FACTOID # 11: Oklahoma has the highest rate of women in State or Federal correctional facilities.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > History of democracy
Democracy

This series is part of
the Politics and the
Forms of government series For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... A form of government (also referred to as a system of government or a political system) is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state. ...




Politics Portal ·  v  d  e  It has been suggested that Democracy (varieties) be merged into this article or section. ... Anticipatory democracy is a theory of civics relying on democratic decision making that takes into account predictions of future events that have some credibility with the electorate. ... Athenian democracy (sometimes called Direct democracy) developed in the Greek city-state of Athens. ... Christian democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. ... Consensus democracy is the application of consensus decision making to the process of legislation. ... Deliberative democracy, also sometimes called discursive democracy, is a term used by political theorists, e. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Demarchy is a term that describes a political system based on randomly selected groups of decision makers, also known as sortition. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... Grassroots democracy is a tendency towards designing political processes where as much decision-making authority as practical is shifted to the organizations lowest geographic level of organization. ... Technically speaking, an illiberal democracy could be any democracy that is not a liberal democracy. ... Known as Islamic democracy, two kinds of democratic states can be recognized in the Islamic countries. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... Messianic democracy is a neologism originally used by Jacob Talmon is his book Origins of Totalitarian Democracy (1951) to describe the democracy by force doctrines of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and its philosophical decendents, as an effective tyranny that demotes democratic principle to rhetorical use only. ... Non-partisan democracy (also no-party democracy) is a system of representative government or organization such that universal and periodic elections (by secret ballot) take place without reference to political parties or even the speeches, campaigns, nominations, or other apparatus commonly associated with democracy. ... Participatory democracy is a broadly inclusive term for many kinds of consultative decision making which require consultation on important decisions by those who will carry out the decision. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Republican democracy is a republic which has democracy. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... For the Soviet republics of the Soviet Union, see Republics of the Soviet Union. ... Totalitarian democracy is a term coined by Israeli historian J. L. Talmon to refer to a system of government in which lawfully elected representatives maintain the integrity of a nation state whose citizens, while granted the right to vote, have little or no participation in the decision-making process of...


Democracy is a political system in which all the members of the society have equal access to power. The history of democracy traces back from its origins in ancient world to its re-emergence and rise from the 17th century to the present day. The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000-5,500 years, with cuneiform possibly being the oldest form of writing. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...

Contents

Antiquity

Pre-historic origins

Although it is tempting to assume that democracy was created in one particular place and time —identified as Ancient Athens about the year 508 BC[1][2]— evidence suggests that democratic government, in a broad sense, existed in several areas of the world well before the turn of the 5th century.[3] A view of the Acropolis of Athens during the Ottoman period, showing the buildings which were removed at the time of independence The history of Athens is the longest of any city in Europe: Athens has been continuously inhabited for at least 3,000 years. ...


Within this broad sense it is plausible to assume that democracy in one form or another arises naturally in any well-bounded group, such as a tribe. The scholars name this as tribalism or primitive democracy. The primitive democracy is identified in small communities or villages when the following take place: face-to-face discussion in the village council or a headman whose decisions are supported by village elders or other cooperative modes of government.[4] http://www. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Nevertheless, on larger scale sharper contrasts arise when the village and the city are examined as political communities. In urban governments all other forms of rule namely monarchy, tyranny, aristocracy, and oligarchy have flourished.[3] For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... Look up Oligarchy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Ancient Sparta

For more details on this topic, see Sparta.
Bas-relief of Lycurgus, one of 23 great lawgivers depicted in the chamber of the U.S. House of Representatives.
Bas-relief of Lycurgus, one of 23 great lawgivers depicted in the chamber of the U.S. House of Representatives.

Ancient Greece in its early period was a loose collection of independent city states, called poleis. Many of these poleis were oligarchies.[5] The most prominent Greek oligarchy, and the state with which democratic Athens is most often and most fruitfully compared, was Sparta. Yet Sparta, in its rejection of private wealth as a primary social differentiator, was a peculiar kind of oligarchy,[6] and some scholars note its resemblance with democracy.[1][7][8] In Spartan government, the share of political power was divided between four bodies: two Spartan Kings (monarchy), gerousia (Counsil of Gerontes (Elders), including the two kings), the ephors (representatives to oversee the Kings) and finally the apella (assembly of Spartans). For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Image File history File links Lycurgus_bas-relief_in_the_U.S._House_of_Representatives_chamber. ... Image File history File links Lycurgus_bas-relief_in_the_U.S._House_of_Representatives_chamber. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... A polis (πολις) — plural: poleis (πολεις) — is a city, or a city-state. ... Look up Oligarchy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sparta was an important Greek city-state in the Peloponnesus. ... The Gerousia was the Spartan senate. ... An ephor was an official of ancient Sparta. ... The Apella was the name of the popular assembly in the Ancient Greek city-state of Sparta. ...


The two Kings served as the head of the government and they were ruling simultaneously. They were coming from two separate lines, but the dual kingship was diluting the accessible power of the executive office. The kings shared their judicial functions with other members of gerousia. The members of gerousia, had to be over the age of 60 and were elected for life. In theory any Spartan over that age could stand, however in practice they were selected from wealthy, aristocratic families. The gerousia possessed the crucial of legislating initiative. Apella, the most democratic element, was the assembly, where Spartans, above the age of 30, were electing the members of gerousia, the ephors and accepting or rejecting gerousia's proposals. Finally, the five ephors were Spartans chosen in apella from the poorest social layers for overseeing the actions of the Kings and if necessary disposing them.[9][10]


The creator of the Spartan system of rule was the legendary lawgiver, Lycurgus. He is associated with the drastic reforms that were instituted in Sparta after the revolt of the helots in the second half of the 7th century BC. In order to prevent another helot revolt, Lycurgus devised the highly militarized communal system that made Sparta unique among the city-states of Greece. All his reforms were directed towards the three Spartan virtues: equality (among citizens), military fitness and austerity. It is also probable that Lycurgus also delineated the powers of the two traditional organs of the Spartan government, the gerousia and the apella.[11] // Lycurgus Lycurgus (Greek: , Lukoûrgos; 700 BC?–630 BC) was the legendary lawgiver of Sparta, who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi. ... The Helots (in Classical Greek / Heílôtes) were the serfs of Sparta. ... The Gerousia was the Spartan senate. ... The Apella was the name of the popular assembly in the Ancient Greek city-state of Sparta. ...


