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Encyclopedia > History of antisemitism
Antisemitism

Anti-Judaism · Antisemitism
History · Persecution
New antisemitism
Racial antisemitism
Resources The Eternal Jew (German: Der ewige Jude): 1937 German poster advertising an antisemitic Nazi movie. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1518x1372, 1426 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Star of David Yellow badge Talk:List of Jewish American journalists User:RolandR Metadata This file contains additional... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... The Eternal Jew (German: Der ewige Jude): 1937 German poster advertising an antisemitic Nazi movie. ... Persecution of Jews includes various persecutions that the Jewish people and Judaism have experienced throughout Jewish history. ... New antisemitism is the concept of an international resurgence of attacks on Jewish symbols, as well as the acceptance of antisemitic beliefs and their expression in public discourse, coming from three political directions: the political left, far-right, and Islamism. ... Racial antisemitism is hatred of Jews as a racial group, rather than hatred of Judaism as a religion. ... This is a list of resources analyzing antisemitism in the alphabetical order of authors name. ...

General
Antisemitism around the world
Arabs and antisemitism
Christianity and antisemitism
Islam and antisemitism
Japan and antisemitism
Nation of Islam and antisemitism
Stalinism and antisemitism
Universities and antisemitism
See also New antisemitism, Christianity and antisemitism, Islam and antisemitism, & Arabs and antisemitism. ... This article describes issues of antisemitism (hostility towards or discrimination against Jews) in the Arab world. ... It has been suggested that Christian opposition to anti-Semitism be merged into this article or section. ... This article covers: The prevalence of antisemitism amongst Muslims - and whether it is more or less common than amongst people of other religions. ... With only a small and relatively obscure Jewish population, Japan had no traditional antisemitism until Nazi ideology and propaganda influenced a small number of Japanese. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nation of Islam. ... // Even though Communism theoretically rejects every form of national discrimination, including antisemitism, and many Old Bolsheviks were ethnically Jewish, they sought to uproot Judaism and Zionism and established the Yevsektsiya to achieve this goal. ... Poster at SFSU resurrects the blood libel: Palestinian Children Meat, Made in Israel and slaughtered according to Jewish Rites under American license. ...

Allegations
Blood libel · Deicide
Dreyfus Affair · Host desecration
Jewish lobby · Jewish Bolshevism
On the Jews and their Lies
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
Ritual murder · Usury · Well poisoning
Blood libels were the false accusations that Jews used human blood, especially the blood of Christian children, in religious rituals. ... Deicide is an English word meaning the killing of (a) god or the killing of a divine being. It is ultimately derived from dei-, the combining forms of the Latin noun deus (god), and the stem -cida, from the verb caedere (to cut down). Often the word is used to... The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s. ... Host desecration is a sacrilegious act committed against a consecrated host. ... Jewish lobby is a term referring to allegations that Jews exercise undue influence in a number of areas, including politics, government, the media, academia, popular culture, public policy, international relations, and international finance. ... The term Jewish Bolshevism or Judeo-Bolshevism became popular among anti-Bolshevik and antisemitic sources after 1917 October Revolution in Russia, alluding to the fact that a majority of the Bolshevik leaders immediately after the revolution were ethnic Jews by birth. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1992 Russian language imprint, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet image The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Russian: ) is a fraudulent text published in the Russian Empire in the early 20th century that purports to describe a plan to achieve world domination by Jews. ... Ritual murder is murder performed in a ritualistic fashion. ... Usury (//, from the Medieval Latin usuria, interest or excessive interest, from Latin usura interest) was defined originally as charging a fee for the use of money. ... For the logical fallacy, see poisoning the well. ...

Persecutions
Expulsion · Ghetto · Holocaust
Holocaust denial · Inquisition
Judenhut · Judensau · Neo-Nazism
Segregation · Yellow badge
In the course of history, Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from Anti-Semitism numerous times. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... The Spanish Inquisition was established in 1478 by Ferdinand and Isabella to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and was under the direct control of the Spanish monarchy. ... The Jewish poet Süßkind von Trimberg wearing a Judenhut (Codex Manesse, 14. ... Judensau (German for Jewish swine) is a derogatory and dehumanizing imagery of the Jews that appeared around the 13th century in Germany and some other European countries. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... The Pale of Settlement (Russian: Черта оседлости - cherta osedlosti) was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to near the border with eastern/central Europe. ... The yellow badge which Jews were forced to wear during the Nazi occupation of Europe: a black Star of David on a yellow field, with the word Jew written inside. ...

Organizations fighting it
Anti-Defamation League
Community Security Trust
EUMC · Stephen Roth Institute
Wiener Library · SPLC · SWC
This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A 2005 CST report into anti-Semitism in the UK The Community Security Trust (CST) is an organization established to ensure the safety and security of the Jewish community in Britain (UK). ... The European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC) is an independent body (agency) of the European Union based in Vienna whose goal is to provide the EU with objective, reliable and comparable data at European level on the phenomena of racism and xenophobia in order to help them take... The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism is a resource for information, provides a forum for academic discussion, and fosters research on issues concerning antisemitic and racist theories and manifestations. ... The Wiener Library is the worlds oldest institution devoted to the study of the Holocaust, its causes and legacies. ... The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American non-profit legal organization, whose stated purpose is to combat racism and promote civil rights through research, education, and litigation. ... The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ...

Categories
Antisemitism · Jewish history

WikiProjects
WikiProject Jewish history

v  d  e

This is a partial chronology of hostilities or discrimination against the Jews as a religious or ethnic group. See main article Antisemitism for etymology, roots, traits and disputes on what is sometimes called "the longest hatred."[1] The Eternal Jew (German: Der ewige Jude): 1937 German poster advertising an antisemitic Nazi movie. ...


This article notes significant events in the history of antisemitism, including important antisemitic actions, events in the history of antisemitic thought, actions taken to combat or relieve the effects of antisemitism, and events that affected the prevalence of antisemitism in later years.

Contents

Ancient animosity towards Jews

3rd century BCE
According to the 1st century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus (Against Apion Bk 1.14, 1.26), Manetho, a Hellenistic Egyptian chronicler and priest, in his books on Egyptian history, alleges that Moses was not a Jew, but an Egyptian renegade priest called Osarseph, and portrays the Exodus as the expulsion of a leper colony. Josephus argues that Manetho's claims are inconsistent.
175 BCE-165 BCE
Antiochus Epiphanes sacks Jerusalem, calls Judaism "inimical to humanity", prohibits brit milah, confiscates copies of Torah and erects an altar to Zeus in the Second Temple after plundering it. (See also Maccabees, Hanukkah)
2nd century BCE
Mnaseas of Patros, a Greek author, reports that the Jews worship a donkey's head in the Holy of Holies. This legend was repeated by Apollonius Molon, Democritus, Apion (cited by Josephus in "Against Apion" Bk 2.7), and Plutarch, the latter indicating that Jews venerated donkeys (Symposiacs Bk 4.5).
19
Roman Emperor Tiberius expels Jews from Rome. Suetonius Tranquillus, in Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Vol 3, Tiberius, Section 36, says that Tiberius "suppressed all foreign religions... . He distributed the Jewish youths, under the pretence of military service, among the provinces noted for an unhealthy climate; and dismissed from the city all the rest of that nation as well as those who were proselytes to that religion [335], under pain of slavery for life, unless they complied." Josephus, in his Jewish Antiquities (18.3.5), likewise says that Tiberius "ordered all the Jews to be banished out of Rome," taking "four thousand men out of them, and sent them to the island Sardinia; but punished a greater number of them, who were unwilling to become soldiers, on account of keeping the laws of their forefathers. Thus were these Jews banished out of the city ..." Cassius Dio writes about Tiberius, "As the Jews flocked to Rome in great numbers and were converting many of the natives to their ways, he banished most of them." (Roman History, 57.18.5a)
37-41
Thousands of Jews killed by mobs in Alexandria (Egypt), as recounted by Philo of Alexandria in Flaccus.
50
Jews ordered by Roman Emperor Claudius "not to hold meetings", in the words of Cassius Dio (Roman History, 60.6.6). Claudius later expelled Jews from Rome, according to both Suetonius ("Lives of the Twelve Caesars", Claudius, Section 25.4) and Acts 18:2.
66-73
Great Jewish Revolt against the Romans is crushed by Vespasian and Titus Flavius. Titus refuses to accept a wreath of victory, as there is "no merit in vanquishing people forsaken by their own God." (Philostratus, Vita Apollonii). The events of this period were recorded in detail by the Jewish-Roman historian Josephus. His record is largely sympathetic to the Roman view, and hence is considered a controversial source. Josephus describes the Jewish revolt as being led by "tyrants," to the detriment of the city, and of Titus as having "moderation" in his escalation of the Siege of Jerusalem (70).
1st century
Fabrications of Apion in Alexandria, Egypt, including the first recorded blood libel. Juvenal writes anti-Jewish poetry. Josephus picks apart contemporary and old anti-Semitic myths in his work Against Apion. (e-text at Project Gutenberg)
Late 1st–early 2nd century
Tacitus writes anti-Jewish polemic in his Histories (book 5). He reports on several old myths of ancient anti-Semitism (including that of the donkey's head in the Holy of Holies), but the key to his view that Jews "regard the rest of mankind with all the hatred of enemies" is his analysis of the extreme differences between monotheistic Judaism and the polytheism common throughout the Roman world.
115-117
Thousands of Jews are killed during civil unrest in Egypt, Cyprus, and Cyrenaica, as recounted by Dio Cassius' History of Rome (68.31), and Eusebius' Historia Ecclesiastica (4.2), and papyrii.
c. 119
Roman emperor Hadrian bans circumcision, making Judaism de facto illegal.
c. 132-135
Hadrian constructs a pagan temple to Jupiter at the site of the Temple in Jerusalem, builds Aelia Capitolina among ruins of Jerusalem and crushes the Bar Kokhba's revolt. Judea is wiped off the map and renamed into Palestine; Jews are left dispersed and stateless.
167
Claimed to be the first recorded accusation of deicide. A sermon, attributed to Melito of Sardis, titled On the Passover (Peri Pascha), blames the Jews for following King Herod and Caiaphas to execute Jesus, despite their calling as God's people (57, 93). Melito says, "you did not know, O Israel, that this one was the firstborn of God." (82) Melito does not attribute particular blame to Pontius Pilate, but only mentions that Pilate washed his hands of guilt (92). Melito wrote this sermon in Greek, so does not use the Latin word for deicide, deicida. (According to the Latin Dictionary of Charleton Lewis and Charles Short, the latin word deicidas is used by the 4th century, by Peter Chrystologus in his sermon #172.) At a time when Christians were widely persecuted, Melitos speech was an appeal to Rome to spare Christians.

