ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on our ability to determine what is right using the qualities innate to humanity, particularly rationality. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ...


It would not be until the Renaissance moved to Northern Europe that science would be revived, with such figures as Copernicus, Francis Bacon, and Descartes (though Descartes is often described as an early Enlightenment thinker, rather than a late Renaissance one). Nicolaus Copernicus (in Latin; Polish Mikołaj Kopernik, German Nikolaus Kopernikus - February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system in a form detailed enough to make it scientifically useful. ... Sir Francis Bacon For other people named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ...


Great names of science in medieval Europe

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Robert Grosseteste (1168-1253), Bishop of Lincoln, was the central character of the English intellectual movement in the first half of the 13th century and is considered the founder of scientific thought in Oxford. He had a great interest in the natural world and wrote texts on themes such as sound, astronomy and geometry. He affirmed that experiments should be used in order to verify a theory, testing its consequences; his experimental work on optics was of relevance. Roger Bacon was one of his most renowned students. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Robert Grosseteste (c. ... Arms of the Bishop of Lincoln The Bishop of Lincoln heads the Anglican Diocese of Lincoln in the Province of Canterbury. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... A schematic representation of hearing. ... Lunar astronomy: the large crater is Daedalus, photographed by the crew of Apollo 11 as they circled the Moon in 1969. ... Geometry (Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth, metria = measure) arose as the field of knowledge dealing with spatial relationships. ... See also: List of optical topics Optics (appearance or look in ancient Greek) is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light and the interaction of light with matter. ... Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum Roger Bacon (c. ...

Albert the Great (1193-1280), Doctor Universalis, was one of the most prominent representatives of the philosophical tradition emerging from the Dominican Order. He is one of the thirty-three Saints of the Catholic Church honored with the title of Doctor of the Church. He became famous for his vast knowledge and for his defence of the pacific coexistence between science and religion. Albert was an essential figure in introducing Greek and Islamic science into the medieval universities, but not without hesitation with particular aristotelian theses. In one of his most famous sayings he asserted: "Science does not consist in ratifying what others say, but of searching for the causes of phenomena." Thomas Aquinas was his most famous pupil. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Albertus Magnus (fresco, 1352, Treviso, Italy) Albertus Magnus (1193? - 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a Dominican friar who became famous for his universal knowledge and advocacy for the peaceful coexistence of science and religion. ... Laudare, Benedicere, Praedicare Saint Dominic de Guzman saw the need for a new type of organization to address the needs of his time, one that would bring the dedication and systematic education of the older monastic orders to bear on the religious problems of the burgeoning population of cities, but... General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... The Roman Catholic Church believes its founding was based on Jesus appointment of Saint Peter as the primary church leader, later Bishop of Rome. ... In Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church is a theologian from whose teachings the whole Christian church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of the Pope or of an ecumenical council. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ...

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Roger Bacon (1214-1294), Doutor Admirabilis, joined the Franciscan Order around 1240 where, influenced by Grosseteste, he dedicated himself to studies where he implemented the observation of nature and experimentation as the foundation of natural knowledge. Bacon was responsible for making the concept of "laws of nature" widespread, and contributed in such areas as mechanics, geography and, most of all, optics. Download high resolution version (700x694, 48 KB)Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. ... Download high resolution version (700x694, 48 KB)Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. ... Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum Roger Bacon (c. ... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... The Laws of Nature are claimed in the United States Declaration of Independence to be the work of the Creator of unalienable rights identified as Natures God. ... Mechanics refers to: a craft relating to machinery (from the Latin mechanicus, from the Greek mechanikos, meaning one skilled in machines), or a range of disciplines in science and engineering. ...


The optical research of Grosseteste and Bacon made possible the beginning of the fabrication of eyeglasses in the 12th century. The same research would also prove invaluable for the later invention of such instruments as the telescope and the microscope. A pair of eyeglasses Glasses, spectacles, or eyeglasses are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the human eyes, sometimes for purely aesthetic reasons but normally for vision correction or eye protection. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... 50 cm refracting telescope at Nice Observatory. ... It has been suggested that microscopy be merged into this article or section. ...

