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Encyclopedia > History of psychology

The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. It was widely regarded to a branch of philosophy until the middle of the 19th-century when a scientific and eventually experimental form of the discipline emerged in Germany. Psychology borders on various other fields including physiology, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, sociology, and anthropology. Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... Garry Kasparov playing against Deep Blue, the first machine to win a chess game against a reigning world champion. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ...

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RESEARCH Ψ

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Transpersonal Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1020x1508, 359 KB) Book cover Frontispiece of : Tabulae Rudolphinae : quibus astronomicae . ... The sociology and philosophy of science, as well as the entire field of science studies, have in the 20th century been preoccupied with the question of large-scale patterns and trends in the development of science, and asking questions about how science works both in a philosophical and practical sense. ... The historiography of science is the historical study of the history of science (which often overlaps the history of technology, the history of medicine, and the history of mathematics). ... A pseudoscience is any body of knowledge purported to be scientific or supported by science but which fails to comply with the scientific method. ... In prehistoric times, advice and knowledge was passed from generation to generation in an oral tradition. ... The Ptolemaic system of celestial motion, from Harmonia Macrocosmica, 1661. ... The history of science in the Middle Ages refers to the discoveries in the field of natural philosophy throughout the Middle Ages - the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history. ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man, an example of the blend of art and science during the Renaissance. ... The event which many historians of science call the scientific revolution can be dated roughly as having begun in 1543, the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) and Andreas Vesalius published his De humani corporis fabrica (On the... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe before the development of modern science. ... Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, mythological, and astrological practices of pre-history: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy, and not completely disentangled from it until a... The history of biology dates as far back as the rise of various civilization as classic philosophers did their own ways of biology as a system of understanding life. ... Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and his Wife, by Jacques-Louis David The history of chemistry may be said to begin with the distinction of chemistry from alchemy by Robert Boyle in his work The Sceptical Chymist (1661). ... ÛEcology is generally spoken of as a new science, having only become prominent in the second half of the 20th Century. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The history of paleontology has been an ongoing effort to understand the history of life on Earth by understanding the fossil record left behind by living organisms. ... Since antiquity, human beings have sought to understand the workings of nature: why unsupported objects drop to the ground, why different materials have different properties, the character of the universe such as the form of the Earth and the behavior of celestial objects such as the Sun and the Moon... For more, see: Social science#History In ancient philosophy, there was no difference between the liberal arts of mathematics and the study of history, poetry or politics—only with the development of mathematical proof did there gradually arise a perceived difference between scientific disciplines and others, the humanities or liberal... It has been suggested that History of economics be merged into this article or section. ... Efforts to describe and explain the human language faculty have been undertaken throughout recorded history. ... Antecedents of political science While the study of politics is first found in the Western tradition in Ancient Greece, political science is a late arrival in terms of social sciences. ... Sociology is a relatively new academic discipline among other social sciences including economics, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... The wheel was invented circa 4000 BC, and has become one of the worlds most famous, and most useful technologies. ... Agronomy today is very different from what it was before about 1950. ... The history of computer science began long before the modern discipline of computer science that emerged in the twentieth century. ... The History of materials science is rooted in the history of the Earth and the culture of the peoples of the Earth. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Chronologies or timelines are important in understanding history. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhÄ“, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Image File history File links Psi2. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. ... Biological psychology, sometimes referred to as psychobiology or biopsychology, is a subfield of psychology. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Emotional redirects here. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Legal psychology involves the application of empirical psychological research to legal institutions and people who come into contact with the law. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Positive psychology is a relatively young branch of psychology that studies the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that studies the transpersonal, the transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human mind. ...

APPLIED Ψ

Clinical
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Sport The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

LISTS

Publications
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Therapies This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... link title Headline text --Cknuth7 16:35, 3 April 2006 (UTC) This page aims to list articles related to psychology. ... This is an alphabetical List of Psychotherapies. ...

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Overview

During the last quarter of the 19th century, psychology in the West began to be seriously pursued as a scientific enterprise. Psychology as an experimental field of study is commonly said to have begun in 1879, when Wilhelm Wundt founded the first laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychological research in Leipzig. Other important early contributors to the field include Hermann Ebbinghaus (a pioneer in studies on memory), William James, and Ivan Pavlov (who developed the procedures associated with classical conditioning). Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis, though widely known, has had a contested relationship with the development of psychology. Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Wilhelm Wundt Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (August 16, 1832 – August 31, 1920) was a German physiologist and psychologist. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909) was a German psychologist who pioneered experimental study of memory, and discovered the forgetting curve and the learning curve. ... In psychology, memory is an organisms ability to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Classical conditioning (also Pavlovian conditioning, respondent conditioning or alpha-conditioning) is a type of associative learning. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ...


Soon after the development of experimental psychology, various kinds of applied psychology began to appear as well. G. Stanley Hall (Johns Hopkins) brought scientific pedagogy to the United States from Germany in the early 1880s. John Dewey's (U. Chicago) educational theory of the 1890s was an early example as well. Also in the 1890s, Hugo Münsterberg (Harvard) began writing about the application of psychology to industry, law, and other professions. Lightner Witmer (U. Pennsylvania) established the first psychological clinic in the 1890s. James McKeen Cattell (Columbia U.) adapted the Francis Galton's anthropometric methods to generate the first program of mental testing in the 1890s as well. Granville Stanley Hall, circa 1910. ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... Hugo Münsterberg (1863-1916) was a German-born American]] psychologist. ... Lightner Witmer Lightner Witmer (1867-1956) is regarded as the inventor of the term Clinical Psychology and the co-founder of the worlds first Psychological Clinic in 1896 at the University of Pennsylvania. ... James McKeen Cattell (May 25, 1860-January 20, 1944), American psychologist, was the first professor of psychology in the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The 20th century saw a rejection of Freud's theories as being too unscientific, and a reaction against Edward Titchener's abstract approach to the mind. This led to the formulation of behaviorism by John B. Watson, which was popularized by B.F. Skinner. Behaviorism proposed epistemologically limiting psychological study to overt behavior, since that could be quantified and easily measured. Scientific knowledge of the "mind" was considered too metaphysical, hence impossible to achieve. The final decades of the 20th century have seen the rise of a new interdisciplinary approach to studying human psychology, known collectively as cognitive science. Cognitive science again considers the "mind" as a subject for investigation, using the tools of evolutionary psychology, linguistics, computer science, philosophy, and neurobiology. This new form of investigation has proposed that a wide understanding of the human mind is possible, and that such an understanding may be applied to other research domains, such as artificial intelligence. Edward B. Titchener (1876-1927) was an Englishman and a student of Wilhelm Wundt before becoming a professor of psychology at Cornell University. ... Behaviorism (also called learning perspective) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do—including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. ... John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878–September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism, after doing research on animal behavior. ... Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 _ August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ... It has been suggested that Meta-epistemology be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior. ... Garry Kasparov playing against Deep Blue, the first machine to win a chess game against a reigning world champion. ...


Early Psychological Thought

Many cultures throughout history have speculated on the nature of the mind, soul, spirit, etc. For instance, in Ancient Egypt, the Edwin Smith Papyrus contains an early description of the brain, and some speculations on its functions (though in a medical/surgical context). The Ebers papyrus (ca 1550 BC) contains a short description of clinical depression. Though full of incantations and applications meant to turn away disease-causing demons and other superstition, it also shows a long tradition of empirical practice and observation. Plates vi & vii of the Edwin Smith Papyrus at the Rare Book Room, New York Academy of Medicine The Edwin Smith papyrus is the worlds earliest known medical document, written around 1600 BC, but thought to be based on material from as early as 3000 BC. It is an... Ebers medical papyrus giving the treatment of cancer. ... The Lion Gate at Mycenae, the center of Mycenean Greece 1700 – 1500 BC -- Hurrian conquests. ...


Ancient Greek philosophers from Thales (fl. 550 bc) through to the Roman period developed an elaborate theory of what they termed the psuchẽ (from which the first half of "psychology" is derived), as well as other (loosely speaking) "psychological" terms -- nous, thumos, logistikon, etc. (see, e.g., Everson, 1991; Green & Groff, 2003). The most influential of these are the accounts of Plato (esp. in the Republic -- see, e.g., Robinson, 1995) and of Aristotle (esp. Peri Psyches, better known under its Latin title, De Anima -- see, e.g., Durrant, 1993; Nussbaum & Rorty, 1992). Hellenistic philosophers (viz., the Stoics and Epicurians) diverged from the Classical Greek tradition in several important ways, esp. in being more concerned with questions of the physiological basis of the mind (see, e.g, Annas, 1992). The Roman physician Galen addressed these issues most elaborately and influentially of all. The Greek tradition influenced some Christian and Islamic thought on the topic. Thales of Miletos (, ca. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... in particular, for the archaizing senses of republic, as a translation of politeia or res publica Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on consent of the governed... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... I like to eat your grandmother for breakfast,lunch,brunch,dinner, and desert all at the same time. ... Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ... Galen. ...


The Dead Sea Scrolls Manual of Discipline (ca. 21 BC–61 AD) notes the division of human nature into two temperaments. Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea scrolls (Hebrew: מגילות ים המלח) comprise roughly 825-872 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet...


In Asia, China had a long history of administering psychological tests as part of its education system. In the 6th century AD, Lin Xie carried out an early psychological experiment, in which he asked people to draw a square with one hand and at the same time draw a circle with the other in order to test people's vulnerability to distraction.