(4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy... Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt Moses or Mosheh (Hebrew: מֹשֶׁה Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: موسى, ; Geez: ሙሴ Musse) was an early Biblical Hebrew religious leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian. ... Osarseph is a person that Manetho (writing in the first millenium BC) claimed was a high priest mainly during the reign of Amenhotep III. According to Manetho, he was part of the priesthood at Heliopolis, and supported the introduction of monotheism by Akhenaten. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ... Hansens disease, commonly known as leprosy, is an infectious disease caused by infection by Mycobacterium leprae. ... (Redirected from 175 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 180 BC 179 BC 178 BC 177 BC 176 BC - 175 BC - 174... (Redirected from 165 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 170 BC 169 BC 168 BC 167 BC 166 BC - 165 BC - 164... Coin of Antiochus IV Epiphanes (reigned 175 - 163 BC). ... Panoramic view from Mt. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Set of implements used in the performance of brit milah, displayed in the Göttingen city museum Brit milah (Hebrew: בְרִית מִילָה [bÉ™rÄ«t mÄ«lā] literally: covenant [of] circumcision), also berit milah (Sephardi), bris milah (Ashkenazi pronunciation) or bris (Yiddish) is a religious ceremony within Judaism that welcomes infant Jewish... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving In Greek mythology, Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Ζεύς Zeús, genitive... Drawing of the Second Temple in Jerusalem during the time of Herod the Great A stone (2. ... Wojciech Stattlers Machabeusze (Maccabees), 1844 The Maccabees (Hebrew: מכבים or מקבים, Makabim) were Jewish rebels who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ... Hanukkah, also known as the Festival of Lights or Festival of Rededication, is an eight-day Jewish holiday that starts on the 25th day of Kislev, which may be in December, late November, or, while very rare in occasion, early January (as was the case for the Hanukkah of 2005... (3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events BC 168 Battle of Pydna -- Macedonian phalanx defeated by Romans BC 148 Rome conquers Macedonia BC 146 Rome destroys Carthage in the Third Punic War BC 146 Rome conquers... It has been suggested that Kadosh Kadoshim be merged into this article or section. ... Apollonius Molon (sometimes called simply Molon), Greek rhetorician, who flourished about 70 BC. He was a native of Alabanda, a pupil of Menecles, and settled at Rhodes. ... ‎ Democritus (Greek: Δημόκριτος) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace around 460 BC[1][2]). Democritus was a student of Leucippus and co-originator of the belief that all matter is made up of various imperishable, indivisible elements which he called atomos, from which we get the... Apion, 20s BC - c. ... Plutarch Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46- 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was an Hellenistic historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... For other uses, see number 19. ... Tiberius Caesar Augustus, born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16, 42 BC – March 16 AD 37), was the second Roman Emperor, from the death of Augustus in AD 14 until his own death in 37. ... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... A representation of Flavius Josephus, a woodcutting in John C. Winstons translation of his works Josephus ( 37 – 100 AD/CE), who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Flavius Josephus[1], was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and royal ancestry who survived... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (155–after 229), known in English as Dio Cassius or Cassius Dio, was a noted Roman historian and public servant. ... Events March 18 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius will and proclaims Caligula Roman Emperor. ... Events January 24 - Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar (Caligula), known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. ... Philo (20 BCE - 40 CE) was an Alexandrian Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... [edit] Events [edit] By place [edit] Roman Empire Londinium is founded by the Romans, taking over as capital of the local Roman province, from Colchester (approximate date) Roman Emperor Claudius appoints Agrippa II governor of Chalcis. ... For other uses, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... September 22 - Emperor Nero creates the legion I Italica Jewish revolt against the Roman Empire. ... The Romans capture Masada, one of the last battles of the First Jewish-Roman War. ... It has been proposed below that Great Jewish Revolt be renamed and moved to First Jewish-Roman War. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 17, 9 – June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... This is about the emperor of ancient Rome. ... Philostratus, was the name of several, three (or four), Greek sophists of the Roman imperial period: Philostratus the Athenian (c. ... A representation of Flavius Josephus, a woodcutting in John C. Winstons translation of his works Josephus ( 37 – 100 AD/CE), who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Flavius Josephus[1], was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and royal ancestry who survived... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Judea Commanders Titus Flavius Vespasianus Simon Bar-Giora Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala) Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000 men 13,000 men, split among three factions Casualties Unknown 60,000–1,100,000 (mass civilian casualties) The Siege of Jerusalem in the... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... Apion, 20s BC - c. ... Antiquity and modernity stand cheek-by-jowl in Egypts chief Mediterranean seaport For other uses, see Alexandria (disambiguation). ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group kills people as a form of human sacrifice, and uses their blood in various rituals. ... Frontispiece depicting Juvenal and Persius, from a volume translated by John Dryden in 1711. ... A representation of Flavius Josephus, a woodcutting in John C. Winstons translation of his works Josephus ( 37 – 100 AD/CE), who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Flavius Josephus[1], was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and royal ancestry who survived... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... The Histories (Latin: Historiae) is a book by Tacitus, written c. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... Polytheism multiple gods or deities. ... Events Roman Empire Trajan was cut off in southern Mesopotamia after his invasion of that region and captures of the Parthian capital Ctesiphon. ... Trajan subdued a Judean revolt, then fell seriously ill, leaving Hadrian in command of the east. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... Events Roman Empire Roman Emperor Hadrian stations the Legio VI Victrix in Roman Britain, to assist in quelling a local rebellion. ... Roman Emperor is the term historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 – July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was Roman emperor from 117 – 138, and a member of the gens Aelia. ... Circumcision cuts some or all of the foreskin (prepuce) from the penis. ... Events The messianic, charismatic leader Simon bar Kokhba starts a war of liberation against the Romans, which is crushed by emperor Hadrian. ... For other uses, see number 135. ... Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning a country dweller or civilian) is a term which, from a western perspective, has come to connote a broad set of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices of natural or polytheistic religions. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ... Bar Kokhba’s revolt (132-135 CE) against the Roman Empire, also known as The Second Jewish-Roman War or The Second Jewish Revolt (out of three Jewish-Roman Wars), was a second major rebellion by the Jews of Iudaea. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi Lotter... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile) is the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout Babylonia and the Roman Empire. ... Events Germanic tribe Marcomanni waged war against the Romans at Aquileia Change of era name from Yanxi to Yongkang of the Chinese Han Dynasty King Chogo of Baekje waged war against Silla in Korean peninsula. ... Deicide is an English word meaning the killing of (a) god or the killing of a divine being. It is ultimately derived from dei-, the combining forms of the Latin noun deus (god), and the stem -cida, from the verb caedere (to cut down). Often the word is used to... Melito of Sardis, or Melito of Sardes, a Christian saint, was the was the bishop of Sardis in Asia Minor. ... Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE to 29–36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... Ecce Homo (Behold the Man!), Antonio Ciseris depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus to the people of Jerusalem. ...

4th century

Part of a series of articles on
Jews and Judaism
         

Who is a Jew? · Etymology · Culture Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Image File history File links Menora. ... Who is a Jew? (Hebrew: ) is a religious, social and political debate on the exact definition of which persons can be considered Jewish. ... Look up Jew in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is becoming very long. ...

Judaism · Core principles
God · Tanakh (Torah / Nevi'im / Ketuvim)
Talmud · Halakha · Holidays
Passover
· Prayer
Ethics · 613 Mitzvot · Customs · Midrash Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... Tanakh ‎ (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... Neviim [נביאים] or Prophets is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... The first page of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Passover (Hebrew: פסח; transliterated as Pesach or Pesah), also called ×—×’ המצות (Chag HaMatzot - Festival of Matzot) is a Jewish holiday which is celebrated in the northern spring. ... Jewish services are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... Main article: Mitzvah 613 mitzvot or 613 Commandments (Hebrew: תריג מצוות transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ... Mitzvah (Hebrew: מצווה, IPA: , commandment; plural, mitzvot; from צוה, tzavah, command) is a word used in Judaism to refer to (a) the commandments, of which there are 613, given in the Torah (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible) or (b) any Jewish law at all. ... Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ...

Jewish ethnic divisions
Ashkenazi · Sephardi · Mizrahi · Lost tribes See related article Judaism by country. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... {{Ethnic group| |image= |group=Sephardi |poptime=>1,700,000 |popplace=Israel: 950,000[1] United States: 150,000 [2] Turkey: 20,000[3] The Netherlands: 270 families Northern Africa: nn Europe (mostly in France): 600,000 Southern Africa: nn Oceania: nn |langs=*Liturgical:,[[Arabic],Sephardic Hebrew *Traditional: Ladino, Judæo... height=28 width=28 thumb->width=28 --> This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... It has been suggested that Israelite Diaspora be merged into this article or section. ...

Population (historical) · By country
Israel · Iran · USA · Russia/USSR · Poland
Canada · Germany · France · England
India · Spain · Portugal · Latin America
Muslim lands · Turkey · Iraq · Syria
Lists of Jews · Crypto-Judaism Jewish population centers have shifted tremendously over time, due to the constant streams of Jewish refugees created by expulsions, persecution, and officially sanctioned killing of Jews in various places at various times. ... Jews by country Who is a Jew? Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews Sephardi Jews Black Jews Black Hebrew Israelites Y-chromosomal Aaron Jewish population Historical Jewish population comparisons List of religious populations Lists of Jews Crypto-Judaism Etymology of the word Jew Categories: | ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... This article is about the history of the Jewish people in England. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Excluding the region of Palestine, and omitting the accounts of Joseph and Moses as unverifiable, Jews have lived in what are now Arab states at least since the Babylonian Captivity (597 BCE), about 2,600 years ago. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as crypto-Jews. The term crypto-Jew is also used to describe descendants of Jews who still (generally secretly) maintain some Jewish traditions, often while adhering...

Jewish denominations · Rabbis
Orthodox · Conservative · Reform
Reconstructionist · Liberal · Karaite
Alternative · Renewal Many Jewish denominations exist within the religion of Judaism; the Jewish community is divided into a number of religious denominations as well as branches or movements. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy Rabbi (Sephardic Hebrew רִבִּי ribbÄ«; Ashkenazi Hebrew רֶבִּי rebbÄ« or rebbÉ™; and modern Israeli רַבִּי rabbÄ«) in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root-word RaV, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished (in... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmudic texts (The Oral Law) and as subsequently developed and applied by the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not include all significant viewpoints. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest stream of Judaism in America and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern Jewish movement marked by views and practices including: Personal autonomy should generally override traditional Jewish law and custom, yet also take into account communal consensus Modern culture is accepted The view that Judaism is an evolving religious civilization Traditional rabbinic modes of study, as well... Liberal Judaism is a term used by some communities worldwide for what is otherwise also known as Reform Judaism or Progressive Judaism. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ... The term Jewish Renewal refers to a set of practices within Judaism that attempt to reinvigorate Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ...

Jewish languages
Hebrew · Yiddish · Judeo-Persian. Ladino
Judeo-Aramaic · Judeo-Arabic
Juhuri · Krymchak · Karaim · Knaanic
· Yevanic · Zarphatic · Dzhidi The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... The Judæo-Persian languages include a number of related languages spoken throughout the formerly extensive realm of the Persian Empire, sometimes including all the Jewish Indo-Iranian languages: Dzhidi (Judæo-Persian) Bukhori (Judæo-Bukharic) Judæo-Golpaygani Judæo-Yazdi Judæo-Kermani Judæo-Shirazi Jud... Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ... Juhuri, Juwri or Judæo-Tat is the traditional language of the Juhurim or Mountain Jews of the eastern Caucasus Mountains, especially Dagestan. ... Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... Knaanic (also called Canaanic, Leshon Knaan or Judeo-Slavic) was a West Slavic language, formerly spoken in the Czech lands, now the Czech Republic. ... Yevanic, otherwise known as Yevanika, Romaniote and Judeo-Greek, was the language of the Romaniotes, the group of Greek Jews whose existence in Greece is documented since the 4th century BCE. Its linguistic lineage stems from Attic Greek and the Hellenistic Koine (Κοινή Ελ&#955... Zarphatic or Judæo-French (Zarphatic: Tsarfatit) is an extinct Jewish language, formerly spoken among the Jewish communities of northern France and in parts of what is now west-central Germany, in such cities as Mainz, Frankfurt-am-Main, and Aachen. ... Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Iran. ...

Political movements · Zionism
Labor Zionism · Revisionist Zionism
Religious Zionism · General Zionism
The Bund · World Agudath Israel
Jewish feminism · Israeli politics Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Labor Zionism (or Labour Zionism) is the traditional left-wing of the Zionist ideology. ... Revisionist Zionism is a right wing tendency within the Zionist movement. ... Kippot Sruggot: Modern Orthodox Jewish students carry the flag of Israel at a public parade in Manhattan, NY, USA Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement, also called Mizrachi, is an ideology combining Zionism and Judaism, which offers Zionism based on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... World Agudath Israel (The World Israelite Union) was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Orthodox Judaism. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...

History · Timeline · Leaders
Ancient · Temple · Babylonian exile
Jerusalem (In Judaism · Timeline)
Hasmoneans · Sanhedrin · Schisms
Pharisees · Jewish-Roman wars
Diaspora · And Christianity · And Islam
Middle Ages · Kabbalah · Hasidism
Haskalah · Emancipation · Holocaust
Aliyah · Israel (History) · Arab conflict Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith (Judaism) and culture. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... In compiling the history of ancient Israel and Judah, there are many available sources. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... Panoramic view from Mt. ... The city of Jerusalem is significant in a number of religious traditions, including Judaism, Christianity, Islam. ... 1800 BCE - The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem). ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (Hebrew: Hashmonai) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BCE to 37 BCE was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BCE. // The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is recorded in the books... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Schisms among the Jews: // First Temple era Based on the historical narrative in the Bible and archeology, Levantine civilization at the time of Solomons Temple was prone to idol worship, astrology, worship of reigning kings, and paganism. ... The Pharisees (from the Hebrew perushim, from parash, meaning to separate) were, depending on the time, a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews that flourished during the Second Temple Era (536 BCE–70 CE). ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 13,000? Casualties Unknown 600,000–1,300,000 (mass civilian casualties) The first Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called The Great... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile) is the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout Babylonia and the Roman Empire. ... Judaism and Christianity are two closely related Abrahamic religions that are in some ways parallel to each other and in other ways fundamentally divergent in theology and practice. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Jews in the Middle Ages : The history of Jews in the Middle Ages (approximately 500 CE to 1750 CE) can be divided into two categories. ... This article is about traditional Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism). ... It has been suggested that Hasidic philosophy be merged into this article or section. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, intellect, from sekhel, common sense), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... This article describes the history of the modern State of Israel, from its Independence Proclamation in 1948 to the present. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Persecution · Antisemitism
The Holocaust
History of antisemitism
New antisemitism Persecution of Jews includes various persecutions that the Jewish people and Judaism have experienced throughout Jewish history. ... The Eternal Jew (German: Der ewige Jude): 1937 German poster advertising an antisemitic Nazi movie. ... This article is becoming very long. ... New antisemitism is the concept of an international resurgence of attacks on Jewish symbols, as well as the acceptance of antisemitic beliefs and their expression in public discourse, coming from three political directions: the political left, far-right, and Islamism. ...

v  d  e
306
The Synod of Elvira bans intermarriage between Christians and Jews. Other social intercourses, such as eating together, are also forbidden.
315-337
Constantine I enacts various laws regarding the Jews: Jews are not allowed to own Christian slaves or to circumcise their slaves. Conversion of Christians to Judaism is outlawed. Congregations for religious services are restricted, but Jews are also allowed to enter the restituted Jerusalem on the anniversary of the Temple's destruction.
325
First Ecumenical Council of Nicaea. The Christian Church separates the calculation of the date of Easter from the Jewish Passover: "We desire, dearest brethren, to separate ourselves from the detestable company of the Jews... How, then, could we follow these Jews, who are almost certainly blinded."
361-363
Roman Emperor Julian, a pagan, allows the Jews to return to "holy Jerusalem which you have for many years longed to see rebuilt" and to rebuild the Temple.
386
John Chrysostom of Antioch writes eight homilies Adversus Judaeos (lit: Against the Judaizers). See also: Christianity and anti-Semitism#The Church Fathers.
388
A Christian mob incited by the local bishop plunders and burns down a synagogue in Callinicum. Theodosius I orders punishment for those responsible, and rebuilding the synagogue at the Christian expense. Ambrose of Milan insists in his letter that the whole case be dropped He interrupts the liturgy in the emperor's presence with an ultimatum that he would not continue until the case was dropped. Theodosius complies.
399
The Western Roman Emperor Honorius calls Judaism superstitio indigna and confiscates gold and silver collected by the synagogues for Jerusalem.