Thomas Aquinas (1227-1274), Doctor Angelicus, was an Italian theologian and friar in the Dominican Order. As his mentor Albert the Great, he is a Catholic Saint and Doctor of the Church. His interests were not only in philosophy; he was also interested in alchemy, having written an important treatise titled Aurora Consurgens. However, his greatest contribution to the scientific development of the period was having been the greatest responsible for the definitive incorporation of aristotelism in the Scholastic tradition. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x3144, 560 KB) Description: Title: de: Altar von San Domenico in Ascoli, Polyptychon, linke äußere Aufsatztafel: Hl. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x3144, 560 KB) Description: Title: de: Altar von San Domenico in Ascoli, Polyptychon, linke äußere Aufsatztafel: Hl. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... Laudare, Benedicere, Praedicare Saint Dominic de Guzman saw the need for a new type of organization to address the needs of his time, one that would bring the dedication and systematic education of the older monastic orders to bear on the religious problems of the burgeoning population of cities, but... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Aristotle (Ancient Greek: AristotelÄ“s 384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, who studied with Plato and taught Alexander the Great. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ...

Duns Scotus (1266-1308), Doctor Subtilis, was a member of the Franciscan Order, philosopher and theologian. Emerging from the academic environment of the University of Oxford. where the presence of Grosseteste and Bacon was still palpable, he had a different view on the relationship between reason and faith as that of Thomas Aquinas. For Duns Scotus, the truths of faith could not be comprehended through the use of reason. Philosophy, hence, should not be a servant to theology, but act independently. He was the mentor of one of the greatest names of philosophy in the Middle Ages: William of Ockham. Image File history File links John Duns Scotus (c. ... Image File history File links John Duns Scotus (c. ... Blessed John Duns Scotus (c. ... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Reason is a term used in philosophy and other human sciences to refer to the higher cognitive faculties of the human mind. ... The word faith has various uses; its central meaning is similar to belief, trust or confidence, but unlike these terms, faith tends to imply a transpersonal rather than interpersonal relationship – with God or a higher power. ... Hello, I am Sam, Sam I am. ...

William of Ockham (1285-1350), o Doctor Invincibilis, was an English Franciscan friar, philosopher, logician and theologian. Ockham defended the principle of parsimony, which could already be seen in the works of his mentor Duns Scotus. His principle later became known as Occam's Razor and states that if there are various equally valid explanations for a fact, then the simplest one should be chosen. This became a foundation of what would come to be known as the scientific method and one of the pilars of reductionism in science. Ockham probably died of the Black Plague. Jean Buridan and Nicolas Oresme were his followers. Image File history File links William of Ockham File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links William of Ockham File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Hello, I am Sam, Sam I am. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... Parsimony, in the general sense, means taking extreme care at arriving at a course of action; or unusual or excessive frugality, extreme economy or stinginess. ... William of Ockham Occams Razor (also spelled Ockhams Razor) is a principle attributed to the 14th-century English logician and Franciscan friar William of Ockham. ... Scientific method as envisaged by one of its early exponents, Sir Isaac Newton, is fundamental to the investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ... Reductionism in philosophy describes a number of related, contentious theories that hold, very roughly, that the nature of complex things can always be reduced to (be explained by) simpler or more fundamental things. ... This article concerns the epidemic of the mid-14th century. ... Jean Buridan, in Latin Joannes Buridanus (1300 - 1358) was a French priest who sowed the seeds of religious scepticism in Europe. ... Portrait of Nicole Oresme Nicole Oresme or Nicolas dOresme (c. ...