India, too, had an elaborate theory of the self in its Vedanta philosophical writings (see, e.g., Paranjpe, 1998). This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


The Beginnings of Psychological Experimentation

Experimental psychology, as well as psychophysics, began with the development of the experimental scientific method in the 1010s by the Iraqi Arab scientist, Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen). In his Book of Optics, he made use of the experimental method in his pioneering work on the psychology of visual perception. He was the first to combine physics and psychology to form psychophysics, while his investigations and experiments on psychology and visual perception included sensation, variations in sensitivity, sensation of touch, perception of colours, perception of darkness, the psychological explanation of the moon illusion, and binocular vision.[1] Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions concerning phenomena. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Centuries: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century Decades: 960s - 970s - 980s - 990s - 1000s - 1010s - 1020s - 1030s - 1040s - 1050s - 1060s 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 Events: Canute invades England. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was a Muslim polymath, anatomist, astronomer, engineer, mathematician, mechanician, ophthalmologist, philosopher, physician, physicist, psychologist, and scientist, who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as astronomy, analytic geometry, infinitesimal and integral calculus, mechanics, motion, number theory, and visual perception... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen... This does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sensation and perception psychology. ... See: Sensitivity (electronics) Sensitivity (human) Sensitivity (tests) For sensitivity in finance, see beta coefficient This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Darkness is the absence of light. ... The Moon illusion is an optical illusion in which the Moon appears larger near the horizon than it does while higher up in the sky. ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ...


The Beginnings of Western Psychology

The first use of the term "psychology" is often attributed to the "Yucologia hoc est de hominis perfectione, anima, ortu", written by the German scholastic philosopher Rudolf Göckel (1547-1628, often known under the Latin form Rudolph Goclenius), and published in Marburg in 1590. However, the term was in fact used more than six decades earlier by the Croatian humanist Marko Marulić (1450-1524) in the title of his Latin treatise "Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae." Although the treatise itself has not been preserved, its title appears in a list of Marulic's works compiled by his younger contemporary, Franjo Bozicevic-Natalis in his "Vita Marci Maruli Spalatensis" (Krstić, 1964). This, of course, may well not have been the very first usage, but it is the earliest documented use at present. Scholastic is the official student publication of the University of Notre Dame. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Rudolph Goclenius Rudolph Göckel or Rudolf Goclenius [the Older] (1 March 1547 - 8 June 1628) was a German scholastic philosopher, credited with inventing the terms psychology (1590), and ontology (1613). ... Marburg is a city in Hesse, Germany, on the Lahn river. ... Bold text{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1587 1588 1589 - 1590 - 1591 1592 1593 |-vdsf gno[gldw[pvkijxaiamknn csogfhbvdowkhbfkqhjkhrjkhwgfhbjkpnkfokfgok3pkpk9pjhkt9erktyujkip9kijker9thhrkg9hkitr9gtkih9t0ykltk[u0jo0iey9uhyit90ertyhige9rity9riyh9ujirtyuhjnh-4e9tyigh9thiuy0h8tyh34tu8uy8u8u8u8rtu5y8ru8thu0tru0ut0rhutuh0trhu0hseogtrhr8uyhju8t89er9te9r8fy8shit ass dick bitch fuck | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1560s 1570s 1580s - 1590s - 1600s 1610s 1620s |- | align=center | Centuries... Marko Marulić (Split, August 18, 1450 - Split, January 5, 1524), Croatian poet, apologist and Christian humanist is generally considered the father of vernacular Croatian literature. ...


The term did not come into popular usage until the German idealist philosopher, Christian Wolff (1679-1754) used it in his Psychologia empirica and Psychologia rationalis (1732-1734). This distinction between empirical and rational psychology was picked up in Denis Diderot's (1713-1780) Encyclopédie (1751-1784) and was popularized in France by Maine de Biran (1766-1824). In England, the term "psychology" did not overtake "mental philosophy" until the middle of the 19th century, esp. in the work of William Hamilton (1788-1856) (see Danziger, 1997, chap. 3). Christian Wolff is the name of at least two notable individuals: an eighteenth-century philosopher and mathematician - see Christian Wolff (philosopher) a twentieth_century composer _ see Christian Wolff (composer) a German actor This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Maine de Biran. ... Several people have been known by the name William Hamilton; William is often shortened to Will or Bill. ...


Early psychology was regarded as the study of the soul (in the Christian sense of the term). The modern philosophical form of psychology was heavily influenced by the works of René Descartes (1596-1650), and the debate that they generated of which the most relevant were the objections to his Meditations on First Philosophy (1641), published with the text. Also important to the later development of psychology were his Passions of the Soul (1649) and Treatise on Man (completed in 1632 but, along with the rest of The World, withheld from publication after Descartes heard of the Catholic Church's condemnation of Galileo; it was eventually published posthumously, in 1664). René Descartes (French IPA: ) (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ... The title page of the Meditations Meditations on First Philosophy (subtitled In which the existence of God and the real distinction of mind and body, are demonstrated) is a philosophical treatise written by René Descartes first published in Latin in 1641 . ... In the treatise Passions of the Soul (Les passions de lâme), the last of Descartes published work, completed in 1649 and dedicated to Princess Elizabeth of Bohemia, the author contributes to a long tradition of theorizing the passions. ... For other uses of the specific phrase The World, see The World (disambiguation). ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht...


Although not educated as a doctor, Descartes did extensive anatomical studies of bull's hearts and was considered important enough for Harvey to respond to. Descartes was one of the first to endorse Harvey's model of the circulation of the blood, but disagreed with his metaphysical framework to explain it. The emergence of psychology as a medical discipline was given a major boost by Thomas Willis', not only in his reference to psychology (the "Doctrine of the Soul") in terms of brain function, but through his detailed 1672 anatomical work, and his treatise "De Anima Brutorum" ("Two Discourses on the Souls of Brutes"). However, Willis acknowledged the influence of Descartes's rival, Pierre Gassendi, as an inspiration for his work. Thomas Willis Thomas Willis (1621-1673) was an English physician who played an important part in the history of the science of anatomy and was a co-founder of the Royal Society (1662). ...


The philosophers of the British Empiricist and Associationist schools had a profound impact on the later course of experimental psychology. John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689), George Berkeley's Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710), and David Hume's A Treatise of Human Nature (1739-1740) were particularly influential, as were David Hartley's Observations on Man (1749) and John Stuart Mill's A System of Logic. (1843). Also notable was the work of some Continental Rationalist philosophers, especially Baruch Spinoza's (1632-1677) On the Improvement of the Understanding (1662) and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's (1646-1716) New Essays on Human Understanding (completed 1705, published 1765). Empiricism is generally regarded as being at the heart of the modern scientific method, that our theories should be based on our observations of the world rather than on intuition or faith; that is, empirical research and a posteriori inductive reasoning rather than purely deductive logic. ... In the philosophy of mind, associationism began as a theory about how ideas combine in the mind. ... This article is about John Locke, the English philosopher. ... An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is one of John Lockes two most famous works, the other being his Second Treatise on Civil Government. ... George Berkeley (IPA: , Bark-Lee) (12 March 1685 – 14 January 1753), also known as Bishop Berkeley, was an influential Irish philosopher whose primary philosophical achievement is the advancement of a theory he called immaterialism (later referred to as subjective idealism by others). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: A Treatise concerning the principles of human knowledge A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (Commonly called Treatise when referring to Berkleys works) is a 1710 work by the Irish Empiricist philosopher George Berkeley. ... David Hume (April 26, 1711 – August 25, 1776)[1] was a Scottish philosopher, economist, and historian. ... A Treatise of Human Nature is a book by philosopher David Hume, published in 1739–1740. ... There are several persons with the name David Hartley: David Hartley (1705-1757), English philosopher David Hartley (1731-1813), son of David Hartley the philosopher, and signatory to the Treaty of Paris David Hartley, musician This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... John Stuart Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) British philosopher, political economist and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... A System of Logic is an 1843 book by English philosopher John Stuart Mill. ... This article is not about continental rationalism. ... Baruch de Spinoza (Hebrew:ברוך שפינוזה , Portuguese: Bento de Espinosa, Latin: Benedictus de Spinoza) (lived November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (July 1, 1646 in Leipzig - November 14, 1716 in Hannover) was a German philosopher, scientist, mathematician, diplomat, librarian, and lawyer of Sorb descent. ... Nouveaux Essais sur Lentendement humaine (New Essays on Human Understanding) was a chapter-by-chapter rebuttal by Gottfried Leibniz of the John Locke book Essays on Human Understanding. ...


