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Encyclopedia > History of chemistry
Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. No contemporary depiction of Pliny has survived.
Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. No contemporary depiction of Pliny has survived.
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The history of chemistry is long and convoluted. It begins with the discovery of fire, then metallurgy which allowed purification of metals and the making of alloys, as well as the exploitation of many minerals and natural substances. Much of the early development of purification methods is described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia. He made attempts to explain those methods, as well as making acute observations of the state of many minerals. Pliny the Elder from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1020x1508, 359 KB) Book cover Frontispiece of : Tabulae Rudolphinae : quibus astronomicae . ... The sociology and philosophy of science, as well as the entire field of science studies, have in the 20th century been preoccupied with the question of large-scale patterns and trends in the development of science, and asking questions about how science works both in a philosophical and practical sense. ... The historiography of science is the historical study of the history of science (which often overlaps the history of technology, the history of medicine, and the history of mathematics). ... A pseudoscience is any body of knowledge purported to be scientific or supported by science but which fails to comply with the scientific method. ... In prehistoric times, advice and knowledge was passed from generation to generation in an oral tradition. ... The Ptolemaic system of celestial motion, from Harmonia Macrocosmica, 1661. ... Science, and particularly geometry and astronomy, was linked directly to the divine for most medieval scholars. ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man, an example of the blend of art and science during the Renaissance. ... This article is about the period or event in history. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe before the development of modern science. ... Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, mythological, and astrological practices of pre-history: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy, and not completely disentangled from it until a... The history of biology dates as far back as the rise of various civilization as classic philosophers did their own ways of biology as a system of understanding life. ... ÛEcology is generally spoken of as a new science, having only become prominent in the second half of the 20th Century. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The history of paleontology has been an ongoing effort to understand the history of life on Earth by understanding the fossil record left behind by living organisms. ... Since antiquity, human beings have sought to understand the workings of nature: why unsupported objects drop to the ground, why different materials have different properties, the character of the universe such as the form of the Earth and the behavior of celestial objects such as the Sun and the Moon... For more, see: Social science#History In ancient philosophy, there was no difference between the liberal arts of mathematics and the study of history, poetry or politics—only with the development of mathematical proof did there gradually arise a perceived difference between scientific disciplines and others, the humanities or liberal... It has been suggested that History of economics be merged into this article or section. ... Efforts to describe and explain the human language faculty have been undertaken throughout recorded history. ... While the study of politics is first found in ancient Greece and ancient India, political science is a late arrival in terms of social sciences. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ... Sociology is a relatively new academic discipline among other social sciences including economics, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... The wheel was invented circa 4000 BC, and has become one of the worlds most famous, and most useful technologies. ... Agronomy today is very different from what it was before about 1950. ... The history of computer science began long before the modern discipline of computer science that emerged in the twentieth century. ... The History of materials science is rooted in the history of the Earth and the culture of the peoples of the Earth. ... All human societies have medical beliefs that provide explanations for birth, death, and disease. ... For other uses of Timeline, see Timeline (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ...


He was followed by attempts to explain the nature of matter and its transformations through the protoscience of alchemy, then the development of a scientific method by Geber, and then refutations of alchemy by several Arabic chemists. Modern chemistry begins to emerge when the distinction is made between chemistry and alchemy by Robert Boyle in his work The Sceptical Chymist (1661). Chemistry then becomes a full-fledged science when Antoine Lavoisier develops his law of conservation of mass, which demands careful measurements and quantitative observations of chemical phenomena. So, while both alchemy and chemistry are concerned with the nature of matter and its transformations, it is only the chemists who apply the scientific method.The history of chemistry is intertwined with the history of thermodynamics, especially through the work of Willard Gibbs. For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... -1... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... For the American art director and production designer, see Robert F. Boyle Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was a natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lavoisier redirects here. ... The law of conservation of mass/matter, also known as law of mass/matter conservation (or the Lomonosov-Lavoisier law), states that the mass of a closed system of substances will remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... -1... The 1698 Savery Engine - the worlds first engine built by Thomas Savery as based on the designs of Denis Papin. ... Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American mathematical physicist who contributed much of the theoretical foundation that led to the development of chemical thermodynamics and was one of the founders of vector analysis. ...

Contents

From fire to atomism

Arguably the first chemical reaction that was used in a controlled manner by mankind was fire. However, for millennia, in absence of a scientific understanding, fire was simply a mystical force that could transform one substance into another (burn the wood, or boil the water) while producing heat and light. Fire affected many aspects of early societies, ranging from the most simple facets of everyday life, such as cooking and habitat lighting, to more advanced technologies, such as pottery, bricks, and smelting of metals to make tools. This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ...


Philosophical attempts to rationalize why different substances have different properties (color, density, smell), exist in different states (gaseous, liquid, and solid), and react in a different manner when exposed to environments, for example to water or fire or temperature changes, led ancient philosophers to postulate the first theories on nature and chemistry. The history of such philosophical theories that relate to chemistry, can probably be traced back to every single ancient civilization. The common aspect in all these theories was the attempt to identify a small number of primary elements that make up all the various substances in nature. Substances like air, water, and soil/earth, energy forms, such as fire and light, and more abstract concepts such as ideas, aether, and heaven, were common in ancient civilizations even in absence of any cross-fertilization; for example in Greek, Indian, Mayan, and ancient Chinese philosophies all considered air, water, earth and fire as primary elements.[citation needed] For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Many ancient philosophies used a set of archetypal classical elements to explain patterns in nature. ... Many ancient philosophies used a set of archetypal classical elements to explain patterns in nature. ...


