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Encyclopedia > History of science and technology in China


The history of science and technology in China is both long and rich with science and technological contribution. In antiquity, independent of Greek philosophers and other civilizations, ancient Chinese philosophers made significant advances in science, technology, mathematics, and astronomy. The first recorded observations of comets, solar eclipses, and supernovae were made in China.[1] Traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture and herbal medicine were also practised. Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Central New York City. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy (also frequently referred to as astrophysics) is the scientific study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation). ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... Photo taken during the 1999 eclipse. ... Multiwavelength X-ray image of the remnant of Keplers Supernova, SN 1604. ... Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ... Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. ... Chinese materia medica (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the common name of Chinese materia medica subject. ...


Among the earliest inventions were the abacus, the "shadow clock," and the first flying machines such as kites and Kongming lanterns[2] The four Great Inventions of ancient China: the compass, gunpowder, papermaking, and printing, were among the most important technological advances, only known in Europe by the end of the Middle Ages. The Tang dynasty (AD 618 - 906) in particular was a time of great innovation.[2] A good deal of exchange occurred between Western and Chinese discoveries up to the Qing Dynasty. This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... For the finite element analysis software, see ABAQUS. An abacus (plurals abacuses or abaci), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool for performing arithmetical processes, often constructed as a wooden frame with beads sliding on wires. ... When Martians invade Earth in the H. G. Wells novel The War of the Worlds, they bring fighting machines, handling machines, and digging machines. ... Yokaichi Giant Kite Festival held on the fourth Sunday every May in Higashiomi, Shiga, Japan A man flying a kite on the beach, a good location for flying as winds travelling across the sea contain few up or down draughts which cause kites to fly erratically. ... The Kongming lantern (Chinese:zh:孔明灯) was the first hot air balloon, said to be invented by Zhuge Liang in popular lore, whose reverent term of address (his Chinese style name) was Kongming. ... One of the five major steps in the ancient Chinese papermaking process, first outlined by Cai Lun in the 2nd century. ... A compass (or mariners compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the Earth. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... The Diamond Sutra of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, the oldest dated printed book in the world, found at Dunhuang, from 868 AD. Papermaking is the process of making paper, a material which is ubiquitous today for writing and packaging. ... For other uses, see Print. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li Yuan... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late...


The Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Western science and astronomy, then undergoing its own revolution, to China, and knowledge of Chinese technology was brought to Europe.[3][4] Much of the early Western work in the history of science in China was done by Joseph Needham. The history of the missions of the Jesuits in China in the early modern era stands as one of the notable events in the early history of relations between China and the Western world, as well as a prominent example of relations between two cultures and belief systems in the... Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (December 9, 1900 – March 24, 1995) was a British biochemist and pre-eminent authority on the history of Chinese science. ...

Contents

Early technological achievements

Remains of a Chinese crossbow, 2nd century BC.

One of the oldest longstanding contributions of the ancient Chinese are in Traditional Chinese medicine, including acupuncture and herbal medicine, derived from Taoist philosophy. The practice of acupuncture can be traced as far back as the 1st millennium BC and some scientists believe that there is evidence that practices similar to acupuncture were used in Eurasia during the early Bronze Age.[5] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Download high resolution version (527x683, 127 KB)Ancient Chinese crossbow (2nd century BCE). ... Download high resolution version (527x683, 127 KB)Ancient Chinese crossbow (2nd century BCE). ... 15th century French soldier wearing a helmet and a hauberk, carrying a crossbow/arbalest and a pavise. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ... Chinese materia medica (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the common name of Chinese materia medica subject. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of successive empires. ... Eurasia Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is an immense landmass covering about 54,000,000 km² (or about 10. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...


The ancient Chinese also invented counting and time-keeping devices, which facilitated mathematical and astronomical observations. Shadow clocks, the forerunners of the sundial, first appeared in China about 4,000 years ago,[2] while the abacus was invented in China sometime between 1000 BC and 500 BC.[6][7] Using these the Chinese were able to record observations, documenting the first solar eclipse in 2137 BC, and making the first recording of any planetary grouping in 500 BC.[1] The Book of Silk was the first definitive atlas of comets, written c. 400 BC. It listed 29 comets (referred to as broom stars) that appeared over a period of about 300 years, with renderings of comets describing an event its appearance corresponded to.[1] For the finite element analysis software, see ABAQUS. An abacus (plurals abacuses or abaci), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool for performing arithmetical processes, often constructed as a wooden frame with beads sliding on wires. ... A page from the Book of Silk The Book of Silk is an ancient astronomy book made by Chinese astronomers around 400 BCE and found in a tomb in China in 1973. ... Comet Hale-Bopp, showing a white dust tail and blue gas tail (February 1997) A comet is a small astronomical object similar to an asteroid but composed largely of ice. ...