Events July 25 - Constantine I proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops. ... Synod of Elvira, an ecclesiastical synod held in Spain, the date of which cannot be determined with exactness. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Events Eusebius becomes bishop of Caesarea (approximate date). ... Events February 6 - Julius is elected pope. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicea in Bithynia (in present-day Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first ecumenical[1] conference of bishops of the Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine. ... The term Christian Church, or Catholic Church, as it was known by Christians beginning in the second century, expresses the idea that organised Christianity (the Christian religion) is seen as an institution. ... Easter, also known as Pascha (Greek Πάσχα: Passover), the Feast of the Resurrection, the Sunday of the Resurrection, or Resurrection Day, is the most important religious feast of the Christian liturgical year, observed between late March and late April (early April to early May in Eastern Christianity). ... Passover (Hebrew: פסח; transliterated as Pesach or Pesah), also called חג המצות (Chag HaMatzot - Festival of Matzot) is a Jewish holiday which is celebrated in the northern spring. ... Events Emperor Ai succeeds Emperor Mu as emperor of China. ... Events Perisapora is destroyed by Emperor Julian. ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Theodosius I concludes peace with Persia, dividing Armenia between them. ... A millennium-old Byzantine mosaic of Saint John Chrysostom, Hagia Sophia John Chrysostom (347 - 407, Greek Ιωάννης ο Χρυσόστομος ) was a notable Christian bishop from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople. ... Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia Pieria. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... It has been suggested that Christian opposition to anti-Semitism be merged into this article or section. ... // Events Bahram IV becomes king of Persia. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Saint Ambrose, (Latin: Sanctus Ambrosius, Ambrosius episcopus Mediolanensis; Italian: SantAmbrogio) (c. ... Events Yazdegerd I becomes king of Persia November 27 - St. ... Roman Emperor is the term historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Augustus Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ...

5th century

415
Jews are accused of ritual murder during Purim.[2] Christians in Antioch, and Magona confiscate or burn synagogues. Bishop Cyril of Alexandria forces his way into the synagogue, expels the Jews and gives their property to the mob. Prefect Orestes is stoned almost to death for protesting.
418
The first record of Jews being forced to convert or face expulsion. Severus, the Bishop of Minorca, claimed to have forced 540 Jews to accept Christianity upon conquering the island.
419
The monk Barsauma (subsequently the Bishop of Nisibis) gathers a group of followers and for the next three years destroys synagogues throughout the Palestine.
429
The East Roman Emperor Theodosius II orders all funds raised by Jews to support schools be turned over to his treasury.
439 Jan 31
The Codex Theodosianus, the first imperial compilation of laws. Jews are prohibited from holding important positions involving money, including judicial and executive offices. The ban against building new synagogues is reinstated. The anti-Jewish statutes apply to the Samaritans. The Code is also accepted by Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian III.
451
Sassanid ruler Yazdegerd II of Persia's decree abolishes the Sabbath and orders executions of Jewish leaders, including the Exilarch Mar Nuna.
465
Council of Vannes, Gaul prohibited the Christian clergy from participating in Jewish feasts.

Events The Visigoths leave Gallia Narbonensis and relocate in Spain Wallia becomes king of the Visigoths. ... Ritual murder is murder performed in a ritualistic fashion. ... Purim (Hebrew: פורים Pûrîm Lots, from Akkadian pūru) is a joyous Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of Persian Jews from Hamans plot to exterminate them, as recorded in the biblical Book of Esther. ... Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia Pieria. ... St. ... // Events December 28 - Boniface succeeds Zosimus as Pope Council of Carthage - discussion of Biblical canon Births Deaths December 26 - Pope Zosimus In Other Fields 418 is the area code for telephone numbers in the Quebec City region of the province of Quebec of Canada. ... Flag of Minorca This is a taula from the site of Talatì de Dalt about 4km west of Maó Minorca (Menorca both in Catalan and Spanish and increasingly in English usage; from Latin Balearis Minor, later Minorica minor island) is one of the Balearic Islands (Illes Balears Catalan official name... This article is about the year 419. ... A monk is a person who practices asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit. ... The newly excavated Church of Saint Jacob in Nisibis. ... Events Vandals under Geiseric cross from Spain into Roman Africa Pope Celestine I dispatches bishops Germanus of Auxerre and Lupus of Troyes to Britain to combat Pelagian heresy. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. ... Events Licinia Eudoxia, wife of the Roman Emperor Valentinian III, is granted the rank of Augusta following the birth of their daughter Eudocia. ... The Codex Theodosianus (Book of Theodosius) was a compilation of the laws of the Roman Empire under the Christian emperors since 312. ... For the ethnic group of this name, see Samaritan. ... Roman Emperor is the term historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... Solidus minted in Thessalonica to celebrate the marriage of Valentinian III to Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. On the reverse, the three of them in wedding dresses. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... A coin of Yazdegerd II. Yazdegerd II, (made by God, Izdegerdes), King of Persia, was the son of Bahram V of Persia (421–438) and reigned from 438 to 457. ... This article concerns the Sabbath in Christianity. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Events Song Qian Fei Di, then Song Ming Di become ruler of the Song Dynasty in China. ... In the old city centre Harbour to cathedral Vannes (Breton: Gwened) is a town and commune located in the Morbihan département, in Brittany, in the west of France. ...

6th century

519
Ravenna, Italy. After the local synagogues were burned down by the local mob, Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great orders the town to rebuild them at its own expense.
529-559
Byzantine Emperor Justinian the Great publishes Corpus Juris Civilis. New laws restrict citizenship to Christians. These regulations determined the status of Jews throughout the Empire for hundreds of years: Jewish civil rights restricted: "they shall enjoy no honors". The principle of Servitus Judaeorum (Servitude of the Jews) is established: the Jews cannot testify against Christians. The emperor becomes an arbiter in internal Jewish matters. The use of the Hebrew language in worship is forbidden. Shema Yisrael ("Hear, O Israel, the Lord is one"), sometimes considered the most important prayer in Judaism, is banned as a denial of the Trinity. Some Jewish communities are converted by force, their synagogues turned into churches.
535
The First Council of Clermont; Gaul prohibits Jews from holding public office.
538
The Third Council of Orléans, Gaul forbids Jews to employ Christian servants or possess Christian slaves. Jews are prohibited from appearing in the streets during Easter: "their appearance is an insult to Christianity". A Merovingian king Childebert approves the measure.
576
Clermont, Gaul. Bishop Avitus offers Jews a choice: accept Christianity or leave Clermont. Most emigrate to Marseille.
589
The Council of Narbonne, Septimania, forbids Jews from chanting psalms while burying their dead. Anyone violating this law is fined 6 ounces of gold. The third Council of Toledo, held under Visigothic King Reccared, bans Jews from slave ownership and holding positions of authority, and reiterates the mutual ban on intermarriage.[3] Reccared also rules children out of such marriages to be raised as Christians.
590
Pope Gregory I defends the Jews against forced conversion.

Events The Eastern and Western churches are temporarily reconciled with the end of the Acacian schism. ... Ravenna is a city and commune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Map of Ostrogothic Kingdom The Ostrogoths (Greuthung, Gleaming Goths or Eastern Goths), in distinction from the Visigoths (Noble Goths or Western Goths), were a Germanic tribe that influenced political events of the late Roman Empire. ... Gold medallion of Theodoric, discovered at Sinigaglia, Italy in the 19th century. ... For other uses, see number 529. ... Events The Bulgars invade and raid Byzantine territory, but are driven back near Constantinople by Belisarius. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Justinian I, depicted on a contemporary coin Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus or Justinian I (May 11, 483–November 13/14, 565), was Eastern Roman Emperor from AD August 1, 527 until his death. ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) also known as Codex Justinianus is a fundamental work in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... Within Christianity, the doctrine of the Trinity states that God is a single being who exists, simultaneously and eternally, as a perichoresis of three persons (hypostases, personae): Father (the Source, the Eternal Majesty, the Creator); the Son (the eternal Logos or Word incarnate as Jesus of Nazareth, the Saviour); and... Events Beginning of the Western Wei Dynasty in China. ... At the Council of Clermont in 535, fifteen prelates of the kingdom of Austrasia assisted, under the presidency of Honoratus, Bishop of Bourges. ... March 12 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving the city in the hands of the victorious Byzantine general, Belisarius. ... Orléans Cathedral, dedicated to the Holy Cross, built from 1278 to 1329; after being pillaged by Huguenots in the 1560s, the Bourbon kings restored it in the 17th century. ... Easter, also known as Pascha (Greek Πάσχα: Passover), the Feast of the Resurrection, the Sunday of the Resurrection, or Resurrection Day, is the most important religious feast of the Christian liturgical year, observed between late March and late April (early April to early May in Eastern Christianity). ... Childebert I (Rheims, c. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 576 ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, Marseille shines in the world Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence... Events October 17 - The Adige River overflows its banks, flooding the church of St. ... Narbonne (Narbona in Catalan and in Occitan, commonly Narbo especially when referring to the Ancient Rome era) is a town and commune of southwestern France in the Languedoc-Roussillon région. ... Psalms (Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh. ... Councils of Toledo (Concilia toletana). ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Coin of Reccared The Visigothic king Reccared (ruled 586—601) was the younger son of Liuvigild by his first marriage. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Saint Gregory redirects here. ...

7th century

610-620
Visigothic Hispania After many of his anti-Jewish edicts were ignored, king Sisebur prohibits Judaism. Those not baptized fled. This was the first incidence where a prohibition of Judaism affected an entire country.
614
Fifth Council of Paris decrees that all Jews holding military or civil positions must accept baptism, together with their families.
615
Italy. The earliest referral to the Juramentum Judaeorum (the Jewish Oath): the concept that no heretic could be believed in court against a Christian. The oath became standardized throughout Europe in 1555.
629 Mar. 21
Byzantine Emperor Heraclius with his army marches into Jerusalem. Jewish inhabitants support him after his promise of amnesty. Upon his entry into Jerusalem the local priests convince him that killing Jews is a good deed. Hundreds of Jews are massacred, thousands flee to Egypt.
Frankish King Dagobert I, encouraged by Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, expels all Jews from the kingdom.
632
The first case of officially sanctioned forced baptism. Emperor Heraclius violates the Codex Theodosianus, which protected them from forced conversions.
681
The Twelfth Council of Toledo, Spain orders burning of the Talmud and other "heretic" books.
682
Visigothic king Erwig begins his reign by enacting 28 anti-Jewish laws. He presses for the "utter extirpation of the pest of the Jews" and decrees that all converts must be registered by a parish priest, who must issue travel permits. All holidays, Christian and Jewish, must be spent in the presence of a priest to ensure piety and to prevent the backsliding.
692
Quinisext Council in Constantinople forbids Christians on pain of excommunication to bathe in public baths with Jews, employ a Jewish doctor or socialize with Jews.
694
17th Council of Toledo. King Ergica believes rumors that the Jews had conspired to ally themselves with the Muslim invaders and forces Jews to give all land, slaves and buildings bought from Christians, to his treasury. He declares that all Jewish children over the age of seven should be taken from their homes and raised as Christians.

Events October 4 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. ... Events Medina is converted to Islam. ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Roman theater at Mérida; the statues are replicas Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra and Gibraltar) and to two provinces created there in the period of the Roman Republic: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. ... Sisebut (also Sisebuth, Sisebur, or Sisebodus and, in Spanish, Sisebuto) was king of the Visigoths in Hispania (612—620 or 621 CE). ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Events The Persian Empire under general Shahrbaraz captures and sacks Jerusalem; the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is damaged by fire and the True Cross is captured. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land... Events The Edict of Paris grants extensive rights to the Frankish nobility. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Events Jerusalem reconquered by Byzantine Empire from the Persian Empire (September). ... Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... Dagobert I (c. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ... // Events August 9 - The Bulgars win the war with the Byzantine Empire; the latter signs a peace treaty, which is considered as the birth-date of Bulgaria Wilfrid of York is expelled from Northumbria by Ecgfrith and retires into Sussex Births Deaths January 10 - Pope Agatho Ebroin, Mayor of the... Councils of Toledo (Concilia toletana). ... This article is about the city in Spain named Toledo. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... // Events Leo II elected pope. ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Erwig (or Ervigio, also known as Euric II) was a king of the Visigoths in Hispania (680–687). ... Events The Quinisext Council (also said in Trullo), held in Constantinople, laid the foundation for the Orthodox Canon Law The Arabs conquer Armenia. ... Both the Fifth Ecumenical Council and the Sixth Ecumenical Council failed to produce disciplinary norms, for which reason the emperor Justinian II convoked an assembly in 692 to meet in Constantinople in the same domed hall where the Sixth Council had been held, called in Trullo (= under the dome). ... Events November 9 - Hispano-Visigothic king Egica accuses Jews of aiding Moslems, and sentences all Jews to slavery. ... Ergica or Egica (c. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ...

8th century

717
Possible date for the Pact of Umar, a document that specified restrictions on Jews and Christians (dhimmi) living under Muslim rule. However, academic historians believe that this document was actually compiled at a much later date.
722
Byzantine emperor Leo III forcibly converts all Jews and Montanists in the empire into mainstream Byzantine Christianity.

