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Encyclopedia > History of hypnosis

Contents

Pre-History

Indian & Egyptian sleep temples

Hypnotism as a tool for health seems to have originated with the Hindus of India who often took their sick to sleep temples to be cured by hypnotic suggestion as also found to be the case in Egypt and Greece. The book the Law of Manu, which was the ancient Sanskrit Science of the Indian people, categorized different states of hypnosis discerning different levels of gradation: the "Sleep-Waking" state, the "Dream-Sleep" state, and the "Ecstasy-Sleep" state. Hypnotic-like inductions were used to place the individual in a sleep-like state, although it is now accepted that hypnosis is different from sleep. This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Magnets and other healing objects

Paracelsus and "Magnet" healing

Paracelsus (1493-1541), a Swiss medical doctor who is also known for his discovery of the mercury cure for syphilis, was the first physician to utilize magnets in his work. Many people were healed after he passed magnets (or lodestones) over their body. Paracelsus Paracelsus (born 11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland - 24 September 1541) was an alchemist, physician, astrologer, and general occultist. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. ... Iron filings in a magnetic field generated by a bar magnet A magnet is an object that has a magnetic field. ... Magnetite Lodestone or loadstone refers to either: Magnetite, a magnetic mineral form of iron(II), iron(III) oxide Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides. ...


Valentine Greatrakes

An Irishman by the name of Valentine Greatrakes (1628-1666) was known as "the Great Irish Stroker" for his ability to heal people by laying his hands on them and passing magnets over their bodies. Valentine Greatrakes (14 February 1628? - 28 November 1683?), also known as Greatorex or The Stroker, was an Irish healer who toured England in 1666, claming to cure people by the laying on of hands. ...


Johann Joseph Gassner

Johann Joseph Gassner (1727-1779), a Catholic priest of the time, believed that disease was caused by evil spirits and could be exorcised by incantations and prayer. Johann Joseph Gassner Johann Joseph Gassner (1727-1779) was a noted exorcist, born at Bludenz, in Tyrol. ...


Father Maximilian Hell

Around 1771, a Viennese Jesuit named Maximilian Hell (1720-1792) was using magnets to heal by applying steel plates to the naked body. One of Father Hell's students was a young medical doctor from Vienna named Franz Anton Mesmer. Maximilian Hell or Maximilian Höll (May 15, 1720 – April 14, 1792) was an astronomer, and also a Jesuit and an ordained priest. ...


Franz Anton Mesmer and "Animal Magnetism"

Western scientists first became involved in hypnosis around 1770, when Dr. Franz Mesmer (1734-1815), a physician from Austria, started investigating an effect he called "animal magnetism" or "mesmerism" (the latter name still remaining popular today). Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... Franz Anton Mesmer His Grave Franz Anton Mesmer (May 23, 1734 – March 5, 1815) discovered what he called animal magnetism and others often called mesmerism. ... Animal magnetism (also known eponymously as mesmerism, after Franz Mesmer) is the 18th century term for the ethereal medium postulated by Franz Mesmer as a therapeutic agent. ... Hypnosis, as defined by the American Psychological Association Division of Psychological Hypnosis, is a procedure during which a health professional or researcher suggests that a client, patient, or experimental participant experience changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, or behavior. ...


The use of the (conventional) English term animal magnetism to translate Mesmer's magnétisme animal is extremely misleading for three reasons:

  • Mesmer chose his term to clearly distinguish his variant of magnetic force from those which were referred to, at that time, as mineral magnetism, cosmic magnetism and planetary magnetism.
  • Mesmer felt that this particular force/power only resided in the bodies of humans and animals.
  • Mesmer chose the word "animal", for its root meaning (from latin animus = "breath") specifically to identify his force/power as a quality that belonged to all creatures with breath; viz., the animate beings: humans and animals.

Mesmer developed his own theory and inspired himself also to the writings of the English physician Richard Mead. Mesmer found that, after opening a patient's vein and letting the patient bleed for a while, by passing magnets over the wound would make the bleeding stop. Mesmer also discovered that using a stick instead would also make the bleeding stop.