The reforms of Lycurgus, were written as a list of rules/laws, called Great Rhetra, making it the world's first written constitution.[12] In the following centuries Sparta became, a military superpower, and its system of rule was admired throughout the Greek world for its political stability.[10] In particular, the concept of equality played important role in the Spartan society. The Spartan referred to themselves as όμοιοι (Homoioi, men of equal status). This was also reflected on the Spartan public educational system, agoge, where all citizens irrespectively of wealth or status had the same education.[8] This was admired almost universally by contemporaries, from historians such as Herodotus and Xenophon to philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle. In addition the Spartan women, unlikely elsewhere, enjoyed "every kind of luxury and intemperance" with elementary rights such as the right to inheritance, property ownership and public education.[9] Overall the Spartans were remarkably free in criticism of their Kings and they were able to depose and exile them. However, despite these democratic elements in the Spartan constitution there are two main criticisms, and thus classifying Sparta as an oligarchy. First, the individual freedom was restricted, since as Plutarch writes "no man was allowed to live as he wished", but as in a "military camp" all were engaged in the public service of their polis. And second, gerousia effectively maintained the biggest share of power between the different governmental bodies.[12] The agoge was a rigorous education and training regime undergone by all Spartan citizens (with the exception of future kings [1]). It involved separation from the family, cultivation of loyalty to ones group, loving mentorship, military training, hunting, dance and social preparation. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


The political stability of Sparta also meant that no significant changes in the constitution were made, but the oligarchic elements of Sparta became stronger, especially after the influx of gold and silver from the victories in the Persian Wars.[12] In addition, Athens, after the Persian Wars, was becoming the hegemonic power in the Greek world and disagreements between Sparta and Athens over the supremacy emerged. These lead to a series of armed conflicts, known as the Peloponnesian War with Sparta prevailing at the end. The war greatly exhausted the two poleis and Sparta was in turn humbled by Thebes at the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC. It was all brought to an end a few years later, when Philip II of Macedon conquered the rest of Greece. The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC. The term can also refer to the continual warfare of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire against the Parthians and... The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC. The term can also refer to the continual warfare of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire against the Parthians and... Athenian War redirects here. ... Two important places in antiquity were called Thebes: Thebes, Greece – Thebes of the Seven Gates; one-time capital of Boeotia. ... Combatants Thebes Sparta Commanders Epaminondas Cleombrotus I † Strength 6,000–7,000 10,000–11,000 Casualties Unknown About 2,000 The Battle of Leuctra is a battle fought between the Thebans and the Spartans and their allies in the neighbourhood of Leuctra, a village in Boeotia in the territory... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ...


Athenian Democracy

For more details on this topic, see Athenian democracy.

Athens, is the first recorded and the most important democracy of antiquity.[1][12] Athens emerged in the 7th century BC, like many other poleis, with a dominating powerful aristocracy.[9] However, this domination lead to exploitation causing significant economic, political, and social problems. These problems, were enhanced early in the sixth century, and as "the many were enslaved to few, the people rose against the notables".[12] Many traditional aristocracies, at the same period in the Greek world, were disrupted by popular revolutions, like Sparta in the second half of the 7th century BC. Sparta's constitutional reforms by Lycurgus, introduced a hoplite state and showed how inherited governments can be changed and lead to military victory.[12] After a period of unrest between the rich and the poor, the Athenians of all classes turned to Solon for acting as a mediator between rival factions, and reaching to a generally satisfactory solution of their problems.[9][13] Athenian democracy (sometimes called Direct democracy) developed in the Greek city-state of Athens. ... A polis (πολις) — plural: poleis (πολεις) — is a city, or a city-state. ... The hoplite was a heavy infantryman that was the central focus of warfare in Ancient Greece. ... For other uses, see Solon (disambiguation). ...


Solon and the foundations of democracy

For more details on this topic, see Solon.
Bas-relief of Solon, one of 23 great lawgivers depicted in the chamber of the U.S. House of Representatives.
Bas-relief of Solon, one of 23 great lawgivers depicted in the chamber of the U.S. House of Representatives.

Solon, an Athenian of noble descent but moderate means, was a Lyric poet and later a lawmaker; Plutarch placed him as one of the Seven Sages of the ancient world.[13] Solon attempted to satisfy all sides by alleviating the suffering of the poor majority without removing all the privileges of the rich minority.[14] For other uses, see Solon (disambiguation). ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... The Seven Sages (of Greece) (c. ...


Solon divided the Athenians, into four property classes, with different rights and duties for each. As the Rhetra did in the Lycurgian Sparta, Solon formalized the composition and functions of the governmental bodies. Now, all citizens were entitled to attend the Ecclesia (Assembly) and vote. Ecclesia became, in principle, the sovereign body, entitled to pass laws and decrees, elect officials, and hear appeals from the most important decisions of the courts.[13] All but those in the poorest group might serve, a year at a time, on a new Boule of 400, which was to prepare business for Ecclesia. The higher governmental posts, archons (magistrates), were reserved for citizens of the top two income groups. The retired archons were becoming members of Areopagus (Council of the Hill of Ares), and like Gerousia in Sparta, it was able to check improper actions of the newly powerful Ecclesia. Solon created a mixed timocratic and democratic system of institutions.[9][12] The ecclesia or ekklesia (Greek έκκλησία) was the principal assembly of the democracy of ancient Athens. ... In the cities (Gr. ... For other uses, see Archon (disambiguation). ... This article concerns the Classical judicial body. ... Constitutional theory defines a timocracy as either: a state where only property owners may participate in government; or a government where rulers are selected and perpetuated based on the degree of honour they hold relative to others in their society, peers and the ruling class. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ...


Overall, the reforms of the lawgiver Solon in 594 BC, devised to avert the political, economic and moral decline in archaic Athens and gave Athens its first comprehensive code of law. The constitutional reforms eliminated enslavement of Athenians by Athenians, established rules for legal redress against over-reaching aristocratic archons, and assigned political privileges on the basis of productive wealth rather than noble birth. Some of his reforms failed in the short term, yet he is often credited with having laid the foundations for Athenian democracy.[14]


Democracy under Cleisthenes and Pericles

See also: Cleisthenes, Ephialtes, and Pericles
The speaker's platform in the Pnyx, in Athens, the meeting place of the People of Athens.
The speaker's platform in the Pnyx, in Athens, the meeting place of the People of Athens.

Even though the Solonian reorganization of the constitution improved the economic position of the Athenian lower classes, it did not eliminated the bitter aristocratic contentions for control of the archonship, the chief executive post. Peisistratus became tyrant of Athens for three times and remained in power until his death in 527 BC. His sons Hippias and Hipparchus succeeded him.[15] Cleisthenes (also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was a noble Athenian of the accursed Alcmeonidate family. ... See the Aloadae article for information about the giant Ephialtes of Greek mythology For Ephialtes, the prominent Athenian politician see Ephialtes of Athens Ephialtes (Greek: ) was the son of Eurydemus of Malis. ... For the Shakespeare play, see Pericles, Prince of Tyre. ... The speakers platform at the Pnyx, with the Acropolis in the background. ... In Greek mythology, Pisistratus (also transliterated as Peisístratos) was a friend of Telemachus and a son of Nestor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hippias can also refer to a son of Pisistratus and a tyrant of Athens. ... For the Athenian tyrant, see Hipparchus (son of Pisistratus). ...