Atomism can be traced back to ancient Greece and ancient India.[citation needed] Greek atomism dates back to 440 BC, as what might be indicated by the book De Rerum Natura (The Nature of Things)[1] written by the Roman Lucretius[2] in 50 BC. In the book was found ideas traced back to Democritus and Leucippus, who declared that atoms were the most indivisible part of matter. This coincided with a similar declaration by Indian philosopher Kanada in his Vaisheshika sutras around the same time period.[3] Kashyapa may have arrived at his sutras by meditation. By similar means discussed the existence of gases. What Kanada declared by sutra, Democritus declared by philosophical musing. Both suffered from a lack of empirical data. Without scientific proof, the existence of atoms was easy to deny. Aristotle opposed the existence of atoms in 330 BC; and the atomism of the Vaisheshika school was also opposed for a long time.[citation needed] Concern has been expressed that this article or section is missing information about: discussions of existence of atoms among prominent physicists up to the end of 19th century. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Ancient India may refer to: The Ancient India, which generally includes the ancient history of the whole Indian subcontinent (South Asia) Indus Valley Civilization — during the Bronze Age Vedic period — the period of Vedic Sanskrit, spanning the late Bronze Age and the earlier Iron Age Mahajanapadas — during the later Iron... Lucretius Titus Lucretius Carus (c. ... ‎ Democritus (Greek: ) was a pre-Socratic Greek materialist philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace ca. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... Kanada (also transliterated as Kanad and in other ways; Sanskrit कणाद) was a Hindu sage who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... Sūtra (sex) (Sanskrit) or Sutta (Pāli) literally means a rope or thread that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...


The rise of metallurgy

It was fire that led to the discovery of glass and the purification of metals which in turn gave way to the rise of metallurgy.[citation needed] During the early stages of metallurgy, methods of purification of metals were sought, and gold, known in ancient Egypt as early as 2600 BCE, became a precious metal. The discovery of alloys heralded the Bronze Age. After the Bronze Age, the history of metallurgy was marked by which army had better weaponry. Countries in Eurasia had their heyday when they made the superior alloys, which, in turn, made better armour and better weapons. This often determined the outcomes of battles.[citation needed] The history of ferrous metallurgy began far back in prehistory, most likely with the use of iron from meteors. ... This article is about the material. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Stub | Chemistry ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... The pyramids are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon content between 0. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ...


Indian metallurgy and alchemy

Significant progress in metallurgy and alchemy was made in ancient India. Will Durant wrote in The Story of Civilization I: Our Oriental Heritage: Ayas. ... Ancient India may refer to: The Ancient India, which generally includes the ancient history of the whole Indian subcontinent (South Asia) Indus Valley Civilization — during the Bronze Age Vedic period — the period of Vedic Sanskrit, spanning the late Bronze Age and the earlier Iron Age Mahajanapadas — during the later Iron... Will Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ... The Story of Civilization by Will and Ariel Durant (ISBN 0-671-21988-X) is an eleven-volume set of books. ...

"Something has been said about the chemical excellence of cast iron in ancient India, and about the high industrial development of the Gupta times, when India was looked to, even by Imperial Rome, as the most skilled of the nations in such chemical industries as dyeing, tanning, soap-making, glass and cement... By the sixth century the Hindus were far ahead of Europe in industrial chemistry; they were masters of calcinations, distillation, sublimation, steaming, fixation, the production of light without heat, the mixing of anesthetic and soporific powders, and the preparation of metallic salts, compounds and alloys. The tempering of steel was brought in ancient India to a perfection unknown in Europe till our own times; King Porus is said to have selected, as a specially valuable gift from Alexander, not gold or silver, but thirty pounds of steel. The Moslems took much of this Hindu chemical science and industry to the Near East and Europe; the secret of manufacturing "Damascus" blades, for example, was taken by the Arabs from the Persians, and by the Persians from India." Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about making hides into leather. ... For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ... This article is about the material. ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Calcination is the process of heating a substance to a high temperature, but below its melting or fusing point, to bring about thermal decomposition or a phase transition in its physical or chemical constitution. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fixation in alchemy refers to a process by which a previously volatile substance is transformed into a form (often solid) that is not affected by fire. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ... This article is about metallic materials. ... This article is about common table salt. ... A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed proportion by mass. ... Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon content between 0. ... King Porus (also Raja Puru), was the King of Pauravaa, The state falls with in the territory of Trigata Kingdom of Katoch Rulers i. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Damascus steel is a steel used in Middle Eastern swordmaking from about 1100 to 1700AD. Damascus swords were of legendary sharpness and strength, and were apocryphally claimed to be able to cut through lesser quality European swords and even rock. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ...

The philosopher's stone and the rise of alchemy

Main article: Alchemy
"Renel the Alchemist", by Sir William Douglas, 1853
"Renel the Alchemist", by Sir William Douglas, 1853

Many people were interested in finding a method that could convert cheaper metals into gold. The material that would help them do this was rumored to exist in what was called the philosopher's stone. This led to the protoscience called alchemy. Alchemy was practiced by many cultures throughout history and often contained a mixture of philosophy, mysticism, and protoscience.[citation needed] For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (583x753, 124 KB) Title: The alchemist Painter: Sir William Fettes Douglas (1822 - 1891) Year: ? File links The following pages link to this file: Alchemy ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (583x753, 124 KB) Title: The alchemist Painter: Sir William Fettes Douglas (1822 - 1891) Year: ? File links The following pages link to this file: Alchemy ... For other uses, see Philosophers stone (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ...


Alchemy not only sought to turn base metals into gold, but especially in a Europe rocked by bubonic plague, there was hope that alchemy would lead to the development of medicines to improve people's health. The holy grail of this strain of alchemy was in the attempts made at finding the elixir of life, which promised eternal youth. Neither the elixir nor the philosopher's stone were ever found. Also, characteristic of alchemists was the belief that there was in the air an "ether" which breathed life into living things.[citation needed] Practitioners of alchemy included Isaac Newton, who remained one throughout his life. Bubonic plague is the best-known manifestation of the bacterial disease plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. ... For other uses, see Holy Grail (disambiguation). ... The elixir of life, also known as the elixir of immortality or Dancing Water and sometimes equated with the Philosophers stone, is a legendary potion, or drink, that grants the drinker eternal life or eternal youth. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ...