Replica of Zhang Heng's seismometer Houfeng Didong Yi

In architecture, the pinnacle of Chinese technology manifested itself in the Great Wall of China, under the first Chinese Emperor Qin Shi Huang between 220 BC and 200 BC. Typical Chinese architecture changed little from the succeeding Han Dynasty until the 19th century.[8] The Qin Dynasty also developed the crossbow, which later became the mainstream weapon in Europe. Several remains of crossbows have been found among the soldiers of the Terracotta Army in the tomb of Qin Shi Huang.[9] A replica of an ancient Chinese Siesmograph from Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 CE) This picture was taken in July 2004 from an exhibition at Chabot Space & Science Center in Oakland California. ... A replica of an ancient Chinese Siesmograph from Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 CE) This picture was taken in July 2004 from an exhibition at Chabot Space & Science Center in Oakland California. ... Seismometers (in Greek seismos = earthquake and metero = measure) are used by seismologists to measure and record the size and force of seismic waves. ... The Great Wall of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th... The king or wang (王 wang2) was the Chinese head of state from the Zhou to Qin dynasties. ... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (November / December 260 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE), personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC 221 BC - 220 BC - 219 BC 218 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC 202 BC 201 BC - 200 BC - 199 BC 198 BC... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... The Terracotta Army (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) or Terracotta Warriors and Horses is a collection of 8,099 life-size Chinese terra cotta figures of warriors and horses located near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ). The figures were discovered...


The Eastern Han Dynasty scholar and astronomer Zhang Heng (78-139 AD) invented the first water-powered rotating armillary sphere (the first armillary sphere however was invented by the Greek Eratosthenes), and catalogued 2500 stars and over 100 constellations. In 132, he invented the first seismological detector, called the "Houfeng Didong Yi" ("Instrument for inquiring into the wind and the shaking of the earth").[10] According to the History of Later Han Dynasty (25-220 AD), this seismograph was an urn-like instrument, which would drop one of eight balls to indicate when and in which direction an earthquake had occurred.[10] On June 13, 2005, Chinese seismologists announced that they had created a replica of the instrument.[10] The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... For other uses, see Zhang Heng (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see number 78. ... Events Births Deaths Zhang Heng, Chinese mathematician Categories: 139 ... Armillary sphere An armillary sphere (variations known as a spherical astrolabe, armilla, or armil) is a model of the celestial sphere, invented by the ancient Greek Eratosthenes in 255 BC. Its name comes from the Latin armilla (circle, bracelet), since it has a skeleton made of graduated metal circles linking... Eratosthenes (Greek ; 276 BC - 194 BC) was a Greek mathematician, geographer and astronomer. ... Seismographs (in Greek seismos = earthquake and graphein = write) are used by seismologists to record seismic waves. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. ...


The mechanical engineer Ma Jun (c. 200-265 AD) was another impressive figure from ancient China. Ma Jun improved the design of the silk loom,[11] designed mechanical chain pumps to irrigate palatial gardens,[11] and created a large and intricate mechanical puppet theatre for Emperor Ming of Wei, which was operated by a large hidden waterwheel.[12] However, Ma Jun's most impressive invention was the South Pointing Chariot, a complex mechanical device that acted as a mechanical compass vehicle. It incorporated the use of a differential gear in order to apply equal amount of torque to wheels rotating at different speeds, a device that is found in all modern automobiles.[13] Ma Jun a certain officer serving under Wei that oversaw the construction of Chong Huas palace under the orders of Cao Rui. ... For other uses, see number 200. ... Events Wei Yuandi abdicates, end of the China. ... A Turkish woman in Konya works at a traditional loom. ... The chain pump is a type of water pump where an endless chain has positioned on it a series of circular discs. ... High-altitude aerial view of irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara Irrigation (in agriculture) is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops. ... A puppet is a representational object, usually but not always depicting a human character, used in play or a presentation. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Cao Rui, ch. ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ... South Pointing Chariot (replica) Supposedly invented sometime around 2600BC in China by the Yellow Emperor Huang Di, the South Pointing Chariot (Zhi Nan Ju 指南車) is widely regarded as the most complex geared mechanism of the ancient Chinese civilization. ... A compass (or mariners compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the Earth. ... In an automobile and other four-wheeled vehicles, a differential is a device, usually consisting of gears, that allows each of the driving wheels to rotate at different speeds, while supplying equal torque to each of them. ... Torque applied via an adjustable end wrench Relationship between force, torque, and momentum vectors in a rotating system In physics, torque (or often called a moment) can informally be thought of as rotational force or angular force which causes a change in rotational motion. ... Karl Benzs Velo model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race An automobile or motor (usually shortened to just car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. ...


