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Encyclopedia > History of classical mechanics

The Greeks, and Aristotle in particular, were the first to propose that there are abstract principles governing nature. Aristotle argued, in his paper On the Heavens, that every body has a "heaviness" and so tends to fall to its "natural place". From this he wrongly concluded that an object twice as heavy as another would fall to the ground from the same distance in half the time. Aristotle believed in logic over experimentation and so it wasn't until several hundred years later that experiments were developed to prove and disprove laws of mechanics. However, in his On the Heavens, he made a distinction between "natural motion" and "enforced motion". He led to the conclusion that in a vacuum there is no reason for a body to naturally move to one point rather than any other, and so a body in a vacuum will either stay at rest or move indefinitely if put in motion. So Aristotle was really the first to develop the law of inertia. However, when an object is not in a vacuum, he believed that an object would stop moving once the applied forces were removed. The Aristotelians developed elaborate explanations for why an arrow continued to fly through the air once it left the bow - for example, it was proposed that the arrow created a vacuum behind it into which air rushed in and provided a force to the back of the arrow. Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a teacher of Plato and of Alexander the Great. ... On the Heavens (or De Caelo) is Aristotles chief cosmological treatise: it contains his astronomical theory. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

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Aristotle's beliefs were based on the fact that the heavens were perfect and had different laws to that on Earth. It wasn't until Galileo Galilei's development of the telescope and his observations that it became clear that the heavens were not made from a perfect, unchanging substance. From Copernicus's heliocentric hypothesis Galileo believed the Earth was just the same as any other planet. Galileo may have performed the famous experiment of dropping two cannon balls from the tower of Pisa. (The theory and the practice showed that they both hit the ground at the same time.) Though the reality of this experiment is disputed, he did carry out quantitative experiments by rolling balls on an inclined plane; his correct theory of accelerated motion was apparently derived from the results of the experiments. Galileo also found that a body dropped vertically hits the ground at the same time as a body projected horizontally, so an Earth rotating uniformly will still have objects falling to the ground under gravity. More significantly, it showed that uniform motion is indistinguishable from rest, and so forms the basics of the theory of relativity. Science is a body of empirical and theoretical knowledge, produced by a global community of researchers, making use of specific techniques for the observation and explanation of real phenomena, this techne summed up under the banner of scientific method. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1020x1508, 359 KB) Book cover Frontispiece of : Tabulae Rudolphinae : quibus astronomicae . ... The sociology and philosophy of science, as well as the entire field of science studies, have in the 20th century been preoccupied with the question of large-scale patterns and trends in the development of science, and asking questions about how science works both in a philosophical and practical sense. ... The historiography of science is the historical study of the history of science (which often overlaps the history of technology, the history of medicine, and the history of mathematics). ... A pseudoscience is any body of knowledge purported to be scientific or supported by science but which fails to comply with the scientific method. ... In prehistoric times, advice and knowledge was passed from generation to generation in an oral tradition. ... The Ptolemaic system of celestial motion, from Harmonia Macrocosmica, 1661. ... The history of science in the Middle Ages refers to the discoveries in the field of natural philosophy throughout the Middle Ages - the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history. ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man, an example of the blend of art and science during the Renaissance. ... // The event which most historians of science call the scientific revolution can be dated roughly as having begun in 1543, the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) and Andreas Vesalius published his De humani corporis fabrica (On the... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe before the development of modern science. ... Astronomy is probably the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious practices of pre-history: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with astronomy, and not completely different from it until about 1750‑1800 in the Western... The history of biology dates as far back as the rise of various civilization as classic philosophers did their own ways of biology as a system of understanding life. ... Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and his Wife, by Jacques-Louis David The history of chemistry may be said to begin with the distinction of chemistry from alchemy by Robert Boyle in his work The Skeptical Chymist, which was written after a long and tearfilled talk with his father, and alchymist... ÛEcology is generally spoken of as a new science, having only become prominent in the second half of the 20th Century. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The growth of physics has brought not only fundamental changes in ideas about the material world, mathematics and philosophy, but also, through technology, a transformation of society. ... For more, see: Social science#History In ancient philosophy, there was no difference between the liberal arts of mathematics and the study of history, poetry or politics—only with the development of mathematical proof did there gradually arise a perceived difference between scientific disciplines and others, the humanities or liberal... The term economics was coined around 1870 and popularized by Alfred Marshall, as a substitute for the earlier term political economy which has been used through the 18th-19th centuries, with Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Karl Marx as its main thinkers and which today is frequently referred to as... Efforts to describe and explain the human language faculty have been undertaken throughout recorded history. ... Antecedents of political science While the study of politics is first found in the Western tradition in Ancient Greece, political science is a late arrival in terms of social sciences. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ... Sociology is a relatively new academic discipline among other social sciences including economics, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... The wheel was invented circa 4000 BC, and has become one of the worlds most famous, and most useful technologies. ... Agronomy today is very different from what it was before about 1950. ... The history of computer science began long before the modern discipline of computer science that emerged in the 20th century. ... The History of materials science is rooted in the history of the Earth and the culture of the peoples of the Earth. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Alternative meanings: Timeline is a 1999 science fiction novel by Michael Crichton Timeline is a 2003 film based on the novel. ... KDFSAJFKASJDKFJASDKLJFDKLASJFLKJASKLFJLAKSJFLKSJALFKJSKLJFto the Sun-centered solar system which Galileo supported. ... Nicolaus Copernicus (in Latin; Polish Mikołaj Kopernik, German Nikolaus Kopernikus - February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system in a form detailed enough to make it scientifically useful. ... The Tower of Pisa. ... An inclined plane is a plane surface set at an angle, other than a right angle, against a horizontal surface. ...