After moving to Paris and becoming popular with the French aristocracy for his magnetic cures, the medical community challenged him. The French king put together a Board of Inquiry that included chemist Lavoisier, Benjamin Franklin, and a medical doctor who was an expert in pain control named Joseph Ignace Guillotin. Mesmer refused to cooperate with the investigation and this fell to his disciple Dr d'Eslon. Franklin constructed an experiment in which a blindfolded patient was shown to respond as much to a non-prepared tree as to one that had been "magnetised" by d'Eslon. This is considered to be perhaps the first placebo-controlled trial of a therapy ever conducted. The commission later declared that Mesmerism worked by the action of the imagination.[1] Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 - May 8, 1794) was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin (May 28, 1738 - March 26, 1814) did not invent the guillotine, but on October 10, 1789 proposed the use of a mechanical device to carry out death penalties in France. ...


Although Mesmerism remained popular and "magnetic therapies" are still advertised as a form of "alternative medicine" even today, Mesmer himself retired to Switzerland in obscurity, where he died in 1815.


French Revolution in 1789 and oriental hypnosis of Abbe Faria

Many of the original mesmerists were signatories to the first declarations proclaiming the French revolution in 1789. Far from being surprising, this was almost to be expected in that mesmerism opened up the prospect that the social order was in some sense suggested and could be overturned. Magnetism was neglected or forgotten during the Revolution and the Empire. The French Revolution (1789–1799/1804) was a vital period in the history of French, and Europe as a whole. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... Abb Faria (1766-1814) was an Indo- Portuguese monk who was one of the pioneers of the scientific study of hypnotism, following on from the work of Franz Anton Mesmer. ...


An Indo-Portuguese priest, Abbé Faria, revived public attention to animal magnetism. In the early 19th century, Abbé Faria introduced oriental hypnosis to Paris. Faria came from India and gave exhibitions in 1814 and 1815 without manipulations or the use of Mesmer's baquet. // Abbé Faria, or Abbé (Abbot) José Custódio de Faria, (Goa, 1746 - Paris, 1819) was a colourful Indo-Portuguese monk who was one of the pioneers of the scientific study of hypnotism, following on from the work of Franz Anton Mesmer. ... // Abbé Faria, or Abbé (Abbot) José Custódio de Faria, (Goa, 1746 - Paris, 1819) was a colourful Indo-Portuguese monk who was one of the pioneers of the scientific study of hypnotism, following on from the work of Franz Anton Mesmer. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region ÃŽle-de-France Department Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 86. ...


Unlike Mesmer, Faria claimed that it 'generated from within the mind’ by the power of expectancy and cooperation of the patient. Faria's approach was significantly extended by the clincal and theoretical work of Hippolyte Bernheim and Ambroise-Auguste Liébault of the Nancy School. Faria's theoretical postion, and the subsequent experiences of those in the Nancy School made significant contributions to the later autosuggestion techniques of Émile Coué and the autogenic training techniques of Johannes Heinrich Schultz. Faria can refer to: Persons: Abbé Faria Reita Faria Augusto Farias Faria Alam Rodrigo Faria Manuel de Faria e Sousa Also: Faria Elementary School This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Hippolyte Bernheim (1837 - 1919) was a French physician and neurologist; born at Mülhausen, Alsace. ... Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904) was a doctor who founded the Nancy School in the city of Nancy in 1866. ... The Nancy School was an early French school of psychotherapy founded in 1866 by Ambroise-Auguste Liébault in the city of Nancy. ... Autosuggestion (or autogenous training) is a process by which an individual trains the subconscious mind to believe something, or systematically schematizes the persons own mental associations, usually for a given purpose. ... Émile Coué (born in Troyes, France, 26 February 1857 of old noble Breton stock; died 2 July 1926 in Nancy, France) was a French psychologist and pharmacist who introduced a method of psychotherapy, healing, and self-improvement, based on autosuggestion or self-hypnosis. ... Autogenic training is a term for a relaxation technique developed by the German psychiatrist Johannes Schultz first published in 1932. ...