Sliding calipers were invented in China almost 2,000 years ago.[2] The Chinese civilization was the first civilization to succeed in exploring with aviation, with the kite and Kongming lantern (proto Hot air balloon) being the first flying machines. Digital caliper A caliper (British spelling also calliper) is a device used to measure the distance between two symmetrically opposing sides. ... Aviation refers to flying using aircraft, machines designed by humans for atmospheric flight. ... Yokaichi Giant Kite Festival held on the fourth Sunday every May in Higashiomi, Shiga, Japan A man flying a kite on the beach, a good location for flying as winds travelling across the sea contain few up or down draughts which cause kites to fly erratically. ... The Kongming lantern (Chinese:zh:孔明灯) was the first hot air balloon, said to be invented by Zhuge Liang in popular lore, whose reverent term of address (his Chinese style name) was Kongming. ... Hot air balloon in flight The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology, dating back to its invention by the Montgolfier brothers in Annonay, France in 1783. ... When Martians invade Earth in the H. G. Wells novel The War of the Worlds, they bring fighting machines, handling machines, and digging machines. ...


The Four Great Inventions of ancient China

Mongols using Chinese gunpowder bombs during the Mongol Invasions of Japan, 1281.

The "Four Great Inventions of ancient China" (Traditional Chinese: 四大發明; Simplified Chinese: 四大发明; Pinyin: Sì dà fā míng) are the compass, gunpowder, papermaking, and printing. Paper and printing were developed first. Printing was recorded in China in the Tang Dynasty, although the earliest surviving examples of printed cloth patterns date to before 220.[14] Pin-pointing the development of the compass can be difficult: the magnetic attraction of a needle is attested by the Louen-heng, composed between AD 20 and 100,[15] although the first undisputed magnetized needles in Chinese literature appear in 1086.[16] One of the five major steps in the ancient Chinese papermaking process, first outlined by Cai Lun in the 2nd century. ... Image File history File links Mooko-Suenaga. ... Image File history File links Mooko-Suenaga. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Japan Commanders Kublai Khan Hōjō Tokimune Strength 35,000 Mongol & Chinese soldiers and 18,000 Korean warriors 10,000 Casualties 16,000 killed before landed minimal Defensive wall at Hakata. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... One of the five major steps in the ancient Chinese papermaking process, first outlined by Cai Lun in the 2nd century. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... A compass (or mariners compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the Earth. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... The Diamond Sutra of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, the oldest dated printed book in the world, found at Dunhuang, from 868 AD. Papermaking is the process of making paper, a material which is ubiquitous today for writing and packaging. ... For other uses, see Print. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li Yuan... // [edit] Classical texts Main article: Chinese classic texts China has a wealth of classical literature, both poetry and prose, dating from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BCE) and including the Classics attributed to Confucius. ...


By AD 300, Ge Hong, an alchemist of the Jin Dynasty, conclusively recorded the chemical reactions caused when saltpetre, pine resin and charcoal were heated together in his book "Book of the Master of the Preservations of Solidarity".[17] Another early record of gunpowder, a Chinese book from c. 850 AD indicates that gunpowder was a byproduct of Taoist alchemical efforts to develop an elixir of immortality:[18] For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Jin may refer to: Jin Dynasty (265-420) Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) (Jinn) Jin, a state in China during the Spring and Autumn Period Later Jin Dynasty, founded in 1616 by Nurhaci Jin, a ruler of the Xia dynasty The Jin state of late Bronze Age Korea Jin, Chinese American... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... The elixir of life, also known as the elixir of immortality or Dancing Water and sometimes equated with the Philosophers stone, is a legendary potion, or drink, that grants the drinker eternal life or eternal youth. ...

An original diagram of Su Song's book printed in 1092, showing the inner workings of his astronomical clocktower.

Some have heated together sulfur, realgar and saltpeter with honey; smoke and flames result, so that their hands and faces have been burnt, and even the whole house where they were working burned down.[19] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (908 × 1366 pixel, file size: 722 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (908 × 1366 pixel, file size: 722 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Su Song 蘇頌 (1020 – 1101), style Zirong 子容, was a Chinese engineer. ... Prague astronomical clock Astronomical clock in Lund Cathedral An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets. ... A clock tower is a tower built with a large clock face on one or more (often all four) of its sides so as to be visible to a large number of inhabitants of an area. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... Orpiment and Realgar Realgar is an arsenic sulfide mineral with formula: As4S4. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... A jar of honey, shown with a wooden honey server and scones/biscuits. ...