Problems encountered with alchemy

There were several problems with alchemy, as seen from today's standpoint. There was no systematic naming system for new compounds, and the language was esoteric and vague to the point that the terminologies meant different things to different people. In fact, according to The Fontana History of Chemistry (Brock, 1992):

The language of alchemy soon developed an arcane and secretive technical vocabulary designed to conceal information from the uninitiated. To a large degree, this language is incomprehensible to us today, though it is apparent that readers of Geoffery Chaucer's Canon's Yeoman's Tale or audiences of Ben Jonson's The Alchemist were able to construe it sufficiently to laugh at it.[4] Chaucer: Illustration from Cassells History of England, circa 1902. ... The Canons Yeomans Tale is one of The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... David Garrick as Abel Drugger in Jonsons The Alchemist by Johann Zoffany. ...

Chaucer's tale exposed the more fraudulent side of alchemy, especially the manufacture of counterfeit gold from cheap substances. Soon after Chaucer, Dante Alighieri also demonstrated an awareness of this fraudulence, causing him to consign all alchemists to the Inferno in his writings. Soon after, in 1317, the Avignon Pope John XXII ordered all alchemists to leave France for making counterfeit money. A law was passed in England in 1403 which made the "multiplication of metals" punishable by death. Despite these and other apparently extreme measures, alchemy did not die. Royalty and privileged classes still sought to discover the philosopher's stone and the elixir of life for themselves.[5] Dante redirects here. ... Look up inferno, Inferno, infernal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Municipality in Quebec, see Avignon Regional County Municipality, Quebec. ... Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or dEuse (1249 – December 4, 1334), was the son of a shoemaker in Cahors. ...


There was also no agreed-upon scientific method for making experiments reproducible. Indeed many alchemists included in their methods irrelevant information such as the timing of the tides or the phases of the moon. The esoteric nature and codified vocabulary of alchemy appeared to be more useful in concealing the fact that they could not be sure of very much at all. As early as the 14th century, cracks seemed to grow in the facade of alchemy; and people became sceptical.[citation needed] Clearly, there needed to be a scientific method where experiments can be repeated by other people, and results needed to be reported in a clear language that laid out both what is known and unknown.


From Alchemy to Chemistry

Early chemists

See also: Alchemy and chemistry in Islam

The development of the modern scientific method was slow and arduous, but an early scientific method for chemistry began emerging among early Muslim chemists, beginning with the 9th century chemist Geber, who is "considered by many to be the father of chemistry".[6][7][8][9] He invented and named the alembic (al-anbiq), chemically analyzed many chemical substances, composed lapidaries, distinguished between alkalis and acids, and manufactured hundreds of drugs.[10] Among other influential Muslim chemists, Ja'far al-Sadiq[11] and Alkindus,[12] Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī,[13] Avicenna[14] and Ibn Khaldun refuted the practice of alchemy and the theory of the transmutation of metals; and Tusi described an early version of the conservation of mass, noting that a body of matter is able to change but is not able to disappear.[15] Rhazes[16] refuted Aristotle's theory of four classical elements for the first time and set up the firm foundations of modern chemistry, using the laboratory in the modern sense, designing and describing more than twenty instruments, many parts are still in use today. Such as a crucible, decensory, cucurbit or retort for distillation, and the head of a still with a delivery tube (ambiq, Latin alembic), various types of furnace or stove. For the more honest practitioners in Europe, alchemy was an intellectual pursuit, and over time, they got better at it. Paracelsus (1493-1541), for example, rejected the 4-elemental theory and with only a vague understanding of his chemicals and medicines, formed a hybrid of alchemy and science in what was to be called iatrochemistry. Paracelsus was not perfect in making his experiments truly scientific. For example, as an extension of his theory that new compounds could be made by combining mercury with sulfur, he once made what he thought was "oil of sulfur". This was actually dimethyl ether, which had neither mercury nor sulfur.[citation needed]-1... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two retorts connected by a tube. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is a material with a definite chemical composition. ... A lapidary (the word means concerned with stones) is an artisan who practices the craft of working, forming and finishing stone, mineral, gemstones, and other suitably durable materials (amber, shell, jet, pearl, copal, coral, horn and bone, glass and other synthetics) into functional and/or decorative, even wearable, items (e. ... Alkaline redirects here. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... Jafar Al-Sadiq (Arabic: جعفر الصادق in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn (702 AD - 765 AD ) is the sixth infallible Imam and one of Ahl al-Bayt of the Shia Muslims. ... For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian (TājÄ«k)[1][2][3] mathematician, physicist, scholar, encyclopedist, philosopher, astronomer, astrologer, traveller, historian, anthropologist, pharmacist, and teacher, who contributed greatly to the fields of mathematics, philosophy, history, anthropology, medicine, and science. ... For the lunar crater, see Avicenna (crater). ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ... For other uses, see Philosophers stone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Muhammad Nasir-al-din. ... The law of conservation of mass/matter, also known as law of mass/matter conservation (or the Lomonosov-Lavoisier law), states that the mass of a closed system of substances will remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Many ancient philosophies used a set of archetypal classical elements to explain patterns in nature. ... Presumed portrait of Paracelsus, attributed to the school of Quentin Matsys. ... Iatrochemistry is a branch of both chemistry and medicine. ... Dimethyl ether, also known as methoxymethane, oxybismethane, methyl ether, wood ether, and DME, is a colorless gaseous ether with an ethereal odor. ...

Robert Boyle, one of the co-founders of modern chemistry through his use of proper experimentation, which further separated chemistry from alchemy
Robert Boyle, one of the co-founders of modern chemistry through his use of proper experimentation, which further separated chemistry from alchemy

Robert Boyle (1627–1691) is considered to have refined the modern scientific method for alchemy and to have separated chemistry further from alchemy.[citation needed] Robert Boyle was an atomist, but favoured the word corpuscle over atoms. He comments that the finest division of matter where the properties are retained is at the level of corpuscles. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 473 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (523 × 663 pixel, file size: 26 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 473 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (523 × 663 pixel, file size: 26 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For the American art director and production designer, see Robert F. Boyle Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was a natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... For the American art director and production designer, see Robert F. Boyle Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was a natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ...