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Jean Buridan (1300-1358) was a French philosopher and priest. Although he was one of the most famous and influent philosophers of the late Middle Ages, his work today is not renowned by people other than philosophers and historians. One of his most significant contributions to science was the development of the theory of Impetus, that explained the movement of projectiles and objects in free-fall. This theory gave way to the dynamics of Galileo Galilei and for Isaac Newton's famous principle of Inertia. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 473 KB) Cathedral of Bayeux, inside, crypt / Personal picture taken by user Urban Copyright Urban, February 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Crypt ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 473 KB) Cathedral of Bayeux, inside, crypt / Personal picture taken by user Urban Copyright Urban, February 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Crypt ... Jean Buridan, in Latin Joannes Buridanus (1300 - 1358) was a French priest who sowed the seeds of religious scepticism in Europe. ... Impetus is an obsolete scientific theory of motion, largely developed by Jean Buridan in the 14th century. ... Free Fall opens with one of the most stunning first paragraphs I have ever, or am ever likely to, read. ... The word dynamics can refer to: a branch of mechanics; see dynamics (mechanics) the volume of music; see dynamics (music) DYNAMIC+ This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei (Pisa, February 15, 1564 – Arcetri, January 8, 1642), was an Italian physicist, astronomer, and philosopher who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ... Sir Isaac Newton, PRS, (4 January [O.S. 25 December 1642] 1643 – 31 March [O.S. 20 March] 1727) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, alchemist, inventor and natural philosopher who is generally regarded as one of the most influential scientists in history. ... The principle of inertia is one of the fundamental laws of classical physics which are used to describe the motion of matter and how it is affected by applied forces. ...

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Nicolas Oresme (c.1323-1382) was an intellectual genius and perhaps the most original thinker of the 14th century. A theologian and Bishop of Lisieux, he was one of the principal propagators of the modern sciences. Notwithstanding his strictly scientific contributions, Oresme strongly opposed astrology and speculated about the possibility of extraterrestrial life. He was the last great European intellectual to live before the Black Plague, an event that had a very negative impact in the intellectual life of the ending period of the Middle Ages. Image File history File links Oresme-Nicole. ... Image File history File links Oresme-Nicole. ... Portrait of Nicole Oresme Nicole Oresme or Nicolas dOresme (c. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Lisieux is a commune of the Calvados département, in the Lower Normandy région, in France. ... Astrology refers to any of several systems, traditions or beliefs in which knowledge of the apparent positions of celestial bodies is held to be useful in understanding, interpreting, and organizing knowledge about human affairs and events on earth. ... The existence of extraterrestrial life remains hypothetical though human beings continue to search Extraterrestrial life is life that may exist and originate outside the planet Earth. ... This article concerns the epidemic of the mid-14th century. ...


The Middle Ages: Eastern World

Islamic science

Main article: Islamic science
Sample of Islamic medical text
Sample of Islamic medical text

In the Middle East, Greek philosophy was able to find some short-lived support by the newly created Islamic Caliphate (Islamic Empire). With the spread of Islam in the 7th and 8th centuries, a period of Islamic scholarship lasted until the 15th century. This scholarship was aided by several factors. The use of a single language, Arabic, allowed communication without need of a translator. Access to Greek and Roman texts from the Byzantine Empire along with Indian sources of learning provided Islamic scholars a knowledge base to build upon. In addition, there was the Hajj. This annual pilgrimage to Mecca facilitated scholarly collaboration by bringing together people and new ideas from all over the Islamic world. Islamic science is science in the context of traditional religious ideas of Islam, including its ethics and philosophy. ... Download high resolution version (750x1087, 1303 KB)Illuminated opening of the fourth book of the Kitab al-Qanun fi al-tibb (The Canon on Medicine) by Ibn Sina (Avicenna). ... Download high resolution version (750x1087, 1303 KB)Illuminated opening of the fourth book of the Kitab al-Qanun fi al-tibb (The Canon on Medicine) by Ibn Sina (Avicenna). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God)) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second-largest religion. ... // Overview Events The Roman-Persian Wars end. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: ) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Hajj or Haj (Arabic: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah) in Islam. ... Pilgrim at Mecca For other uses of the word pilgrimage, see Pilgrimage (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