These four discoveries had an enormous impact on the development of Chinese civilization and a far-ranging global impact. Gunpowder, for example, spread to the Arabs in the 13th century and thence to Europe.[20] According to English philosopher Francis Bacon, writing in Novum Organum: This article is about the Chinese civilization. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the United Kingdom anthem is God Save the Queen. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, and essayist, but is best known as a philosophical advocate and defender of the scientific revolution. ... The Novum Organum is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon. ...

Printing, gunpowder and the compass: These three have changed the whole face and state of things throughout the world; the first in literature, the second in warfare, the third in navigation; whence have followed innumerable changes, in so much that no empire, no sect, no star seems to have exerted greater power and influence in human affairs than these mechanical discoveries." [21] Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ...

One of the most important military treatises of all Chinese history was the Huo Long Jing written by Jiao Yu in the 14th century. For gunpowder weapons, it outlined the use of fire arrows and rockets, fire lances and firearms, land mines and naval mines, bombards and cannons, along with different compositions of gunpowder, including 'magic gunpowder', 'poisonous gunpowder', and 'blinding and burning gunpowder' (refer to his article). Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD) era matchlock firearms featuring serpentine levers. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Soyuz rocket, at Baikonur launch pad. ... The fire lance (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: huǒ qiāng) or fire spear is one of the first gunpowder weapons in the world. ... A firearm is a kinetic energy weapon that fires either a single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced by action of the rapid confined burning of a propellant. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... Polish wz. ... A bombard is a type of medieval cannon or mortar, used chiefly in sieges for throwing heavy stone balls. ... Not to be confused with Canon. ...


For the 11th century invention of ceramic movable type printing by Bi Sheng (990-1051), it was enhanced by the wooden movable type of Wang Zhen in 1298 and the bronze metal movable type of Hua Sui in 1490. A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ... Pì Shēng (Wade-Giles selling) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; died 1052) was the inventor of the first know movable type printing system. ... Events Construction of the Al-Hakim Mosque begins in Cairo. ... -1... Wáng Zhēn (王禎) (fl. ... Hua Sui (1439-1513 AD) was a Chinese scholar and printer of Wuxi, Jiangsu province during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD). ...


The Middle Ages

The world's earliest paper money was from the Song Dynasty, seeing mass production under Mongol rule.

Among the scientific accomplishments of early China were matches, dry docks, the double-action piston pump, cast iron, the iron plough, the horse collar, the multi-tube seed drill, the wheelbarrow, the suspension bridge, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the raised-relief map, the propeller, the sluice gate, and the pound lock. The Tang Dynasty (618 - 906 AD) in particular was a time of great innovation.[2] The Song Dynasty (960–1279) was a period of Chinese history and human history in general that provided some of the most prolific advancements in early science and technology, much of it through talented statsemen drafted by the government (see Imperial examinations). ... Image File history File links Jiao_zi. ... Image File history File links Jiao_zi. ... An igniting match A match is a consumable tool for producing fire under controlled circumstances on demand. ... U.S. Navy submarine USS Greeneville in dry dock following collision with a fishing boat. ... piston pump ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... The traditional way: a German farmer works the land with a horse and plough. ... Two horse collars A horse collar is a device used to distribute load around a horses neck, for pulling a wagon or plow. ... Seeder redirects here. ... A common wheelbarrow Older wheelbarrow Wheelbarrows on the Belomorkanal A wheelbarrow is a small one-wheeled, hand-propelled vehicle, designed to be pushed and guided by a single person using two handles to the rear. ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been created since ancient times as early as 100 AD. Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. ... The Apollo 15 capsule landed safely despite a parachute failure. ... Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide. ... A raised-relief map or terrain model is a three dimensional representation, usually of terrain. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sluice gates near Henley, on the River Thames A small wooden sluice in Magome, Japan, used to power a waterwheel. ... A pound lock is type of canal lock which is used almost exclusively today. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li Yuan...


In the 7th century, book-printing was developed in China and Japan, using delicate hand-carved wooden blocks to print individual pages.[2] The 9th century Diamond Sutra is the earliest known printed document.[2] Movable type was also used in China for a time, but was abandoned because of the number of characters needed; it would not be until Gutenburg that the technique was reinvented in a suitable environment.[2] The Chinese Diamond Sutra, the oldest known dated printed book in the world, printed in the 9th year of Xiantong Era of the Tang Dynasty, i. ...