After the fall of tyranny and before the year 508–507 was over, Cleisthenes proposed a complete reform of the system of government, which later was approved by the popular Ecclesia.[16] Cleisthenes reorganized the population into ten tribes, with the aim to change the basis of political organization from the family loyalties to political ones,[9] and improve the army's organization.[12] He also introduced the principle of equality of rights for all, isonomia[16], by expanding the access to power to more citizens.[12] During this period where, the word "democracy" (Greek: δημοκρατία - "rule by the people") was first used by the Athenians to define their new system of government.[17] Cleisthenes (also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was a noble Athenian of the accursed Alcmeonidate family. ... Isonomia (equal political rights[1][2]) from the Greek ισο iso, equal, and νομος nomos, usage, custom[1] is said to be the historical and philosophical foundation of liberty, justice, and democracy. ...


In the next generation, Athens entered in its Golden Age by becoming a great center of literature and art. The victories in Persian Wars encouraged the poorest Athenians to demand a greater say in the running of their city. In the late 460s Ephialtes and Pericles presided over a radicalization of power that shifted the balance decisively to the poorest sections of society, by passing laws, which severely limiting the powers of the Council of the Areopagus and allow thetes (Athenians without wealth) to occupy public office. Pericles was distinguished as its greatest democratic leader, even though he has been accused of running a political machine. In the following passage, Thucydides recorded Pericles, in the funeral oration, describing the Athenian system of rule: The Age of Pericles is the term used to denote the historical period in Ancient Greece lasting roughly from the end of the Persian Wars to either the death of Pericles or the end of the Peloponnesian War. ... Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in the Greek language until the 4th century AD. // Wikisource has original text related to this article: an essay on the transition to written literature in Greece This period of Greek literature stretches from Homer until the 4th century BC and the rise... The Charioteer of Delphi, Delphi Archaeological Museum. ... The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC. The term can also refer to the continual warfare of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire against the Parthians and... For Ephialtes, the son of Eurydemus of Malis, see Ephialtes Ephialtes (Greek: ) was leader of the democratic movement and of the homonymous party in Athens. ... For the Shakespeare play, see Pericles, Prince of Tyre. ... This article concerns the Classical judicial body. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Constitutional theory defines a timocracy as either: a state where only property owners may participate in government; or a government where rulers are selected and perpetuated based on the degree of honour they hold relative to others in... For the Shakespeare play, see Pericles, Prince of Tyre. ... In this 1899 cartoon from Puck, all of New York City politics revolves around boss Richard Croker A political machine is an unofficial system of a political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, behind-the-scenes control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy. ...

Its administration favors the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy. If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences; if no social standing, advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit; nor again does poverty bar the way, if a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition. The freedom which we enjoy in our government extends also to our ordinary life.[18]

The Athenian democracy of Cleisthenes and Pericles, was based on freedom, through the reforms of Solon, and isonomia, introduced by Cleisthenes and later expanded by Ephialtes and Pericles. To preserve these principles the Athenians used lot for selecting officials. Lot's rationale was to ensure all citizens were "equally" qualified for office, and to avoid any corruption allotment machines were used.[19] Moreover, in most positions chosen by lot, Athenian citizens could not be selected more than once; this rotation in office meant that no-one could built up power base through staying in a particular position.[20] The courts operated with large number of juries, with no judges and they were selected by lot on a daily basis from an annual pool, which was also selected by lot. Participation by the citizens selected was mandatory,[21] and a modest financial compensation was given to citizens whose livelihood was affected by being "drafted" to office. The only officials chosen by elections, one from each tribe, were the strategoi (generals), where military knowledge was required, and the treasurers, who had to be wealthy, since any funds revealed to have been embezzled were recovered from a treasurer's private fortune. Debate was open to all present and decisions in all matters of policy were taken by majority vote in Ecclesia (compare direct democracy), in which all male citizens could participate (in some cases with a quorum of 6000). The decisions taken in Ecclesia were executed by Boule of 500, which had already approved the agenda for Ecclesia.[22] The Athenian Boule was elected by lot every year[23] and its no citizen could serve more than twice.[22] Overall, the Athenians enjoyed their liberties not in opposition to the government, but by living in a city that was not subject to another power and by not being subjects themselves to the rule of another person.[17] For Ephialtes, the son of Eurydemus of Malis, see Ephialtes Ephialtes (Greek: ) was leader of the democratic movement and of the homonymous party in Athens. ... For the Shakespeare play, see Pericles, Prince of Tyre. ... Sortition, also known as allotment, is a fair method of selection by some form of lottery such as drawing coloured pebbles from a bag. ... A majority is a subset of a group that is more than half of the entire group. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... In the cities (Gr. ...


The decline and its critics

The Athenian democracy, in its two centuries of life-time, twice voted against its democratic constitution, both during the crisis at the end of the Pelopponesian War; Four Hundred (in 411 BC) and Sparta's installment of the Thirty Tyrants (in 404 BC). Both votes were under manipulation and pressure, but democracy was recovered in less than a year in both cases. Athens restored again its democratic constitution, after the unification by force of Greece from Phillip II of Macedon and later Alexander the Great, but it was politically shadowed by the Hellenistic empires. Finally after the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC, Athens was restricted to matters of local administration. Combatants Delian League led by Athens Peloponnesian League led by Sparta Commanders Pericles Cleon Nicias Alcibiades Archidamus II Brasidas Lysander The Peloponnesian War (431 BC–404 BC) was an Ancient Greek military conflict fought by Athens and its League of Attica and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta. ... The Four Hundred was a short-lived oligarchic body that held power in Athens during the Peloponnesian War from June to September of 411 BCE. The movement toward oligarchy was induced by Alcibiades promise in the summer of 412 to get Persian aid for the Athenians against Sparta if only... The Thirty Tyrants were a pro-Spartan oligarchy installed in Athens after Athens defeat in the Peloponnesian War in April 404 BC. Its two leading members were Tharamenes and Critias, a former acolyte of Socrates. ... Demagogy (from Greek demos, people, and agogos, leading) refers to a political strategy for obtaining and gaining political power by appealing to the popular prejudices, fears, and expectations of the public — typically via impassioned rhetoric and propaganda, and often using nationalistic or populist themes. ... Philip II - King of Macedon Philip II of Macedon (382 BC–336 BC; in Greek Φίλιππος, transliterated Philippos) was the King of Macedon from 359 BC until his death. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Roman or Romans may refer to: A thing or person of or from the city of Rome. ...


However, the decline of democracy was not only due to external powers, but from its citizens, such as Plato and Aristotle. Through their influential works, Sparta's political stability was praised,[24][25][26] while the Periclean democracy was described as a system of rule, where either the less well-born, the mob (as a collective tyrant) or the poorer classes, were holding power.[17] It was only after the publication of "A history of Greece" by George Grote in 1846, when the Athenian democracy of Pericles started to be viewed positively from the political thinkers.[27] George Grote George Grote (November 17, 1794 - June 18, 1871) was an English classical historian. ...


Roman Republic

For more details on this topic, see Roman Republic and Democracy in Ancient Rome.

This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... girls rule boys drule The beginning of the end of the Republic came when the brothers Gracchus challenged the traditional constitutional order in the 130s and 120s BC. Though members of the aristocracy themselves, they sought to parcel out public land to the dispossessed Italian peasant farmers. ...