In Islamic versions of early scientific method, ethics played an important role. During this period the concepts of citation and peer review were developed. Islamic scholars used previous work in medicine, astronomy and mathematics as bedrock to develop new fields like alchemy. In mathematics, the Islamic scholar Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi gave his name to what we now call an algorithm, and the word algebra is derived from al-jabr, the beginning of the name of one of his publications in which he developed a system of solving quadratic equations. Researchers like Al-Batani (850-929) contributed to the fields of astronomy and mathematics and Al-Razi to chemistry. Examples of fruits of these contributions can be seen in Damascus steel (wootz steel), and the Baghdad Battery. Arab alchemy proved to be an inspiration to Roger Bacon, and later to Isaac Newton. Also in astronomy, Al-Batani improved the measurements of Hipparchus, preserved in the translation of the Greek Hè Megalè Syntaxis (the great treatise) translated as Almagest. About 900, Al-Batani improved the precision of the measurement of the precession of the earth's axis, thus continuing a millennium's legacy of measurements in his own land (Babylonia and Chaldea- the area now known as Iraq). Scientific method as envisaged by one of its early exponents, Sir Isaac Newton, is fundamental to the investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ... Ethics (from Greek ἦθος meaning custom) is the branch of axiology, one of the four major branches of philosophy, which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ... A citation is a credit or reference to another document or source which documents both influence and authority. ... Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Soviet postage stamp commemorating the 1200th anniversary of Muhammad al‑Khwarizmi in 1983. ... Flowcharts are often used to represent algorithms. ... Algebra is the current mathematics collaboration of the week! Please help improve it to featured article standard. ... Al Battani (ca. ... Events April 20 - Guntherus becomes Bishop of Cologne. ... Events Emir Abd-ar-rahman III of Cordoba declares himself caliph. ... Lunar astronomy: the large crater is Daedalus, photographed by the crew of Apollo 11 as they circled the Moon in 1969. ... Mathematics is often defined as the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. ... Al-Razi, (full name AbÅ« Bakr Muhammad Ibn ZakarÄ«ya al-Rāzi) (ابو بکر محمد بن زكريا الرازی), also known as Zakaria al-Razi in Arabic; or in Latin as Rhazes and Rasis. ... Chemistry (derived from the Arabic word kimia, alchemy, where al is Arabic for the) is the science that deals with the properties of organic and inorganic substances and their interactions with other organic and inorganic substances. ... Damascus steel, also known as Damascened steel, now commonly refers to two types of steel used in custom knife and sword making, pattern-weld and wootz (true damascus). ... Wootz, is a steel alloy having a pattern of bands or sheets of micro carbides within a tempered martensite or pearlite matrix. ... The Baghdad Battery is the common name for a number of artifacts apparently discovered in the village of Khuyut Rabboua (near Baghdad, Iraq) in 1936. ... Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum Roger Bacon (c. ... Sir Isaac Newton, PRS, (4 January [O.S. 25 December 1642] 1643 – 31 March [O.S. 20 March] 1727) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, alchemist, inventor and natural philosopher who is generally regarded as one of the most influential scientists in history. ... For the Athenian tyrant, see Hipparchus (son of Pisistratus). ... Almagest is the Latin form of the Arabic name (al-kitabu-l-mijisti, i. ... Events Persian scientist, Rhazes, distinguished smallpox from measles in the course of his writings. ... In Wikipedia, precision has the following meanings: In engineering, science, industry and statistics, precision characterises the degree of mutual agreement among a series of individual measurements, values, or results - see accuracy and precision. ... Precession refers to a change in the direction of the axis of a rotating object. ... Measurement is the determination of the size or magnitude of something. ... Babylonia, named for the city of Babylon, was an ancient state in Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Chaldea, the Chaldees of the KJV Old Testament, was a Hellenistic designation for a part of Babylonia. ...