In addition to gunpowder, the Chinese also developed improved delivery systems for the Byzantine weapon of Greek fire, Meng Huo You and Pen Huo Qi first used in China c. 900.[22] Chinese illustrations were more realistic than in Byzantine manuscripts,[22] and detailed accounts from 1044 recommending its use on city walls and ramparts show the brass container as fitted with a horizontal pump, and a nozzle of small diameter.[22] The records of a battle on the Yangtze near Nanjing in 975 offer an insight into the dangers of the weapon, as a change of wind direction blew the fire back onto the Song forces.[22] The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Greek fire was a burning-liquid weapon used by the Byzantine Greeks, typically in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning even on water. ... Meng Huo You(Chinese:猛火油)some translated it as wild-fire oilChampa in the Song hui-yao:A draft translation is the practice of using petroleum as incendiary weapon in Ancient China. ... The Pen Huo Qi is a piston based naphtha flamethrower used in 919 in China. ... Length 6,380 km Elevation of the source  ? m Average discharge 31,900 m³/s Area watershed 1,800,000 km² Origin Qinghai Province and Tibet Mouth East China Sea Basin countries China The Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: 长江; Traditional Chinese: 長江; pinyin: Cháng Jiāng... “Nanking” redirects here. ...


The Song Dynasty (960-1279) brought a new stability for China after a century of civil war, and started a new area of modernisation by encouraging examinations and meritocracy. The first Song Emperor created political institutions that allowed a great deal of freedom of discourse and thought, which facilitated the growth of scientific advance, economic reforms, and achievements in arts and literature.[23] Trade flourished both within China and overseas, and the encouragement of technology allowed the mints at Kaifeng and Hangzhou to gradually increase in production.[23] In 1080, the mints of Emperor Shenzong were produced 5 billion coins (roughly 50 per Chinese citizen), and the first banknotes were produced in 1023.[23] These coins were so durable that they would still be in use 700 years later, in the 18th century.[23] Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Emperor Taizu (March 21, 927 - November 14, 976, Chinese 太祖), born Zhao Kuangyin (Chinese 趙匡胤), was the founder of the Song Dynasty of China, reigning from 960 to 976. ... Science and technology have long preoccupied Chinas leaders; indeed, the Peoples Republic of Chinas third and fourth generations of leaders come almost exclusively from technical backgrounds—both Jiang Zemin and Zhu Rongji were trained as electrical power engineers—and have a great reverence for science. ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: KāifÄ“ng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ... Emperor Shenzong (May 25, 1048 – April 1, 1085) was the sixth emperor of Song Dynasty China. ...

Ships of the world in 1460 (Fra Mauro map). Chinese junks are described as very large, three or four-masted ships.

There were many famous inventors and early scientists in the Song Dynasty period. The statesman Shen Kuo is best known for his book known as the Dream Pool Essays (1088 AD). In it, he wrote of use for a drydock to repair boats, the navigational magnetic compass, and the discovery of the concept of true north (with magnetic declination towards the North Pole). Shen Kuo also devised a geological theory for land formation, or geomorphology, and theorized that there was climate change in geological regions over an enormous span of time. The equally talented statesman Su Song was best known for his engineering project of the Astronomical Clock Tower of Kaifeng, by 1088 AD. The clock tower was driven by a rotating waterwheel and escapement mechanism, the latter of which did not appear in clockworks of Europe until two centuries later. Crowning the top of the clock tower was the large bronze, mechanically-driven, rotating armillary sphere. In 1070, Su Song also compiled the Ben Cao Tu Jing (Illustrated Pharmacopoeia, original source material from 1058 – 1061 AD) with a team of scholars. This pharmaceutical treatise covered a wide range of other related subjects, including botany, zoology, mineralogy, and metallurgy. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 595 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1071 × 1080 pixel, file size: 258 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ships of the Fra Mauro map (1460). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 595 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1071 × 1080 pixel, file size: 258 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ships of the Fra Mauro map (1460). ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... The Fra Mauro map (1459) in Venice (inverted, South is normally at the top). ... A junk is a Chinese sailing vessel. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Shen Shen Kuo or Shen Kua (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (1031–1095 AD) was a polymath Chinese scientist of the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD). ... Shen Kuo (沈括) (1031-1095 AD) The Dream Pool Essays (Pinyin: Meng Xi Bi Tan; Wade-Giles: Meng Chi Pi Tan Chinese: 梦溪笔谈) was an extensive book written by the polymath Chinese scientist and statesman Shen Kuo (1031-1095) by 1088 AD, during the Song Dynasty (960-1279) of China. ... U.S. Navy submarine USS Greeneville in dry dock following collision with a fishing boat. ... A compass (or mariners compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the Earth. ... True Pizza is a navigational term referring to the direction of the North Pole relative to the navigators position. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... Surface of the Earth Geomorphology is the study of landforms, including their origin and evolution, and the processes that shape them. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Su Song 蘇頌 (1020 – 1101), style Zirong 子容, was a Chinese engineer. ... Astronomy, which etymologically means law of the stars, (from Greek: αστρονομία = άστρον + νόμος) is a science involving the observation and explanation of events occurring outside Earth and its atmosphere. ... Clocktower at Geelong Grammar School, Victoria, Australia A clock tower is a tower built with one or more (often four) clock faces. ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: KāifÄ“ng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... A simple escapement. ... A platform clock at Kings Cross railway station in London A clock is an instrument for measuring and indicating the time. ... Armillary sphere An armillary sphere (variations known as a spherical astrolabe, armilla, or armil) is a model of the celestial sphere, invented by the ancient Greek Eratosthenes in 255 BC. Its name comes from the Latin armilla (circle, bracelet), since it has a skeleton made of graduated metal circles linking... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Pinguicula grandiflora Example of a Cross Section of a Stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... A Blacksmith, the father of the modern metallurgist. ...