Marquis de Puységur and somnambulism

A student of Mesmer, Marquis de Puységur first described and coined the term somnambulism. As a sidenote, followers of Puységur called themselves Experimentalists and believed in the Paracelsus-Mesmer fluidism theory. Although Armand-Marie-Jacques de Chastenet, Marquis de Puységur (1751-1825), was a French aristocrat from one of the most illustrious families of the French nobility, he is now remembered as one of the pre-scientific founders of hypnotism (then known as animal magnetism, or Mesmerism). ... Sleepwalking (also called noctambulism or somnambulism) is a sleep disorder where the sufferer engages in activities that are normally associated with wakefulness while asleep or in a sleeplike state. ...


Récamier

In 1821, Récamier was the first recorded use of hypnoanesthesia and operated on patients under mesmeric coma.


In the 1840s and 1850s, Carl Reichenbach began experiments to find any scientific validity to "mesmeric" energy, which he termed Odic force. Although his conclusions were quickly rejected in the scientific community, they did undermine Mesmer's claims of mind control. // Events and Trends Technology First use of general anesthesia in an operation, by Crawford Long The first electrical telegraph sent by Samuel Morse on May 24, 1844 from Baltimore to Washington, D.C.. War, peace and politics First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February... // Events and Trends Technology Production of steel revolutionised by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Science Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species, putting forward the theory of evolution... Carl Ludwig von Reichenbach Baron Dr. Carl (Karl) Ludwig von Reichenbach (full name: Baron Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Reichenbach) (February 12, 1788 - January 19, 1869) was a recognized chemist, metallurgist, naturalist and philosopher, a member of the prestigious Prussian Academy of Sciences. ... Also called Od [õd] and Odyle, Odic Force is the 19th century name given to a hypothetical vital energy or life force that proponents say permeates all living plants, animals, and humans. ... Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ...


Mesmerism in its later guise of hypnotism contained a clear implication that many saints might be hysterics, leading The Roman Catholic Church to ban hypnotism until the middle of the 20th century. The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins and sees itself as the same Church founded by Jesus and maintained through Apostolic Succession from the Twelve Apostles. ...


Beginnings of Formal Medical Research

James Braid and "Hypnotism"

The evolution of Mesmer's ideas and practices led James Braid (1795-1860) to coin the term and develop the procedure known as hypnosis in 1842. Popularly titled the "Father of Modern Hypnotism", Braid rejected Mesmer's idea of magnetism inducing hypnosis, and ascribed the creation of the 'mesmeric trance' to a physiological process—the prolonged attention on a bright moving object or similar object of fixation. He postulated that "protracted ocular fixation" fatigued certain parts of the brain and caused the trance, "nervous sleep." James Braid (1795 – March 25, 1860) coined the term and invented the procedure known as hypnotism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Magnetic lines of force of a bar magnet shown by iron filings on paper In physics, magnetism is one of the phenomena by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ...


At first he called the procedure neuro-hypnosis and then, believing sleep was involved, to hypnosis. Realizing that hypnosis was not sleep, he later tried to change the name to monoideaism, but the term hypnosis had stuck.


Braid attempted to use hypnotism to treat various psychological and physical conditions. He had little success, notably in his attempts to treat organic conditions. Other doctors had better results, especially in the use of hypnosis in pain control. A report in 1842 described an amputation performed on a hypnotized participant without pain. The report was widely dismissed and there was strong resistance in the medical profession to hypnotism, but other successful reports followed.


Braid is credited for writing the first book on hypnosis in 1843 titled Neurypnology.


John Elliotson

Dr. John Elliotson (1791-1868), an English surgeon, reported numerous painless surgical operations using mesmerism in 1834. John Elliotson (October 29, 1791 - July 29, 1868) was an English physician, born in Southwark, London. ...


James Esdaile in India

Dr. James Esdaile (1805-1859) reported on 345 major operations performed using mesmeric sleep as the sole anesthetic in British India. The development of chemical anesthetics soon saw the replacement of hypnotism in this role. Dr. James Esdale (1808-1859) is the father of hypno-anesthesia. ... British India (otherwise known as The British Raj) was a historical period during which most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, were under the colonial authority of the British Empire (Undivided India). ...


The deaths of Braid and Esdaile curbed the interest in hypnotism. Experimentation was revived into the 1880s, mainly in continental Europe where new translations of Braid's work were circulated.


