FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > History of plant systematics

The .'history of plant systematics'—the biological classification of plants—stretches from the work of ancient Greek to modern evolutionary biologists. As a field of science, plant systematics came into being only slowly, early plant lore usually being treated as part of the study of medicine. Later, classification and description was driven by natural history and natural theology. Until the advent of the theory of evolution, nearly all classification was based on the scala naturae. The professionalization of botany in the 18th and 19th century marked a shift toward more holistic classification methods, eventually based on evolutionary relationships. Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...

Contents

Early botanical works

Historians of botany generally begin the history of botanical classification with folk taxonomy or with Theophrastus’s Historia Plantarum, the earliest surviving treatise on plants. Theophrastus, a student of Aristotle, did not articulate a formal classification scheme; instead he relied on the common groupings of folklore combined with growth form: tree shrub; undershrub; or herb. The Materia medica of Dioscorides was also an important early compendium of plant descriptions (over five hundred); it was in use from its publication in the 1st century until the 16th century.[1] A Folk Taxonomy is a vernacular naming system, as opposed to a scientific naming system which is simply known as a Taxonomy or as a Scientific Taxonomy. ... Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... Historia Plantarum (Latin for History of Plants) is the name by which is known an atlas of botany written by Theophrastus between the third and the second century BC. This work was organised in ten books, and is an encyclopedia of the plant kingdom, in which a draft taxonomy is... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Materia medica is a Latin term for any material or substance used in the composition of curative agents in medicine. ... Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. ...


Early-modern plant classification

In the 16th century, works by Otto Brunfels, Hieronymus Bock, and Leonhart Fuchs helped to revive interest in natural history based on first-hand observation; Bock in particular included environmental and life cycle information in his descriptions. With the influx of exotic species in the Age of Exploration, the number of known species expanded rapidly, but most authors were far more interested in the medinical properties of individual plants than an overarching classification system. Later influential Renaissance books include those of Caspar Bauhin and Andrea Cesalpino. Bauhin described over 6000 plants, which he arranged into 12 books and 72 sections based on a wide range of common characteristics. Cesalpino based his system on the structure of the organs of fructification, using the Aristotelian technique of logical division.[2] Otto Brunfels à 46 ans. ... Hieronymus Bock as depicted in a Herbal Hieronymus Bock or Jérôme Bock (1498 - Feb. ... Leonhart Fuchs (17 January 1501 – 10 May 1566) was a medic and a botanist. ... The so-called Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European ships were traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners to feed burgeoning capitalism in Europe. ... Bauhin -- A family of physicians and scientists. ... chicken ... An Arbor Porphyriana, or Porphyrian tree, created by Porphyry, is a construction in logic consisting of three rows or columns of words; the middlemost whereof contains the series of genus and species, and bears some analogy to the trunk. ...


In the late 17th century, the most influential classification schemes were those of English botanist and natural theologian John Ray and French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort. Ray, who listed over 18,000 plant species in his works, is credited with establishing the monocot/dicot division and some of his groups — mustards, mints, legumes and grasses — stand today (though under modern family names). Tournefort used an artificial system based on logical division which was widely adopted in France and elsewhere in Europe up until Linnaeus.[3] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (June 5, 1656 – December 28, 1708) was a French botanist. ... Orders Base Monocots: Acorus Alismatales Asparagales Dioscoreales Liliales Pandanales Family Petrosaviaceae Commelinids: Arecales Commelinales Poales Zingiberales Family Dasypogonaceae Monocotyledons or monocots are a group of flowering plants usually ranked as a class and once called the Monocotyledoneae. ... Orders see text Dicotyledons or dicots are flowering plants whose seed contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... Genera See text. ... Genera Many, see text Ref: Delta 2002-07-22 Lamiaceae, or the Mint family, is a family of plants in about 180 genera and some 3,500 species. ... Subfamilies Faboideae Caesalpinioideae Mimosoideae References GRIN-CA 2002-09-01 The name Fabaceae belongs to either of two families, depending on viewpoint. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ...


The book that had an enormous accelerating effect on the science of plant systematics was the Species Plantarum by Linnaeus, although this work does not deal with the relationships of plants, as such. It assumed that plant species were given by God and that what remained for humans was to recognise them and use them (a Christian reformulation of the scala naturae or Great Chain of Being). The Species Plantarum presented a complete list of the plant species then known, ordered for the purpose of easy identification, by the number and arrangement of the male and female sexual organs of the plants. Of the groups in this book, the highest rank that continues to be used today is the genus. However, the consistent use of binomial nomenclature and the fact of having a complete listing of all plants provided a huge stimulus for the field. Writing the Species Plantarum was one of Carolus Linnaeus two great contributions to the Scientific community. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Latin name redirects here. ...