Chinese astronomers were also among the first to record observations of a supernova, in 1054, making the Crab Nebula the first astronomical object recognized as being connected to a supernova explosion.[24] Arabic and Chinese astronomy intermingled under the Mongol rule of the Yuan Dynasty. Muslim astronomers worked in the Chinese astronomical bureau established by Kublai Khan, while some Chinese astronomers also worked at the Persian Maragha observatory.[25] (Before this, in ancient times, Indian astronomers had lent their expertise to the Chinese court.[3]) Mongol rule also saw technological advances from an economic perspective, with the first mass production of paper banknotes by Kublai Khan in the 11th century.[2] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Multiwavelength X-ray image of the remnant of Keplers Supernova, SN 1604. ... The Crab Nebula (catalogue designations M 1, NGC 1952, Taurus A) is a supernova remnant in the constellation of Taurus. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 Ukhaatu Khan History  - establishing the Yuan Dynasty 1271  - Fall of Dadu September 14, 1368 Population  - 1330 est. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Kublai Khan, Khubilai Khan or the last of the Great Khans (September 23, 1215[8] - February 18, 1294[9]) (Mongolian: Хубилай хаан, Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ), was a Mongol military leader. ... edit See Also: Persian Empire History of Iran and Greater Iran (also referred to as the Iranian Cultural Continent by the Encyclopedia Iranica)—- consisting areas from Euphrates in the west to Indus River and Syr Darya in the east and from Caucasus, Caspian sea and Aral Sea in the north... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The astronomy and the astrology of Ancient India (Jyotisha) is based upon sidereal calculations. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... Kublai Khan, Khubilai Khan or the last of the Great Khans (September 23, 1215[8] - February 18, 1294[9]) (Mongolian: Хубилай хаан, Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ), was a Mongol military leader. ...


Jesuit activity in China

Jesuits in China.

The Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Western science and astronomy, then undergoing its own revolution, to China. The Society of Jesus introduced, according to Thomas Woods, "a substantial body of scientific knowledge and a vast array of mental tools for understanding the physical universe, including the Euclidean geometry that made planetary motion comprehensible."[3] Another expert quoted by Woods said the scientific revolution brought by the Jesuits coincided with a time when science was at a very low level in China: Image File history File links Jesuites_en_chine. ... Image File history File links Jesuites_en_chine. ... The history of the missions of the Jesuits in China in the early modern era stands as one of the notable events in the early history of relations between China and the Western world, as well as a prominent example of relations between two cultures and belief systems in the... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Thomas Woods Thomas E. Woods, Jr. ...

[The Jesuits] made efforts to translate western mathematical and astronomical works into Chinese and aroused the interest of Chinese scholars in these sciences. They made very extensive astronomical observation and carried out the first modern cartographic work in China. They also learned to appreciate the scientific achievements of this ancient culture and made them known in Europe. Through their correspondence European scientists first learned about the Chinese science and culture.[4]

Scientific and technological stagnation

The puddling process of smelting iron ore to make pig iron from wrought iron, the right half of the illustration (not shown) displays men working a blast furnace, Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedia published in 1637, written by Song Yingxing (1587-1666).