March 21 - Battle of Vincy between Charles Martel and Ragenfrid. ... A dhimmi (also zimmi, Arabic: ‎, collectively: أهل الذمة, ahl al-dhimma, the people of the dhimma or pact of protection) was a free (i. ... Events 3 January - Kinich Ahkal Mo Naab III takes throne of Maya state of Palenque Battle of Covadonga: First victory of a Christian army over a Muslim army in Spain (probable date) War between Wessex and Sussex Births Deaths Empress Gemmei of Japan Categories: 722 ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... :For homonyms, see Leo III Leo the Isaurian and his son Constantine V. Leo III the Isaurian (c. ... Montanism was a movement begun by Montanus in the second century A.D., shortly after Montanus conversion to Christianity. ...

9th century

807
Abbassid Caliph Harun al-Rashid orders all Jews in the Caliphate to wear a yellow belt, with Christians to wear a blue one.
820
Agobard, Archbishop of Lyon, declares in his essays that Jews are accursed and demands a complete segregation of Christians and Jews. In 826 he issues a series of pamphlets to convince Emperor Louis the Pious to attack "Jewish insolence", but fails to convince the Emperor.
898-929
French king Charles the Simple confiscates Jewish-owned property in Narbonne and donates it to the Church.

Events After the death of Cuthred, king Coenwulf of Mercia takes control over Kent himself. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... Caliph is the title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Persian miniature depicting HārÅ«n ar-RashÄ«d. ... The yellow badge which Jews were forced to wear during the Nazi occupation of Europe: a black Star of David on a yellow field, with the word Jew written inside. ... Events Michael II succeeds Leo V as Byzantine Emperor The Historia Brittonum is written (approximate date) Births Rhodri Mawr (the Great), ruler of Gwynedd (Wales) (approximate date) Photius I, patriarch of Constantinople (approximate date) Deaths December 24: Leo V, Byzantine Emperor (assassinated) Shankara, Hinduist teacher Tang Xian Zong, emperor of... Agobard (c. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Arpitan: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Rhône-Alpes Department Rhône (69) Subdivisions 9 arrondissements Intercommunality Urban Community of Lyon Mayor Gérard Collomb  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area... Events The Danish king accepts Christianity. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... Events Accession of Pope John IX Accession of King Kasyapa IV of Sri Lanka Magyar army headed by Álmos besieges Kiev Magyar tribes found state of Szekesfahervar in Hungary Bologna joins Italian Kingdom End of Yodit era in Ethiopia Foundation of Bhaktapur in Nepal Births Deaths Category: ... Events Emir Abd-ar-rahman III of Cordoba declares himself caliph. ... Charles the Simple or Charles (September 17, 879 - October 7, 929) was a member of the Carolingian dynasty. ... Narbonne (Narbona in Catalan and in Occitan, commonly Narbo especially when referring to the Ancient Rome era) is a town and commune of southwestern France in the Languedoc-Roussillon région. ...

11th century

1008-1013
Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah issues severe restrictions against Jews in the Land of Israel. All Jews are forced to wear a "golden calf" (made of wood) around their necks. On Oct. 18 1009 he destroys the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, but the French "historian" Raoul Glaber blames the Jews. As a result, Jews were expelled from Limoges and other French towns.
1012
One of the first known persecutions of Jews in Germany: Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor expels Jews from Mainz.
1016
The Jewish community of Kairouan, Tunisia is forced to chose between conversion and expulsion.
1032
Abul Kamal Tumin conquers Fez, Morocco and decimates the Jewish community, killing 6,000 Jews.
1050
Council of Narbonne, France forbids Christians to live in Jewish homes.
1066 Dec 30
The entire Jewish community of Granada came under the riotous siege resulting in 4,000 deaths and the destruction of most property. The community quickly recovered, only to fall again at the hands of the Almoravides lead by Iban Iashufin in 1090, bringing the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain to end.
1078
Council of Gerona decrees Jews to pay taxes for support of the Catholic Church to the same extent as Christians.
Jews (identifiable by Judenhut) are being massacred by Crusaders.1250 French Bible illustration
Jews (identifiable by Judenhut) are being massacred by Crusaders.1250 French Bible illustration
1096
The First Crusade. Three hosts of crusaders pass through several Central European cities. The third, unofficial host, led by Count Emicho, decides to attack the Jewish communities, most notably in the Rhineland, under the slogan: "Why fight Christ's enemies abroad when they are living among us?" Eimicho's host attacks the synagogue at Speyers and kills all the defenders. Another 1,200 Jews commit suicide in Mayence to escape his attempt to forcibly convert them; see German Crusade, 1096. Attempts by the local bishops remained fruitless. All in all, 5,000 Jews were murdered. St. Bernard intervened to minimize the worst of the persecution, preaching vigorously against the killing.[4]

Events Olof, king of Sweden, is baptized. ... Events Danish invasion of England under king Sweyn I. King Ethelred flees to Normandy, and Sweyn becomes king of England. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Caliph is the title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Hakim bi-Amr Allah (literally: Ruler by Gods Command), known as the Mad Caliph, was the sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, ruling from 996 to 1021. ... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003, including portions of the State of Israel, Jordan, Egypt, and Lebanon. ... The yellow badge which Jews were forced to wear during the Nazi occupation of Europe: a black Star of David on a yellow field, with the word Jew written inside. ... Events February 14: First known mention of Lithuania, in the annals of the monastery of Quedlinburg. ... Main Entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called the Church of the Resurrection (Anastasis in Greek and Surp Harutyun in Armenian) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church now within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. ... Rodulfus Glaber or Ralph Glaber (985–1047) was a monk and chronicler of the years around 1000 and is one of the chief sources for the history of France in that period. ... Location within France Limoges (Limòtges in Occitan) is a city and commune in France, the préfecture of the Haute-Vienne département, and the administrative capital of the Limousin région. ... Events Mael Morda starts a rebellion against Brian Boru in Ireland, which would eventually end in 1014 at the Battle of Clontarf. ... Henry II with his wife Cunigunde of Luxemburg Saint Henry II (972 – 13 July 1024), called the Holy or the Saint, was the fifth and last Holy Roman Emperor of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Events George Tsul, ruler of Khazaria, is captured by a combined Byzantine- Rus force, which effectively ends Khazarias existence. ... Mosque of Oqba Kairouan (Arabic القيروان) (variations include Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayrawan) is a city in Tunisia, about 160 kilometres south of Tunis. ... Events February 2 - Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, becomes King of Burgundy. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the city Fez in Morocco. ... Leofric becomes Bishop of Exeter Hedeby is sacked by King Harald Hardraade of Norway during the course of a conflict with King Eric Estridsson of Denmark. ... Narbonne (Narbona in Catalan and in Occitan, commonly Narbo especially when referring to the Ancient Rome era) is a town and commune of southwestern France in the Languedoc-Roussillon région. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Granada – Greek: (Steph. ... Almoravides (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ... Events Granada captured by Yusuf Ibn Tashfin, King of the Almoravides Beginnings of troubadours in Provence Bejaia becomes the capital of the Algeria Births William of Malmsbury Saint Bernard of Clairvaux Saint Famianus Eliezer ben Nathan of Mainz Deaths Saint Malcoldia of Asti Saint Adalbero Categories: 1090 ... The Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain, also known as the Golden Age of Arab Rule in Spain, refers to a period of history during the Muslim occupation of Spain in which Jews were generally accepted in Spanish society and Jewish religious, cultural, and economic life blossomed. ... Events Romanesque church begun at Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain Anselm of Canterbury becomes abbot of Le Bec William the Conqueror ordered the White Tower to be built Births Deaths Categories: 1078 ... Girona (Catalan: Girona, Spanish: Gerona, French: Gérone) is a city located in the northwest of Catalonia, Spain on the confluence of the rivers Ter and Onyar. ... Jews being killed by Crusaders, from a 1250 French bible File links The following pages link to this file: History of the Jews in Poland ... Jews being killed by Crusaders, from a 1250 French bible File links The following pages link to this file: History of the Jews in Poland ... The Jewish poet Süßkind von Trimberg wearing a Judenhut (Codex Manesse, 14. ... Events Bernhard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg First documented teaching at the University of Oxford Beginning of the Peoples Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade Vital I Michele is Doge of Venice Peter I, King of Aragon, conquers Huesca Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as... The capture of Jerusalem, in 1099, marked the success of the First Crusade. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Count Emicho (of Flonheim) was a count in the Rhineland in the late 11th century and the leader of the German Crusade in 1096. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany, although some consider the lands to the east of the river culturally distinct, jovially referring to them as Schäl Sick; the bad or wrong side... The German Crusade of 1096 is that part of the First Crusade in which peasant crusaders, mostly from Germany, attacked not Muslims but Jews. ... St. ...

12th century

1107
Moroccan Almoravid ruler Yusuf Ibn Tashfin orders all Moroccan Jews to convert or leave.
1143
150 Jews were killed in Ham, France.
1144 March 20 (Passover)
The first blood libel in which the Jews of Norwich, England were accused of ritual murder after a Christian boy (William of Norwich) is found dead. It was claimed that the Jews had tortured and crucified their victim. From this time forward, similar charges were levelled against Jews in all quarters of Europe. The believers of these accusations reasoned that the Jews, having crucified Jesus, continued to thirst for pure and innocent blood and satisfied their thirst at the expense of innocent Christian children. In accordance with this logic, the season of such charges was typically in Spring around the time of Passover which approximately coincides with the time of Jesus' death. [5] The legend of William of Norwich became a cult, and the child acquired status of martyr saint. In 1189, Jewish deputation attending coronation of Richard the Lionheart is attacked by the crowd. Pogroms in London follow and spread around England. On Feb 6 1190 all the Norwich Jews found in their houses were slaughtered, except few who found refuge in the castle.
1148-1212
The rule of the Almohads. Only Jews who had converted to Christianity or Islam were allowed to live in Granada. One of the refugees was Maimonides who settled in Fez and later in Fustat near Cairo.
1165
Forced mass conversions in Yemen
1171
Blois, France: 31 Jews burned at the stake for blood libel.
1179
The Third Lateran Council, Canon 26: Jews are forbidden to be plaintiffs or witnesses against Christians in the Courts. Jews are forbidden to withhold inheritance from descendants who had accepted Christianity.
1180
Philip Augustus of France after four months in power, imprisons all the Jews in his lands and demands a ransom for their release.
1181
Philip Augustus annuls all loans made by Jews to Christians and takes a percentage for himself. A year later, he confiscates all Jewish property and expels the Jews from Paris.
1189
Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa orders priests not to preach against Jews.
1190 March 16
500 Jews of York massacred after 6-day siege by departing Crusaders, backed by a number of people indebted to Jewish money-lenders. York Masssacre
1190
Saladdin takes over Jerusalem from Crusaders and lifts the ban for Jews to live there.
1198
Philip Augustus readmits Jews to Paris, only after another ransom was paid and a taxation scheme was set up to procure funds for himself. August: Saladdin's nephew al-Malik, caliph of Yemen, summons all the Jews and forcibly converts them.

Events William Warelwast becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... Events Manuel I Comnenus becomes Byzantine Emperor. ... Ham is a commune of the Somme département in France. ... Events Louis VII capitulates to Pope Celestine II and so earns the popes absolution Pope Celestine II is succeeded by Pope Lucius II December 24 - Edessa falls to Zengi Montauban, France, is founded First recorded example of an anti-Semitic blood libel in England Normandy comes under Angevin control... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group kills people as a form of human sacrifice, and uses their blood in various rituals. ... Shown within Norfolk Geography Status: City (1195) Government Region: East of England Administrative County: Norfolk Area: - Total Ranked 322nd 39. ... Ritual murder is murder performed in a ritualistic fashion. ... William of Norwich (1132? - March 1144) was an English boy who was supposedly ritually murdered by Jews. ... William of Norwich (1132? - March 1144) was an English boy who was supposedly ritually murdered by Jews. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. ... Events March 16 - Massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England prompted by Crusaders and Richard Malebys kill 150-500 Jews in Cliffords Tower June 10 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem. ... Events Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona conquered Tortosa in posetion of the moors. ... Events The first Great Fire of London burns most of the city to the ground Battle of Navas de Tolosa Childrens crusade Crusaders push the Muslims out of northern Spain In Japan, Kamo no Chōmei writes the Hōjōki, one of the great works of classical Japanese... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Granada – Greek: (Steph. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... This article is about the city Fez in Morocco. ... Events November 23 - Pope Alexander III enters Rome. ... Events Saladin abolishes the Fatimid caliphate, restoring Sunni rule in Egypt. ... Blois is a city in France, the préfecture (capital) city of the Loir-et-Cher département, situated on the banks of the lower river Loire between Orléans and Tours. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group kills people as a form of human sacrifice, and uses their blood in various rituals. ... Events Third Council of the Lateran condemned Waldensians and Cathars as heretics, institutes a reformation of clerical life, and creates the first ghettos for Jews Afonso I is recognized as the true King of Portugal by Portugal the protection of the Catholic Church against the Castillian monarchy Philip II is... The Third Council of the Lateran met in March, 1179 as the 11th ecumenical council. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Philip II (French: Philippe II), called Philip Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (August 21, 1165 - July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... Events Jayavarman VII assumes control of the Khmer kingdom. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Frederick I Hohenstaufen (1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ... Events March 16 - Massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England prompted by Crusaders and Richard Malebys kill 150-500 Jews in Cliffords Tower June 10 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem. ... York is a city in northern England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... Events March 16 - Massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England prompted by Crusaders and Richard Malebys kill 150-500 Jews in Cliffords Tower June 10 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem. ... Saladin, king of Egypt from a 15th century illuminated manuscript; the orb in his left hand is a European symbol of kingly power. ... Panoramic view from Mt. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Toba of Japan Emperor Tsuchimikado ascends to the throne of Japan January 8 - Pope Innocent III ascends Papal Throne Frederick II, infant son of German King Henry VI, crowned King of Sicily Births August 24 - Alexander II of Scotland (d. ...