Also influential on the emerging discipline of psychology were debates surrounding the efficacy of Mesmerism (hypnosis) and the value of phrenology. The former was developed in the 1770s by Austrian physician Anton Mesmer (1734-1815) who claimed to use the power of gravity, and later of "animal magnetism," to cure various physical and mental ills. As Mesmer and his treatment became increasingly fashionable in both Vienna and Paris, it also began to come under the scrutiny of suspicious officials. In 1784, an investigation was commissioned in Paris by King Louis which included American ambassador Benjamin Franklin, chemist Antoine Lavoisier and physician Joseph-Ignace Guillotin (later the popularizer of the guillotine). They concluded that Mesmer's method was useless. Although discredited, the "magnetic" tradition continued among Mesmer's students and others, resurfacing in England in the 19th century in the work of physicians John Elliotson (1791-1868), James Esdaile (1808-1859), and James Braid (1795-1860), who renamed it "hypnotism." Mesmerism also continued to have a strong social (if not medical) following in England through the 19th century (see Winter, 1998). In France the practice regained a strong following after it was investigated by the Nancy physician Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919) and adopted for the treatment of hysteria by the director of Paris's Salpêtrière Hospital, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893). Hypnosis, as defined by the American Psychological Association Division of Psychological Hypnosis, is a procedure during which a health professional or researcher suggests that a client, patient, or experimental participant experience changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, or behavior. ... A 19th century phrenology chart. ... Franz Anton Mesmer. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794), the Father of Modern Chemistry [1], was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... Portrait of Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin (May 28, 1738 – March 26, 1814) did not invent the guillotine, but on October 10, 1789 proposed the use of a mechanical device to carry out death penalties in France. ... John Elliotson (October 29, 1791 - July 29, 1868) was an English physician, born in Southwark, London. ... Dr. James Esdale (1808-1859) is the father of hypno-anesthesia. ... There have been at least two notable people called James Braid: For the Scottish golfer see James Braid (golfer) For the Scottish physician who coined the term hypnotism see James Braid (physician). ... Nancy (IPA pronounciation ; archaic German: ; Luxembourgish: Nanzeg) is a city and commune in the Lorraine région of northeastern France. ... Hippolyte Bernheim (1837 - 1919) was a French physician and neurologist; born at Mülhausen, Alsace. ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ... The Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital is a hospital in Paris. ... Categories: People stubs | French physicians | 1825 births | 1893 deaths | History of medicine ...


Phrenology began as "organology", a theory of brain structure developed by the German physician, Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828). Gall argued that the brain is divided into a large number of functional "organs," each responsible for particular human mental abilities and dispositions -- hope, love, spirituality, greed, language, the abilities to detect the size, form, and color of objects, etc. He argued that the larger each of these organs are, the greater the power of the corresponding mental trait. Further, he argued that one could detect the sizes of the organs in a given individual by feeling the surface of that person's skull. Gall's ultra-localizationist position with respect to the brain was soon attacked, most notably by French anatomist Pierre Flourens (1794-1867), who conducted ablation studies (on chickens) which purported to demonstrate little or no cerebral localization of function. Although Gall had been a serious (if misguided) researcher, his theory was taken by his assistant, Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832), and developed into the profitable, popular enterprise of phrenology, which soon spawned, especially in Britain, a thrinving industry of independent practitioners. In the hands of Scottish religious leader George Combe (1788-1858) (whose book The Constitution of Man was one of the best-sellers of the century), phrenology became strongly associated with political reform movements and egalitarian principles (see, e.g., Shapin, 1975; but also see van Wyhe, 2004). Phrenology soon spread to America as well, where itinerant practical phrenologists assessed the mental well-being of willing customers (see Sokal, 2001). A 19th century phrenology chart. ... F.J. Gall Franz Joseph Gall (March 9, 1758 - August 22, 1828) was a neuroanatomist and physiologist who was a pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain. ... Marie Jean Pierre Flourens (April 15, 1794 - December 6, 1867) was a French physiologist, the founder of experimental brain science and a pioneer in anesthesia. ... Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832) was a German physician who became one of the chief proponents of phrenology, a branch of the neurosciences created approximately in 1800 by Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828). ... A 19th century phrenology chart. ... George Combe (1788 - 1858) was a writer on phrenology and education, born in Edinburgh, where for some time he practised as a lawyer. ... The Constitution of Man is the most famous book of George Combe. ...


The Emergence of German Experimental Psychology

Until the middle of the 19th century, psychology was widely regarded as a branch of philosophy. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), for instance, famously declared in his Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786) that a scientific psychology "properly speaking" (a phrase in which much is buried) is an impossibility. He then proceeded to produce what looks to modern eyes very much like an empirical (if not "properly" scientific) psychology in his Anthropology. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... “Kant” redirects here. ... Immanuel Kants Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786), in German Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ...


Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) took issue with Kant's conclusion and attempted to develop a mathematical basis for a scientific psychology. Although he was unable to render his theory empirically testable, his efforts influenced later German scientists. Ernst Heinrich Weber (1795-1878) and Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887), for instance, attempted to measure the mathematical relationships between the physical magnitudes of external stimuli and the psychological intensities of the resulting sensations. Fechner (1860) named this endeavor psychophysics. Johann Friedrich Herbart Johann Friedrich Herbart (May 4, 1776 - August 11, 1841), was a German philosopher, psychologist, and founder of pedagogy as an academic discipline. ... Ernst Heinrich Weber, born on June 24, 1795 in Wittenberg, died on January 26, 1878 was a German physician. ... Gustav Theodor Fechner (April 19, 1801 - November 28, 1887), was a German experimental psychologist. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ...


Meanwhile, individual differences in reaction time had become a critical issue in the field of astronomy, under the name of the "personal equation". Early researches by Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) in Königsberg and Adolf Hirsch led to the invention of a highly precise chronoscope by Mathias Hipp (based on a design by Charles Wheatstone for a device that measured the speed of artillery shells). Other timing instruments were borrowed from physiology (e.g., the kymograph) and adapted for use by the Utrecht ophthamologist Franciscus Donders (1818-1899) and his student Johan Jacob de Jaager in measuring the duration of simple mental decisions. The personal equation, in 19th- and early 20th-century science, referred to the idea that every individual observer had an inherent bias when it came to measurements and observations. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (July 22, 1784 – March 17, 1846) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and systematizer of the Bessel functions (which, despite their name, were discovered by Daniel Bernoulli). ... Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ... A chronometer is a timekeeper precise enough to be used as a portable time standard, usually in order to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation. ... Charles Wheatstone Sir Charles Wheatstone (February 6, 1802 - October 19, 1875) was the British inventor of many innovations including the English concertina the Stereoscope an early form of microphone the Playfair cipher (named for Lord Playfair, the person who publicized it) He was a major figure in the development of... A kymograph (which means wave writer) is a device that gives a graphical representation of spatial position over time in which a spatial axis represents time. ... Franciscus Cornelis Donders Franciscus Cornelis Donders (Tilburg, May 27, 1818 - Utrecht, March 24, 1889) was a Dutch ophthalmologist and medical scientist who did pioneering work on animal and vegetable heat, among many other things. ...


The 19th century was also the period in which physiology, including neurophysiology, professionalized and saw some of its most significant discoveries. Among its leaders were Charles Bell (1774-1843) and François Magendie (1783-1855) who independently discovered the distinction between sensory and motor nerves in the spinal column, Johannes Müller (1801-1855) who proposed the doctrine of specific nerve energies, Emil du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896) who studied the electrical basis of muscle contraction, Pierre Paul Broca (1824-1880) and Carl Wernicke (1848-1905) who identified areas of the brain responsible for different aspects of language, as well as Gustav Fritsch (1837-1927), Eduard Hitzig (1839-1907), and David Ferrier (1843-1924) who localized sensory and motor areas of the brain. One of the principal founders of experimental physiology, Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894), conducted studies of a wide range of topics that would later be of interest to psychologists -- the speed of neural transmission, the natures of sound and color, and of our perceptions of them, etc. In the 1860s, while he held a position in Heidelberg, Helmholtz engaged as an assistant a young M.D. named Wilhelm Wundt. Wundt employed the equipment of the physiology laboratory -- chronoscope, kymograph, and various peripheral devices -- to address more complicated psychological questions than had heretofore been considered experimentally. In particular he was interested in the nature of apperception -- the point at which a perception comes into the central focus of conscious awareness. Sir Charles Bell Sir Charles Bell (November 1774, in Doun in Monteath, Edinburgh- April 28, 1842, in North Hallow, Worcestershire) was a Scottish anatomist, surgeon, and physiologist. ... François Magendie (1783 - 1855), French physiologist. ... Johannes Peter Müller (July 14, 1801, Koblenz – April 28, 1858, Berlin), was a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, and ichthyologist not only known for his discoveries but also for his ability to synthesize knowledge. ... Emil du Bois-Reymond. ... Paul Pierre Broca (June 28, 1824 - July 9, 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist. ... Carl Wernicke (born 15 May 1848 in Tarnowitz, Upper Silesia, then Prussia, now Tarnowskie Gory, Poland – died 15 June 1905 in Gräfenroda, Germany) was a German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist and neuropathologist. ... Gustav Theodor Fritsch (March 5, 1837 - June 12, 1927) was German anatomist and physiologist from Cottbus, best known for his work with neuropsychiatrist Eduard Hitzig (1839-1907) on the electric localization of the motor areas of the brain. ... Eduard Hitzig (1839-1907) was a German physician who is best known for his work concerning the interaction between electrical current and the brain. ... David Ferrier (1843-1924) was born in Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1843. ... Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ... The Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg (German Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; also known as simply University of Heidelberg) was established in the town of Heidelberg in the Rhineland in 1386. ... Wilhelm Wundt Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (August 16, 1832 – August 31, 1920) was a German physiologist and psychologist. ... A chronometer is a timekeeper precise enough to be used as a portable time standard, usually in order to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation. ... A kymograph (which means wave writer) is a device that gives a graphical representation of spatial position over time in which a spatial axis represents time. ... Apperception is the cognitive process by which a newly experienced sensation is related to past experiences to form an understood situation. ...