Beginnings of Formal Psychological Studies

Jean-Martin Charcot

The neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) endorsed hypnotism for the treatment of hysteria. La méthode numérique("The numerical method") led to a number of systematic experimental examinations of hypnosis in France, Germany, and Switzerland. The process of post-hypnotic suggestion was first described in this period. Extraordinary improvements in sensory acuity and memory were reported under hypnosis. Categories: People stubs | French physicians | 1825 births | 1893 deaths | History of medicine ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ...


From the 1880s the examination of hypnosis passed from surgical doctors to mental health professionals. Charcot had led the way and his study was continued by his pupil, Pierre Janet. Janet described the theory of dissociation, the splitting of mental aspects under hypnosis (or hysteria) so skills and memory could be made inaccessible or recovered. Janet provoked interest in the subconscious and laid the framework for reintegration therapy for dissociated personalities. Pierre Marie Félix Janet, (May 30, 1859 - February 24, 1947) was a pioneering French psychologist in the field of dissociation and traumatic memory. ... This article is about the psychological state of dissociation. ...


Holy See of 1847

Objections had been raised by some theologians stating that, if not applied properly, hypnosis could deprive a person of their faculty of reason. Saint Thomas Aquinas specifically rebutted this, stating that "The loss of reason is not a sin in itself but only by reason of the act by which one is deprived of the use of reason. If the act that deprives one of his use of reason is licit in itself and is done for a just cause, there is no sin; if no just cause is present, it must be considered a venial sin." Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ...


On July 28, 1847, a decree from the Sacred Congregation of the Holy office (Roman Curia) declared that "Having removed all misconception, foretelling of the future, explicit or implicit invocation of the devil, the use of animal magnetism (Hypnosis) is indeed merely an act of making use of physical media that are otherwise licit and hence it is not morally forbidden provided it does not tend toward an illicit end or toward anything depraved." The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ... The Roman Curia - usually (but simplistically) called the Vatican - is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ...


Later, in 1956, Pope Pius XII gave his approval of hypnosis. He stated that the use of hypnosis by health care professionals for diagnosis and treatment is permitted. In an address from the Vatican on hypnosis in childbirth, the Pope gave these guidelines: Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, and sovereign of Vatican City State from March 2, 1939 until his death. ...

  1. Hypnotism is a serious matter, and not something to be dabbled in.
  2. In its scientific use, the precautions dictated by both science and morality are to be followed.
  3. Under the aspect of anaesthesia, it is governed by the same principles as other forms of anaesthesia.

American Civil War

Hypnosis was used by field doctors in the American Civil War and was the first extensive medical application of hypnosis. Although hypnosis seemed to be very effective in the field[citation needed], with the introduction of the hypodermic needle and the general chemical anesthetics of ether in 1846 and chloroform in 1847 to America, it was much easier for the war's medical community to use chemical anesthesia than hypnosis. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Lincoln, President Ulysses S. Grant, General Jefferson Davis, President Robert E. Lee, General Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action... Different bevels on hypodermic needles Syringe on left, hypodermic needle with attached color-coded luer lock on right. ... Diethyl ether, also known as ether and ethoxyethane, is a clear, colorless, and highly flammable liquid with a low boiling point and a characteristic smell. ... Chloroform, also known as trichloromethane and methyl trichloride, is a chemical compound with formula CHCl3. ...


Ambroise-Auguste Liébault

Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1864-1904), the founder of the Nancy School, first wrote of the necessity for cooperation between the hypnotizer and the participant, for rapport. He also emphasized, with Bernheim, the importance of suggestibility. Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904) was a doctor who founded the Nancy School in the city of Nancy in 1866. ... The Nancy School was an early French school of psychotherapy founded in 1866 by Ambroise-Auguste Liébault in the city of Nancy. ... Rapport is one of the most important features or characteristics of unconscious human interaction. ...


First International Congress, 1889

First International Congress for Experimental and Therapeutic Hypnotism was in Paris, France August 8-12, 1889. Attendees included Jean-Martin Charcot, Hippolyte Bernheim, Sigmund Freud and Ambroise-Auguste Liébeault. The second was in August 12-16, 1900. Categories: People stubs | French physicians | 1825 births | 1893 deaths | History of medicine ... Hippolyte Bernheim (1837 - 1919) was a French physician and neurologist; born at Mülhausen, Alsace. ... Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939; IPA pronunciation: []) was an Austrian neurologist and the co-founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...