Boyle was credited with the discovery of Boyle's Law. He is also credited for his landmark publication The Sceptical Chymist, where he attempts to develop an atomic theory of matter, with no small degree of success. Despite all these advances, the person celebrated as the "father of modern chemistry" is Antoine Lavoisier who developed his law of Conservation of mass in 1789, also called Lavoisier's Law.[citation needed] With this, Chemistry was allowed to have a strict quantitative nature, allowing reliable predictions to be made. Boyles law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle-Mariotte law) is one of the gas laws and basis of derivation for the ideal gas law, which describes the relationship between the product pressure and volume within a closed system as constant when temperature and moles remain at a fixed... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article focuses on the historical models of the atom. ... Revisions and sourced additions are welcome; please only include historical figures. ... Lavoisier redirects here. ... The law of conservation of mass/matter, also known as law of mass/matter conservation (or the Lomonosov-Lavoisier law), states that the mass of a closed system of substances will remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. ...


Antoine Lavoisier

Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and his Wife, by Jacques-Louis David
Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and his Wife, by Jacques-Louis David

Although the archives of chemical research draw upon work from ancient Babylonia, Egypt, and especially the Arabs and Persians after Islam, modern chemistry flourished from the time of Antoine Lavoisier, who is regarded as the "father of modern chemistry", particularly for his discovery of the law of conservation of mass, and his refutation of the phlogiston theory of combustion in 1783. (Phlogiston was supposed to be an imponderable substance liberated by flammable materials in burning.) Mikhail Lomonosov independently established a tradition of chemistry in Russia in the 18th century.[citation needed] Lomonosov also rejected the phlogiston theory, and anticipated the kinetic theory of gases.[citation needed] He regarded heat as a form of motion, and stated the idea of conservation of matter. Download high resolution version (596x800, 154 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (596x800, 154 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 – December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the prominent painter of the era. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Lavoisier redirects here. ... Revisions and sourced additions are welcome; please only include historical figures. ... The law of conservation of mass/matter, also known as law of mass/matter conservation (or the Lomonosov-Lavoisier law), states that the mass of a closed system of substances will remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. ... Phlogiston theory was a 17th century attempt to explain oxidation processes, such as fire and rust. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... For other uses, see Lomonosov (disambiguation). ... Kinetic theory or kinetic theory of gases attempts to explain macroscopic properties of gases, such as pressure, temperature, or volume, by considering their molecular composition and motion. ...


The vitalism debate and organic chemistry

After the nature of combustion (see oxygen) was settled, another dispute, about vitalism and the essential distinction between organic and inorganic substances, was revolutionized by Friedrich Wöhler's accidental synthesis of urea from inorganic substances in 1828. Never before had an organic compound been synthesized from inorganic material.[citation needed] This opened a new research field in chemistry, and by the end of the 19th century, scientists were able to synthesize hundreds of organic compounds. The most important among them are mauve, magenta, and other synthetic dyes, as well as the widely used drug aspirin. The discovery also contributed greatly to the theory of isomerism.[citation needed] This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Vitalism is the doctrine that vital forces are active in living organisms, so that life cannot be explained solely by mechanism. ... Friedrich Wöhler (July 31, 1800 - September 23, 1882) was a German chemist, best-known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several of the elements. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known by the International Nonproprietary Name (rINN) carbamide, as established by the World Health Organization. ... A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed proportion by mass. ... This is an article about the color mauve. ... Magenta is a color made up of equal parts of red and blue light. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the drug. ... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently. ...


Disputes about atomism after Lavoisier

Bust of Dalton by Chantrey
Bust of Dalton by Chantrey

Throughout the 19th century, chemistry was divided between those who followed the atomic theory of John Dalton and those who did not, such as Wilhelm Ostwald and Ernst Mach.[17] Although such proponents of the atomic theory as Amedeo Avogadro and Ludwig Boltzmann made great advances in explaining the behavior of gases, this dispute was not finally settled until Jean Perrin's experimental investigation of Einstein's atomic explanation of Brownian motion in the first decade of the 20th century.[17] Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey (April 7, 1782–November 25, 1841), was an English sculptor of the Georgian era. ... This article focuses on the historical models of the atom. ... John Dalton John Dalton (September 6, 1766 – July 27, 1844) was an English chemist and physicist, born at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumberland. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald, commonly just Wilhelm Ostwald (Latvian: Vilhelms Ostvalds; September 2, 1853 – April 4, 1932) was a Latvian/German chemist. ... Ernst Mach Ernst Mach (February 18, 1838 – February 19, 1916) was an Austrian-Czech physicist and philosopher and is the namesake for the Mach number and the optical illusion known as Mach bands. ... Avogadro redirects here. ... Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (Vienna, Austrian Empire, February 20, 1844 – Duino near Trieste, September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist famous for his founding contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... Jean Baptiste Perrin, generally known as Jean Perrin (Lille, September 30, 1870 – April 17, New York, 1942), was a French physicist. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Three different views of Brownian motion, with 32 steps, 256 steps, and 2048 steps denoted by progressively lighter colors. ...


Well before the dispute had been settled, many had already applied the concept of atomism to chemistry. A major example was the ion theory of Svante Arrhenius which anticipated ideas about atomic substructure that did not fully develop until the 20th century. Michael Faraday was another early worker, whose major contribution to chemistry was electrochemistry, in which (among other things) a certain quantity of electricity during electrolysis or electrodeposition of metals was shown to be associated with certain quantities of chemical elements, and fixed quantities of the elements therefore with each other, in specific ratios.[citation needed] These findings, like those of Dalton's combining ratios, were early clues to the atomic nature of matter. This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Svante August Arrhenius (February 19, 1859 – October 2, 1927) was a Swedish chemist and one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... Electrochemistry, a branch of chemistry, went through several changes during its evolution from early principles related to magnets in the early 16th and 17th centuries, to complex theories involving conductivity, electrical charge and mathematical methods. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... Electroplating is the the coating of an electrically conductive item with a layer of metal using electrical current. ...