In 1874 Wundt took up a professorship in Zurich, where he published his landmark textbook, Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychologie (Principles of Physiological Psychology, 1874). Moving to a more prestigious professorship in Leipzig in 1875, Wundt founded a laboratory specifically dedicated to original research in experimental psychology in 1879, the first laboratory of its kind in the world. In 1883, he launched a journal in which to publish the results of his, and his students', research, Philosophische Studien (Philosophical Studies) (For more on Wundt, see, e.g., Bringmann & Tweney, 1980; Rieber & Robinson, 2001). Wundt attracted a large number of students not only from Germany, but also from abroad. Among his most influential American students were Granville Stanley Hall (who had already obtained a PhD from Harvard under the supervision of William James), James McKeen Cattell (who was Wundt's first assistant), and Frank Angell. The most influential British student was Edward Bradford Titchener (who later became professor at Cornell). Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychologie (Principles of Physiological Psychology) was a landmark textbook of experimental psychology, authored by Wilhelm Wundt and published in 1874, while he was a professor at Zurich. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... Philosophische Studien (Philosophical Studies) was the first journal of experimental psychology, founded by Wilhelm Wundt in 1883. ... Granville Stanley Hall (1 February 1844 - 24 April 1924) was a psychologist and educationalist who pioneered American psychology. ... James McKeen Cattell (May 25, 1860-January 20, 1944), American psychologist, was the first professor of psychology in the United States. ... Frank Angell was a prominent early American psychologist. ... Edward Bradford Titchener, D.Sc. ... Cornell University is a university located in Ithaca, New York, USA. Its two medical campuses are in New York City and Education City, Qatar. ...


Experimental psychology laboratories were soon also established at Berlin by Carl Stumpf (1848-1936) and at Göttingen by Georg Elias Müller (1850-1934). Another major German experimental psychologist of the era, though he did not direct his own research institute, was Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909). Carl Stumpf (21 April 1848 - 25 December 1936) was a philosopher and psychologist. ... Georg Elias Müller (1850-1934) was a significant early German experimental psychologist. ... Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909) was a German psychologist who pioneered experimental study of memory, and discovered the forgetting curve and the learning curve. ...


Experimentation was not the only approach to psychology in the German-speaking world at this time. Starting in the 1890s, employing the case study (traditional in medicine at the time), the Viennese physician Sigmund Freud developed and applied the methods of hypnosis, free association, and dream interpretation to reveal putatively unconscious beliefs and desires that he argued were the underlying causes of his patients' "hysteria." He dubbed his new approach psychoanalysis. It was particularly notable for the emphasis it placed on the course of the individual's sexual development in the genesis of psychopathology. Although psychoanalysis strongly influenced American psychiatry and clinical psychology through the middle of the 20th century, it is now dismissed by most psychiatrists and psychologists and having been based on Freud's unreplicable clinical intuitions. There remain, however, strong, if small, communities of psychoanalysts, and there can be little question of the large and lasting influence psychoanalysis has had on popular culture. The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... The unconscious mind (or subconscious) is the aspect (or puported aspect) of the mind of which we are not directly conscious or aware. ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ...


Early American Psychology

Around 1875, the Harvard physiology instructor (as he then was), William James, opened a small experimental psychology demonstration laboratory for use with his courses. The laboratory was never used, in those days, for original research, and so controversy remains as to whether it is to be regarded as the "first" experimental psychology laboratory or not. In 1878, James gave a series of lectures at Johns Hopkins University entitled “The Senses and the Brain and their Relation to Thought” in which he argued, contra Thomas Henry Huxley, that consciousness is not epiphenomenal, but must have an evolutionary function, or it would not have been naturally selected in humans. The same year James was contracted by Henry Holt to write a textbook on the "new" experimental psychology. If he had written it quickly, it would have been the first English-language textbook on the topic. It was twelve years, however, before his two-volume Principles of Psychology would be published. In the meantime textbooks were published by George Trumbull Ladd of Yale (1887) and James Mark Baldwin then of Lake Forest College (1889). Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... Thomas Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley F.R.S. (May 4, 1825 – June 29, 1895) was a British biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his defence of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... Holt, Rinehart and Winston, somethimes abbreviated as HRW or referred to as Holt, is an Austin, Texas based publishing company, that specializes in textbooks for use in secondary schools. ... The Principles of Psychology is a monumental text in the history of psychology, written by William James and published in 1890. ... George Trumbull Ladd (19 January 1842 – 8 August 1921) was an American philosopher and psychologist. ... James Mark Baldwin (Columbia, South Carolina, 1861—1934) was an American philosopher, educated at Princeton and several German universities. ... Lake Forest College, founded in 1857, is a liberal arts college located in Lake Forest, Illinois. ...


In 1879 Charles Sanders Peirce was hired as a philosophy instructor at Johns Hopkins University. Although better known for his astronomical and philosophical work, Peirce also conducted what are perhaps the first American psychology experiments, on the subject of color vision, published in 1877 in the American Journal of Science (see Cadwallder, 1974). Peirce and his student Joseph Jastrow published "On Small Differences in Sensation" in the Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, in 1884. In 1882, Peirce was joined at Johns Hopkins by Granville Stanley Hall, who opened the first American research laboratory devoted to experimental psychology in 1883. Peirce was forced out of his position by scandal and Hall was awarded the only professorship in philosophy at Johns Hopkins. In 1887 Hall founded the American Journal of Psychology, which published work primarily emanating from his own laboratory. In 1888 Hall left his Johns Hopkins professorship for the presidency of the newly-founded Clark University, where he remained for the rest of his career. Charles Sanders Peirce Charles Sanders Peirce (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American logician, philosopher, scientist, and mathematician. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... Joseph Jastrow, Ph. ... Granville Stanley Hall (1 February 1844 - 24 April 1924) was a psychologist and educationalist who pioneered American psychology. ... The American Journal of Psychology was the first English-language journal devoted primarily to experimental psychology (though Mind, founded in 1876, published some experimental psychology earlier). ... Statue at the center of campus of Sigmund Freud, commemorating his 1909 visit to the University Front Entrance to Clark Universitys Jonas Clark Hall, the main academic facility for undergraduate students For the university in Atlanta, see Clark Atlanta University. ...


Soon, experimental psychology laboratories were opened at the University of Pennsylvania (in 1887, by James McKeen Cattell), Indiana University (1888, William Lowe Bryan), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (1888, Joseph Jastrow), Clark University (1889, Edmund Clark Sanford), the McLean Asylum (1889, William Noyes), and the University of Nebraska (1889, Harry Kirke Wolfe). This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... James McKeen Cattell (May 25, 1860-January 20, 1944), American psychologist, was the first professor of psychology in the United States. ... Indiana University, founded in 1820, is a nine-campus university system in the state of Indiana. ... William Lowe Bryan (November 11, 1860-?) was the 10th president of Indiana University, serving from 1902 to 1937. ... The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as UW–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin, or UW) is a highly selective public research university located in Madison, Wisconsin. ... Joseph Jastrow, Ph. ... Statue at the center of campus of Sigmund Freud, commemorating his 1909 visit to the University Front Entrance to Clark Universitys Jonas Clark Hall, the main academic facility for undergraduate students For the university in Atlanta, see Clark Atlanta University. ... Edmund Clark Sanford (1859 - 1924) was a prominent early American psychologist. ... Seal of the University of Nebraska The University of Nebraska is one of two public university systems in the state of Nebraska, USA. The system has four universities and a technical college: University of Nebraska-Lincoln University of Nebraska at Omaha University of Nebraska at Kearney University of Nebraska Medical... Harry Kirke Wolfe (10 November 1858-1918) was a prominent early American psychologist. ...


In 1890, William James' Principles of Psychology finally appeared, and rapidly became the most influential textbook in the history of American psychology. It laid many of the foundations for the sorts of questions that American psychologists would focus on for years to come. The book's chapters on consciousness, emotion, and habit were particularly agenda-setting. 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Principles of Psychology is a monumental text in the history of psychology, written by William James and published in 1890. ...


One of those who felt the impact of James' Principles was John Dewey, then professor of philosophy at the University of Michigan. With his junior colleagues, James Hayden Tufts (who founded the psychology laboratory at Michigan) and George Herbert Mead, and his student James Rowland Angell, this group began to reformulate psychology, focusing more strongly on the social environment and on the activity of mind and behavior than the psychophysics-inspired physiological psychology of Wundt and his followers had heretofore. Tufts left Michigan for another junior position at the newly-founded University of Chicago in 1892. A year later, the senior philosopher at Chicago resigned, and Tufts recommended to Chicago president William Rainey Harper that Dewey be offered the position. After initial reluctance, Dewey was hired in 1894. Dewey soon filled out the department with his Michigan companions Mead and Angell. These four formed the core of the Chicago School of psychology. The Principles of Psychology is a monumental text in the history of psychology, written by William James and published in 1890. ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, U-M or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan, and one of the foremost universities in the United States. ... James Hayden Tufts (1862-1942) American philosopher, professor of the then newly founded Chicago University, Tufts was also a member of the Board of Arbitration, and the chairman of a committee of the social agencies of Chicago. ... George Herbert Mead (February 27, 1863 – April 26, 1931) was an American philosopher, sociologist and psychologist, primarily affiliated with the University of Chicago, where he was one of several distinguished pragmatists. ... James Rowland Angell (1869 - 1949) was a U.S. educator and psychologist. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... William Rainey Harper ( 1856- 1906) Noted academic; organizer and first President of the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. ... There are several Chicago schools, a name derived from programs and departments at the University of Chicago and not the city of Chicago itself. ...