Birth of the Republic

In 13th century BC, the Etruscans, early Italian settlers built city-states throughout central Italy and ruled Rome for over a century; and in 510 BC the last king was deposed. The king was expelled by a group of aristocrats led by Lucius Junius Brutus. The founding of the new Republic did not mark the end for Roman troubles, since the new constitution was not flawless and there remained powerful external enemies. Internally, one serious threat was the feuding of the leading families. Another was the struggle between the ruling families(patricians) as a whole and the rest of the population, especially the plebeians. After years of conflicts the plebs forced the senate to pass a written series of laws (the Twelve Tables) which recognized certain rights and gave the plebs their own representatives, the tribunes. By the 4th Century BC, the plebs were given the right to stand for consulship and other major offices of the state. The Roman office of tribune of the people (tribunus plebis) was established in 494 BC, about 15 years after the foundation of the Roman Republic in 509. ...


Rome became the ruler of a great Mediterranean empire. The new provinces brought wealth to Italy, and fortunes were made through mineral concessions and enormous slave run estates. Slaves were imported to Italy and wealthy landowners soon began to buy up and displace the original peasant farmers. By the late 2nd Century this led to renewed conflict between the rich and poor and demands from the latter for reform of constitution. The background of social unease and the inability of the traditional republican constitutions to adapt to the needs of the growing empire led to the rise of a series of over-mighty generals, championing the cause of either the rich or the poor, in the last century BC. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Fall of the Republic

Over the next few hundred years, various generals would bypass or overthrow the Senate for various reasons, mostly to address perceived injustices, either against themselves or against poorer citizens or soldiers. After the dictatorship of Sulla, which was overthrown with the help of Pompey the Great and Marcus Licinius Crassus, the two men joined forces with Julius Caesar to form what is now known as the First Triumvirate, a then secret pact to rule Rome together. The pact did not last long as distrust between the three led to Caesar being charged with war crimes, and he in turn marched on Rome and took supreme power over the republic. Caesar's career was cut short by his assassination at Rome in 44 BC by a group of Senators including Marcus Junius Brutus, the descendant of the Brutus who expelled the Etruscan King four and half centuries before. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ... This article refers to the Roman General. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Marcus Junius Brutus (85–42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ...


In the power vacuum that followed Caesar's assassination, his friend and chief lieutenant, Marcus Antonius, and Caesar's grand-nephew Octavian who also was the adopted son of Caesar, rose to prominence. After some initial disagreements, Antony, Octavian, and Antony's ally Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed the Second Triumvirate. Their combined strength gave the triumvirs absolute power. Bust of Marcus Antonius Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N¹) (c. ... May refer to the persons: Augustus, Roman Emperor Pope John XIII nigger Category: ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVS),[1] d. ... For other uses, see Second Triumvirate (disambiguation). ...


In 31 BC war between the two finally broke out. Approximately 200 senators, one-third of the Senate, abandoned Octavian to support Antony and Cleopatra. The final confrontation of the Roman Republic occurred on 2 September 31 BC, at the naval Battle of Actium where the fleet of Octavian under the command of Agrippa routed the combined fleet of Antony and Cleopatra; the two lovers fled to Egypt. After his victory, Octavian skillfully used propaganda, negotiation, and bribery to bring Antony's legions in Greece, Asia Minor, and Cyrenaica to his side. Anthony and Cleopatra committed suicide to escape capture. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c. ...

Bronze statue of Octavian, Archaeological Museum, Athens
Bronze statue of Octavian, Archaeological Museum, Athens

The period of civil wars were finally over. Thereafter, there was no one left in the Roman Republic who wanted, or could stand against Octavian, as the adopted son of Caesar moved to take absolute control. He designated governors loyal to him to the half dozen "frontier" provinces, where the majority of the legions were situated, thus, at a stroke, giving him command of enough legions to ensure that no single governor could try to overthrow him. He also reorganized the Senate, purging it of unreliable or dangerous members, and "refilled it" with his supporters from the provinces and outside the Roman aristocracy, men who could be counted on to follow his lead. However, he left the majority of Republican institutions apparently intact, albeit feeble. Consuls continued to be elected, tribunes of the plebeians continued to offer legislation, and debate still resounded through the Roman Curia. However it was Octavian who influenced everything and ultimately, controlled the final decisions, and had the legions to back it up, if necessary. Image File history File links Acaugustus. ... Image File history File links Acaugustus. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ...


The Roman Senate and the Roman citizens, tired of the never-ending civil wars and unrest, were willing to toss aside the incompetent and unstable rule of the Senate and the popular assemblies in exchange for the iron will of one man who might set Rome back in order. By 27 BC the transition, though subtle and disguised, was made complete. In that year, Octavian offered back all his extraordinary powers to the Senate, and in a carefully staged way, the Senate refused and in fact titled Octavian Augustus — "the revered one". He was always careful to avoid the title of rex — "king", and instead took on the titles of princeps — "first citizen" and imperator, a title given by Roman troops to their victorious commanders. The Roman Empire had been born. ojuooiuououoieerwerwerwerwerwwe Year 27 BC was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Once Octavian named Tiberius as his heir, it was clear to everyone that even the hope of a restored Republic was dead. Most likely, by the time Augustus died, no one was old enough to know a time before an Emperor ruled Rome. The Roman Republic had been changed into a despotic régime, which, underneath a competent and strong Emperor, could achieve military supremacy, economic prosperity, and a genuine peace, but under a weak or incompetent one saw its glory tarnished by cruelty, military defeats, revolts, and civil war. The Roman Empire was eventually divided between the Western Roman Empire which fell in 476 AD and the Eastern Roman Empire (also called the Byzantine Empire) which lasted until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD. For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Despotism is government by a singular authority, either a single person or tightly knit group, which rules with absolute power. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ...


Local popular institutions

Þorgnýr the Lawspeaker is teaching the Swedish king Olof Skötkonung that the power resides with the people, 1018, Uppsala, by C. Krogh
Þorgnýr the Lawspeaker is teaching the Swedish king Olof Skötkonung that the power resides with the people, 1018, Uppsala, by C. Krogh

Most of the procedures used by modern democracies are very old. Almost all cultures have at some time had their new leaders approved, or at least accepted, by the people; and have changed the laws only after consultation with the assembly of the people or their leaders. Such institutions existed since before the Iliad or the Odyssey, and modern democracies are often derived or inspired by them, or what remained of them. Nevertheless, the direct result of these institutions was not always a democracy. It was often a narrow oligarchy, as in Venice, or even an absolute monarchy, as in Florence. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (572x740, 184 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of democracy Lawspeaker Þorgnýr the Lawspeaker ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (572x740, 184 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of democracy Lawspeaker Þorgnýr the Lawspeaker ... Þorgnýr the Lawspeaker (Old Icelandic: Þorgnýr lögmaðr, Swedish: Torgny Lagman) is the name of one of at least three generations of lawspeakers by the name Þorgnýr. ... Coin minted for Olof Skötkonung in Sigtuna Olof of Sweden or Olof Skötkonung/Skottkonung (the meaning of the cognomen is disputed) was the son of Eric the Victorious and Sigrid the Haughty. ... // Team# 1018 Pike High School Robotics Team Team #1018 FIRST Logo Check Out Our FIRST WIKI Page Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is a city in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... This article is about Homers epic poem. ... Look up Oligarchy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a state in central Italy which came into existence in 1569, replacing the Duchy of Florence, which had been created out of the old Republic of Florence in 1532, and which annexed the Republic of Siena in 1557. ...