British Medical Association Approval, 1892

The Annual Meeting of the BMA, in 1892, unanimously endorsed the therapeutic use of hypnosis and rejects the theory of Mesmerism (animal magnetism). Even though the BMA recognized the validity of hypnosis, Medical Schools and Universities largely ignored the subject. The logo of the association. ...


Boris Sidis and the Law of Suggestion

Boris Sidis (1867-1923), a Ukraine-born American psychologist and psychiatrist who studied under William James at Harvard formulated this law of suggestion: Boris Sidis (October 12, 1867 - October 24, 1923). ...

Suggestibility varies as the amount of disaggregation, and inversely as the unification of consciousness 
Disaggregation refers to the split between the normal waking consciousness and the subconscious.

Emile Coué and the Laws of Suggestion

Emile Coué (1857-1926), a French pharmacist, popularized the following laws of suggestion: Émile Coué (born in Troyes, France, 26 February 1857 of old noble Breton stock; died 2 July 1926 in Nancy, France) was a French psychologist and pharmacist who introduced a method of psychotherapy, healing, and self-improvement, based on autosuggestion or self-hypnosis. ...

The Law of Concentrated Attention 
Whenever attention is concentrated on an idea over and over again, it spontaneously tends to realize itself.
The Law of Reversed Effect 
The harder one tries to do something, the less chance one has of success.
The Law of Dominant Effect 
A strong emotion/suggestion tends to replace a weaker one.

Johannes Schultz

The German psychiatrist Johannes Schultz adapted the theories of Abbe Faria and Emile Coué and identifying certain parallels to techniques in yoga and meditation. He called his system of self-hypnosis Autogenic training. Abb Faria (1766-1814) was an Indo- Portuguese monk who was one of the pioneers of the scientific study of hypnotism, following on from the work of Franz Anton Mesmer. ... Émile Coué (born in Troyes, France, 26 February 1857 of old noble Breton stock; died 2 July 1926 in Nancy, France) was a French psychologist and pharmacist who introduced a method of psychotherapy, healing, and self-improvement, based on autosuggestion or self-hypnosis. ... A woman practising hatha yoga Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is a family of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ... A large statue in Bangalore depicting Shiva meditating The term Meditation describes a variety of practices with a variety of goals. ... Autogenic training is a term for a relaxation technique developed by the German psychiatrist Johannes Schultz first published in 1932. ...


Modern Applications

Crowd psychology

Gustave Le Bon's study of crowd psychology compared the effects of a leader of a group to hypnosis. Le Bon made use of the suggestibility concept. Gustave Le Bon (May 7, 1841 – December 13, 1931) was a French social psychologist, sociologist, and amateur physicist. ... Ordinary people typically can gain direct power by acting collectively. ... Look up Leadership in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A person is deemed to be suggestible if they accept and act on suggestions by others. ...


Psychoanalysis and Hypnotherapy

Hypnosis, which at the end of the 19th century had became a popular phenomenon, in particular due to Charcot's public hypnotism sessions, was crucial in the invention of psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud, a student of Charcot. Freud later met Liébault and Hippolyte Bernheim. Back in Vienna he developed abreaction therapy using hypnosis with Josef Breuer. When Sigmund Freud discounted its use in psychiatry, in the first half of the last century, stage hypnotists kept it alive more than physicians. Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the pioneering work of Sigmund Freud. ... Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939; IPA pronunciation: []) was an Austrian neurologist and the co-founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Hippolyte Bernheim (1837 - 1919) was a French physician and neurologist; born at Mülhausen, Alsace. ... Josef Breuer (January 15, 1842- June 20, 1925) was an Austrian psychologist whose works symbolised the foundation of psychoanalysis. ...