13th century

Judensau at the Cathedral of St. Peter in Regensburg
Judensau at the Cathedral of St. Peter in Regensburg
13th century
Germany. Appearance of Judensau: obscene and dehumanizing imagery of Jews, ranging from etchings to Cathedral ceilings. Its popularity lasted for over 600 years.
1215
The Fourth Lateran Council headed by Pope Innocent III declares: "Jews and Saracens of both sexes in every Christian province and at all times shall be marked off in the eyes of the public from other peoples through the character of their dress." (Canon 68). See Judenhut. The Fourth Lateran Council also noted that the Jews' own law required the wearing of identifying symbols. Pope Innocent III also reiterated papal injunctions against forcible conversions, and added: "No Christian shall do the Jews any personal injury...or deprive them of their possessions...or disturb them during the celebration of their festivals...or extort money from them by threatening to exhume their dead."[6]
1222
Council of Oxford: Archbishop of Canterbury Stephen Langton forbids Jews from building new synagogues, owning slaves or mixing with Christians.
1232
Forced mass conversions in Marrakesh.
1235
The Jews of Fulda, Germany were accused of ritual murder. To investigate the blood libel, Emperor Frederick II held a special conference of Jewish converts to Christianity at which the converts were questioned about Jewish ritual practice. Letters inviting prominent individuals to the conference still survive. At the conference, the converts stated unequivocally that Jews do not harm Christian children or require blood for any rituals. In 1236 the Emperor published these findings and in 1247 Pope Innocent IV, the Emperor's enemy, also denounced accusations of the ritual murder of Christian children by Jews. In 1272, the papal repudiation of the blood libel was repeated by Pope Gregory X, who also ruled that thereafter any such testimony of a Christian against a Jew could not be accepted unless it is confirmed by another Jew. Unfortunately, these proclamations from the highest sources were not effective in altering the beliefs of the Christian majority and the libels continued.[7]
1236
Crusaders attack Jewish communities of Anjou and Poitou and attempt to baptize all the Jews. Those who resisted (est. 3,000) were slaughtered.
1240
Duke Jean le Roux expels Jews from Brittany.
1240
Disputation of Paris. Pope Gregory IX puts Talmud on trial on the charges that it contains blasphemy against Jesus and Mary and attacks on the Church. In 1242 24 cart-loads of hand-written manuscripts were burned in the streets of Paris.
1242
James I of Aragon orders Jews to listen to conversion sermons and to attend churches. Friars are given power to enter synagogues uninvited.
1244
Pope Innocent IV orders Louis IX of France to burn all Talmud copies.
1250
Zaragoza: death of a choirboy Saint Dominguito del Val prompts ritual murder accusation. His sainthood was revoked in the 20th century but reportedly a chapel dedicated to him still exists in the Cathedral of Zaragoza.
1254
Louis IX expels the Jews from France, their property and synagogues confiscated. Most move to Germany and further east, however, after a couple of years, some were readmitted back.
1255
King Henry III of England, protector of the Jews, sells his rights to the Jews to his brother Richard for 5,000 marks.
c. 1260
Thomas Aquinas publishes Summa Contra Gentiles, a summary of Christian faith to be presented to those who reject it. The Jews who refuse to convert are regarded as "deliberately defiant" rather than "invincibly ignorant".
1263
Disputation of Barcelona.
1264
Pope Clement IV assigns Talmud censorship committee.
1267
In a special session, the Vienna city council forces Jews to wear Pileum cornutum (a cone-shaped headdress, prevalent in many medieval illustrations of Jews). This distinctive dress is an addition to Yellow badge Jews were already forced to wear. Christians are not permitted to attend Jewish ceremonies.
1267
Synod of Breslau orders Jews to live in a segregated quarter.
1275
King Edward I of England passes the Statute of the Jewry forcing Jews over the age of seven to wear an identifying yellow badge, and making usury illegal, in order to seize their assets. Scores of English Jews are arrested, 300 hanged and their property goes to the Crown. In 1280 he orders Jews to be present as Dominicans preach conversion. In 1287 he arrests heads of Jewish families and demands their communities pay ransom of 12,000 pounds.
1278
The Edict of Pope Nicholas III requires compulsory attendance of Jews at conversion sermons.
1279
Synod of Ofen: Christians are forbidden to sell or rent real estate to or from Jews.
1282
John Pectin, Archbishop of Canterbury, orders all London synagogues to close and prohibits Jewish physicians from practicing on Christians.
1283
Philip III of France causes mass migration of Jews by forbidding them to live in the small rural localities.
1285
Blood libel in Munich, Germany results in the death of 68 Jews. 180 more Jews are burned alive at the synagogue.
1287
A mob in Oberwesel, Germany kills 40 Jewish men, women and children after a ritual murder accusation.
1289
Jews are expelled from Gascony and Anjou.
1290 July 18
Edict of Expulsion: Edward I expels all Jews from England, allowing them to take only what they could carry, all the other property became the Crown's. Official reason: continued practice of usury.
1291
Philip the Fair publishes an ordinance prohibiting the Jews to settle in France.
1298
During the civil war between Adolph of Nassau and Albrecht of Austria, German knight Rindfleisch claims to have received a mission from heaven to exterminate "the accursed race of the Jews". Under his leadership, the mob goes from town to town destroying Jewish communities and massacring about 100,000 Jews, often by mass burning at stake. Among 146 localities in Franconia, Bavaria and Austria are Röttingen (April 20), Würzburg (July 24), Nuremberg (August 1). [8]

Download high resolution version (1084x704, 96 KB)licence: public domain, picture taken by: M. Chlistalla, Regensburg June 2004 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1084x704, 96 KB)licence: public domain, picture taken by: M. Chlistalla, Regensburg June 2004 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 129,175 in 2005) in Bavaria, south-east Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the Danube. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Judensau (German for Jewish swine) is a derogatory and dehumanizing imagery of the Jews that appeared around the 13th century in Germany and some other European countries. ... // Events A certified copy of the Magna Carta June 15 - King John of England forced to put his seal to the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning men (nobles and knights) and restricting the kings power. ... The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Bull of April 19, 1213. ... Innocent III, born Lotario de Conti di Segni (Gavignano, near Anagni, ca. ... The Jewish poet Süßkind von Trimberg wearing a Judenhut (Codex Manesse, 14. ... The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Bull of April 19, 1213. ... Innocent III, born Lotario de Conti di Segni (Gavignano, near Anagni, ca. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 See also: 1222 state leaders Events Foundation of the University of Padua Completion of the Cistercian convent in Alcobaca... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Stephen Langton (c. ... // Events Canonization of Saint Anthony of Padua, patron of lost items Pope Gregory IX driven from Rome by a revolt, taking refuge at Anagni First edition of Tripitaka Koreana destroyed by Mongol invaders Battle of Agridi 15 June 1232 Births Arnolfo di Cambio, Florentine architect (died 1310) Manfred of Sicily... Marrakech (مراكش marrākish), known as the Pearl of the South, is a city in southwestern Morocco in the foothills of the Atlas Mountains. ... Events Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht St. ... Ritual murder is murder performed in a ritualistic fashion. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group kills people as a form of human sacrifice, and uses their blood in various rituals. ... Pope Innocent IV (Manarola, 1180/90 – Naples, December 7, 1254), born Sinibaldo de Fieschi, Pope from 1243 to 1254, belonged to the feudal nobility of Liguria, the Fieschi, counts of Lavagna. ... Ritual murder is murder performed in a ritualistic fashion. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group kills people as a form of human sacrifice, and uses their blood in various rituals. ... Gregory X, né Theobald Visconti (Piacenza, ca. ... // Events May 6 - Roger of Wendover, Benedictine monk and chronicler of St Albanss Abbey dies. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Anjou is a former county (c. ... Coat of arms of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, Plantagenet claimant to the county of Poitou, now favored as the coat of arms of Poitou by people in Poitou Poitou is a province of France. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... Brittany has a spectacular coastline Flag of Brittany (Gwenn-ha-du) Historical province of Brittany région of Bretagne, see Bretagne. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... In the scholastic system of education of the middle ages, disputations (in Latin: disputationes, singular: disputatio) offered a formalized method of debate designed to uncover and establish truths in theology and in other sciences. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land... Papal Arms of Pope Gregory IX. Gregory IX, né Ugolino di Conti (Anagni, ca. ... The first page of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Look up blasphemy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE to 29–36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... A traditional Catholic image of the Blessed Virgin Mary, displaying her Immaculate Heart The Blessed Virgin Mary, sometimes shortened to The Blessed Virgin, is a traditional title specifically used by Roman and Eastern Catholics, Anglo-Catholics, Eastern Orthodox and others to describe Mary, the mother of Jesus. ... // Events April 5 - During a battle on the ice of Chudskoye Lake, Russian forces rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. ... // Events April 5 - During a battle on the ice of Chudskoye Lake, Russian forces rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. ... James I of Aragon James I of Aragon (Catalan: Jaume I, Spanish: Jaime I, Occitan: Jacme I) (Montpellier, February 2, 1208 – July 27, 1276) surnamed the Conqueror, was the king of Aragon, count of Barcelona and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. ... This article is about the year 1244. ... Pope Innocent IV (Manarola, 1180/90 – Naples, December 7, 1254), born Sinibaldo de Fieschi, Pope from 1243 to 1254, belonged to the feudal nobility of Liguria, the Fieschi, counts of Lavagna. ... Only representation of Saint Louis known to be true to life - Early 14th century statue from the church of Mainneville, Eure, France King Louis IX of France or Saint Louis (April 25, 1214/1215 – August 25, 1270) was King of France from 1226 until his death. ... // April 30 - King Louis IX of France released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Zaragoza (Spanish) Spanish name Zaragoza Founded 24 Postal code 50001 - 50018 Website http://www. ... Saint Dominguito del Val was a choirboy and the alleged victim of a ritual murder by Jews in Saragossa in c. ... Ritual murder is murder performed in a ritualistic fashion. ... The Seo de San Salvador is a Roman Catholic cathedral located in Zaragoza, Spain. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Events Königsberg was founded Births Emperor Albert I of Germany, in July Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Categories: 1255 ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was crowned King of England in 1216, despite being less than ten years of age. ... The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Vincible ignorance is, in Catholic ethics, ignorance in a moral matter that could have been removed by diligence reasonable to the circumstances. ... Events Detmold, Germany was founded. ... In the scholastic system of education of the middle ages, disputations (in Latin: disputationes, singular: disputatio) offered a formalized method of debate designed to uncover and establish truths in theology and in other sciences. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal Postal code 08001-08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Events May 12 - The Battle of Lewes begins (ends May 14). ... Clement IV, né Gui Faucoi le Gros ( Guy Foulques the Fat or Guido le Gros) (Saint-Gilles-du-Gard, November 23, year uncertain – Viterbo, November 29, 1268), was elected Pope February 5, 1265, in a conclave held at Perugia that took four months, while cardinals argued over whether to call... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... The Jewish poet Süßkind von Trimberg wearing a Judenhut (Codex Manesse, 14. ... The yellow badge which Jews were forced to wear during the Nazi occupation of Europe: a black Star of David on a yellow field, with the word Jew written inside. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Wrocław. ... // April 22 - The first of the Statutes of Westminster are passed by the English parliament, establishing a series of laws in its 51 clauses, including equal treatment of rich and poor, free and fair elections, and definition of bailable and non-bailable offenses. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks because of his 6 foot 2 inch (1. ... The Statute of the Jewry was a statute issued by Edward I of England in 1275 ending the usury by Jews in England. ... The yellow badge which Jews were forced to wear during the Nazi occupation of Europe: a black Star of David on a yellow field, with the word Jew written inside. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... . Nicholas III, né Giovanni Gaetano Orsini (Rome, ca. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Philippe III Philip III the Bold ( French: Philippe III le Hardi) (April 3, 1245 – October 5, 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group kills people as a form of human sacrifice, and uses their blood in various rituals. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München pronunciation) is the state capital of the German Bundesland of Bavaria. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Ritual murder is murder performed in a ritualistic fashion. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony. ... Anjou is a former county (c. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... After the experience in Jewish legislation which Edward had from 1269 onward, there was only one answer he could give as a true son of the Church to these demands: If the Jews were not to have intercourse with their fellow citizens as artisans, merchants, or farmers, and were not... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks because of his 6 foot 2 inch (1. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... The Crown is a term which is used to separate the government authority and property of the state in a kingdom from any personal influence and private assets held by the current Monarch. ... Usury (//, from the Medieval Latin usuria, interest or excessive interest, from Latin usura interest) was defined originally as charging a fee for the use of money. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Philippe IV, recumbent statue on his tomb, Royal Necropolis, Saint Denis Basilica Philip IV (French: Philippe IV; 1268–November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... Events July 2 - The Battle of Göllheim is fought between Albert I of Habsburg and Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg. ... Adolf of Nassau was King of the Romans 1292-1298. ... Albert I (July 1255 – May 1, 1308) was a German king, duke of Austria, and eldest son of King Rudolph I of Habsburg and Gertrud of Hohenberg. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

14th century

1305
Philip IV of France seizes all Jewish property (except the clothes they wear) and expels them from France (approx. 100,000). His successor Louis X of France allows French Jews to return in 1315.
1320
Shepherds' Crusade attacks the Jews of 120 localities in southwest France.
1321
King Henry II of Castile forces Jews to wear Yellow badge.
1321
Jews in central France falsely charged of their supposed collusion with lepers to poison wells. After massacre of est. 5,000 Jews, king Philip V of France admits they were innocent.
1322
King Charles IV expels Jews from France.
1333
forced mass conversions in Baghdad
1336
Persecutions against Jews in Franconia and Alsace led by lawless German bands, the Armleder.
1348
European Jews are blamed for the Black Death. Charge laid to the Jews that they poisoned the wells. Massacres spread throughout Spain, France, Germany and Austria. More than 200 Jewish communities destroyed by violence. Many communities have been expelled and settle down in Poland.
1348
Basel: 600 Jews burned at the stake, 140 children forcibly baptized, the remaining city's Jews expelled. The city synagogue is turned into a church and the Jewish cemetery is destroyed.
1349 burning of Jews (from a European chronicle written on the Black Death between 1349 and 1352)
1349 burning of Jews (from a European chronicle written on the Black Death between 1349 and 1352)
1359
Charles V of France allows Jews to return for a period of 20 years in order to pay ransom for his father John II of France, imprisoned in England. After few extensions, on Nov 3, 1394 his son Charles VI of France expels all Jews from France.
1386
Wenceslaus, Holy Roman Emperor, expels the Jews from Swabian League and Strasbourg and confiscates their property. On March 18, 1389, a Jewish boy is accused of plotting against a priest. The mob slaughters approx. 3,000 of Prague Jews, destroys the city's synagogue and Jewish cemetery. Wenceslaus insists that the responsibility lay with the Jews for going outside during the Holy Week.
1391
Violence incited by Archdeacon of Ecija Ferrand Martinez, results in over 10,000 murdered Jews. The Jewish quarter in Barcelona is destroyed. The campaign quickly spreads throughout Spain (except for Granada) and destroys Jewish communities in Valencia and Palma De Majorca.
1399
Blood libel in Posen.