These early institutions include:

  • The collegia of the Roman period: associations of various social, economic, religious, funerary and even sportive natures elected officers yearly, often directly modeled on the Senate of Rome.
  • The Christian Church well into the 6th Century had its bishops elected by popular acclaim.
  • The Rashidun caliphs were elected by a council (see Islamic democracy).
  • Medieval guilds of economic, social and religious natures elected officers for yearly terms.
  • The German tribal system described by Tacitus in his Germania.
  • The Anglo-Saxon Witan councils of advisors to the Saxon kings.
  • The Frankish custom of the Marzfeld or "March field".[28]
  • The Althing, the parliament of the Icelandic Commonwealth, was founded in 930. It consisted of the 39, later 55, goðar; each owner of a goðarð; and membership, which could in principle be lent or sold, was kept tight hold of by each hereditary goði. Thus, for example, when Burnt Njal's stepson wanted to enter it, Njal had to persuade the Althing to enlarge itself so a seat would be available. But as each independent farmer in the country could choose what goði represented him the system could be claimed as an early form of democracy. The Alþing has run nearly continuously to the present day. The Althing was preceded by less elaborate "things" (assemblies) all over Northern Europe.[29]
  • The Thing of all Swedes, which was held annually at Uppsala in the end of February or early March. Like in Iceland, the assemblies were presided by the lawspeaker, but the Swedish king functioned as a judge. A famous incident took place circa 1018, when King Olof Skötkonung wanted to pursue the war against Norway against the will of the people. Þorgnýr the Lawspeaker reminded the king in a long speech that the power resided with the Swedish people and not with the king. When the king heard the din of swords beating the shields in support of Þorgnýr's speech, he gave in. Adam of Bremen wrote that the people used to obey the king only when they thought his suggestions seemed better, although in war his power was absolute.
  • The túatha system in early medieval Ireland. Landowners and the masters of a profession or craft were members of a local assembly, known as a túath. Each túath met in annual assembly which approved all common policies, declared war or peace on other tuatha, and accepted the election of a new "king"; normally during the old king's lifetime, as a tanist. The new king had to be descended within four generations from a previous king, so this usually became, in practice, a hereditary kingship; although some kingships alternated between lines of cousins. About 80 to 100 túatha coexisted at any time throughout Ireland. Each túath controlled a more or less compact area of land which it could pretty much defend from cattle-raids, and this was divided among its members.
  • The city-states of medieval Italy, of which Venice and Florence were the most successful, and similar city-states in Switzerland, Flanders and the Hanseatic league. These were often closer to an oligarchy than a democracy in practice, and were, in any case, not nearly as democratic as the Athenian-influenced city-states of Ancient Greece (discussed in the above section), but they served as focal points for early modern democracy.
  • Veche, Wiec - popular assemblies in Slavic countries. In Poland wiece have developed in 1182 into Sejm - Polish parliament. The veche was the highest legislature and judicial authority in the republics of Novgorod until 1478 and Pskov until 1510.
  • The elizate system of the Basque Country in which farmholders of a rural area connected to a particular church would meet to reach decisions on issues affecting the community and to elect representatives to the provincial Batzar Nagusiak/Juntos Generales.[30]
  • Rise of parliamentary bodies in other European countries.

The Roman Senate (Lat. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... Diocesan College, or Bishops as it is commonly known, is a private school situated in the leafy suburb of Rondebosch in Cape Town, South Africa, at the foot of Table Mountain. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Known as Islamic democracy, two kinds of democratic states can be recognized in the Islamic countries. ... A guild is an association of persons of the same trade or pursuits, formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards of morality or conduct. ... The term Germanic tribes applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... http://www. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... The Witenagemot (or Witan) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated between approximately the 7th century and 11th century. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... The Alþing, commonly Anglicized as Althing (Modern Icelandic Alþingi; Old Norse Alþing) is the national parliament: literally, the all-thing of Iceland. ... The Icelandic Commonwealth or the Icelandic Free State (Icelandic: Þjóðveldisöld) was the state existing in Iceland between the establishment of the Althing in 930 and the pledge of fealty to the Norwegian king in 1262. ... Events With the establishment of the Icelandic Althing, now the worlds oldest parliament, the Icelandic Commonwealth is founded. ... Njáls saga (also known as The Story of Burnt Njál) is an epic of Icelandic literature from the 13th century that describes the progress of a 50-year blood feud. ... A thing or ting (Old Norse and Icelandic: þing; other modern Scandinavian: ting) was the governing assembly in Germanic societies, made up of the free men of the community and presided by lawspeakers. ... The Thing of all Swedes (or Disaþing[1]) was the thing (general assembly) which was held from pre-historic times to the Middle Ages, at the end of February or early March at Gamla Uppsala, Sweden[2]. It was held in conjuction with a great fair and a pagan... Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is a city in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ... A Lawspeaker (Old Swedish: laghmaþer or laghman, Norwegian: lagmand, Icelandic: lög(sögu)maðr) was a unique Scandinavian legal office. ... Coin minted for Olof Skötkonung in Sigtuna Olof of Sweden or Olof Skötkonung/Skottkonung (the meaning of the cognomen is disputed) was the son of Eric the Victorious and Sigrid the Haughty. ... Þorgnýr the Lawspeaker (Old Icelandic: Þorgnýr lögmaðr, Swedish: Torgny Lagman) is the name of one of at least three generations of lawspeakers by the name Þorgnýr. ... Adam of Bremen (also: Adam Bremensis) was one of the most important German medieval chroniclers. ... Túath (plural túatha) is an Old Irish word, often translated as people, tribe or nation. Túath referred to both the people who lived in a shared territory, and the territory they controlled. ... The History of Ireland began with the first known human settlement in Ireland around 8000 BC, when hunter-gatherers arrived from Great Britain and continental Europe, probably via a land bridge. ... Tanistry (from Gaelic tana, lordship) was a custom among various Celtic tribes, by which the king or chief of the clan was chosen from among the heads of the septs and elected by them in full assembly. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... This is the history of Italy during the Middle Ages. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... Removal of the veche bell from Novgorod to Moscow in 1478. ... Removal of the veche bell from Novgorod to Moscow in 1478. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Pskov Feudal Republic (Псковская феодальная республика in Russian) was a Russian medieval state between the second half of the 13th century and early 16th century. ... This article covers the entire historic Basque County domain. ...

Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Historian Jack Weatherford argues that Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and others, got their ideas on democracy not from any Greek or Roman influence, but from the Iroquois and other indigenous peoples of the Americas, who practiced the type of democracy found in the United States Constitution, through self-governing territories that were part of a larger whole. This democracy was founded between the years 1000-1450, and lasted several hundred years. He also states that American democracy was continually changed and improved by the influence of Native Americans throughout North America. For example, the right of women to vote started on the American frontier, and moved eastward. In other words, Americans learned democracy from the indigenous peoples of the North America. |200px| ]] Born: Occupation: professor, ethnographer, anthropologist Nationality: American Jack Weatherford is a professor of Anthropology at Macalester College, specializing in Mongolia. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... In the United States and Canada the frontier was the term applied until the end of the 19th century to the zone of unsettled land outside the region of existing settlements of European immigrants and their descendants. ...


The Aztecs also practiced elections, and the elected officials elected a supreme speaker, but not a ruler.[31] The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ...


Rise of democracy in modern national governments

Pre-Eighteenth century milestones

  • Renaissance humanism was a cultural movement in Europe beginning in central Italy (particularly Florence) in the last decades of the 14th century. It revived and refined the study of language (First Latin, and then the Greek language by mid-century), science, philosophy, art and poetry of classical antiquity. The "revival" was based on interpretations of Roman and Greek texts. Their emphasis on art and the senses marked a great change from the medieval values of humility, introspection, and passivity.
The humanist philosophers looked for secular principles on which society could be organized, as opposed to the concentration of political power in the hands of the Church. Prior to the Renaissance, religion had been the dominant force in politics for a thousand years.
Humanists looked at ancient Greece and found the concept of democracy. In some cases they began to implement it (to a limited extent) in practice.
The free election of Augustus II at Wola, outside Warsaw, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in 1697. Painted by Bernardo Bellotto
  • Rise of Golden Liberty (Nobles' Democracy, Rzeczpospolita Szlachecka) in the Kingdom of Poland and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth: Nihil novi of 1505, Pacta conventa and King Henry's Articles (1573). See also: Szlachta history and political privileges, Sejm of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Organisation and politics of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.[32]

The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... This article is about the English charter issued in 1215. ... The English parliament of 1265 was instigated by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester without royal approval. ... The Levellers were a mid 17th century English political movement, who came to prominence during the English Civil Wars. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... The Habeas Corpus Act 1679 is an English statute passed during the reign of King Charles II to define and strengthen the ancient prerogative writ of habeas corpus, whereby persons unlawfully detained can be ordered to be produced before a court of law. ... English Bill of Rights (1689). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Claim of Right The Claim of Right is an Act passed by the Parliament of Scotland in April 1689. ... The Constitution of the United Kingdom is the uncodified body of law and convention under which the United Kingdom is governed. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... From the Chamber of the United States House of Representatives Simon V de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (1208 – August 4, 1265) was the principal leader of the baronial opposition to King Henry III of England. ... In politics, an electorate is the group of people entitled to vote in an election. ... The English parliament of 1265 was instigated by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester without royal approval. ... Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Elekcja_Wola. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Elekcja_Wola. ... Election of Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki as king of Poland at Wola, outside Warsaw ( 1669). ... Reign From 1734 until October 5, 1763 Elected In 1734 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 17, 1734 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents August II Mocny ? Consorts Marie Josepha Children Frederick Christian Date of Birth October 7, 1696 Place of... Area 19,26 km² Population 143 996 (2003) Population density 7476/km² Mayor ZdzisÅ‚aw Sipiera Notable landmarks PowÄ…zki Cemetery Wola Website For other meanings of the word, see WOLA. Wola is a district in western Warsaw, Poland, formerly the village of Wielka Wola, incorporated into Warsaw in 1916. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Bellottos urban scenes have the same carefully drawn realism as his uncles Venetian views but are marked by heavy shadows and are darker and colder in tone and colour. ... Golden Liberty (latin: Aurea Libertas, Polish: Złota Wolność, sometimes used in plural form; this phenomena can be also reffered to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles Democracy or Nobles Commonwealth, Polish: Rzeczpospolita Szlachecka) refers to a unique democratic political system in the Kingdom of Poland and later, after the Union of Lublin... Rzeczpospolita (pronounced: ) is a Polish word for republic or commonwealth, a calque translation of the Latin expression res publica (public affair). The word rzeczpospolita has been used in Poland since at least 16th century, originally a generic term to denote any democratic state. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state in the years between the death of Casimir III in 1370 and the Union of Lublin in 1569. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A fragment of this article needs translation from Polish into English. ... The first pacta conventa, acceded to by Henryk Walezy (Henri de Valois), 1573. ... King Henrys Articles - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... StanisÅ‚aw Antoni Szczuka, a Polish nobleman Szlachta ( ) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the two countries that later jointly formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see William Penn (disambiguation). ... Penns draft of the First Frame The Frame of Government of Pennsylvania was a constitution for the Pennsylvania Colony, a proprietary colony granted to William Penn by Charles II of England. ...

Eighteenth and nineteenth century milestones

1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Pasquale Paoli (April 6, 1725 – February 5, 1807), was a Corsican patriot and military leader, most famous for being the chief rival of French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. ... Corsican Constitution was a Corsican constitution created in 1755. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule of law, popular sovereignty and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... The Virginia Declaration of Rights is a declaration by the Virginia Convention of Delegates of rights of individuals and a call for independence from Britain. ... English Bill of Rights (1689). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ... American Civil Rights Movement is one of the most famous social movements of the 20th century. ... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... English Bill of Rights (1689). ... May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). ... Combatants Haiti France Commanders Toussaint Louverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines Charles Leclerc, vicomte de Rochambeau, Napoleon Bonaparte Strength Regular army: <55,000, Volunteers: <100,000 Regular army: 60,000, 86 warships and frigates Casualties Military deaths: unknown, Civilian deaths: <100,000 Military deaths: 57,000 (37,000 combat; 20,000 yellow... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The First Party System is a term of periodization used by some political scientists and historians to describe the political system existing in the United States between roughly 1792 and 1824. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ...

The secret ballot

The notion of a secret ballot, where one is entitled to the privacy of their votes, is taken for granted by most today by virtue of the fact that it is simply considered the norm. However, this practice was highly controversial in the 19th century; it was widely argued that no man would want to keep his vote secret unless he was ashamed of it.[citation needed] Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The two earliest systems used were the Victorian method and the South Australian method. Both were introduced in 1856 to voters in Victoria and South Australia. The Victorian method involved voters crossing out all the candidates whom he did not approve of. The South Australian method, which is more similar to what most democracies use today, had voters put a mark in the preferred candidate's corresponding box. The Victorian voting system also was not completely secret, as it was traceable by a special number. VIC redirects here. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ...