Indian science

Main articles: Indian science and Indian science and technology

Prior to the Middle Ages, Indian philosophers in ancient India developed atomic theories, which included formulating ideas about the atom in a systematic manner and propounding ideas about the atomic constitution of the material world. The principle of relativity was also available in an early embryonic form in the Indian philosophical concept of "sapekshavad". The literal translation of this Sanskrit word is "theory of relativity" (not to be confused with Einstein's theory of relativity). Indian science has a very ancient history going back to the Vedas. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Prehistory The prehistory of India goes back to the old Stone age (Palaeolithic). ... In physics, atomic theory is a theory of the nature of matter. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek άτομον meaning indivisible) is the smallest possible particle of a chemical element that retains its chemical properties. ... Note: The principle of relativity should not be confused with the Theory of relativity. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम्) is an Indo-European Classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Relativity: The Special and General Theory Albert Einsteins theory of relativity, or simply relativity, refers specifically to two theories: special relativity and general relativity. ...


By the beginning of the Middle Ages, the wootz, crucible and stainless steels were invented in India. The spinning wheel used for spinning thread or yarn from fibrous material such as wool or cotton was invented in the early Middle Ages. By the end of the middle ages, iron rockets were developed in the kingdom of Mysore in South India. Wootz, is a steel alloy having a pattern of bands or sheets of micro carbides within a tempered martensite or pearlite matrix. ... Crucible steel describes a number of different techniques for making steel alloy by slowly heating and cooling iron and carbon (typically in the form of charcoal) in a crucible. ... In metallurgy, stainless steel (inox) is defined as a ferrous alloy with a minimum of 10. ... Steel framework Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon being the primary alloying material. ... A spinning wheel is a device for making thread or yarn from fibrous material such as wool or cotton. ... Spinning refers to several activities: For the fabrication of thread, see Spinning (textiles). ... Look up Thread on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The word thread has many meanings: A thread is a kind of thin yarn, which is thin fibers spun together. ... Yarn. ... Wool in a shearing shed Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, AR Wool sheep, Royal Melbourne Show Wool is the fibre derived from the hair of animals of the Caprinae family, principally sheep and goats, but the hair of other mammals... Cotton plant as imagined and drawn by John Mandeville in the 14th century Cotton is a soft fiber that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant (Gossypium spp. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... A Redstone rocket, part of the Mercury program A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving exhaust gas from within a rocket engine. ... The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom of southern India, which was founded about 1400 AD by the Wodeyar dynasty, who ruled the state until the independence of India in 1947, when the kingdom was merged with the Union of India. ... A map of Southern India, its rivers, regions and water bodies. ...


Aryabhata in 499 presented a heliocentric solar system of gravitation where he presented astronomical and mathematical theories in which the Earth was taken to be spinning on its axis and the periods of the planets were given as elliptical orbits with respect to the sun. He also believed that the moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight and that the orbits of the planets are ellipses. He carried out accurate calculations of astronomical constants based on this system, such as the periods of the planets, the circumference of the earth, the solar eclipse and lunar eclipse, the time taken for a single rotation of the Earth on its axis, the length of earth's revolution around the sun, and the longitudes of planets using eccentrics and epicycles. He also introduced a number of trigonometric functions (including sine, versine, cosine and inverse sine), trigonometric tables, and techniques and algorithms of algebra. Arabic translations of his texts were available in the Islamic world by the 8th-10th century. Aryabhata (आर्यभट) Ä€ryabhaá¹­a) (476 - 550) is the first of the great astronomers of the classical age of India. ... Events March 1 - Pope Symmachus makes Antipope Laurentius bishop of Nocera in Campania. ... Heliocentric Solar System Historically, heliocentrism is opposed to geocentrism and currently to modern geocentrism, which places the earth at the center. ... Presentation of the solar system (not to scale) The solar system comprises the Earths Sun and the retinue of celestial objects gravitationally bound to it. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... The ellipse and some of its mathematical properties. ... The circumference is the distance around a closed curve. ... Earth is the third planet from the Sun. ... Photo taken during the French 1999 eclipse A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes in front of the Sun and obscures it totally or partially. ... An eclipse refers to the phenomenon of one body passing into the shadow cast by another body. ... In the Ptolemaic system of astronomy, the epicycle (literally: on the cycle in Greek) was a geometric model to explain the variations in speed and direction of the apparent motion of the Moon, Sun, and planets. ... In mathematics, the trigonometric functions are functions of an angle, important when studying triangles and modeling periodic phenomena. ... In mathematics, the trigonometric functions are functions of an angle, important when studying triangles and modeling periodic phenomena. ... The versed sine, also called the versine and, in Latin, the sinus versus (flipped sine) or the sagitta (arrow), is a trigonometric function versin(θ) (sometimes further abbreviated vers) defined by the equation: versin(θ) = 1 − cos(θ) = 2 sin2(θ / 2) There are also three corresponding functions: the coversed... In mathematics, the trigonometric functions are functions of an angle, important when studying triangles and modeling periodic phenomena. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Trigonometry Trigonometry (from the Greek trigonon = three angles and metro = measure) is a branch of mathematics dealing with angles, triangles and trigonometric functions such as sine, cosine and tangent. ... Flowcharts are often used to represent algorithms. ... Algebra is the current mathematics collaboration of the week! Please help improve it to featured article standard. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ...