Events August 5 - English troops capture William Wallace Wenceslas III becomes king of Bohemia Archbishop of Bordeaux, Bertrand de Got, was elected as Pope Clement V. Philip IV of France accused the Knights Templar of heresy. ... Philip IV the Fair (French: Philippe IV le Bel) (1268 – November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... Louis X of France Louis X the Quarreller, also called the Headstrong or the Stubborn, (French: Louis X le Hutin, Spanish: Luis el Obstinado) (October 4, 1289 – June 5, 1316), King of France from 1314 to 1316, was a member of the Capetian Dynasty. ... Events August 13 - Louis X of France marries Clemence dAnjou. ... Events January 20 - Dante - Quaestio de Aqua et Terra January 20 - Duke Wladyslaw Lokietek becomes king of Poland April 6 - The Scots reaffirm their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath. ... The Shepherds Crusade is two separate events from the 13th and 14th century. ... Events Births September 29 - John of Artois, Count of Eu, French soldier (d. ... Henry of Trastamara (January 13, 1334 Sevilla - May 29, 1379 Santo Domingo de la Calzada) (Enrique de Trastámara), was the illegitimate son of Alfonso XI of Castile and Leonora de Guzman, and half brother to Pedro I the Cruel (or the Lawful, depending on who wrote the history). ... The yellow badge which Jews were forced to wear during the Nazi occupation of Europe: a black Star of David on a yellow field, with the word Jew written inside. ... Events Births September 29 - John of Artois, Count of Eu, French soldier (d. ... Philip V the Tall (French: Philippe V le Long) (1293 - January 3, 1322) was King of France from 1316 to 1322, a member of the Capetian dynasty. ... Events September 27/September 28 - Battle of Ampfing, often called the last battle of knights, in which Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor defeats Frederick I of Austria Births January 11 - Emperor Komyo of Japan (died 1380) Deaths January 3 - King Philip V of France (born 1293) March 16 - Humphrey de... Charles IV the Fair (French: Charles IV le Bel) (1294 – February 1, 1328), a member of the Capetian Dynasty, reigned as King of France from 1322 to 1328. ... Events End of the Kamakura period and beginning of the Kemmu restoration in Japan. ... Baghdad ( translit: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Events End of the Kemmu restoration and beginning of the Muromachi period in Japan. ... The Franconian Rake is originally is a heraldic symbol of the bishops of Würzburg, who - though nominally Dukes of Franconia - only ruled in parts of Franconia. ... Location Administration Capital Strasbourg Regional President Adrien Zeller (UMP) (since 1996) Départements Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2005 est. ... Events April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... Events April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ... Basel (British English traditionally: Basle and more recently Basel , German: Basel , French: Bâle , Italian: Basilea ) is Switzerlands third most populous city (166,563 inhabitants (2004); 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the immediate cantonal and national boundaries made Basel Switzerlands second-largest urban area as... A synagogue (Hebrew: בית כנסת ; beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: שול, shul; Ladino אסנוגה esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (868x684, 268 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Black Death History of antisemitism ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (868x684, 268 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Black Death History of antisemitism ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Orhan I (1326-1359) to Murad I (1359-1389) Berlin joins the Hanseatic League. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 31, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France from 1364 to 1380 and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... John II the Good (French: Jean II le Bon) (April 16, 1319 – April 8, 1364), was King of France 1350–1364, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou and Maine 1332–1350, Count of Poitiers 1344–1350, and Duke of Guienne 1345–1350. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Events Battle of Sempach: Swiss safeguard independence from Habsburg rule End of reign of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Wenceslaus (German: Wenzel; sometimes known as the Drunkard, Czech: Václav IV) of the house of Luxembourg (born February 26, 1361, died August 16, 1419) succeeded his father Charles IV as Holy Roman Emperor (ruled 1378 - 1400) and as king of Bohemia (ruled 1378 - 1419). ... The Swabian League, an association of German cities, principally in the territory which had formed the old duchy of Swabia. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Alsace Département Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Empty page!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! We don,t know anything about it. ... Events August 5 - Anti-Jewish riots erupt in Toledo, Spain and Barcelona. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal Postal code 08001-08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Granada – Greek: (Steph. ... Location Coordinates : 39°29′ N 0°22′ W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name València (Catalan) Spanish name Valencia Founded 137 BC Postal code 46000-46080 Website http://www. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group kills people as a form of human sacrifice, and uses their blood in various rituals. ... PoznaÅ„ ( ; full official name: The Capital City of PoznaÅ„, Latin: , German: , Yiddish: פּױזן Poyzn) is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,900 inhabitants (2002). ...

15th century

1411
Oppressive legislation against Jews in Spain as an outcome of the preaching of the Dominican friar Vicente Ferrer.
1413
Disputation of Tortosa, Spain, staged by the Avignon Pope Benedict XIII, is followed by forced mass conversions.
1420
All Jews are expelled from Lyon.
1421
Persecutions of Jews in Vienna, known as Wiener Gesera (Vienna Edict), confiscation of their possessions, and forced conversion of Jewish children. 270 Jews burned at stake. Expulsion of Jews from Austria.
1422
Pope Martin V issues a Bull reminding Christians that Christianity was derived from Judaism and warns the friars not to incite against the Jews. The Bull was withdrawn the following year on allegations that the Jews of Rome attained it by fraud.
1434
Council of Basel, Sessio XIX: Jews are forbidden to obtain academic degrees and to act as agents in the conclusion of contracts between Christians.
1435
Massacre and forced conversion of Majorcan Jews.
1438
Establishment of mellahs (ghettos) in Morocco.
1447
Casimir IV renews all the rights of Jews of Poland and makes his charter one of the most liberal in Europe. He revokes it in 1454 at the insistence of Bishop Zbigniew.
1449
The Statute of Toledo introduces the rule of purity of blood discriminating Conversos. Pope Nicholas V condems it.
1463
Pope Nicholas V authorizes the establishment of the Inquisition to investigate heresy among the Marranos. See also Crypto-Judaism.
1473-1474
Spain. Massacres of Marranos of Valladolid, Cordoba, Segovia, Ciudad Real.
Simon of Trent blood libel. Illustration in Hartmann Schedel's Weltchronik, 1493
Simon of Trent blood libel. Illustration in Hartmann Schedel's Weltchronik, 1493
1475
A student of the preacher Giovanni da Capistrano, Franciscan Bernardino de Fletre, accuses the Jews in murdering an infant, Simon. The entire community is arrested, 15 leaders are burned at the stake, the rest are expelled. In 1588, Pope Sixtus V confirmed Simon's cultus. Saint Simon was considered a martyr and patron of kidnap and torture victims for almost 500 years. In 1965, Pope Paul VI declared the episode a fraud, and decanonized Simon's sainthood.
1481
The Spanish Inquisition is instituted.
1487-1504
Bishop Gennady exposes the heresy of Zhidovstvuyushchiye (Judaizers) in Eastern Orthodoxy of Muscovy.
1490
Tomás de Torquemada burns 6,000 volumes of Jewish mansucripts in Salamanca.
1491
The blood libel in La Guardia, Spain, where the alleged victim Holy Child of La Guardia became revered as a saint.
1492 Mar. 31
Ferdinand II and Isabella issue General Edict on the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain: approx. 200,000. Some return to the Land of Israel. As many localities and entire countries expel their Jewish citizens (after robbing them), and others deny them entrance, the legend of the Wandering Jew, a condemned harbinger of calamity, gains popularity.
1492 Oct. 24
Jews of Mecklenburg, Germany are accused of stabbing a consecrated wafer. 27 Jews are burned, including two women. The spot is still called the Judenberg. All the Jews are expelled from the Duchy.
1493 Jan. 12
Expulsion from Sicily: approx. 37,000.
1496
Forced conversion and expulsion of Jews from Portugal. This included many who fled Spain four years earlier.
1498
Prince Alexander of Lithuania forces most of the Jews to forfeit their property or convert. The main motivation is to cancel the debts the nobles owe to the Jews. Within a short time the trade grounds to a halt and the Prince invites the Jews back in.