20th century waves of democracy

The end of the First World War was a temporary victory for democracy in Europe, as it was preserved in France and temporarily extended to Germany. Already in 1906 full modern democratic rights, universal suffrage for all citizens was implemented constitutionally in Finland as well as an proportional representation, open list system. Likewise, the February Revolution in Russia in 1917 inaugurated a few months of liberal democracy under Alexander Kerensky until Lenin took over in October. The terrific economic impact of the Great Depression hurt democratic forces in many countries. The 1930s became a decade of dictators in Europe and Latin America. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... Open list describes any variant of party-list proportional representation where voters have at least some influence on the (by the political party itself supplied) order in which party candidates are elected. ... The February Revolution in 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Alexander Kerensky This article is about the Russian politician. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


World War II was ultimately a victory for democracy in Western Europe, where representative governments were established that reflected the general will of their citizens. However, many countries of Central and Eastern Europe became undemocratic Soviet satellite states. In Southern Europe, a number of right-wing authoritarian dictatorships (most notably in Spain and Portugal) continued to exist. A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... Satellite state or client state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ... The southern half of Europe is shown in shades of red. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ...


Japan had moved towards democracy during the Taishō period during the 1920s, but it was under effective military rule in the years before and during World War II. The country adopted a new constitution during the postwar Allied occupation, with initial elections in 1946. The Taishō period (Japanese: 大正時代, Taishō-jidai, period of great righteousness) is a period in the history of Japan dating from 30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926. ... Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied...


World War II also planted seeds of freedom outside Europe and Japan, as it weakened all the colonial powers while strengthening anticolonial sentiment worldwide. Many restive colonies/possessions were promised subsequent independence in exchange for their support for embattled colonial powers during the war. The United States, itself a former colony, flexed its new influence in support of the decolonization process, for example supporting prominent Arab nationalist Nasser during the Suez Crisis in 1956, often cited as the last gasp of European colonialism[citation needed].


India became a democratic republic in 1950 upon achieving independence from Great Britain. Most of the former colonies were independent by 1965. The process of decolonization created much political upheaval in Africa and parts of Asia, with some countries experiencing often rapid changes to and from democratic and other forms of government. Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. ...


The Voting Rights Act of 1965 in the United States helped to protect the black vote, especially in the southern states. The United States Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed requiring would-be voters to take literacy tests and provided for federal registration of African American voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible voters registered. ...

Countries highlighted in blue are designated "Electoral Democracies" in Freedom House's 2006 survey Freedom in the World.
Countries highlighted in blue are designated "Electoral Democracies" in Freedom House's 2006 survey Freedom in the World.

New waves of democracy swept across Southern Europe in the 1970s and Central Europe in the late 1980s. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x625, 26 KB) Description: This Map of Electoral Democracies (shown in blue) reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World (PDF). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x625, 26 KB) Description: This Map of Electoral Democracies (shown in blue) reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World (PDF). ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Freedom House is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom and human rights. ...


Much of Eastern Europe, Latin America, East and Southeast Asia, and several Arab, central Asian and African states, and the not-yet-state that is the Palestinian Authority moved towards greater liberal democracy in the 1990s and 2000s. Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ...


An analysis by Freedom House argues that there was not a single liberal democracy with universal suffrage in the world in 1900, but that in 2000 120 of the world's 192 nations, or 62% were such democracies. They count 25 nations, or 19% of the world's nations with "restricted democratic practices" in 1900 and 16, or 8% of the world's nations today. They counted 19 constitutional monarchies in 1900, forming 14% of the world's nations, where a constitution limited the powers of the monarch, and with some power devolved to elected legislatures, and none in the present. Other nations had, and have, various forms of non-democratic rule. [34] While the specifics may be open to debate (for example, New Zealand actually enacted universal suffrage in 1893, but is discounted due to a lack of complete sovereignty and certain restrictions on the Māori vote), the numbers are indicative of the expansion of democracy during the twentieth century. Freedom House is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom and human rights. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ...


Contemporary trends

E-democracy (a neologism and contraction of electronic democracy) is the utilization of electronic communications technologies, such as the Internet, in enhancing democratic processes within a democratic republic or representative democracy. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

See also

Ideas

Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of types of democracy. ... The American tradition of direct democracy dates from the 1630s in the New England Colonies (Willard, 1858, Miller, 1991, and Zimmerman, December 1999). ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... It has been suggested that Democracy (varieties) be merged into this article or section. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... A political system is a system of politics and government. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... For the Soviet republics of the Soviet Union, see Republics of the Soviet Union. ... For other uses, see Anarchy (disambiguation). ...

Documents

This article is about the English charter issued in 1215. ... Corsican Constitution was a Corsican constitution created in 1755. ... Pasquale Paoli (April 6, 1725 – February 5, 1807), was a Corsican patriot and military leader, most famous for being the chief rival of French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. ... Swedens Constitution of 1772 took effect through a bloodless coup détat carried out by King Gustavus III, establishing a brief absolute monarchy in Sweden. ...

People

Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... Cornelius Castoriadis (Greek: Κορνήλιος Καστοριάδης) (March 11, 1922-December 26, 1997) was a Greek-French philosopher, economist and psychoanalyst. ... Anders Chydenius Anders Chydenius (26 February 1729 – 1 February 1803) was the leading classical liberal of Nordic history. ... Francis Fukuyama Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952, Chicago, Illinois) is an American philosopher, political economist and author. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Machiavelli redirects here. ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... John Walking Stewart (19 February 1747 – 20 February 1822) was an English traveller and philosopher. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... From the Chamber of the United States House of Representatives Simon V de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (1208 – August 4, 1265) was the principal leader of the baronial opposition to King Henry III of England. ... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... Pasquale Paoli (April 6, 1725 – February 5, 1807), was a Corsican patriot and military leader, most famous for being the chief rival of French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. ... Cola di Rienzi (c. ... Rousseau redirects here. ... Montesquieu redirects here. ... Amartya Kumar Sen CH (Hon) (Bengali: Ômorto Kumar Shen) (born 3 November 1933), is an Indian economist, philosopher, and a winner of the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences (Nobel Prize for Economics) in 1998, for his contributions to welfare economics for his work on famine, human development theory... Tocqueville redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Events