One question that has been the subject of debate among historians has been why China did not develop a scientific revolution and why Chinese technology fell behind that of Europe. Many hypotheses have been proposed ranging from the cultural to the political and economic. Nathan Sivin has argued that China indeed had a scientific revolution in the 17th century and that we are still far from understanding the scientific revolutions of the West and China in all their political, economic and social ramifications.[26] John K. Fairbank argued that the Chinese political system was hostile to scientific progress. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Iron ore (Banded iron formation) Manganese ore Lead ore Gold ore An ore is a volume of rock containing components or minerals in a mode of occurrence which renders it valuable for mining. ... Pig iron is raw iron, the immediate product of smelting iron ore with coke and limestone in a blast furnace. ... It has been suggested that Wrought iron furniture be merged into this article or section. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, 1902 An encyclopedia, encyclopaedia or (traditionally) encyclopædia[1] is a comprehensive written compendium that contains information on all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. ... Song Yingxing (Traditional Chinese:宋應星; Simplified Chinese:宋应星; Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD) was a Chinese scientist and encyclopedist who lived during the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... The event which many historians of science call the scientific revolution can be dated roughly as having begun in 1543, the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) and Andreas Vesalius published his De humani corporis fabrica (On the... John King Fairbank (1907-1991) was among the most renowned American scholars of East Asia in the twentieth century. ...


Needham argued, and most scholars agreed, that cultural factors prevented these Chinese achievements from developing into what could be called "science".[3] It was the religious and philosophical framework of the Chinese intellectuals which made them unable to believe in the ideas of laws of nature:

It was not that there was no order in nature for the Chinese, but rather that it was not an order ordained by a rational personal being, and hence there was no conviction that rational personal beings would be able to spell out in their lesser earthly languages the divine code of laws which he had decreed aforetime. The Taoists, indeed, would have scorned such an idea as being too naïve for the subtlety and complexity of the universe as they intuited it.[27] For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ...

Similar grounds have been found for questioning much of the philosophy behind traditional Chinese medicine, which, derived mainly from Taoist philosophy, reflects the classical Chinese belief that individual human experiences express causative principles effective in the environment at all scales. Because its theory predates use of the scientific method, it has received various criticisms based on scientific thinking. Even though there are physically verifiable anatomical or histological bases for the existence of acupuncture points or meridians, for instance skin conductance measurements show increases at the predicted points (see _The Body Electric_ by Robert O. Becker, M.D., pgs 233-236), philosopher Robert Todd Carroll, a member of the Skeptics Society, deemed acupuncture a pseudoscience because it "confuse(s) metaphysical claims with empirical claims".[4]: Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Greek anatome, from ana-temnein, to cut up), is the branch of biology that deals with the structure and organization of living things; thus there is animal anatomy (zootomy) and plant anatomy (phytonomy). ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... Acupuncture chart from the Ming dynasty Acupuncture (from Lat. ... The concept of meridians (Chinese: jing-luo 经络) arises from the techniques and doctrines of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), including acupuncture, acupressure, and qigong. ... Robert Todd Carroll (1945-), Ph. ... Phrenology is regarded today as a classic example of pseudoscience. ...

...no matter how it is done, scientific research can never demonstrate that unblocking chi by acupuncture or any other means is effective against any disease. Chi is defined as being undetectable by the methods of empirical science.[5]

More recent historians have questioned political and cultural explanations and have focused more on economic causes. Mark Elvin's high level equilibrium trap is one well-known example of this line of thought, as well as Kenneth Pomeranz' argument that resources from the New World made the crucial difference between European and Chinese development. Other events such as Haijin and Cultural Revolution have isolated China during critical times. The high level equilibrium trap is a concept developed by Mark Elvin to explain why China never underwent an indigenous Industrial Revolution, despite its wealth, stability and scientific advancement. ... Kenneth Pomeranz is a professor and the chair of the history department at the University of California, Irvine in the US. He received his Ph. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Hai jin (海禁) was a ban on maritime activities during Chinas Ming Dynasty and again during the Qing Dynasty. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the...