The periodic table

Main article: History of the periodic table

For many decades, the list of known chemical elements had been steadily increasing. A great breakthrough in making sense of this long list (as well as in understanding the internal structure of atoms as discussed below) was Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer's development of the periodic table, and particularly Mendeleev's use of it to predict the existence and the properties of germanium, gallium, and scandium, which Mendeleev called ekasilicon, ekaaluminium, and ekaboron respectively. Mendeleev made his prediction in 1870; gallium was discovered in 1875, and was found to have roughly the same properties that Mendeleev predicted for it.[citation needed] The periodic table is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements. ... Image File history File links Дмитрий_Иванович_Менделеев_4. ... Portrait of Dmitri Mendeleev by Ilya Repin (Russian: , Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev  ) (8 February [O.S. 27 January] 1834 in Tobolsk – 2 February [O.S. 20 January] 1907 in Saint Petersburg), was a Russian chemist and inventor. ... Julius Lothar Meyer (19 August 1830 - 11 April 1895) was born in Varel, at that time belonging to the duchy of Oldenburg, now part of Germany. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, symbol, number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 44. ... Professor Dimitri Mendeleev published the first Periodic Table of the Atomic Elements in 1869 based on properties which appeared with some regularity as he laid out the elements from lightest to heaviest. ...


The modern definition of chemistry

Classically, before the 20th century, chemistry was defined as the science of the nature of matter and its transformations. It was therefore clearly distinct from physics which was not concerned with such dramatic transformation of matter. Moreover, in contrast to physics, chemistry was not using much of mathematics. Even some were particularly reluctant to using mathematics within chemistry. For example, Auguste Comte wrote in 1830: Auguste Comte (full name: Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte; January 17, 1798 - September 5, 1857) was a French thinker who coined the term sociology. ...

Every attempt to employ mathematical methods in the study of chemical questions must be considered profoundly irrational and contrary to the spirit of chemistry.... if mathematical analysis should ever hold a prominent place in chemistry -- an aberration which is happily almost impossible -- it would occasion a rapid and widespread degeneration of that science.

However, in the second part of the 19th century, the situation changed and August Kekule wrote in 1867: Friedrich August Kekul von Stradonitz (September 7, 1829 - July 13, 1896) was a German organic chemist. ...

I rather expect that we shall someday find a mathematico-mechanical explanation for what we now call atoms which will render an account of their properties.

After the discovery by Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr of the atomic structure in 1912, and by Marie and Pierre Curie of radioactivity, scientists had to change their viewpoint on the nature of matter. The experience acquired by chemists was no longer pertinent to the study of the whole nature of matter but only to aspects related to the electron cloud surrounding the atomic nuclei and the movement of the latter in the electric field induced by the former (see Born-Oppenheimer approximation). The range of chemistry was thus restricted to the nature of matter around us in conditions which are not too far from standard conditions for temperature and pressure and in cases where the exposure to radiation is not too different from the natural microwave, visible or UV radiations on Earth. Chemistry was therefore re-defined as the science of matter that deals with the composition, structure, and properties of substances and with the transformations that they undergo.[citation needed] However the meaning of matter used here relates explicitly to substances made of atoms and molecules, disregarding the matter within the atomic nuclei and its nuclear reaction or matter within highly ionized plasmas. Nevertheless the field of chemistry is still, on our human scale, very broad and the claim that chemistry is everywhere is accurate. Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM PC FRS (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937), widely referred to as Lord Rutherford, was a chemist (B.Sc. ... Niels Henrik David Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. ... Maria Skłodowska-Curie. ... Pierre Curie (May 15, 1859 – died April 19, 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Electron cloud is a term used- if not originally coined- by the nobelaurate and acclaimed educator Richard Feynman in The Feynman Lectures on Physics, for discussing exactly what is an electron?. This intuitive model provides a simplified way of visualizing an electron as a solution of the Schrödinger equation. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field has a property called an electric field. ... The Born-Oppenheimer approximation, also known as the adiabatic approximation, is a technique used in quantum chemistry and condensed matter physics in order to de-couple the motion of nuclei and electrons (i. ... In chemistry and other sciences, STP or standard temperature and pressure is a standard set of conditions for experimental measurements, to enable comparisons to be made between sets of data. ... This article is about the type of Electromagnetic radiation. ... The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ...


Quantum chemistry

Main article: Quantum chemistry

Some view the birth of quantum chemistry in the discovery of the Schrödinger equation and its application to hydrogen atom in 1926.[citation needed] However, the 1927 article of Walter Heitler and Fritz London[18] is often recognised as the first milestone in the history of quantum chemistry.[citation needed] This is the first application of quantum mechanics to the diatomic hydrogen molecule, and thus to the phenomenon of the chemical bond. In the following years much progress was accomplished by Edward Teller, Robert S. Mulliken, Max Born, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Linus Pauling, Erich Hückel, Douglas Hartree, Vladimir Aleksandrovich Fock, to cite a few.[citation needed] Quantum chemistry is a branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry. ... This box:      For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Depiction of a hydrogen atom showing the diameter as about twice the Bohr model radius. ... Walter Heinrich Heitler (02. ... Fritz Wolfgang London (March 7, 1900–March 30, 1954) was a German-born American physicist for whom the London force is named. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, even though he did not care for the title. ... Robert Sanderson Mulliken (June 7, 1896 – October 31, 1986) was an American physicist and chemist, primarily responsible for the elaboration of the molecular orbital method of computing the structure of molecules. ... Max Born (December 11, 1882 – January 5, 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer, father of the atomic bomb, served as the first director of Los Alamos National Laboratory, beginning in 1943. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American scientist, peace activist, author and educator of German ancestry. ... Erich Armand Arthur Joseph Hückel (August 9, 1896 - February 16, 1980) was a German physicist and physical chemist. ... Douglas Rayner Hartree (March 27, 1897 - February 12, 1958) was an English mathematician and physicist most famous for the development of numerical analysis and its application to atomic physics. ... Vladimir Aleksandrovich Fock (or Fok, Владимир Александрович Фок) (December 22, 1898 - December 27, 1974) was a Soviet physicist, who did foundational work on quantum mechanics. ...