In 1892, G. Stanley Hall invited 30-some psychologists and philosophers to a meeting at Clark with the purpose of founding a new American Psychological Association (APA). (On the history of the APA, see Evans, Staudt Sexton, & Cadwallader, 1992.) The first annual meeting of the APA was held later that year, hosted by George S. Fullerton at the University of Pennsylvania. Almost immediately tension arose between the experimentally- and philosophically-inclined members of the APA. Edward Bradford Titchener and Lightner Witmer launched an attempt to either establish a separate "Section" for philosophical presentations, or to eject the philosophers altogether. After nearly a decade of debate a Western Philosophical Association was founded and held its first meeting in 1901 at the University of Nebraska. The following year (1902), an American Philosophical Association held its first meeting at Columbia University. These ultimately became the Central and Eastern Divisions of the modern American Philosophical Association. Granville Stanley Hall, circa 1910. ... Statue at the center of campus of Sigmund Freud, commemorating his 1909 visit to the University Front Entrance to Clark Universitys Jonas Clark Hall, the main academic facility for undergraduate students For the university in Atlanta, see Clark Atlanta University. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... Edward Bradford Titchener, D.Sc. ... Lightner Witmer Lightner Witmer (1867-1956) is regarded as the inventor of the term Clinical Psychology and the co-founder of the worlds first Psychological Clinic in 1896 at the University of Pennsylvania. ... Seal of the University of Nebraska The University of Nebraska is one of two public university systems in the state of Nebraska, USA. The system has four universities and a technical college: University of Nebraska-Lincoln University of Nebraska at Omaha University of Nebraska at Kearney University of Nebraska Medical... The American Philosophical Association is the main professional organization for philosophers in the United States. ... Columbia University is a private research university in the United States and a member of the prestigious Ivy League. ... The American Philosophical Association is the main professional organization for philosophers in the United States. ...


In 1894, a number of psychologists, unhappy with the parochial editorial policies of the American Journal of Psychology approached Hall about appointing an editorial board and opening the journal out to more psychologists not within Hall's immediate circle. Hall refused, so James McKeen Cattell (then of Columbia) and James Mark Baldwin (then of Princeton) co-founded a new journal, Psychological Review, which rapidly grew to become a major outlet for American psychological researchers. The American Journal of Psychology was the first English-language journal devoted primarily to experimental psychology (though Mind, founded in 1876, published some experimental psychology earlier). ... James McKeen Cattell (May 25, 1860-January 20, 1944), American psychologist, was the first professor of psychology in the United States. ... James Mark Baldwin (Columbia, South Carolina, 1861—1934) was an American philosopher, educated at Princeton and several German universities. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States of America. ... Psychological Review is a highly-acclaimed scientific journal that publishes review articles in the field of psychology. ...


Beginning in 1895, James Mark Baldwin (Princeton) and Edward Bradford Titchener (Cornell) entered into an increasingly acrimonious dispute over the correct interpretation of some anomalous reaction time findings that had come from the Wundt laboratory (originally reported by Ludwig Lange and James McKeen Cattell). In 1896, James Rowland Angell and Addison W. Moore (Chicago) published a series of experiments in Psychological Review appearing to show that Baldwin was the more correct of the two. However, they interpreted their findings in light of John Dewey's new approach to psychology, which rejected the traditional stimulus-response understanding of the reflex arc in favor of a "circular" account in which what serves as "stimulus" and what as "response" depends on how one views the situation. The full position was laid out in Dewey's landmark article "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology" which also appeared in Psychological Review in 1896. James Mark Baldwin (Columbia, South Carolina, 1861—1934) was an American philosopher, educated at Princeton and several German universities. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States of America. ... Edward Bradford Titchener, D.Sc. ... Cornell University is a university located in Ithaca, New York, USA. Its two medical campuses are in New York City and Education City, Qatar. ... Wilhelm Max Wundt (August 16, 1832-August 31, 1920), German physiologist and psychologist, is generally acknowledged as the founder of experimental psychology. ... James McKeen Cattell (May 25, 1860-January 20, 1944), American psychologist, was the first professor of psychology in the United States. ... James Rowland Angell (1869 - 1949) was a U.S. educator and psychologist. ... Addison Webster Moore (1866 - 1930) was a U.S. pragmatist philosopher. ... Psychological Review is a highly-acclaimed scientific journal that publishes review articles in the field of psychology. ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... Psychological Review is a highly-acclaimed scientific journal that publishes review articles in the field of psychology. ...


Titchener responded in Philosophical Review (1898, 1899) by distinguishing his austere "structural" approach to psychology from what he termed the Chicago group's more applied "functional" approach, and thus began the first major theoretical rift in American psychology between Structuralism and Functionalism. The group at Columbia, led by James McKeen Cattell, Edward L. Thorndike, and Robert S. Woodworth, was often regarded as a second (after Chicago) "school" of American Functionalism (see, e.g., Heidbredder, 1933), although they never used that term themselves, because their research focused on the applied areas of mental testing, learning, and education. Dewey was elected president of the APA in 1899, while Titchener dropped his membership in the association. (In 1904, Titchener formed his own group, eventually known as the Society of Experimental Psychologists.) Jastrow promoted the functionalist approach in his APA presidential address of 1900, and Angell adopted Titchener's label explicitly in his influential textbook of 1904 and his APA presidential address of 1906. In reality, Structuralism was, more or less, confined to Titchener and his students. Functionalism, broadly speaking, with its more practical emphasis on action and application, better suited the American cultural "style" and, perhaps more important, was more popular among university trustees and private funding agencies. Edward Bradford Titchener, D.Sc. ... The Philosophical Review is a quarterly journal edited by the faculty of the Sage School of Philosophy at Cornell University and published by Duke University Press. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... Functionalism is a term with several senses: For functionalism in sociology, see Functionalism (sociology). ... James McKeen Cattell (May 25, 1860-January 20, 1944), American psychologist, was the first professor of psychology in the United States. ... Edward Lee Thorndike (August 31, 1874 - August 9, 1949) was an American psychologist whose work on animal behaviour and the learning process led to the theory of connectionism. ... Robert Sessions Woodworth (1869-1962) was an influential American academic psychologist of the first half of the twentieth century. ... Joseph Jastrow, Ph. ...


Early French Psychology

In no small measure because of the conservatism of the reign of Louis Napoléon (president, 1848-1852; emperor as "Napoléon III," 1852-1870), academic philosophy in France through the middle part of the 19th century was controlled by members of the eclectic and spiritualist schools, led by figures such as Victor Cousin (1792-1867), Théodore Jouffroy (1796-1842), and Paul Janet (1823-1899). These were traditional metaphysical schools, opposed to regarding psychology as a natural science. With the ouster of Napoléon III after the débacle of the Franco-Prussian war, new paths, both political and intellectual, became possible. From the 1870 forward, a steadily increasing interest in positivist, materialist, evolutionary, and deterministic approaches to psychology developed, influenced by, among others, the work of Hyppolyte Taine (1828-1893) (e.g., De L'Intelligence, 1870) and Théodule Ribot (1839-1916) (e.g., La Psychologie Anglaise Contemporaine, 1870). In 1876, Ribot founded Revue Philosophique (the same year as Mind was founded in Britain), which for the next generation would be virtually the only French outlet for the "new" psychology (Plas, 1997). Although not a working experimentalist himself, Ribot's many books were to have profound influence on the next generation of psychologists. These included especially his L'Hérédité Psychologique (1873) and La Psychologie Allemande Contemporaine (1879). In the 1880s, Ribot's interests turned to psychopathology, writing books on disorders of memory (1881), will (1883), and personality (1885), and where he attempted to bring to these topics the insights of general psychology. Although in 1881 he lost a Sorbonne professorship in the History of Psychological Doctrines to traditionalist Jules Soury (1842-1915), from 1885 to 1889 he taught experimental psychology at the Sorbonne. In 1889 he was awarded a chair at the Collège de France in Experimental and Comparative Psychology, which he held until 1896 (Nicolas, 2002). Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Victor Cousin. ... Paul Janet (April 30, 1823 - October 1899) was a French philosopher and writer. ... // Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Determinism is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition and behavior, decision and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. ... Hippolyte Adolphe Taine (April 21, 1828 - March 5, 1893) was a French critic and historian. ... Théodule-Augustin Ribot (August 8, 1823 – September 11, 1891) was a French realist painter. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Inscription over the entrance to the Sorbonne The front of the Sorbonne Building The name Sorbonne (La Sorbonne) is commonly used to refer to the historic University of Paris in Paris, France or one of its successor institutions (see below), but this is a recent usage, and Sorbonne has actually... Inscription over the entrance to the Sorbonne The front of the Sorbonne Building The name Sorbonne (La Sorbonne) is commonly used to refer to the historic University of Paris in Paris, France or one of its successor institutions (see below), but this is a recent usage, and Sorbonne has actually... Courtyard of the Collège de France. ...


France's primary psychological strength lay in the field of psychopathology. The chief neurologist at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), had been using the recently revivied and renamed (see above) practice of hypnoisis to "experimentally" produce hysterical symptoms in some of his patients. Two of his students, Alfred Binet (1857-1911) and Pierre Janet (1859-1947), adopted and expanded this practice in their own work. The Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital is a hospital in Paris. ... Categories: People stubs | French physicians | 1825 births | 1893 deaths | History of medicine ... Alfred Binet Alfred Binet (July 8, 1857 – October 18, 1911), French psychologist and inventor of the first usable intelligence test, the basis of todays IQ test. ... Pierre Marie Félix Janet, (May 30, 1859 - February 24, 1947) was a pioneering French psychologist in the field of dissociation and traumatic memory. ...