In the 7th century, Brahmagupta briefly described the law of gravitation, and recognized gravity as a force of attraction. He also lucidly explained the use of zero as both a placeholder and a decimal digit, along with the Hindu-Arabic numerals now used universally thorughout the world. Arabic translations of his texts (around 770) introduced this number system to the Islamic world, where it was adapted as Arabic numerals. Islamic scholars carried knowledge of this number system to Europe by the 12th century and it has now displaced all older number systems throughout the world. // Overview Events The Roman-Persian Wars end. ... Brahmagupta (ब्रह्मगुप्त) (598_668) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. ... This article covers the physics of gravitation. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... 0 (zero), alternatively called naught, nil, nada, ought, zilch, zip, nothing or nought, is both a number and a numeral. ... For the World of Warcraft ex-NPC, see Captain Placeholder. ... In mathematics and computer science, a numerical digit is a symbol, e. ... Hindu-Arabic numerals also known as Arabic Numerals, Hindu numerals, European numerals, and Western numerals are the most common set of symbols used to represent numbers around the world. ... Events Emperor Konin ascends to the throne of Japan, succeeding Empress Shotoku. ... Numerals sans serif Arabic numerals, also known as Hindu-Arabic numerals, Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, European numerals, and Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God)) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second-largest religion. ... World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


The Siddhanta Shiromani was a mathematical astronomy text written by Bhaskara in the 12th century. The 12 chapters of the first part cover topics such as: mean longitudes of the planets; true longitudes of the planets; the three problems of diurnal rotation; syzygies; lunar eclipses; solar eclipses; latitudes of the planets; risings and settings; the moon's crescent; conjunctions of the planets with each other; conjunctions of the planets with the fixed stars; and the patas of the sun and moon. The second part contains thirteen chapters on the sphere. It covers topics such as: praise of study of the sphere; nature of the sphere; cosmography and geography; planetary mean motion; eccentric epicyclic model of the planets; the armillary sphere; spherical trigonometry; ellipse calculations; first visibilities of the planets; calculating the lunar crescent; astronomical instruments; the seasons; and problems of astronomical calculations. Bhaskara (1114-1185), also called Bhaskara II and Bhaskara Achārya (Bhaskara the teacher) was an Indian mathematician-astronomer. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


From the 12th century, Bhaskara and various Keralese mathematicians first conceived differential calculus, mathematical analysis, trigonometric series, floating point numbers, and concepts foundational to the overall development of calculus. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Bhaskara (1114-1185), also called Bhaskara II and Bhaskara Achārya (Bhaskara the teacher) was an Indian mathematician-astronomer. ... Madhava founded the Kerala school, which included as its prominent members Parameswara, Neelakanta Somayaji, Jyeshtadeva, Achyuta Pisharati, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri and Achyuta Panikkar. ... Differential calculus is the theory of and computations with differentials; see also derivative and calculus. ... Analysis is the generic name given to any branch of mathematics which depends upon the concepts of limits and convergence, and studies closely related topics such as continuity, integration, differentiability and transcendental functions. ... Trigonometry (from the Greek trigonon = three angles and metro = measure) is a branch of mathematics dealing with angles, triangles and trigonometric functions such as sine and cosine. ... In mathematics, a series is often represented as the sum of a sequence of terms. ... A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ... Integral and differential calculus is a central branch of mathematics, developed from algebra and geometry. ...