Still, skepticism remained as to the general power of quantum mechanics applied to complex chemical systems.[citation needed] The situation around 1930 is described by Paul Dirac:[19] Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ...

"The underlying physical laws necessary for the mathematical theory of a large part of physics and the whole of chemistry are thus completely known, and the difficulty is only that the exact application of these laws leads to equations much too complicated to be soluble. It therefore becomes desirable that approximate practical methods of applying quantum mechanics should be developed, which can lead to an explanation of the main features of complex atomic systems without too much computation. Hence the quantum mechanical methods developed in the 1930s and 1940s are often referred to as theoretical molecular or atomic physics to underline the fact that they were more the application of quantum mechanics to chemistry and spectroscopy than answers to chemically relevant questions." Molecular physics is the study of the physical properties of molecules and of the chemical bonds between atoms that bind them into molecules. ... Atomic physics (or atom physics) is the field of physics that studies atoms as isolated systems comprised of electrons and an atomic nucleus. ... Animation of the dispersion of light as it travels through a triangular prism. ...

In the 1940s many physicists turned from molecular or atomic physics to nuclear physics (like J. Robert Oppenheimer or Edward Teller). In 1951, a milestone article in quantum chemistry is the seminal paper of Clemens C. J. Roothaan on Roothaan equations.[20] It opened the avenue to the solution of the self-consistent field equations for small molecules like hydrogen or nitrogen. Those computations were performed with the help of tables of integrals which were computed on the most advanced computers of the time.[citation needed] Molecular physics is the study of the physical properties of molecules and of the chemical bonds between atoms that bind them into molecules. ... Atomic physics (or atom physics) is the field of physics that studies atoms as isolated systems comprised of electrons and an atomic nucleus. ... This box:      Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer, father of the atomic bomb, served as the first director of Los Alamos National Laboratory, beginning in 1943. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, even though he did not care for the title. ... Clemens C.J. Roothaan was born in 1918 in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. ... The Roothaan equations are a representation of the Hartree-Fock equation in a non orthonormalized basis set which can be of Gaussian type. ... In computational physics and computational chemistry, the Hartree-Fock (HF) or self-consistent field (SCF) calculation scheme is a self-consistent iterative variational procedure to calculate the Slater determinant (or the molecular orbitals which it is made of) for which the expectation value of the electronic molecular Hamiltonian is minimum. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...


Molecular biology and biochemistry

By the mid 20th century, in principle, the integration of physics and chemistry was extensive, with chemical properties explained as the result of the electronic structure of the atom; Linus Pauling's book on The Nature of the Chemical Bond used the principles of quantum mechanics to deduce bond angles in ever-more complicated molecules. However, though some principles deduced from quantum mechanics were able to predict qualitatively some chemical features for biologically relevant molecules, they were, till the end of the 20th century, more a collection of rules, observations, and recipes than rigorous ab initio quantitative methods.[citation needed] The history of molecular biology begins in the 1930s with the convergence of various, previously distinct biological disciplines: biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, and virology. ... The history of biochemistry spans approximately 400 years. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American scientist, peace activist, author and educator of German ancestry. ... Geometry of the water molecule Molecules have fixed equilibrium geometries--bond lengths and angles--that are dictated by the laws of quantum mechanics. ... The Latin term ab initio means from the beginning and is used in several contexts: when describing literature: told from the beginning as opposed to in medias res (meaning starting in the middle of the story) as a legal term: refers to something being the case from the start or...

Diagrammatic representation of some key structural features of DNA
Diagrammatic representation of some key structural features of DNA

This heuristic approach triumphed in 1953 when James Watson and Francis Crick deduced the double helical structure of DNA by constructing models constrained by and informed by the knowledge of the chemistry of the constituent parts and the X-ray diffraction patterns obtained by Rosalind Franklin.[21] This discovery lead to an explosion of research into the biochemistry of life. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... There is more than one person with the name James Watson: James Watson, participant in the Battle of the Little Bighorn James Watson, author of the novel Talking in Whispers James Watson, U.S. Senator from New York (1797-1801) James Watson, painter of 77 portraits held by the U... Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004), (Ph. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... X-ray crystallography is a technique in crystallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of x-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analyzed to reveal the nature of that lattice. ... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and X-ray crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ...


In the same year, the Miller-Urey experiment demonstrated that basic constituents of protein, simple amino acids, could themselves be built up from simpler molecules in a simulation of primordial processes on Earth. Though many questions remain about the true nature of the origin of life, this was the first attempt by chemists to study hypothetical processes in the laboratory under controlled conditions.[citation needed] The experiment The Miller-Urey experiment (or Urey-Miller experiment) was an experiment that simulated hypothetical conditions present on the early Earth and tested for the occurrence of chemical evolution. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... This article is about the general term. ... In science, a process is any method (or event) that results in a transformation in a physical or biological object, a substance or an organism. ...


In 1983 Kary Mullis devised a method for the in-vitro amplification of DNA, known as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which revolutionized the chemical processes used in the laboratory to manipulate it. PCR could be used to synthesize specific pieces of DNA and made possible the sequencing of DNA of organisms, which culminated in the huge human genome project.[citation needed] Kary Banks Mullis, Ph. ... “PCR” redirects here. ... The term DNA sequencing encompasses biochemical methods for determining the order of the nucleotide bases, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, in a DNA oligonucleotide. ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project. ...