Sir Isaac Newton was the first to propose the three laws of motion (the law of inertia, his second law mentioned above, and the law of action and reaction), and to prove that these laws govern both everyday objects and celestial objects. Newton and most of his contemporaries, with the notable exception of Christiaan Huygens hoped that classical mechanics would be able to explain all entities, including (in the form of geometric optics) light. When he discovered Newton's rings, Newton's own explanation avoided wave principles and, he supposed that the light particles were altered or excited by the glass and resonated. Sir Isaac Newton in Knellers portrait of 1689. ... Christiaan Huygens Christiaan Huygens (pronounced in English (IPA): ; in Dutch: )(April 14, 1629–July 8, 1695), was a Dutch mathematician, astronomer and physicist; born in The Hague as the son of Constantijn Huygens. ... Newtons rings (created by green monochromatic light) The phenomenon of Newtons rings, named after Isaac Newton, is an interference pattern caused by the reflection of light between two surfaces - a spherical surface and an adjacent flat surface. ...


Newton also developed the calculus which is necessary to perform the mathematical calculations involved in classical mechanics. However it was Gottfried Leibniz who, independently of Newton, developed a calculus with the notation of the derivative and integral which are used to this day. Calculus is the name given to a group of systematic methods of calculation, computation, and analysis in mathematics which use a common and specialized algebraic notation. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... In mathematics, a derivative is the rate of change of a quantity. ... In calculus, the integral of a function is an extension of the concept of a sum. ...