Science and technology in the People's Republic of China

Science and technology in the People's Republic of China is growing rapidly. As the People's Republic of China has become better connected to the global economy, the government has placed more emphasis on science and technology. This has led to increases in funding, improved scientific structure, and more money for research. These factors have led to advancements in agriculture, medicine, genetics, and global change. Science and technology in China is currently experiencing rapid growth. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... The world economy can be represented various ways, and broken down in various ways. ... Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b c Ancient Chinese Astronomy
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Inventions (Pocket Guides).
  3. ^ a b c Woods
  4. ^ a b Agustín Udías, p.53
  5. ^ [1], [2]
  6. ^ Video: Computers: The Abacus. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  7. ^ The Invention of the Abacus. Maxfield & Montrose Interactive Inc.
  8. ^ Buildings (Pocket Guides).
  9. ^ Weapons of the terracotta army
  10. ^ a b c People's Daily Online
  11. ^ a b Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 39.
  12. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 158.
  13. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 40.
  14. ^ Shelagh Vainker
  15. ^ "A lodestone attracts a needle." Li Shu-hua, p.176
  16. ^ Li Shu-hua, p.182f.
  17. ^ Liang, pp. Appendix C VII
  18. ^ Kelly, p. 3
  19. ^ Kelly, p. 4
  20. ^ Kelly, p. 22. "Around 1240 the Arabs acquired knowledge of saltpeter (“Chinese snow”) from the East, perhaps through India. They knew of gunpowder soon afterward. They also learned about fireworks (“Chinese flowers”) and rockets (“Chinese arrows”)."
  21. ^ Novum Organum, Liber I, CXXIX - Adapted from the 1863 translation
  22. ^ a b c d Turnbull, p. 43
  23. ^ a b c d Money of the World Special Christmas Edition, Orbis Publishing Ltd, 1998.
  24. ^ Mayall N.U. (1939), The Crab Nebula, a Probable Supernova, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Leaflets, v. 3, p.145
  25. ^ Abstracta Iranica
  26. ^ Nathan Sivin's Curriculum Vitae
  27. ^ Joseph Needham, p. 581.

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (December 9, 1900 – March 24, 1995) was a British biochemist and pre-eminent authority on the history of Chinese science. ...

References

  • Inventions (Pocket Guides). Publisher: DK CHILDREN; Pocket edition (March 15, 1995). ISBN 1564588890. ISBN 978-1564588890
  • Buildings (Pocket Guides). Publisher: DK CHILDREN; Pocket edition (March 15, 1995). ISBN 1564588858. ISBN 978-1564588852
  • Mark Elvin, "The high-level equilibrium trap: the causes of the decline of invention in the traditional Chinese textile industries" in W. E. Willmott, Economic Organization in Chinese Society, (Stanford, Calif., Stanford University Press, 1972) pp. 137-172.
    • The High-level Equilibrium TrapPDF (64.3 KiB)
  • Kelly, Jack (2004). Gunpowder: Alchemy, Bombards, & Pyrotechnics: The History of the Explosive that Changed the World. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-03718-6. 
  • Liang, Jieming (2006). Chinese Siege Warfare: Mechanical Artillery & Siege Weapons of Antiquity. ISBN 981-05-5380-3. 
  • Joseph Needham, Science and Civilization in China, volume 1. (Cambridge University Press, 1954)
  • Joseph Needham (1986). Science and Civilization in China, Volume 4, Part 2. Taipei: Caves Books Pty. Ltd.
  • Li Shu-hua, “Origine de la Boussole 11. Aimant et Boussole,” Isis, Vol. 45, No. 2. (Jul., 1954)
  • Stephen Turnbull, The Walls of Constantinople, AD 324–1453, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-759-X
  • Agustín Udías, Searching the Heavens and the Earth: The History of Jesuit Observatories (Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003)
  • Shelagh Vainker in Anne Farrer (ed), "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas" , 1990, British Museum publications, ISBN 0 7141 1447 2
  • Thomas Woods, How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization, (Washington, DC: Regenery, 2005), ISBN 0-89526-038-7

The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for document exchange. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (December 9, 1900 – March 24, 1995) was a British biochemist and pre-eminent authority on the history of Chinese science. ... Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (December 9, 1900 – March 24, 1995) was a British biochemist and pre-eminent authority on the history of Chinese science. ... One of the Men-at-Arms Series. ... Thomas Woods Thomas E. Woods, Jr. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Science and technology in China - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3198 words)
Among the scientific accomplishments of China were early seismological detectors, matches, paper, dry docks, sliding calipers, the double-action piston pump, cast iron, the iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the wheelbarrow, the suspension bridge, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the propeller, the crossbow, gunpowder and printing.
Nathan Sivin has argued that China indeed had a scientific revolution in the 17th Century and that we are still far from understanding the scientific revolutions of the West and China in all their political, economic and social ramifications.
Science and technology have long preoccupied China's leaders; indeed, the People's Republic of China's third and fourth generations of leaders come almost exclusively from technical backgrounds—both Jiang Zemin and Zhu Rongji were trained as electrical power engineers—and have a great reverence for science.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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