The English parliament of 1265 was instigated by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester without royal approval. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c John Dunn, Democracy: the unfinished journey 508 BC - 1993 AD, Oxford University Press, 1994, ISBN 0198279345
  2. ^ J. Thorley, "Athenian Democracy", Routledge, 1996, ISBN 0415129672, Google Books link
  3. ^ a b Democracy Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  4. ^ Political System Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  5. ^ Ostwald M. Oligarchia: The Development of a Constitutional Form in Ancient Greece, Stuttgart: Steiner, 2000
  6. ^ Cartledge P., Spartan reflections, London: Duckworth, 2001, pg. xii, 276
  7. ^ Plato, Laws, 712e-d
  8. ^ a b Aristotle, Politics, 1294b
  9. ^ a b c d e f S. B. Pomeroy, S. M. Burstein, W. Donlan, J. T. Roberts, Ancient Greece: A Political, Social, and Cultural History, Oxford University Press, 1999, ISBN 0195097424, Google Books link
  10. ^ a b T. Buckley, Aspects of Greek History 750-323 BC: A Source-based Approach, Routledge 1996, ISBN 0415099587, Google Books link
  11. ^ Lycurgus Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kurt A. Raaflaub, Josiah Ober, Robert W. Wallace, Origin of Democracy in Ancient Greece, University of California Press, 2007, ISBN 0520245628, Google Books link
  13. ^ a b c Solon, Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  14. ^ a b E. W. Robinson, Ancient Greek Democracy: Readings and Sources, Blackwell Publishing, 2003, ISBN 0631233946, Google Books link
  15. ^ Peisistratus Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  16. ^ a b Cleisthenes Of Athens Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  17. ^ a b c P. Clarke, J. Foweraker, Encyclopedia of Democratic Thought, Taylor & Francis, 2001, ISBN 0415193966, Google Books link
  18. ^ Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War, 2.37.2-3
  19. ^ M. H. Hansen, J. A. Crook, The Athenian democracy in the age of Demosthenes, University of Oklahoma Press, 1999, ISBN 0806131438, Google Books link
  20. ^ L. Carson, B. Martin, Random Selection in Politics, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999, ISBN 0275967026, Google Books link
  21. ^ Exception was Boule of 500, where the poor could refuse.
  22. ^ a b A. Powell, Athens and Sparta: Constructing Greek Political and Social History from 478 BC, Routledge, 2001, ISBN 0415262801, Google Books link
  23. ^ Boule (Ancient Greek Council) Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  24. ^ Plato, Republic
  25. ^ Aristotle, Politics
  26. ^ Seminar Notes by Prof. Paul Cartledge at University of Cambridge, http://www.history.ac.uk/eseminars/sem23.html
  27. ^ M. H. Hansen, Greece & Rome, Second Series, Vol. 39, No. 1 (Apr., 1992), pp. 14-30
  28. ^ Gibbon The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, chapters XLIX, LII; pp. 1685,1857 Heritage Club edition (1946). For a recent view, see David Nicolle; Carolingian cavalryman, AD 768-987, p.45 ff. Intermediate sources tend to be colored by the "Free institutions of our Germanic ancestors" meme.
  29. ^ Burnt Njal's Saga, tr. Magnus Magnusson, introduction.
  30. ^ Kasper, M. Baskische Geschichte Primus: 1997
  31. ^ Weatherford, J. McIver (1988). Indian givers: how the Indians of the Americas transformed the world. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 133. ISBN 0-449-90496-2. 
  32. ^ See for example Chapters 1-2 in Maciej Janowski, Polish Liberal Thought Before 1918: Before 1918, Central European University Press, 2004, ISBN 9639241180
  33. ^ John Markoff describes the advent of modern codified national constitutions as one of the milestones of democracy, and states that "The first European country to follow the U.S. example was Poland in 1791." John Markoff, Waves of Democracy, 1996, ISBN 0-8039-9019-7, p.121.
  34. ^ Freedom House. 1999. "Democracy’s Century: A Survey of Global Political Change in the 20th Century."

In the cities (Gr. ... This article is about the book. ... David Nicolle is an historian specialising in the Military history of the Middle Ages, with a particular interest in the Middle East. ... For other uses, see Meme (disambiguation). ... Njáls saga (also known as The Story of Burnt Njál) is an epic of Icelandic literature from the 13th century that describes the progress of a 50-year blood feud. ... For John Markoff, computing and technology writer, see John Markoff John Markoff is Professor of Sociology and History at the University of Pittsburgh. ...

References

  • Becker, Peter, Juergen Heideking and James A. Henretta, eds. Republicanism and Liberalism in America and the German States, 1750-1850. Cambridge University Press. (2002).
  • Robert Dahl, Ian Shapiro, and Jose Antonio Cheibub, eds, The Democracy Sourcebook MIT Press (2003)
  • Diamond, Larry and Marc Plattner, The Global Resurgence of Democracy, 2nd edition Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996
  • Himes, Kenneth R. Catholic Intellectuals and the Challenge of Democracy (2002), about 19th and 20th century European Catholic thinkers, including anti-democrats like Hillaire Belloc
  • Keane, John. Violence and Democracy (2004)
  • Keyssar, Alexander. The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States (2001)
  • Lijphart, Arend. Patterns of Democracy. Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries Yale University Press (1999)
  • Lipset, Seymour Martin. “Some Social Prerrequisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy”, American Political Science Review, (1959) 53 (1): 69-105. online at JSTOR
  • Macpherson, C. B. The Life and Times of Liberal Democracy. Oxford University Press (1977)
  • Markoff, John, Waves of Democracy, 1996, ISBN 0-8039-9019-7
  • Muhlberger, Steve, Phil Paine, Democracy's Place in World History, Journal of World History, 4: 23-45; 1993
  • Putnam, Robert. Making Democracy Work Princeton University Press. (1993)
  • Rothbard, Murray N., For a New Liberty, 1973, online, last accessed on 24 May, 2005
  • Vanhanen, Tatu, The Emergence of Democracy: A comparative study of 119 states, 1850-1979 Helsinki, 1984
  • Weingast, Barry. “The Political Foundations of the Rule of Law and Democracy”, American Political Science Review, (1997) 91 (2): 245-263. online at JSTOR
  • Wood, Gordon S. The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1993), examines democratic dimensions of republicanism
  • Manglapus, Raul S. "Will of the People: Original Democracy in Non-Western Societies" (1987), democracy in Asia, the Middle East and elsewhere dates to at least 2500 B.C, predating western democractic traditions.

Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc (July 27, 1870 - July 16, 1953) was one of the most prolific writers in England during the early twentieth century. ... For John Markoff, computing and technology writer, see John Markoff John Markoff is Professor of Sociology and History at the University of Pittsburgh. ... The Journal of World History is the official journal of the World History Association. ... Murray Newton Rothbard Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 - January 7, 1995) was an American economist and political theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism. ... Tatu Vanhanen is a Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. ...

Further reading

  • Martin III, Matthew & Daniel C. Snell, "Democracy and Freedom", A Companion to the Ancient Near East, Blackwell Publishing, 2005, ISBN 9-780-63123-2933, [1]
  • Charles Tilly, Contention and Democracy in Europe, 1650-2000, Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-521-53713-4, Google Print

Charles Tilly (born 1929) is a well known sociologist who has written a large number of books on the relationship between politics, economics and society. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Democracy (6485 words)
Definitions of democracy have in any case broadened to include aspects of society and political culture in democratic societies, which are not specifically a "form of government".
An illiberal democracy is a political system where democratic elections exist, and the government is elected by a democratic majority, but is not restrained from encroaching on the liberty of individuals, or minorities.
monarchist critique of democracy is the claim that it encourages the elected representatives to change the law without necessity, and in particular to pour forth a flood of new laws.
Democracy (6786 words)
Democracy is a form of government in which policy is decided by the preference of the majority in a decision-making process, usually elections or referendums, open to all or most citizens.
In modern democracies, the territory is the nation-state, and since this corresponds (in theory) with the homeland of the nation, the demos and the reach of the democratic process neatly coincide.
Nevertheless, some supporters of democracy claim that statistical research shows that the fall of Communism and the increase in the number of democratic states were accompanied by a sudden and dramatic decline in total warfare, interstate wars, ethnic wars, revolutionary wars, and the number of refugees and displaced persons [2].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m