In 1889, Binet and his colleague Henri Beaunis (1830-1921) co-founded, at the Sorbonne, the first experimental psychology laboratory in France. Just five years later, in 1894, Beaunis, Binet, and a third colleague, Victor Henri (1872-1940), co-founded the first French journal dedicated to experimental psychology, L'Année Psychologique. In the first years of the 20th century, Binet was requested by the French government to develop a method for the newly-founded universal public education system to identify students who would require extra assistance to master the standardized curriculum. In response, with his collaborator Théodore Simon (1873-1961), he developed the Binet-Simon Intelligence Test, first published in 1905 (revised in 1908 and 1911). Inscription over the entrance to the Sorbonne The front of the Sorbonne Building The name Sorbonne (La Sorbonne) is commonly used to refer to the historic University of Paris in Paris, France or one of its successor institutions (see below), but this is a recent usage, and Sorbonne has actually... Théodore Simon (1872 - 1961) was a French psychologist and psychometrician. ...


Although the test was used to effect in France, it would find its greatest success (and controversy) in the United States, where it was translated in by Henry H. Goddard (1866-1957), the director of the Training School for the Feebleminded in Vineland, New Jersey, and his assistant, Elizabeth Kite (a translation of the 1905 edition appeared in the Vineland Bulletin in 1908, but much better known was Kite's 1916 translation of the 1908 edition, which appeared in book form). The translated test was used by Goddard to advance his eugenics agenda with respect to those he deemed congenitally feeble-minded, especially immigrants from non-Western European countries. Binet's test was revised by Stanford professor Lewis M. Terman (1877-1956) into the Stanford-Binet IQ test in 1916. Henry Herbert Goddard (1866 Р1957) was a prominent American psychologist and eugenicist in the early 20th century. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University (or simply Stanford), is a private university located approximately 37 miles (60 kilometers) southeast of San Francisco and approximately 20 miles northwest of San Jos̩ in Stanford, California. ... Lewis Madison Terman (1877-1956) was a professor of cognitive psychology at Stanford University, perhaps best known for inventing the Stanford-Binet IQ test, which popularized IQ tests in America. ... The modern field of intelligence testing began with the Stanford-Binet IQ test. ...


With Binet's death in 1911, the Sorbonne laboratory and L'Année Psychologique fell to Henri Piéron (1881-1964). Piéron's orientation was more physiological that Binet's had been. Inscription over the entrance to the Sorbonne The front of the Sorbonne Building The name Sorbonne (La Sorbonne) is commonly used to refer to the historic University of Paris in Paris, France or one of its successor institutions (see below), but this is a recent usage, and Sorbonne has actually...


Pierre Janet became the leading psychiatrist in France, being appointed to the Salpêtrière (1890-1894), the Sorbonne (1895-1920), and the Collège de France (1902-1936). In 1904, he co-founded the Journale de Psychologie Normale et Pathologique with fellow Sorbonne professor Georges Dumas (1866-1946), a student and faithful follower of Ribot. Whereas Janet's teacher, Charcot, had focused on the neurologial bases of hysteria, Janet was concerned to develop a scientific approach to psychopathology as a mental disorder. His theory that mental pathology results from conflict between unconscious and conscious parts of the mind, and that unconscious mental contents may emerge as symptoms with symbolic meanings led to a public priority dispute with Sigmund Freud. Pierre Marie Félix Janet, (May 30, 1859 - February 24, 1947) was a pioneering French psychologist in the field of dissociation and traumatic memory. ... The Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital is a hospital in Paris. ... Inscription over the entrance to the Sorbonne The front of the Sorbonne Building Sorbonne Place The name Sorbonne (La Sorbonne) is commonly used to refer to the historic University of Paris in Paris, France or one of its successor institutions (see below), but this is a recent usage, and Sorbonne... Courtyard of the Collège de France. ... Inscription over the entrance to the Sorbonne The front of the Sorbonne Building The name Sorbonne (La Sorbonne) is commonly used to refer to the historic University of Paris in Paris, France or one of its successor institutions (see below), but this is a recent usage, and Sorbonne has actually... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...


Early British Psychology

Although the British had the first scholarly journal dedicated to the topic of psychology -- Mind, founded in 1876 by Alexander Bain and edited by George Croom Robertson -- it was quite a long while before experimental psychology developed there to challenge the strong tradition of "mental philosophy." The experimental reports that appeared in Mind in the first two decades of its existence were almost entirely authored by Americans, especially G. Stanley Hall and his students (notably Henry Herbert Donaldson) and James McKeen Cattell. For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Alexander Bain A different Alexander Bain invented the electric clock, facsimile machine and earth battery. ... George Croom Robertson (March 10, 1842 - 1892) was a Scottish philosopher. ... Granville Stanley Hall, circa 1910. ... James McKeen Cattell (May 25, 1860-January 20, 1944), American psychologist, was the first professor of psychology in the United States. ...


Francis Galton's (1822-1911) anthropometric laboratory opened in 1884. There people were tested on a wide variety of physical (e.g., strength of blow) and percepetual (e.g., visual acuity) attributes. In 1886 Galton was visited by James McKeen Cattell who would later adapt Galton's techniques in developing his own mental testing research program in the United States. Galton was not primarily a psychologist, however. The data he accumulated in the anthropometric laboratory primarily went toward supporting his case for eugenics. To help interpret the mounds of data he accumulated, Galton developed a number of important statistical techniques, including the precursors to the scatterplot and the product-moment correlation coefficient (later perfected by Karl Pearson, 1857-1936). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... James McKeen Cattell (May 25, 1860-January 20, 1944), American psychologist, was the first professor of psychology in the United States. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Karl Pearson FRS (March 27, 1857 – April 27, 1936) established the discipline of mathematical statistics. ...


Soon after, Charles Spearman (1863-1945) developed the correlation-based statistical procedure of factor analysis in the process of building a case for his two-factor theory of intelligence, published in 1901. Spearman believed that people have an inborn level of general intelligence or g which can be crystallized into a specific skill in any of a number of narrow content area (s, or specific intelligence). Charles Edward Spearman (September 10, 1863 - September 7, 1945) was an English psychologist known for work in statistics, as a pioneer of factor analysis, and for Spearmans rank correlation coefficient. ... Factor analysis is a statistical data reduction technique used to explain variability among observed random variables in terms of fewer unobserved random variables called factors. ... The general intelligence factor (abbreviated g) is a widely accepted but controversial construct used in the field of psychology (see also psychometrics) to quantify what is common to the scores of all intelligence tests. ...


Laboratory psychology of the kind practiced in Germany and the United States was slow in coming to Britain. Although the philosopher James Ward (1843-1925) urged Cambridge University to establish a psychophysics laboratory from the mid-1870s forward, it was not until the 1891 that they put so much as £50 toward some basic apparatus (Bartlett, 1937). A laboratory was established through the assistance of the physiology department in 1897 and a lectureship in psychology was established which first went to W. H. R. Rivers (1864-1922). Soon Rivers was joined by C. S. Myers (1873-1946) and William McDougall (1871-1938). This group showed as much interest in anthropology as psychology, going with Alfred Cort Haddon (1855-1940) on the famed Torres Straits expedition of 1898. Please choose between: James Allen Ward (1919-1941), New Zealand pilot and war hero, awarded the Victoria Cross. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... Photograph of W.H.R. Rivers William Halse Rivers Rivers (March 12, 1864 - 4 June 1922) was an English anthropologist and psychiatrist, best known for his work with shell-shocked soldiers during World War I. Rivers most famous patient was the poet Siegfried Sassoon. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alfred Cort Haddon (May 24, 1855-April 20, 1940) was an influential British anthropologist. ... The Torres Strait is the body of water which lies between Australia and Papua New Guinea. ...


In 1901 the Psychological Society was established (which renamed itself the British Psychological Society in 1906), and in 1904 Ward and Rivers co-founded the British Journal of Psychology. The British Psychological Society (BPS) is the representative body for psychologists and psychology in the United Kingdom. ...


Second Generation German Psychology

Würzburg School

In 1896, one of Wundt's former Leipzig laboratory assistants, Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), founded a new laboratory in Würzburg. Külpe soon surrounded himself with a number of younger psychologists, most notably Narziß Ach (1871-1946), Karl Bühler (1879-1963), Ernst Dürr (1878-1913), Karl Marbe (1869-1953), and Henry Jackson Watt (1879-1925). Collectively, they developed a new approach to psychological experimentation that flew in the face of many of Wundt's restrictions. Wundt had drawn a distinction between the old philosophical style of self-observation (Selbstbeobachtung) in which one introspected for extended durations on higher thought processes and inner-perception (innere Wahrnehmung) in which one could be immediately aware of a momentary sensation, feeling, or image (Vorstellung). The former was declared to be impossible by Wundt, who argued that higher thought could not be studied experimentally through extended introspection, but only humanistically through Völkerpsychologie (folk psychology). Only the latter was a proper subject for experimentation. Wilhelm Max Wundt (August 16, 1832-August 31, 1920), German physiologist and psychologist, is generally acknowledged as the founder of experimental psychology. ... Oswald Külpe (August 3, 1862–December 30, 1915) was one of the structural psychologists of the late 19th and early 20th century. ... [ recorded in this] The University of Würzburg is a university in Würzburg, Germany, founded in 1402. ...


The Würzburgers, by contrast, designed experiments in which the experimental subject was presented with a complex stimulus (e.g., a Nietzschean aphorism or a logical problem) and after processing it for a time (e.g., interpreting the aphorism or solving the problem), retrospectively reported to the experimenter all that had passed through his consciousness during the interval. In the process, the Würzburgers claimed to have discovered a number of new elements of consciousness (over and above Wundt's sensations, feelings, and images) including Bewußtseinslagen (conscious sets), Bewußtheiten (awarenesses), and Gedanken (thoughts). In the English-language literature, these are often collectively termed "imageless thoughts," and the debate between Wundt and the Würzburgers as the "imageless thought controversy."