Linnaeus was quite aware that the arrangement of species in the Species Plantarum was not a ‘natural system’, i.e. did not express relationships. Elsewhere Linnaeus did present some ideas of plant relationships. The earliest system of plant classification probably was that by de Jussieu (inspired on the work of Adanson) and the early nineteenth century saw the start of the work by de Candolle, culminating in the Prodromus. This list of systems of plant taxonomy presents “taxonomic systems” used in plant classification. ...


Evolutionary systematics

A major influence on plant systematics was the theory of evolution (Charles Darwin published Origin of Species in 1859), resulting in the aim to group plants by their phylogenetic relationships. To this was added the interest in plant anatomy, aided by the use of the light microscope and the rise of chemistry, allowing the analysis of secondary metabolites. A fairly late development was the advent of cladistics, which only came into its own with the availabity of the computer and the enormous flood of molecular data: the APG II system is only the latest in a long line of systems (see the list of systems of plant taxonomy). This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal... A phylogeny (or phylogenesis) is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms, usually of a species. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... 1852 microscope Compound microscope made by John Cuff in 1750 A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... Secondary metabolites, also known as natural products, are those products (chemical compounds) of metabolism that are not essential for normal growth, development or reproduction of an organism. ... It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... A modern system of plant taxonomy, the APG II system of plant classification was published in 2003 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, APG, in Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). ... This list of systems of plant taxonomy presents “taxonomic systems” used in plant classification. ...

  • Theophrastus. Historia Plantarum. 
  • A. Cesalpino (1583). De plantis libri XVI. 
    [available online at Gallica
  • John Ray (1686). Historia Plantarum. 
  • Linnaeus (1753). Species Plantarum. 
    [available online at Gallica
  • M. Adanson (two volumes, 1763). Familles des plantes. 
    [available online at Gallica
  • A.L. de Jussieu (1789). Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam. 
    [available online at Gallica
  • A. P. de Candolle et al. (1824–1873). Prodromus systemati naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enumeratio contracta ordinum, generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta. 
    [available online at Gallica
  • Lindley, John (1846). The Vegetable Kingdom. 
    [In English, with list of systems since 1703 (John Ray) until 1845; available online at Gallica

Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... Historia Plantarum (Latin for History of Plants) is the name by which is known an atlas of botany written by Theophrastus between the third and the second century BC. This work was organised in ten books, and is an encyclopedia of the plant kingdom, in which a draft taxonomy is... chicken ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Historia Plantarum (Latin for History of Plants) is the name by which is known an atlas of botany written by Theophrastus between the third and the second century BC. This work was organised in ten books, and is an encyclopedia of the plant kingdom, in which a draft taxonomy is... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Writing the Species Plantarum was one of Carolus Linnaeus two great contributions to the Scientific community. ... Hi I am Adanson. ... Portrait of Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (April 12, 1748 - September 17, 1836) was a French botanist. ... A. P. de Candolle A. P. de Candolle (February 4, 1778 - September 9, 1841) was one of the great botanists of all time. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Mayr, Ernst. The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1982. pp. 154-155.
  2. ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, pp. 155-161
  3. ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, pp 162-165.
The history of biology dates as far back as the rise of various civilization as classic philosophers did their own ways of biology as a system of understanding life. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The history of anatomy as a science extends from the earliest examinations of sacrificial victims to the sophisticated analyses of the body performed by modern scientists. ... This article considers the history of zoology before the theory of evolution proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The history of paleontology has been an ongoing effort to understand the history of life on Earth by understanding the fossil record left behind by living organisms. ... Evolutionary thought has roots in antiquity as philosophical ideas conceived during the Ancient Greek and Roman eras, but until the 18th century, biological thought was dominated by essentialism, the idea that living forms are static and unchanging in time. ... This article considers the history of zoology in the years up to 1912, since the theory of evolution by natural selection proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859. ... ÛEcology is generally spoken of as a new science, having only become prominent in the second half of the 20th Century. ... This history of model organisms began with the idea that certain organisms can be studied and used to gain knowledge of other organisms or as a control (ideal) for other organisms of the same species. ... Phycology is the study of marine algae (seaweeds) and history is the study of the past human activities. ... Gregor Mendel, the father of genetics The history of genetics is generally held to have started in 1865 when an Austrian monk, Gregor Mendel published his work on pea plants. ... The history of biochemistry spans approximately 400 years. ... Agronomy today is very different from what it was before about 1950. ... The history of molecular biology begins in the 1930s with the convergence of various, previously distinct biological disciplines: biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, and virology. ... The history of molecular evolution starts in the early 20th century with comparative biochemistry, but the field of molecular evolution came into its own in the 1960s and 1970s, following the rise of molecular biology. ... Timeline of immunology: 1798 - smallpox vaccination (Edward Jenner) 1862 - phagocytosis (Ernst Haeckel) 1877 - mast cells (Paul Ehrlich) 1879 - development by Louis Pasteur of attenuated chicken cholera, anthrax and rabies vaccines development (Louis Pasteur) 1883 - Cellular theory of vaccination (Elie Metchnikoff) 1885 - first application of rabies vaccine in treatment of a... Biotechnology is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services. ... Homunculus (large version) From Nicolaas Hartsoekers Essai de dioptrique (published in Paris, 1694, page 230). ... Buildings near the manor house The Rothamsted Experimental Station, one of the oldest agricultural research institutions in the world, is located at Harpenden in Hertfordshire, England. ... The Pasteur Institute (French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, microorganisms, diseases and vaccines. ... The Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. ... The Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) is a research and educational institution, consisting of science laboratories located in Cold Spring Harbor, New York on Long Island, USA. The Laboratory has research programs focusing on cancer, neurobiology, plant genetics, genomics and bioinformatics, and has a broad educational mission, including the recently... The Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn is a research instituted in Naples, Italy, devoted to basic research in biology. ... The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) is a famous scientific institution located in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. ... Founders Hall Rockefeller University is a private university focusing primarily on graduate and postgraduate education research in the biomedical fields, located between 63rd and 68th Streets along York Avenue, on the Upper East Side of Manhattan island in New York City, New York. ... Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute is a soft money institution founded in 1930, whose mission is to extend our understanding of how the oceans in all there parts function. ... MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge EXTERNAL LINKS www. ... Griffiths experiment discovering the transforming principle in pneumococcus bacteria. ... The experiment The Miller-Urey experiment (or Urey-Miller experiment) was an experiment that simulated hypothetical conditions present on the early Earth and tested for the occurrence of chemical evolution. ... The two possibilities tested by the Luria-Delbrück experiment. ... The Hershey-Chase experiment was a series of experiments conducted in 1952 by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase. ... A summary of the three postulated methods of DNA synthesis The Meselson-Stahl experiment was an experiment by Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl to prove that DNA replication was semiconservative. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Nirenberg and Matthaei experiment was a scientific experiment performed in 1961 by Marshall W. Nirenberg and Heinrich J. Matthaei. ... The Nirenberg and Leder experiment was a scientific experiment performed in 1964 by Marshall W. Nirenberg and Philip Leder. ... On Generation and Corruption (or De Generatione et Corruptione) is a text by Aristotle. ... Historia Plantarum (Latin for History of Plants) is the name by which is known an atlas of botany written by Theophrastus between the third and the second century BC. This work was organised in ten books, and is an encyclopedia of the plant kingdom, in which a draft taxonomy is... The title page of the Fabrica. ... Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus, (An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Living Beings) is the best-known work of the physician William Harvey. ... Hookes drawing of a flea Micrographia is a historical book by Robert Hooke, detailing the then twenty-eight year-old Hookes observations through various lenses. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ... Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (August 1, 1744 - December 28, 1829) was a major 19th century naturalist, who was one of the first to use the term biology in its modern sense. ... Principles of Geology is a book by the Scottish geologist Charles Lyell. ... Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation was a book published anonymously in England in 1844. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... Written in 1865 by Gregor Mendel, Experiments on Plant Hybridization (German: Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden) was the result after years spent studying genetic traits in pea plants. ... The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by British naturalist Charles Darwin was first published in 1871. ... The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance is a scientific paper by Ronald Fisher which was published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1918, (volume 52, pages 399—433). ... What is Life? is a non-fiction book on science for the lay reader written by physicist Erwin Schrödinger (ISBN 0521427088). ... Genetics and the Origin of Species (ISBN 0231054750) is a 1937 book by the Ukrainian-American evolutionary biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky and one of the important books of the modern evolutionary synthesis. ... The Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid was an article published by James D. Watson and Francis Crick in the scientific journal Nature in its 171st volume on page 737-738 (dated April 25, 1953). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Andreas Vesalius or Andreas Vesal (1514 - Belgian anatomist and the author of the first complete textbook on human anatomy: De Humanis Corporis Fabrica (On the workings of the Human Body) (Basel, 1543). ... This article is about William Harvey, the English doctor. ... Anton von Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 _ August 26, 1723) was a tradesman and scientist from Delft, in the Netherlands. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, by François-Hubert Drouais (1727-1775). ... Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (August 1, 1744 – December 18, 1829) was a French soldier, naturalist, academic and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... Charles Lyell The frontispiece from Principles of Geology Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, KT, (November 14, 1797 – February 22, 1875) was a Scottish lawyer, geologist, and populariser of uniformitarianism. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... For the Cornish painter, see Alfred Wallis. ... “Mendel” redirects here. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. ... For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... For other uses, see Pavlov (disambiguation). ... Hugo de Vries, ca. ... Edmund Beecher Wilson (1856 - 1939) was an American geneticist and zoologist. ... Thomas Hunt Morgan (September 25, 1866 – December 4, 1945) was an American geneticist and embryologist. ... Aleksandr Oparin Alexander Ivanovich Oparin (Russian: ) (March 2 [O.S. February 18] 1894 – April 21, 1980) was a Soviet biochemist and author of the theory of the origin of life. ... Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. ... John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (November 5, 1892 – December 1, 1964), who normally used J.B.S. as a first name, was a British geneticist and evolutionary biologist. ... Sewall Green Wright ForMemRS (December 21, 1889 – March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory. ... Sir Ronald Fisher Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (February 17, 1890 – July 29, 1962) was an evolutionary biologist, geneticist and statistician. ... Lorenz being followed by his imprinted geese Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (November 7, 1903 in Vienna – February 27, 1989 in Vienna) was an Austrian zoologist, animal psychologist, and ornithologist. ... Barbara McClintock (June 16, 1902 – September 2, 1992) was a pioneering American scientist and one of the worlds most distinguished cytogeneticists. ... Theodosius Dobzhansky, ca. ... Ernst Mayr Ernst Walter Mayr (July 5, 1904, Kempten, Germany – February 3, 2005, Bedford, Massachusetts U.S.), was one of the 20th centurys leading evolutionary biologists. ... Beadle won a Nobel Prize in 1958 George Wells Beadle (October 22, 1903 - June 9, 1989) was an American scientist in the field of genetics. ... Seymour Benzer (October 15, 1921-November 30, 2007) was an accomplished American physicist, molecular biologist and behavioral geneticist. ... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and X-ray crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... For other people named James Watson, see James Watson (disambiguation). ... Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004), (Ph. ... This article or section should be merged with Frederick Sanger Fred Sanger (born 1918), is an English biochemist, the winner of two Nobel prizes in Chemistry. ... Max Ferdinand Perutz, OM (May 19, 1914 – February 6, 2002) was an Austrian-British molecular biologist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Joshua Lederberg speaking at a conference in 1997 Joshua Lederberg (born May 23, 1925) is an American molecular biologist who is known for his work in genetics, artificial intelligence, and space exploration. ... Walter Gilbert Walter Gilbert (born March 21, 1932) is an American physicist, biochemist,and molecular biology pioneer. ... Kary Banks Mullis, Ph. ... Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... Lynn Margulis Dr. Lynn Margulis (born March 15, 1938) is a biologist and University Professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. ... Carl Richard Woese (born July 15, 1928, Syracuse, New York) is an American microbiologist famous for defining the Archaea (a new domain or kingdom of life) in 1977 by phylogenetic taxonomy of 16S ribosomal RNA, a technique pioneered by Woese and which is now standard practice. ... Dame Jane Goodall, DBE, PhD, (born 3 April 1934 as Valerie Jane Morris Goodall) is an English UN Messenger of Peace, primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Philosophy of biology (also called, rarely, biophilosophy) is a subfield of philosophy of science, which deals with epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical issues in the biological and biomedical sciences. ... A Timeline of significant events in biology and organic chemistry // Before 1600 c. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... Humboldtian science is a term given to the movement in science in the 19th century. ... Science and Religion are portrayed to be in harmony in the Tiffany window Education (1890). ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project. ... Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Darwin Day is the anniversary of the birthday of Charles Darwin on February 12, 1809. ... The history of creationism is tied to the history of religions. ... The creation-evolution controversy has a long history, beginning with challenges made by various naturalists to biblical accounts of creation. ...

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m