Chemical industry

Main article: Chemical industry

The later part of the nineteenth century saw a huge increase in the exploitation of petroleum extracted from the earth for the production of a host of chemicals and largely replaced the use of whale oil, coal tar and naval stores used previously. Large scale production and refinement of petroleum provided feedstocks for liquid fuels such as gasoline and diesel, solvents, lubricants, asphalt, waxes, and for the production of many of the common materials of the modern world, such as synthetic fibers, plastics, paints, detergents, pharmaceuticals, adhesives and ammonia as fertilizer and for other uses. Many of these required new catalysts and the utilization of chemical engineering for their cost-effective production.[citation needed] The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. ... Petro redirects here. ... Whale oil is the oil obtained from the blubber of various species of whales of the genus Balaena, as , Greenland or right whale (northern whale-oil), (southern whale-oil), Balaenoptera longimana, Balaenoptera borealis (Finback oil, Finner whale-oil, Humpback oil). ... Coal tar is the liquid by-product of the distillation of coal to make coke. ... Naval Stores is a broad term which originally applied to the resin-based components used in building and maintaining wooden sailing ships, a category which includes cordage, mask, turpentine, resin and tar. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... Liquid fuels are those combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must take the shape of their container. ... Petrol redirects here. ... Diesel or diesel fuel (IPA: ) in general is any fuel used in diesel engines. ... A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in the fluid. ... A lubricant (colloquially, lube) is a substance introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction and wear between them. ... The term asphalt is often used as an abbreviation for asphalt concrete. ... Wax has traditionally referred to a substance that is secreted by bees (beeswax) and used by them in constructing their honeycombs. ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... For information on the U.S. borough, see Paint, Pennsylvania. ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... An adhesive is a compound that adheres or bonds two items together. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... A catalyst (Greek: καταλύτης) is a substance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction, at some temperature, but without itself being transformed or consumed by the reaction (see also catalysis). ... Chemical engineers design, construct and operate plants Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ...


In the mid-twentieth century, control of the electronic structure of semiconductor materials was made precise by the creation of large ingots of extremely pure single crystals of silicon and germanium. Accurate control of their chemical composition by doping with other elements made the production of the solid state transistor in 1951 and made possible the production of tiny integrated circuits for use in electronic devices, especially computers, which revolutionized the world.[citation needed] A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivity in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips (EPROM memory) with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... The tower of a personal computer. ...


See also

Histories and timelines

This article focuses on the historical models of the atom. ... Electrochemistry, a branch of chemistry, went through several changes during its evolution from early principles related to magnets in the early 16th and 17th centuries, to complex theories involving conductivity, electrical charge and mathematical methods. ... In chemistry, the history of the molecule traces the origins of the concept or idea of the existence, in nature, of a bonded structure of two or more atoms, according to which the structures of the universe are built. ... The history of molecular biology begins in the 1930s with the convergence of various, previously distinct biological disciplines: biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, and virology. ... The periodic table is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements. ... Since antiquity, human beings have sought to understand the workings of nature: why unsupported objects drop to the ground, why different materials have different properties, the character of the universe such as the form of the Earth and the behavior of celestial objects such as the Sun and the Moon... The history of science and technology (HST) is a field of history which examines how humanitys understanding of science and technology has changed over the millennia. ... The 1698 Savery Engine - the worlds first engine built by Thomas Savery as based on the designs of Denis Papin. ... The word energy seems to appear for the first time in the works of Aristotle. ... The discovery of the elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order. ... Timeline of chemistry lists important works, discoveries, ideas, inventions, and experiments that significantly changed mankinds understanding of the composition of matter and of the interactions thereof, the modern science known as chemistry. ... Timeline of materials technology // 29,000–25,000 BCE - First ceramic appears 3rd millennium BC - Copper metallurgy is invented and copper is used for ornamentation 2nd millennium BC - Bronze is used for weapons and armour 1st millennium BC - Pewter beginning to be used in China and Egypt 16th century BC... Timeline of quantum mechanics, molecular physics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and particle physics 585 BC Buddha stated that there were indivisible particles of mind and matter which vibrated 3 trillion times in the blink of an eye which he called kalapas 440 BC Democritus speculates about fundamental indivisible particles---calls... A timeline of events related to thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and random processes. ... The following entries cover events of a science or technology related nature which occurred in the listed year. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ...

Chemists

listed chronologically:

This is a list of famous chemists: (alphabetical order) Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Emil Abderhalden, (1877–1950), Swiss chemist Richard Abegg, (1869–1910), German... Joseph Black Joseph Black (April 16, 1728 - December 6, 1799) was a Scottish physicist and chemist. ... Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (13 March 1733 (Old Style) – 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century British theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, educator, and political theorist who published over 150 works. ... Carl Wilhelm Scheele Scheeles house with his pharmacy in Köping. ... For the concept car, see Toyota Alessandro Volta. ... Jacques Alexandre César Charles, 1820 First flight by Prof. ... Claude Louis Berthollet. ... Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac (December 6, 1778–May 10, 1850) was a French chemist and physicist. ... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ... Friherre Jöns Jakob Berzelius (August 20, 1779 – August 7, 1848) was a Swedish chemist. ... Freiherr Justus von Liebig (May 12, 1803 in Darmstadt, Germany – April 18, 1873 in Munich, Germany) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and worked on the organization of organic chemistry. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. ... Stanislao Cannizzaro (July 13, 1826 - May 10, 1910) was an Italian chemist. ... Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz (September 7, 1829 – July 13, 1896) was a German organic chemist. ... Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American mathematical physicist who contributed much of the theoretical foundation that led to the development of chemical thermodynamics and was one of the founders of vector analysis. ... Jacobus Henricus van t Hoff (August 30, 1852 - March 1, 1911) was a Dutch physical and organic chemist and the winner of the inaugural Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... This article is about the chemist and physicist. ... François Auguste Victor Grignard (born in Cherbourg, 6 May 1871, died in Lyon, 13 December 1935) was a Nobel Prize-winning French chemist. ... Lewis in the Berkeley Lab Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 23, 1875-March 23, 1946) was a famous American physical chemist. ... Irving Langmuir (January 31, 1881 in Brooklyn, New York - August 16, 1957 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts) was an American chemist and physicist. ... Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) won the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements,[1] contributed to the discovery and isolation of ten elements, developed the actinide concept and was the first to propose the actinide series which led...