Wundt referred to the Würzburgers' studies as "sham" experiments and criticized them vigorously. Wundt's most significant English student, Edward Bradford Titchener, then working at Cornell, intervened in the dispute, claiming to have conducted extended introspective studies in which he was able to resolve the Würzburgers imageless thoughts into sensations, feelings, and images. He thus, paradoxically, used a method of which Wundt did not approve in order to affirm Wundt's view of the situation (see Kusch, 1995; Kroker, 2003). Edward Bradford Titchener, D.Sc. ... Cornell University is a university located in Ithaca, New York, USA. Its two medical campuses are in New York City and Education City, Qatar. ...


The imageless thought debate is often said to have been instrumental in undermining the legitimacy of all introspective methods in experimental psychology and, ultimately, in bringing about the behaviorist revolution in American psychology. It was not without its own delayed legacy, however. Herbert Simon cites the work of one Würzburg psychologists in particular, Otto Selz (1881-1943), for having inspired him to develop his famous problem-solving computer algorithms (e.g., Logic Theorist and General Problem Solver) and his "thinking out loud" method for protocol analysis. In addition, Karl Popper studied psychology under Bühler and Selz, and appears to have brought some of their influence, unattributed, to his philosophy of science (Ter Hark, 2004). Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American political scientist whose research ranged across the fields of cognitive psychology, computer science, public administration, economics, management, and philosophy of science and a professor, most notably, at Carnegie Mellon University. ... Otto Selz, (14 February 1881–27 August 1943) was a German psychologist who formulated the first nonassociationist theory of thinking, in 1913. ... General Problem Solver (GPS) was a computer program created in 1957 by Herbert Simon and Allen Newell to build a universal problem solver machine. ... Protocol analysis provides a means for extracting persons thoughts while they are performing a task. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, FRS, FBA, (July 28, 1902 – September 17, 1994), was an Austrian and British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ...


Gestalt Psychology

(This section adapted from Green, 2000, by permission of the author.)


Whereas the Würzburgers debated with Wundt mainly on matters of method, another German movement, centered in Berlin, took issue with the widespread assumption that the aim of psychology should be to break consciousness down into putative basic elements. Instead, they argued that the psychological "whole" has priority and that the "parts" are defined by the structure of the whole, rather than vice versa. Thus, the school was named Gestalt, a German term meaning approximately "form" or "configuration." It was led by Max Wertheimer (1880-1943), Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), and Kurt Koffka (1886-1941). Wertheimer had been a student of Austrian philosopher, Christian von Ehrenfels (1859-1932), who claimed that in addition to the sensory elements of a perceived object, there is an extra element which, though in some sense derived from the organization of the standard sensory elements, is also to be regarded as being an element in its own right. He called this extra element Gestalt-qualität or "form-quality." For instance, when one hears a melody, one hears the notes plus something in addition to them which binds them together into a tune -- the Gestalt-qualität. It is the presence of this Gestalt-qualität which, according to Von Ehrenfels, allows a tune to be transposed to a new key, using completely different notes, but still retain its identity. Wertheimer took the more radical line that "what is given me by the melody does not arise ... as a secondary process from the sum of the pieces as such. Instead, what takes place in each single part already depends upon what the whole is," (1925/1938). In other words, one hears the melody first and only then may perceptually divide it up into notes. Similarly in vision, one sees the form of the circle first -- it is given "im-mediately" (i.e. its apprehension is not mediated by a process of part-summation). Only after this primary apprehension might one notice that it is made up of lines or dots or stars. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Max Wertheimer (Prague, April 15, 1880 - New York, October 12, 1943) was one of the founders of Gestalt psychology. ... Maluma type shape Takete type shape Wolfgang Köhler (January 21, 1887, Reval (now Tallinn), Estonia – June 11, 1967, New Hampshire) was a German Gestalt psychologist. ... Kurt Koffka (Berlin, March 18, 1886 - 1941) was a Gestalt psychologist. ... Christian Freiherr von Ehrenfels (June 2, 1859 in Rodaun near Vienna - September 8, 1932 in Lichtenau), Austrian philosopher, is known as one of the founders and precursors of Gestalt psychology. ...


Gestalt-Theorie was officially initiated in 1912 in an article by Wertheimer on the phi-phenomenon; a perceptual illusion in which two stationary but alternately flashing lights appear to be a single light moving from one location to another. Contrary to popular opinion, his primary target was not behaviorism, as it was not yet a force in psychology. The aim of his criticism was, rather, the atomistic psychologies of Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894), Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920), and other European psychologists of the time.


The two men who served as Wertheimer's subjects in the phi experiment were Köhler and Koffka. Köhler was an expert in physical acoustics, having studied under physicist Max Planck (1858-1947), but had taken his degree in psychology under Carl Stumpf (1848-1936). Koffka was also a student of Stumpf's, having studied movement phenomena and psychological aspects of rhythm. In 1917 Köhler (1917/1925) published the results of four years of research on learning in chimpanzees. Köhler showed, contrary to the claims of most other learning theorists, that animals can learn by "sudden insight" into the "structure" of a problem, over and above the associative and incremental manner of learning that Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) and Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949) had demonstrated with dogs and cats, respectively. Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (April 23, 1858 in Kiel, Germany – October 4, 1947 in Göttingen, Germany) was a German physicist. ... Carl Stumpf (21 April 1848 - 25 December 1936) was a philosopher and psychologist. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Edward Lee Thorndike (August 31, 1874 - August 9, 1949) was an American psychologist who spent nearly his entire career at Teachers College, Columbia University. ...


The terms "structure" and "organization" were focal for the Gestalt psychologists. Stimuli were said to have a certain structure, to be organized in a certain way, and that it is to this structural organization, rather than to individual sensory elements, that the organism responds. When an animal is conditioned, it does not simply respond to the absolute properties of a stimulus, but to its properties relative to its surroundings. To use a favorite example of Köhler's, if conditioned to respond in a certain way to the lighter of two gray cards, the animal generalizes the relation between the two stimuli rather than the absolute properties of the conditioned stimulus: it will respond to the lighter of two cards in subsequent trials even if the darker card in the test trial is of the same intensity as the lighter one in the original training trials.


In 1921 Koffka published a Gestalt-oriented text on developmental psychology, Growth of the Mind. With the help of American psychologist Robert Ogden, Koffka introduced the Gestalt point of view to an American audience in 1922 by way of a paper in Psychological Bulletin. It contains criticisms of then-current explanations of a number of problems of perception, and the alternatives offered by the Gestalt school. Koffka moved to the United States in 1924, eventually settling at Smith College in 1927. In 1935 Koffka published his Principles of Gestalt Psychology. This textbook laid out the Gestalt vision of the scientific enterprise as a whole. Science, he said, is not the simple accumulation of facts. What makes research scientific is the incorporation of facts into a theoretical structure. The goal of the Gestaltists was to integrate the facts of inanimate nature, life, and mind into a single scientific structure. This meant that science would have swallow not only what Koffka called the quantitative facts of physical science but the facts of two other "scientific categories": questions of order and questions of Sinn, a German word which has been variously translated as significance, value, and meaning. Without incorporating the meaning of experience and behavior, Koffka believed that science would doom itself to trivialities in its investigation of human beings. Psychological Bulletin is a scholarly journal specializing in literature reviews. ... Smith College is a private, independent womens liberal arts college located in Northampton, Massachusetts. ...


Having survived the onslaught of the Nazis up to the mid-1930s (see Henle, 1978), all the core members of the Gestalt movement were forced out of Germany to the United States by 1935 (Henle, 1984). Köhler published another book, Dynamics in Psychology, in 1940 but thereafter the Gestalt movement suffered a series of setbacks. Koffka died in 1941 and Wertheimer in 1943. Wertheimer's long-awaited book on mathematical problem-solving, Productive Thinking was published posthumously in 1945 but Köhler was now left to guide the movement without his two long-time colleagues. (For more on the history of Gestalt psychology, see Ash, 1995.)