Events February 11 : Peace of ToruÅ„ 1411 signed in ToruÅ„, Poland Births September 21 - Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, claimant to the English throne (died 1460) Juan de Mena, Spanish poet (died 1456) Deaths June 3 - Duke Leopold IV of Austria (born 1371) November 4 - Khalil Sultan, ruler of... Vicente Ferrer may refer to: Saint Vincent Ferrer placed named after him, including: Misión San Vicente Ferrer São Vicente Ferrer This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... // Events March 20 - Henry V becomes King of England Project of Annals of Joseon Dynasty began. ... In the scholastic system of education of the middle ages, disputations (in Latin: disputationes, singular: disputatio) offered a formalized method of debate designed to uncover and establish truths in theology and in other sciences. ... A view of Tortosa Tortosa (Latin Dertusa, Arabic طرطوشة Ṭurá¹­Å«Å¡ah) is the capital of the comarca of Baix Ebre, in the province of Tarragona, in Catalonia, Spain, located at 12 metres above the sea, by the Ebre river. ... Antipope Benedict XIII, born Pedro Martínez de Luna, (b. ... Events May 21 - Treaty of Troyes. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Arpitan: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Rhône-Alpes Department Rhône (69) Subdivisions 9 arrondissements Intercommunality Urban Community of Lyon Mayor Gérard Collomb  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area... Events March 21 - Battle of Baugé. A small French force surprises and defeats a smaller English force under Thomas, Duke of Clarence, a brother of Henry V of England, in Normandy. ... Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... Martin V, né Oddone Colonna or Odo Colonna (1368 – February 20, 1431), Pope from 1417 to 1431, was elected on St. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Events May 30, Battle of Lipany in the Hussite Wars Jan van Eyck paints the wedding of Giovanni Arnoflini The Honorable Passing of Arms at the bridge of Obrigo The Portuguese reach Cape Bojador in Western Sahara. ... For other uses, see number 1435. ... Majorca (Mallorca in Catalan and Spanish, sometimes also encountered in English),: from Latin insula maior, later Maiorica, (major island) is one of the Balearic Islands (Catalan: Illes Balears, Spanish: Islas Baleares), which are located in the Mediterranean Sea and are a part of Spain. ... Events Pachacuti who would later create Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire became the ruler of Cuzco In Italy, the siege of Brescia by the condottieri troops of Niccolò Piccinino was raised after the arrival of Scaramuccia da Forlì. January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary March 18 - Albert... Mellah is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco, an analogue of the European ghetto. ... Events March 6 - Nicholas V becomes Pope. ... Reign From 1446 until June 7, 1492 Coronation On June 25, 1447 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Władyslaw II Jagiełło Zofia Holszańska Consorts Elżbieta Rakuszanka Children with Elżbieta Rakuszanka Władys&#322... Events February 4 - In the Thirteen Years War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. ... Events January 6 - Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with miscegenation. ... Spanish for converted one, converso (feminine conversa) referred to Jews or Muslims or the descendants of Jews or Muslims who had converted, sometimes unwillingly, to Catholicism in Spain, particularly during the 1300s and 1400s. ... Nicholas V, né Tomaso Parentucelli (November 15, 1397 – March 24, 1455) was Pope from March 6, 1447, to his death. ... Events January 5 - Poet Francois Villon is banned from Paris Births January 17 - Frederick III, Elector of Saxony (died 1525) February 24 - Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Italian philosopher (died 1494) October 20 - Alessandro Achillini, Italian philosopher (died 1512) Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Medici, Italian patron of the arts (died 1503... Inquisition (capitalized I) is broadly used, to refer to things related to judgment of heresy by the Catholic Church. ... Marranos (Spanish and Portuguese, literally pigs in the Spanish language, originally a derogatory term from the Arabic محرّم muharram meaning ritually forbidden, stemming from the prohibition against eating the flesh of the animal among both Jews and Muslims), were Sephardic Jews (Jews from the Iberian peninsula) who were forced to adopt... Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as crypto-Jews. The term crypto-Jew is also used to describe descendants of Jews who still (generally secretly) maintain some Jewish traditions, often while adhering... Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ... Events December 12 - Upon the death of Henry IV of Castile a civil war ensues between his designated successor Isabella I of Castile and her sister Juana who was supported by her husband, Alfonso V of Portugal. ... The term marrano refers to the Sephardim, Jews from the Iberian peninsula, who were forced to adopt the identity of Christians, either through coercion as consequence of the cruel persecution of Jews by the Spanish Inquisition, or for forms sake, and became Catholic converts. ... Plaza Mayor and city hall, Valladolid Valladolid is an industrial city and its municipality in central Spain, upon the Rio Pisuerga and within the Ribera del Duero region. ... Location Coordinates : 37° 53’N , 4°46′0″W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... Comarca Capital and Metropolitan Area Province Segovia Autonomous community Castilla y León Postal code 40001-40006 Coordinate systems  - Latitude:  - Longitude 40°57 N 4°10 0 Surface 1636 km² Altitude 1002 m Distance 87 km from Madrid 111 km from Valladolid Population  - Total (2004)  - Density 55. ... Ciudad Real is a city in Castile-La Mancha, Spain, the capital of the province of Ciudad Real. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (842x1280, 422 KB) Das Bild stammt aus Hartmann Schedels Weltchronik von 1493 Ãœbersetzung von der Schwabacher Schrift ins moderne Alphabet: Symon das sellig kindlein zu Trient ist am xxi. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (842x1280, 422 KB) Das Bild stammt aus Hartmann Schedels Weltchronik von 1493 Ãœbersetzung von der Schwabacher Schrift ins moderne Alphabet: Symon das sellig kindlein zu Trient ist am xxi. ... Simon of Trent (? - approx. ... In 1509 Balboa tried to join a Spanish expedition but could not because he owed so many debts January 10—Stephen III of Moldavia defeats the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Vaslui. ... Saint Giovanni da Capistrano (English:John Capistrano, June 24, 1386 – October 23, 1456), Italian friar, theologian and inquisitor, was born in the village of Capistrano, in the diocese of Sulmona in the Abruzzi. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Simon of Trent (? - approx. ... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Sixtus V, born Felice Peretti (December 13, 1521 -– August 27, 1590) was pope from 1585 to 1590. ... Pope Paul VI (Latin: ), (Italian: Paolo VI), born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini (September 26, 1897 – August 6, 1978), reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1963 to 1978. ... Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... The Spanish Inquisition was established in 1478 by Ferdinand and Isabella to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and was under the direct control of the Spanish monarchy. ... Events Richard Fox becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... 1504 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Judaizers is a term used by orthodox Christianity, particularly after the third century, to describe Jewish-Christian groups like the Ebionites and Nazarenes who believed that followers of Jesus needed to keep Jewish law, in particular the laws of the Torah. ... ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Events Tirant Lo Blanc by Joanot Martorell, Martí Joan De Galba is published. ... Grand Inquisitor Tomás de Torquemada For others with similar names, see Torquemada (disambiguation) Tomás de Torquemada (1420, Valladolid, Castile (present-day Spain) - September 16, 1498, Ávila, Castile) was a fifteenth century Spanish Dominican, and an Inquisitor General. ... Salamanca: Plaza Mayor Towers of the Old and New Cathedrals Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Salamanca Salamanca (population 160,000) is a city in western Spain, the capital of the province of Salamanca, which belongs to the autonomous community(region) of Castile-Leon(Castilla y León). ... // Events December 6 - King Charles VIII marries Anne de Bretagne, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group kills people as a form of human sacrifice, and uses their blood in various rituals. ... El Santo Niño de La Guardia or the Holy Infant of La Guardia was the alleged victim of a ritual murder by Jews in the central Spanish province of Toledo (Castilla-La Mancha) in 1491. ... 1492 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Isabella of Castile Isabella (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... Alhambra Decree was issued in 1492 by the Catholic monarchs, (Isabella of Castile married to Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469), of Spain, following the final triumph over the Moors after the fall of Granada. ... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003, including portions of the State of Israel, Jordan, Egypt, and Lebanon. ... 1492 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The great coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Western-Pommerania Mecklenburg is a geographical area located in Northern Germany. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian, Sicilian and Spanish, Σικελία in Greek) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 km² and 5 million inhabitants. ... 1496 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A forced conversion in religion is said to occur when an opponent of a particular religion compels an adherent to give it up, or incur penalties such as job loss, incarceration, torture, or death. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reign From December 12, 1501 until August 19, 1506 Coronation On December 12, 1501 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Kazimierz IV JagielloÅ„czyk Elżbieta Rakuszanka Consorts Helena Children None Date of Birth August 5, 1461 Place of Birth Kraków, Poland Date of...

16th century

Jews from Worms, Germany wear the mandatory yellow badge. A moneybag and garlic in the hands are an anti-semitic stereotype. 16th century drawing
Jews from Worms, Germany wear the mandatory yellow badge. A moneybag and garlic in the hands are an anti-semitic stereotype. 16th century drawing
1505
Ten České Budějovice Jews are tortured and executed after being accused of killing a Christian girl; later, on deathbed, shepherd confesses to fabricating the accusation.
1506 April 19
A marrano expresses his doubts about miracle visions at St. Dominics Church in Lisbon, Portugal. The crowd, led by Dominican monks, kills him, then ransacks Jewish houses and slaughters any Jew they could find. The countrymen hear about the massacre and join in. Over 2,000 marranos killed in three days.
1509 August 19
A converted Jew Johannes Pfefferkorn receives authority of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor to destroy the Talmud and other Jewish religious books, except the Hebrew Bible, in Frankfurt.
1510 July 19
Forty Jews are executed in Brandenburg, Germany for allegedly desecrating the host; remainder expelled. November 23. Less-wealthy Jews expelled from Naples; remainder heavily taxed. 38 Jews burned at the stake in Berlin.
1511 June 6
Eight Roman Catholic converts from Judaism burned at the stake for allegedly reverting.
1516
The first ghetto is established, on one of the islands in Venice.
1519
Martin Luther leads Protestant Reformation and challenges the doctrine of Servitus Judaeorum "... to deal kindly with the Jews and to instruct them to come over to us". February 21. All Jews expelled from Ratisbon/Regensburg.
1520
Pope Leo X allows Jews print Talmud in Venice
1527 June 16
Jews are ordered to leave Florence, but the edict is soon rescinded.
1528
Three judaizers are burned at the stake in Mexico City's first auto da fe.
1535
After Spanish troops capture Tunis all the local Jews are sold into slavery.
Bookcover of On the Jews and Their Lies
Bookcover of On the Jews and Their Lies
1543
In his pamphlet On the Jews and Their Lies Martin Luther advocates an eight-point plan to get rid of the Jews as a distinct group either by religious conversion or by expulsion:
"...set fire to their synagogues or schools..."
"...their houses also be razed and destroyed..."
"...their prayer books and Talmudic writings... be taken from them..."
"...their rabbis be forbidden to teach henceforth on pain of loss of life and limb..."
"...safe-conduct on the highways be abolished completely for the Jews..."
"...usury be prohibited to them, and that all cash and treasure of silver and gold be taken from them..." and "Such money should now be used in ... the following [way]... Whenever a Jew is sincerely converted, he should be handed [certain amount]..."
"...young, strong Jews and Jewesses [should]... earn their bread in the sweat of their brow..."
"If we wish to wash our hands of the Jews' blasphemy and not share in their guilt, we have to part company with them. They must be driven from our country" and "we must drive them out like mad dogs."
Luther "got the Jews expelled from Saxony in 1537, and in the 1540s he drove them from many German towns; he tried unsuccessfully to get the elector to expel them from Brandenburg in 1543. His followers continued to agitate against the Jews there: they sacked the Berlin synagogue in 1572 and the following year finally got their way, the Jews being banned from the entire country."[9] (See also Martin Luther and the Jews)
1540
All Jews are banished from Prague.
1546
Martin Luther's sermon Admonition against the Jews contains accusations of ritual murder, black magic, and poisoning of wells. Luther recognizes no obligation to protect the Jews.
1547
Ivan the Terrible becomes ruler of Russia and refuses to allow Jews to live in or even enter his kingdom because they "bring about great evil" (quoting his response to request by Polish king Sigismund).
1550
Dr. Joseph Hacohen is chased out of Genoa for practicing medicine; soon all Jews are expelled.
1553
Pope Julius III forbids Talmud printing and orders burning of any copy found. Rome’s Inquisitor-General, Cardinal Carafa (later Pope Paul IV) has Talmud publicly burnt in Rome on Rosh Hashanah, starting a wave of Talmud burning throughout Italy. About 12,000 copies were destroyed.
1554
Cornelio da Montalcino, a Franciscan Friar who converted to Judaism, is burned alive in Rome.
1555
In Papal Bull Cum nimis absurdum, Pope Paul IV writes: "It appears utterly absurd and impermissible that the Jews, whom God has condemned to eternal slavery for their guilt, should enjoy our Christian love." He renews anti-Jewish legislation and installs a locked nightly ghetto in Rome. The Bull also forces Jewish males to wear a yellow hat, females - yellow kerchief. Owning real estate or practicing medicine on Christians is forbidden. It also limits Jewish communities to only one synagogue.
1557
Jews are temporarily banished from Prague.
1558
Recanati, Italy: a baptized Jew Joseph Paul More enters synagogue on Yom Kippur under the protection of Pope Paul IV and tries to preach a conversion sermon. The congregation evicts him. Soon after, the Jews are expelled from Recanati.
1559
Pope Pius IV allows Talmud on conditions that it is printed by a Christian and the text is censored.
1563 February
Russian troops take Polotsk from Lithuania, Jews are given ultimatum: embrace Russian Orthodox Church or die. Around 300 Jewish men, women and children were thrown into ice holes of Dvina river.
1564
Brest-Litovsk: the son of a wealthy Jewish tax collector is accused of killing the family's Christian servant for ritual purposes. He is tortured and executed in line with the law. King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland forbids future charges of ritual murder, calling them groundless.
1565
Jews are temporarily banished from Prague.
1566
Antonio Ghislieri elected and, as Pope Pius V, reinstates the harsh anti-Jewish laws of Pope Paul IV. In 1569 he expels Jews dwelling outside of the ghettos of Rome, Ancona, and Avignon from the Papal States, thus ensuring that they remain city-dwellers.
1567
Jews are reauthorised to live in France
1586
Pope Sixtus V forbids printing of the Talmud.
1590
Jewish quarter of Mikulov burns to ground and 15 people die while Christians watch or pillage. King Philip II of Spain orders expulsion of Jews from Lombardy. His order is ignored by local authorities until 1597, when 72 Jewish families are forced into exile.
1593 Feb. 25
Pope Clement VIII confirms the Papal bull of Paul III that expels Jews from Papal states except ghettos in Rome and Ancona and issues Caeca et obdurata ("Blind Obstinacy"): "All the world suffers from the usury of the Jews, their monopolies and deceit. ... Then as now Jews have to be reminded intermittently anew that they were enjoying rights in any country since they left Palestine and the Arabian desert, and subsequently their ethical and moral doctrines as well as their deeds rightly deserve to be exposed to criticism in whatever country they happen to live."