Chinese science

Main article: Science and technology in China

The solid-fuel rocket was invented in China about 1150, about 200 years after the invention of gunpowder (which was its main fuel) and 500 years after the invention of the match. At the same time that the age of exploration was occurring in the West, the Chinese emperors of the Ming Dynasty also sent ships, some reaching Africa. But the enterprises were not further funded, halting further exploration and development. When Magellan's ships reached Brunei in 1521, they found a wealthy city that had been fortified by Chinese engineers, protected by a breakwater. Antonio Pigafetta noted that much of the technology of Brunei was equal to Western technology of the time. Also, there were more cannons in Brunei than on Magellan's ships, and the Chinese merchants to the Brunei court had sold them spectacles and porcelain, which were rarities in Europe. The scientific base for these technological developments appears to be quite thin, however. For example, the concept of force was not clearly formulated in Chinese texts of the period. // Ancient and imperial China Much of the early Western work in the history of science in China was done by Joseph Needham. ... A Redstone rocket, part of the Mercury program A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving exhaust gas from within a rocket engine. ... Events Åhus, Sweden gains city privileges City of Airdrie, Scotland founded King Sverker I of Sweden is deposed and succeeded by Eric IX of Sweden. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder, whether black powder or smokeless powder, is a substance that burns very rapidly, releasing gases that act as a propellant in firearms. ... burning match This article refers to the implement used to create a flame. ... The so-called Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European ships were traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners to feed burgeoning capitalism in Europe. ... Ming redirects here – for other uses of this term see Ming (disambiguation) The Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: ) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. ... Zheng He wearing formal official dress Zheng He (Traditional Chinese: é„­å’Œ; Simplified Chinese: 郑和; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Cheng Ho; Birth name: 馬三寶 / 马三宝; pinyin: MÇŽ SānbÇŽo; Arabic name: Hajji Mahmud) (1371 — 1433), is the most well-known Chinese mariner and explorer who made the voyages collectively referred to as the travels... Ferdinand Magellan (Portuguese: Fernão de Magalhães, IPA pronunciation: //; Spanish: Fernando or Hernando de Magallanes; Spring 1480–April 27, 1521) was a Portuguese maritime explorer who led the first successful attempt to circumnavigate the Earth. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Breakwater has several meanings, including: a structure for protecting a beach or harbour a 1988 album named Breakwater by Lennie Gallant. ... Antonio Pigafetta (ca. ... Glasses, spectacles, or eyeglasses are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes, sometimes for purely aesthetic reasons but normally for vision correction or eye protection. ... Porcelain is a hard ceramic substance made by heating at high temperature selected and refined materials often including clay in the form of kaolinite. ... In physics, a force is an external cause responsible for any change of a physical system. ...


External links

  • Medieval Science Page (a comprehensive set of links to Internet resources of medieval science)


Middle Ages
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History of science in the Middle Ages Summary (6938 words)
The history of science in the Middle Ages is concerned with the study of nature, including practical disciplines, the mathematical sciences, and natural philosophy, throughout the Middle Ages - the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history.
Science developed in this golden period of Scholastic philosophy focused on logic and advocated empiricism, perceiving nature as a coherent system of laws that could be explained in the light of reason.
One of his most significant contributions to science was the development of the theory of Impetus, that explained the movement of projectiles and objects in free-fall.
History of medicine. The Middle Ages. (515 words)
Medicine in the middle ages was dominated by religion.
Surgery was a crude practice during the middle ages but operations such as amputations, setting broken bones, replacing dislocations and binding wounds were relatively common.
During the middle ages, the only treatments were superstitious remedies, prayer, herbal medicines and recipes for clearing the air of miasma or poison.
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