The Emergence of Behaviorism in America

As a result of the conjunction of a number of events in the early 20th century, behaviorism gradually emerged as the dominant school in American psychology. First among these was the increasing skepticism with which many viewed the concept of consciousness: although still considered to be the essential element separating psychology from physiology, its subjective nature and the unreliable introspective method it seemed to require, troubled many. William James' 1904 Journal of Philosophy... article "Does Consciousness Exist?", laid out the worries explicitly. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Second was the gradual rise of a rigorous animal psychology. In addition to Edward Lee Thorndike's work with cats in puzzle boxes in 1898, the start of research in which rats learn to navigate mazes was begun by Willard Small (1900, 1901 in American Journal of Psychology). Robert M. Yerkes's 1905 Journal of Philosophy... article "Animal Psychology and the Criteria of the Psychic" raised the general question of when one is entitled to attribute consciousness to an organism. The following few years saw the emergence of John Broadus Watson (1878-1959) as a major player, publishing his dissertation on the relation between neurological development and learning in the white rat (1907, Psychological Review Monograph Supplement; Carr & Watson, 1908, J. Comparative Neurology & Psychology). Another important rat study was published by Henry H. Donaldson (1908, J. Comparative Neurology & Psychology). The year 1909 saw the first English-language account of Ivan Pavlov's studies of conditioning in dogs (Yerkes & Morgulis, 1909, Psychological Bulletin). Edward Lee Thorndike (August 31, 1874 - August 9, 1949) was an American psychologist who spent nearly his entire career at Teachers College, Columbia University. ... Willard Stanton Small (August 24, 1870 – 1943) was an experimental psychologist. ... Robert M. Yerkes was born on May 26, 1876. ... John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878 - September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


A third factor was the rise of Watson to a position of significant power within the psychological community. In 1908, Watson was offered a junior position at Johns Hopkins by James Mark Baldwin. In addition to heading the Johns Hopkins department, Baldwin was the editor of the influential journals, Psychological Review and Psychological Bulletin. Only months after Watson's arrival, Baldwin was forced to resign his professorship due to scandal. Watson was suddenly made head of the department and editor of Baldwin's journals. He resolved to use these powerful tools to revolutionize psychology in the image of his own research. In 1913 he published in Psychological Review the article that is often called the "manifesto" of the behaviorist movement, "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It." There he argued that psychology "is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science", "introspection forms no essential part of its methods..." and "The behaviorist... recognizes no dividing line between man and brute". The following year, 1914, his first textbook, Behavior went to press. Although behaviorism took some time to be accepted as a comprehensive approach (see Samelson, 1981), (in no small part because of the intervention of World War I), by the 1920s Watson's revolution was well underway. The central tenet of early behaviorism was that psychology should be a science of behavior, not of the mind, and rejected internal mental states such as beliefs, desires, or goals. Watson himself, however, was forced out of Johns Hopkins by scandal in 1920. Although he continued to publish during the 1920s, he eventually moved on to a career in advertising (see Coon, 1994). James Mark Baldwin (Columbia, South Carolina, 1861—1934) was an American philosopher, educated at Princeton and several German universities. ... Psychological Review is a highly-acclaimed scientific journal that publishes review articles in the field of psychology. ... Psychological Bulletin is a scholarly journal specializing in literature reviews. ...


Among the behaviorists who continued on, there were a number of disagreements about the best way to proceed. Neo-behaviorists such as Edward C. Tolman, Edwin Guthrie, Clark L. Hull, and B. F. Skinner debated issues such as (1) whether to reformulate the traditional psychological vocabulary in behavioral terms or discard it in favor of a wholly new scheme, (2) whether learning takes place all at once or gradually, (3) whether biological drives should be included in the new science in order to provide a "motivation" for behavior, and (4) to what degree any theoretical framework is required over and above the measured effects of reinforcement and punishment on learning. By the late 1950s, Skinner's formulation had become dominant, and it remains a part of the modern discipline under the rubric of Behavior Analysis. Edward Chace Tolman (1886 - 1959) was an American psychologist. ... Edwin Ray Guthrie (9 January 1886 - 23 April 1959) was an American behavioral psychologist. ... Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952) was an influential American psychologist and behaviorist who sought to explain learning and motivation by scientific laws of behavior. ... Drawing of B. F. Skinner Burrhus Frederic B. F. Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ...


Behaviorism was the ascendant experimental model for research in psychology for much of the 20th century, largely due to the creation and successful application (not least of which in advertising) of conditioning theories as scientific models of human behaviour.


Cognitivism

Noam Chomsky's review of Skinner's book Verbal Behavior (that aimed to explain language acquisition in a behaviorist framework) is considered one of the major theoretical challenges to the type of radical behaviorism that Skinner taught. Chomsky showed that language could not be learned solely from the sort of operant conditioning that Skinner postulated. Chomsky's argument was that as people could produce an infinite variety of sentences unique in structure and meaning, and that these could not possibly be generated solely through experience of natural language. As an alternative, he concluded that there must be internal mental structures - states of mind of the sort that behaviorism rejected as illusory. Similarly, work by Albert Bandura showed that children could learn by social observation, without any change in overt behaviour, and so must be accounted for by internal representations. Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew :אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) , Ph. ... Verbal Behavior (1957) is a book written by B.F. Skinner in which the author presents his ideas on language. ... For the academic journal, see Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics Language acquisition is the process by which the language capability develops in a human. ... Albert Bandura (born December 4, 1925 in Mundare, Canada) is a Ukrainian-Canadian psychologist most famous for his work on social learning theory (or Social Cognitivism) and self efficacy. ... In criminology, Ronald Akers and Robert Burgess (1966) developed the Social Learning Theory to explain deviancy by combining variables which encouraged delinquency (e. ...


The rise of computer technology also promoted the metaphor of mental function as information processing. This, combined with a scientific approach to studying the mind, as well as a belief in internal mental states, led to the rise of cognitivism as the dominant model of the mind. In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical approach to understanding the mind, which argues that mental function can be understood by quantitative, positivist and scientific methods, and that such functions can be described as information processing models. ...


Links between brain and nervous system function were also becoming common, partly due to the experimental work of people like Charles Sherrington and Donald Hebb, and partly due to studies of people with brain injury (see cognitive neuropsychology). With the development of technologies for accurately measuring brain function, neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience have become some of the most active areas in contemporary psychology. In animals, the brain or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behaviour. ... The Human Nervous System A human being coordinates its nervous system, the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... Sherrington is considered one of the fathers of neuroscience. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... == ISABEL IS COOL AND SHE LOVES COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY!!!!!!!!! == Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of neuropsychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ...


With the increasing involvement of other disciplines (such as philosophy, computer science, and neuroscience) in the quest to understand the mind, the umbrella discipline of cognitive science has been created as a means of focusing such efforts in a constructive way. The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ...


Dissenting schools

Not all psychologists, however, have been happy with what they perceive as mechanical models of the mind and human nature.


Carl Jung, a one-time follower and contemporary of Freud, was instrumental in introducing notions of spirituality into Freudian psychoanalysis (Freud had rejected religion as a mass delusion). Carl Jungs partially autobiographical work Memories, Dreams, Reflections, Fontana edition Carl Gustav Jung (IPA: ) (July 26, 1875, Kesswil – June 6, 1961, Küsnacht) was a Swiss psychiatrist, influential thinker, and founder of analytical psychology. ...


Alfred Adler, after a brief association with Freud's discussion circle, left to form his own discipline, called Individual (indivisible) Psychology. His influence on contemporary psychology has been considerable, with many approaches borrowing fragments of his theory. A recent rebirth of his legacy, Classical Adlerian Psychology, combines Adler's original theory of personality, style of psychotherapy, and philosophy of living, with Abraham Maslow's vision of optimal functioning. Alfred Adler Alfred Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor and psychologist, founder of the school of individual psychology. ... Classical Adlerian psychology is a values-based, fully-integrated, theory of personality, model of psychopathology, philosophy of living, strategy for preventative education, and technique of psychotherapy. ...


Humanistic psychology emerged in the 1950s and has continued as a reaction to positivist and behaviorist approaches to the mind. It stresses a phenomenological view of human experience and seeks to understand human beings and their behavior by conducting qualitative research. The humanistic approach has its roots in existentialist and phenomenological philosophy and many humanist psychologists completely reject a scientific approach, arguing that trying to turn human experience into measurements strips it of all meaning and relevance to lived existence. Humanistic psychology is a school of psychology that emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. ... // Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. ... In the broadest sense qualitative research is research which uses only dichotomous data — that is, data which can take only the values 0 (zero) and 1 (one). ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement which claims that individual human beings create the meanings of their own lives. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ...


Some of the founding theorists behind this school of thought are Abraham Maslow, who formulated a hierarchy of human needs; Carl Rogers, who created and developed client centred therapy; and Fritz Perls, who helped create and develop Gestalt therapy. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Maslows Hierarchy of Needs is a theory in psychology that Abraham Maslow proposed in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation, which he subsequently extended to include his observations of humans innate curiosity. ... Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987) was an influential American psychologist, who, along with Abraham Maslow, was the founder of the humanist approach to psychology. ... Friedrich (Frederick) Salomon Perls (July 8 1893, Berlin - March 14, 1970, Chicago), better known as Fritz Perls, was a noted German-born psychiatrist and psychotherapist of Jewish descent. ... Gestalt Therapy is a psychotherapy which focuses on here-and-now experience and personal responsibility. ...


A further development of Humanistic psychology emerging in the 1970s was Transpersonal psychology, which studies the spiritual dimension of humanity, looking at the possibilities for development beyond the normal ego-boundaries. Humanistic psychology is a school of psychology that emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. ... Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that studies the transpersonal, the transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human mind. ... Look up spiritual in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


References

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See also

This is a timeline of psychology. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...

External links

Scholarly Journals

  • Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences

Scholarly Societies & Associations

  • History & Philosophy Section of the British Psychological Society

Internet Resources

E-Textbooks

Collections of Primary Source Texts

  • Fondation Jean Piaget - Collection of primary sources by, and secondary sources about, Jean Piaget (in French; edited by Jean-Jacques Ducret and Wolfgang Schachner)
  • The Mead Project - collection of writings by George Herbert Mead and other related thinkers (e.g., Dewey, James, Baldwin, Cooley, Veblen, Sapir), ed. by Lloyd Gordon Ward and Robert Throop
  • History of Phrenology on the Web ed. by John van Wyhe

Collections of Secondary Scholarship on the History of Psychology

  • History & Theory of Psychology Eprint Archive - Open access on-line depository of articles on the history & theory of psychology
  • Advances in the History of Psychology - Blog edited by Jeremy Burman of York University (Toronto, Canada), advised by Christopher D. Green

Websites of Physical Archives

  • The Archives of the History of American Psychology - Large collection of documents and objects at the University of Akron, directed by David Baker

Multimedia Resources


 
 

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