Platanov, Pavlov and Russian Applications

Russian medicine has had extensive experience with obstetric hypnosis. Platanov, in the 1920s, became well known for his hypno-obstetric successes. Impressed by this approach, Stalin later set up a nationwide program headed by Velvoski, who originally combined hypnosis with Pavlov techniques but eventually used the later almost exclusively. Ferdinand Lamaze, having visited Russia, brought back to France "childbirth without pain through the psychological method," which in turn showed more reflexologic than hypnotic inspiration. Ivan Pavlov Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (September 14, 1849 - February 27, 1936) was a Russian physiologist who first described the phenomenon now known as conditioning in experiments with dogs. ...


Hypnosis in World War I, World War II, and the Korean War

The use of hypnosis in the treatment of neuroses florished in World War I, World War II and the Korean War. Hypnosis techniques were merged with psychiatry and was especially useful in the treatment of what is known today as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Combatants United Nations: Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium Canada  Colombia Ethiopia  France Greece  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom United States Medical staff:  Denmark  India  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist states: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea People’s Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee... Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is a term for the psychological consequences of exposure to or confrontation with stressful experiences, which involve actual or threatened death, serious physical injury or a threat to physical integrity and which the person found highly traumatic. ...


William McDougall (1871-1944), an English psychologist, treated soldiers with "shell shock". There have been several people called William McDougall For the Canadian politician, see William McDougall (politician) For the British psychologist, see William McDougall (psychologist) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Clark Hull

The modern study of hypnotism is usually considered to have begun in the 1930s with Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952) at Yale University. An experimental psychologist, his work Hypnosis and Suggestibility (1933) was a rigorous study of the phenomenon, using statistical and experimental analysis. Hull's studies emphatically demonstrated once and for all that hypnosis had no connection with sleep ("hypnosis is not sleep, … it has no special relationship to sleep, and the whole concept of sleep when applied to hypnosis obscures the situation"). Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952), was an American psychologist who elaborated a systemic theory of behaviour centered on the learning phenomenon. ... Yale redirects here. ...


The main result of Hull's study was to rein in the extravagant claims of hypnotists, especially regarding extraordinary improvements in cognition or the senses under hypnosis. Hull's experiments did show the reality of some classical phenomena such as hypnotic anaesthesia and post-hypnotic amnesia. Hypnosis could also induce moderate increases in certain physical capacities and change the threshold of sensory stimulation; attenuation effects could be especially dramatic. Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ...


Andrew Salter

In the 1940s, Andrew Salter (1914-1996) introduced to American therapy the Pavlovian method of contradicting, opposing, and attacking beliefs. In the conditioned reflex, he has found what he saw as the essence of hypnosis. He thus gave a rebirth to hypnotism by combining it with classical conditioning. Ivan Pavlov had himself induced an altered state in pigeons, that he referred to as "Cortical Inhibition", which some later theorists believe to be some form of hypnotic state. This article needs to be wikified. ... Ivan Pavlov Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (September 14, 1849 - February 27, 1936) was a Russian physiologist who first described the phenomenon now known as conditioning in experiments with dogs. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ivan Pavlov Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (Russian: ) (September 14, 1849 – February 27, 1936) was a Russian physiologist, psychologist, and physician. ...


The British Hypnotism Act of 1952

In 1952, the Hypnotism Act was brought by United Kingdom government to regulate the public demonstrations of stage hypnotists for entertainment.


British Medical Association Approval, 1955

On April 23, 1955, the British Medical Association (BMA) approved the use of hypnosis in the areas of psychoneuroses and hypnoanesthesia in pain management in childbirth and surgery. At this time, the BMA also advised all physicians and medical students to receive fundamental training in hypnosis.


American Medical Association Approval, 1958

In 1958, the American Medical Association approved a report on the medical uses of hypnosis. It encouraged research on hypnosis although pointing out that some aspects of hypnosis are unknown and controversial.


American Psychological Association Approval, 1960

Two years after AMA approval, the American Psychological Association endorsed hypnosis as a branch of psychology.


Recent Innovators and Current Applications

André Weitzenhoffer and Ernest Hilgard

Studies continued after the Second World War. Barber, Hilgard, Orne and Sarbin also produced substantial studies. Ernest Hilgard and André Weitzenhoffer created the Stanford scales in 1961, a standardized scale for susceptibility to hypnosis, and properly examined susceptibility across age-groups and sex. Hilgard went on to study sensory deception (1965) and induced anesthesia and analgesia (1975). Ernest Hilgard (1904 - 2001) was an American psychologist who became famous in the 1950s for his research on hypnosis. ... For other uses of painkiller, see painkiller (disambiguation) An analgesic (colloquially known as painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain. ...