Notes

  1. ^ Lucretius (50 BCE). de Rerum Natura (On the Nature of Things). The Internet Classics Archive. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  2. ^ Simpson, David (29 June 2005). Lucretius (c. 99 - c. 55 BCE). The Internet History of Philosophy. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  3. ^ Will Durant (1935), Our Oriental Heritage:

    "Two systems of Hindu thought propound physical theories suggestively similar to those of Greece. Kanada, founder of the Vaisheshika philosophy, held that the world was composed of atoms as many in kind as the various elements. The Jains more nearly approximated to Democritus by teaching that all atoms were of the same kind, producing different effects by diverse modes of combinations. Kanada believed light and heat to be varieties of the same substance; Udayana taught that all heat comes from the sun; and Vachaspati, like Newton, interpreted light as composed of minute particles emitted by substances and striking the eye." Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Will Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Kanada (also transliterated as Kanad and in other ways; Sanskrit कणाद) was a Hindu sage who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... ‎ Democritus (Greek: ) was a pre-Socratic Greek materialist philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace ca. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... Udayana also known as Udyanacharya lived in 10th century, near Darbhanga, Bihar state, India. ... Vācaspati Miśra (900–980 CE) was an Indian philosopher who founded one of the main Advaita Vedanta schools, the Bhāmatī school (named after his commentary on Shankaras Brahmasūtrabhāşya), and whose work was an important forerunner of the Navya-Nyāya system of thought. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ...

  4. ^ Brock, William H. (1992). The Fontana History of Chemistry. London, England: Fontana Press, 32-33. 
  5. ^ Brock, William H. (1992). The Fontana History of Chemistry. London, England: Fontana Press. 
  6. ^ Derewenda, Zygmunt S. (2007), “On wine, chirality and crystallography”, Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations of Crystallography 64: 246-258 [247] 
  7. ^ John Warren (2005). "War and the Cultural Heritage of Iraq: a sadly mismanaged affair", Third World Quarterly, Volume 26, Issue 4 & 5, p. 815-830.
  8. ^ Dr. A. Zahoor (1997), JABIR IBN HAIYAN (Jabir), University of Indonesia
  9. ^ Paul Vallely, How Islamic inventors changed the world, The Independent
  10. ^ Will Durant (1980). The Age of Faith (The Story of Civilization, Volume 4), p. 162-186. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671012002.
  11. ^ Research Committee of Strasburg University, Imam Jafar Ibn Muhammad As-Sadiq A.S. The Great Muslim Scientist and Philosopher, translated by Kaukab Ali Mirza, 2000. Willowdale Ont. ISBN 0969949014.
  12. ^ Felix Klein-Frank (2001), "Al-Kindi", in Oliver Leaman & Hossein Nasr, History of Islamic Philosophy, p. 174. London: Routledge.
  13. ^ Michael E. Marmura (1965). "An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines. Conceptions of Nature and Methods Used for Its Study by the Ikhwan Al-Safa'an, Al-Biruni, and Ibn Sina by Seyyed Hossein Nasr", Speculum 40 (4), p. 744-746.
  14. ^ Robert Briffault (1938). The Making of Humanity, p. 196-197.
  15. ^ Farid Alakbarov (Summer 2001). A 13th-Century Darwin? Tusi's Views on Evolution, Azerbaijan International 9 (2).
  16. ^ G. Stolyarov II (2002), "Rhazes: The Thinking Western Physician", The Rational Argumentator, Issue VI.
  17. ^ a b Pullman, Bernard (2004). The Atom in the History of Human Thought. USA: Oxford University Press Inc. 
  18. ^ W. Heitler and F. London, Wechselwirkung neutraler Atome und Homöopolare Bindung nach der Quantenmechanik, Z. Physik, 44, 455 (1927).
  19. ^ P.A.M. Dirac, Quantum Mechanics of Many-Electron Systems, Proc. R. Soc. London, A 123, 714 (1929).
  20. ^ C.C.J. Roothaan, A Study of Two-Center Integrals Useful in Calculations on Molecular Structure, J. Chem. Phys., 19, 1445 (1951).
  21. ^ Watson, J. and Crick, F., "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids" Nature, April 25, 1953, p 737–8

Indonesia University (in Indonesian: Universitas Indonesia), abbreviated as UI, has its roots in the oldest tertiary-level education facilities in Indonesia (then the Dutch East Indies). ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... Will Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ... The Story of Civilization by Will and Ariel Durant (ISBN 0-671-21988-X) is an eleven-volume set of books. ... The University Palace in Strasbourg, and a monument to one of the universitys students, Johann Wolfgang Goethe The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, is divided into three separate institutions. ... Oliver Leaman is a Professor of Philosophy and Zantker Professor of Judaic Studies. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (Persian: سيد حسين نصر), (1933-), a University Professor of the department of Islamic studies at George Washington University, is a leading Iranian Muslim philosopher. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (Persian: سيد حسين نصر), (1933-), a University Professor of the department of Islamic studies at George Washington University, is a leading Iranian Muslim philosopher. ... Robert Briffault (1876 - 11 December 1948) was a French novelist, social anthropologist and surgeon. ... Walter Heinrich Heitler (02. ... Fritz Wolfgang London (March 7, 1900–March 30, 1954) was a German-born American physicist for whom the London force is named. ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ... Clemens C.J. Roothaan was born in 1918 in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Selected classic papers from the history of chemistry
  • Biographies of chemists
  • Eric R. Scerri, The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance, Oxford University Press, 2006.

External links

  • ChemisLab - Chemists of the Past
  • SHAC: Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry


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