After Newton there were several re-formulations which progressively allowed a solution to be found to a far greater number of problems. The first notable re-formulation was in 1788 by Joseph Louis Lagrange an Italian-French mathematician.In Lagrangian mechanics the solution is formed through using the path of least action and it is based on the Calculus of variations. Lagrangian mechanics was in turn re-formulated in 1833 by William Rowan Hamilton. The advantage of Hamiltonian mechanics was that its framework allowed for a more in depth look at the underlying principles of classical mechanics. Most of the framework of Hamiltonian mechanics can be seen in Quantum mechanics however the exact meanings of the terms differ due to quantum effects. Joseph-Louis Lagrange, comte de lEmpire (January 25, 1736 – April 10, 1813; b. ... Leonhard Euler is considered by many to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is the person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Lagrangian mechanics is a re-formulation of classical mechanics introduced by Joseph Louis Lagrange in 1788. ... A green ACTION bus in Woden, with yellow bicycle rack visible. ... Calculus of variations is a field of mathematics that deals with functions of functions, as opposed to ordinary calculus which deals with functions of numbers. ... William Rowan Hamilton Sir William Rowan Hamilton (August 4, 1805 – September 2, 1865) was an Irish mathematician, physicist, and astronomer who made important contributions to the development of optics, dynamics, and algebra. ... Hamiltonian mechanics is a re-formulation of classical mechanics that was invented in 1833 by William Rowan Hamilton. ... Fig. ...


Although classical mechanics is largely compatible with other "classical physics" theories such as classical electrodynamics and thermodynamics, some difficulties were discovered in the late 19th century that could only be resolved by more modern physics. When combined with classical thermodynamics, classical mechanics leads to the Gibbs paradox in which entropy is not a well-defined quantity. As experiments reached the atomic level, classical mechanics failed to explain, even approximately, such basic things as the energy levels and sizes of atoms. The effort at resolving these problems led to the development of quantum mechanics. Similarly, the different behaviour of classical electromagnetism and classical mechanics under velocity transformations led to the theory of relativity. Classical physics is physics based on principles developed before the rise of quantum theory, usually including the special theory of relativity and general theory of relativity. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamics meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Ice melting - classic example of entropy increasing[1] described in 1862 by Rudolf Clausius as an increase in the disgregation of the molecules of the body of ice. ... Fig. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field; a field encompassing all of space which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... Two-dimensional analogy of space-time distortion described in General Relativity. ...


By the end of the 20th century, the place of classical mechanics in physics is no longer that of an independent theory. Along with classical electromagnetism, it has become imbedded in relativistic quantum mechanics or quantum field theory[1]. It is the non-relativistic, non-quantum mechanical limit for massive particles. Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the discovery and understanding of the fundamental laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time and explaining them using mathematics. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field; a field encompassing all of space which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... Albert Einsteins theory of relativity is a set of two theories in physics: special relativity and general relativity. ... Fig. ... Quantum field theory (QFT) is the application of quantum mechanics to fields. ...


Classical mechanics has also been a source of inspiration for mathematicians. The realization was made that the phase space in classical mechanics admits a natural description as a symplectic manifold (indeed a cotangent bundle in most cases of physical interest), and symplectic topology, which can be thought of as the study of global issues of Hamiltonian mechanics, has been a fertile area of mathematics research starting in the 1980s. In mathematics, a symplectic manifold is a smooth manifold equipped with a closed, nondegenerate 2-form. ... In differential geometry, the cotangent bundle of a manifold is the vector bundle of all the cotangent spaces at every point in the manifold. ... In mathematics, a symplectic manifold is a smooth manifold equipped with a closed, nondegenerate 2-form. ... The 1980s refers to the years of 1980 to 1989. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal (1249 words)
Although classical mechanics is largely compatible with other "classical physics" theories such as classical electrodynamics and thermodynamics, some difficulties were discovered in the late 19th century that could only be resolved by more modern physics.
When combined with classical thermodynamics, classical mechanics leads to the Gibbs paradox in which entropy is not a well-defined quantity.
Similarly, the different behaviour of classical electromagnetism and classical mechanics under velocity transformations led to the theory of relativity.
Classical mechanics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2249 words)
In physics, classical mechanics or Newtonian mechanics is one of the two major sub-fields of study in the science of mechanics, which is concerned with the set of physical laws governing and mathematically describing the motions of bodies and aggregates of bodies.
Classical mechanics is used to describe the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies, and even microscopic objects such as large molecules.
Classical mechanics is the same extreme high frequency approximation as geometric optics.
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