Milton Erickson's Permissive style vs. Authoritarian style

Milton Erickson (1901-1980) developed many ideas and techniques in hypnosis that were very different from what was commonly practiced. His style is commonly referred to as Ericksonian Hypnosis and it has greatly influenced many modern schools of hypnosis. Milton Hyland Erickson, MD (1901 - 1980) was a psychiatrist specializing in medical hypnosis. ...


Harry Arons

In 1967, Harry Arons, a self-taught professional hypnotist, wrote a textbook, Hypnosis in Criminal Investigation, dedicated to the application of hypnosis in the judicial system. Chapters include such applications such as memory, age regression, induction techniques and confabulation. Arons also traveled the country training law enforcement agencies. His teaching created national acceptance in the legal community and increased positive awareness to the practice of hypnosis for trial applications.


Arons is best known today for introducing a scale that is used for measuring the 'depth' of trance in hypnosis, called the Arons scale, which recognizes six levels of trance depth:

1.Hypnoidal
2.Light trance
3.Medium trance
4.Profound trance
5.Somnambulism
6.Profound Somnambulism

Dave Elman

Dave Elman (1900-1967) was one of the pioneers of the medical use of hypnosis. Elman's definition of hypnosis is still widely used today among many professional hypnotherapists. Although Elman had no medical training, he is known for having trained the most physicians and psychotherapists in America, in the use of hypnotism. Dave Elman (1900-1967) was an American hypnotist, known for his effective hypnosis techniques. ...


He is also known for introducing rapid inductions to the field of hypnotism. One method of induction which he introduced more than fifty years ago, is still one of the favored inductions used by many of today's masters.


He placed great stress on what he termed "the Esdaile state" or the "hypnotic coma", which, according to Elman, had not been deliberately induced since Scottish surgeon James Esdaile last attained it. This was an unfortunate and historically inaccurate choice of terminology on Elman's part. Esdaile never used what we now call hypnosis even on a single occasion; he always used mesmerism (also known as animal magnetism). Dr. James Esdale (1808-1859) is the father of hypno-anesthesia. ... Dr. James Esdale (1808-1859) is the father of hypno-anesthesia. ... Hypnosis, as defined by the American Psychological Association Division of Psychological Hypnosis, is a procedure during which a health professional or researcher suggests that a client, patient, or experimental participant experience changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, or behavior. ... Animal magnetism (also known eponymously as mesmerism, after Franz Mesmer) is the 18th century term for the ethereal medium postulated by Franz Mesmer as a therapeutic agent. ...


According to his book Hypnotherapy (Westwood, 1964), Elman was able to guide a subject into the state within minutes, and taught his students to do the same. According to Elman's supporters, such a deep state of hypnosis had not been seen for a century.[citation needed]


Ormond McGill

Ormond McGill (1913-2005), stage hypnotist and hypnotherapist, was the "Dean of American Hypnotists"[citation needed] and writer of the seminal "Encyclopedia of Genuine Stage Hypnotism" (1947). McGill died on October 19, 2005. Ormond McGill (born 1913 in Palo Alto, California, died October 19, 2005, also in Palo Alto, CA) was the Dean of American Hypnotists. McGill became interested in magic as a kid (he was also pretty legendary in magic circles), taking up hypnosis in 1927 while still a teenager. ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


John Kappas

John Kappas (1925-2004), author of the Professional Hypnotism Manual (1975) and founder of the first nationally accredited college of hypnotherapy in the U.S,[citation needed] literally[citation needed] defined the profession of hypnotherapy[citation needed] when he founded the Hypnotherapists Union.[citation needed] AFL/CIO and authored the definition of Hypnotherapist in the Federal Dictionary of Occupational Titles #079.157.010.[citation needed]


Jeffery Zeig

Notes

  1. ^ Ellenberger, H.F., "The Discovery of The Unconscious", Basic Books, 1980.

 
 

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