Image File history File links A Jewish couple from Worms, Germany, with the obligatory yellow badge on their clothes. ... Image File history File links A Jewish couple from Worms, Germany, with the obligatory yellow badge on their clothes. ... // Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... The yellow badge which Jews were forced to wear during the Nazi occupation of Europe: a black Star of David on a yellow field, with the word Jew written inside. ... Stereotypes are ideas held by some individuals about members of particular groups, based solely on membership in that group. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ÄŒeské BudÄ›jovice (short form: BudÄ›jovice, German: Budweis [also used in English]) is a city in the Czech Republic. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Marranos (Spanish and Portuguese, literally pigs in the Spanish language, originally a derogatory term from the Arabic محرّم muharram meaning ritually forbidden, stemming from the prohibition against eating the flesh of the animal among both Jews and Muslims), were Sephardic Jews (Jews from the Iberian peninsula) who were forced to adopt... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisbon  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Johannes (Josef) Pfefferkorn (1469-1523) was a German Christian theologian writer who converted from Judaism and actively preached against the Jews. ... Portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1519 (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna). ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... Main Station Frankfurt Frankfurt International Airport For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... 1510 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Germany showing Brandenburg Brandenburg an der Havel is a town in the state of Brandenburg, Germany. ... Host desecration is a sacrilegious act committed against a consecrated host. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... 1511 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... Venice, (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) is the capital of the region of Veneto and the province of the same name in Italy. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) also known as Codex Justinianus is a fundamental work in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 129,175 in 2005) in Bavaria, south-east Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the Danube. ... mary elline m. ... Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... Venice, (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) is the capital of the region of Veneto and the province of the same name in Italy. ... Events January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat River in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... Florences skyline Florences skyline at night from Piazza Michaelangelo Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Events June 19 - Battle of Landriano - A French army in Italy under Marshal St. ... Judaizers is a term used by orthodox Christianity, particularly after the third century, to describe Jewish-Christian groups like the Ebionites and Nazarenes who believed that followers of Jesus needed to keep Jewish law, in particular the laws of the Torah. ... Nickname: La Ciudad de los Palacios Country Mexico State Federal District Founded (as Tenochtitlan) 1325 Head of Government Marcelo Ebrard Area    - City 1,479 1 km² Elevation 2,240 m Population    - City (2005) 8,720,916  - Density 5,741/km² Time zone Central Time zone (UTC-6) 1 Area of... Pedro Berruguete. ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Image File history File links 1543 On the Jews and Their Lies by Martin Luther This image is a book cover. ... Image File history File links 1543 On the Jews and Their Lies by Martin Luther This image is a book cover. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of new religious beliefs that differ from the converts previous beliefs; in some cultures (e. ... Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ... Events and Trends 1541 Hernando de Soto is the first European to see the Mississippi River. ... Portrait by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1531 Johann Friedrich I, Elector of Saxony (30 June 1503 - 3 March 1554), called John the Magnanimous, was head of the Protestant Confederation of Germany (the Schmalkaldic League), Champion of the Reformation. He was the son of John the Steadfast of Saxony and born... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... Events January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Martin Luther has been accused of Anti-Semitism, primarily in relation to his work On the Jews and their Lies. ... Events January 6 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne of Cleves, his fourth Queen consort. ... EXILE is a 6-member Japanese pop music band. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Events January 16 - Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia. ... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... Sigismund is a common name. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... The Ancient Port of Genoa. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... Pope Julius III (September 10, 1487 – March 23, 1555), born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, was Pope from February 7, 1550 to 1555. ... Paul IV, né Giovanni Pietro Carafa (June 28, 1476 – August 18, 1559) was Pope from May 23, 1555 until his death. ... Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Cum nimis absurdum was a papal bull issued by Pope Paul IV dated July 14, 1555 and taking its name from its first words, translated1 Since it is absurd and utterly inconvenient that the Jews, who through their own fault were condemned by God to eternal slavery . ... The yellow badge which Jews were forced to wear during the Nazi occupation of Europe: a black Star of David on a yellow field, with the word Jew written inside. ... The yellow badge which Jews were forced to wear during the Nazi occupation of Europe: a black Star of David on a yellow field, with the word Jew written inside. ... Events Spain is effectively bankrupt. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Recanati is a town of about 20,650 inhabitants in the Marche region of Italy. ... Yom Kippur (יום כיפור yom kippÅ«r) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... Paul IV, né Giovanni Pietro Carafa (June 28, 1476 – August 18, 1559) was Pope from May 23, 1555 until his death. ... Events January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк; Polish: Połock, also spelt as Polacak; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina... The Russian Orthodox Church (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Catholic Church of Russia, is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Daugava or Western Dvina (Russian: За́падная Двина́, Belarusan: Дзьвіна́, Latvian: Daugava, German: Düna, Polish Dźwina) is a river rising in the Valdai Hills flowing through Russia... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Central Square of Brest Brest (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; also known as BieraÅ›cie or BiareÅ›cie (Belarusian: respectfully) formerly Brest-on-the-Bug and Brest-Litovsk is a city (population 290,000 in 2004) in Belarus close to the Polish border where the Western Bug and Mukhavets Rivers meet. ... Reign From April 1, 1548 until July 6, 1572 Coronation On September 15, 1697 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Zygmunt I Stary Bona Sforza Consorts Elżbieta Habsburzanka Barbara Radziwiłł Katarzyna Austriaczka Barbara Giżycka Children with Barbara Gi&#380... // Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... Saint Pius V, né Antonio Ghislieri, from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri (January 17, 1504 – May 1, 1572) was pope from 1566 to 1572 and is a saint of the Catholic Church. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... Map of the Papal States. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Sixtus V, born Felice Peretti (December 13, 1521 -– August 27, 1590) was pope from 1585 to 1590. ... Bold text{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1587 1588 1589 - 1590 - 1591 1592 1593 |-vdsf gno[gldw[pvkijxaiamknn csogfhbvdowkhbfkqhjkhrjkhwgfhbjkpnkfokfgok3pkpk9pjhkt9erktyujkip9kijker9thhrkg9hkitr9gtkih9t0ykltk[u0jo0iey9uhyit90ertyhige9rity9riyh9ujirtyuhjnh-4e9tyigh9thiuy0h8tyh34tu8uy8u8u8u8rtu5y8ru8thu0tru0ut0rhutuh0trhu0hseogtrhr8uyhju8t89er9te9r8fy8shit ass dick bitch fuck | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1560s 1570s 1580s - 1590s - 1600s 1610s 1620s |- | align=center | Centuries... Mikulov (German Nikolsburg) is a town in the Czech Republic, in South Moravian Region. ... Philip II of Spain. ... Lombardy (Italian: Lombardia) is a region in northern Italy between the Alps and the Po river valley. ... Events 17 January - A court case in Guildford recorded evidence that a certain plot of land was used for playing “kreckett” (i. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... Clement VIII, born Ippolito Aldobrandini (Fano, Italy, February 24, 1536 – March 3, 1605 in Rome) was Pope from January 30, 1592 to March 3, 1605. ...

17th century

1603
Frei Diogo Da Assumpacao, a partly Jewish friar who embraced Judaism, burned alive in Lisbon.
1608
The Jesuit order forbids admission to anyone descended from Jews to the fifth generation, a restriction lifted in the 20th century. Three years later Pope Paul V applies the rule throughout the Church, but his successor revokes it.
1612
The Hamburg Senate decides to officially allow Jews to live in the city on the condition there is no public worship.
Expulsion of the Jews from Frankfurt on August 23, 1614: "1380 persons old and young were counted at the exit of the gate"
Expulsion of the Jews from Frankfurt on August 23, 1614: "1380 persons old and young were counted at the exit of the gate"
1614
Vincent Fettmilch, who called himself the "new Haman of the Jews", leads a raid on Frankfurt synagogue that turned into an attack which destroyed the whole community.
1615
King Louis XIII of France decrees that all Jews must leave the country within one month on pain of death.
1615
The Guild led by Dr. Chemnitz, "non-violently" forced the Jews from Worms.
1619
Shah Abbasi of the Persian Sufi Dynasty increases persecution against the Jews, forcing many to outwardly practice Islam. Many keep practicing Judaism in secret.
1624
Ghetto established in Ferrara, Italy.
1632
King Ladislaus IV of Poland forbids Anti-Semitic print-outs.
1648-1655
The Ukrainian Cossacks lead by Bohdan Chmielnicki massacre about 100,000 Jews and similar number of Polish nobles, 300 Jewish communities destroyed.
1655
Oliver Cromwell readmits Jews to England.
1664 May
Jews of Lvov ghetto organize self-defense against impending assault by students of Jesuit seminary and Cathedral school. The militia sent by the officials to restore order, instead joined the attackers. About 100 Jews killed.
1670
Jews expelled from Vienna.
1678
forced mass conversions in Yemen.

King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisbon  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Paul V, né Camillo Borghese (Rome, September 17, 1552 – January 28, 1621) was Pope from May 16, 1605 until his death. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Hamburgs motto: May the posterity endeavour with dignity to conserve the freedom, which the forefathers acquired. ... Image File history File links Expulsion of the Jews from Frankfurt on August 23, 1614, after riots in the Jews Street led by Vincent Fettmilch. ... Image File history File links Expulsion of the Jews from Frankfurt on August 23, 1614, after riots in the Jews Street led by Vincent Fettmilch. ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... Haman is the villain in the Book of Esther. ... Main Station Frankfurt Frankfurt International Airport For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ... Louis XIII (September 27, 1601 – May 14, 1643), called the Just (French: le Juste), was King of France from 1610 to 1643. ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ... // Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... Events January 24 - Alfonso Mendez, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... Ferrara, a town, an archiepiscopal see and a province in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Reign in Poland From November 8, 1632 until May 20, 1648 Reign in Russia From 1610 until 1635 Elected in Poland On November 8, 1632 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Elected in Russia In 1610 Coronation On February 6, 1633 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599–September 3, 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England. ... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... Lviv ( Львів in Ukrainian; Львов, Lvov in Russian; Lwów in Polish; Leopolis in Latin; Lemberg in German—see also cities alternative names) is a city in western Ukraine with 830,000 inhabitants (an additional 200,000 commute daily from... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ...

18th century

1711
Johann Andreas Eisenmenger writes his Entdecktes Judenthum ("Judaism Unmasked"), a work denouncing Judaism and which had a formative influence on modern anti-Semitic polemics.
1712
Blood libel in Sandomierz and expulsion of the town's Jews.
1727
Edict of Catherine I of Russia: "The Jews... who are found in Ukraine and in other Russian provinces are to be expelled at once beyond the frontiers of Russia."
1734
1736: The Haidamaks, paramilitary bands in Polish Ukraine, attack Jews.
1742 Dec
Elizabeth of Russia issues a decree of expulsion of all the Jews out of Russian Empire. Her resolution to the Senate's appeal regarding harm to the trade: "I don't desire any profits from the enemies of Christ". One of the deportees is Antonio Ribera Sanchez, her own personal physician and the head of army's medical dept.
1744
Frederick II The Great (a "heroic genius", according to Hitler) limits Breslau to ten "protected" Jewish families, on the grounds that otherwise they will "transform it into complete Jerusalem". He encourages this practice in other Prussian cities. In 1750 he issues Revidiertes General Privilegium und Reglement vor die Judenschaft: "protected" Jews had an alternative to "either abstain from marriage or leave Berlin" (Simon Dubnow).
1744 Dec
Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresa orders: "... no Jew is to be tolerated in our inherited duchy of Bohemia" by the end of Feb. 1745. In Dec. 1748 she reverses her position, on condition that Jews pay for readmission every ten years. This extortion was known as malke-geld (queen's money). In 1752 she introduces the law limiting each Jewish family to one son.
1762
Rhode Island refuses to grant Jews Aaron Lopez and Isaac Eliezer citizenship stating "no person who is not of the Christian religion can be admitted free to this colony."
1768
Haidamaks massacre the Jews of Uman, Poland.
1771
Voltaire calls Jews "deadly to the human race", promotes racial antisemitism.
1775
Pope Pius VI issues a severe Editto sopra gli ebrei (Edict concerning the Jews). Previously lifted restrictions are reimposed, Judaism is suppressed.
1782
Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II abolishes most of persecution practices in Toleranzpatent on condition that Yiddish and Hebrew are eliminated from public records and judicial autonomy is annulled. Judaism is branded "quintessence of foolishness and nonsense". Moses Mendelssohn writes: "Such a tolerance... is even more dangerous play in tolerance than open persecution".
1790 May 20
Eleazer Solomon is quartered for the alleged murder of a Christian girl in Grodno.
1790
"To Bigotry No Sanction, to Persecution No Assistance" (George Washington's Letter to the Jews of Newport, Rhode Island)
1790-1792
Destruction of most of the Jewish communities of Morocco.
1791
Catherine II of Russia confines Jews to the Pale of Settlement and imposes them with double taxes. Pale of Settlement

1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Johann Andreas Eisenmenger: Anti-Jewish author; born in Mannheim 1654; died in Heidelberg Dec. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group kills people as a form of human sacrifice, and uses their blood in various rituals. ... Flag of Sandomierz Sandomierz Coat of Arms Sandomierz(Sandomir) ( listen) is a city in south-eastern Poland with 25,714 inhabitants (2006). ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... H.I.M. Ekaterina I, Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias Catherine I (In Russian: Екатерина I Алексеевна) (April 15, 1684 – May 17, 1727), the second wife of Peter the Great, reigned as Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... The Haidamaks were paramilitary bands in 18th century Ukraine. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... H.I.M. Yelizaveta Petrovna, Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias (1709-62) Yelizaveta (Yelisavet) Petrovna (Елизаве́та (Елисаве́т) Петро́вна) (December 29, 1709 - January 5, 1762), also known as Elizabeth, was an Empress of Russia (1741 - 1762) who took the country into the War of Austrian succession (1740 - 1748) and the Seven Years... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1924) Area Approx. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... Frederick II of Prussia (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) of Hohenzollern dynasty, ruled the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. ... Wrocław. ... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia The worlds most famous coin, a silver thaler of Maria Theresa, dated 1780 Maria Theresa (German: ; May 13, 1717–November 29, 1780) was Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Haidamaks were paramilitary bands in 18th century Ukraine. ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... ... Pius VI, born Giovanni Angelo Braschi (December 27, 1717 – August 29, 1799), Pope from 1775 to 1799, was born at Cesena. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (Joseph Benedict August Johannes Anton Michel Adam) (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Moses Mendelssohn Moses Mendelssohn (September 6, 1729 – January 4, 1786) was a German Jewish philosopher. ... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Hrodna (or Grodno; Belarusian: Го́радня, Гро́дна; Grodno in Polish, Гродно in Russian, Gardinas in Lithuanian) is a city in Belarus on the Nemunas river, close to the borders of Poland and Lithuania... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Catherine II of Russia Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May 1729–17 November 1796 [O.S. 6 November]) — sometimes referred to as an epitome of the enlightened despot — reigned as Empress of Russia for some 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until... The Pale of Settlement (Russian: Черта оседлости - cherta osedlosti) was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to near the border with eastern/central Europe. ...

19th century

1805
Massacre of Jews in Algeria.
1815
Pope Pius VII reestablishes the ghetto in Rome after the defeat of Napoleon.
1819
A series of anti-Jewish riots in Germany that spread to several neighboring countries: Denmark, Poland, Latvia and Bohemia known as Hep-Hep riots, from the derogatory rallying cry against the Jews in Germany.
1827 August 26
Compulsory military service for the Jews of Russia: Jewish boys under 18 years of age, known as the Cantonists, were placed in preparatory military training establishments for 25 years. Cantonists were encouraged and sometimes forced to baptize.
1835
Oppressive constitution for the Jews issued by Czar Nicholas I of Russia.
1840
The Damascus affair: false accusations cause arrests and atrocities, culminating in the seizure of sixty-three Jewish children and attacks on Jewish communities throughout the Middle East.
1844
Karl Marx praises Bruno Bauer's essays containing demands that the Jews abandon Judaism, and publishes his work On the Jewish Question: "What is the worldly cult of the Jew? Huckstering. What is his worldly god? Money... Money is the jealous God of Israel, besides which no other god may exist... The god of the Jews has been secularized and has become the god of this world", "In the final analysis, the emancipation of the Jews is the emancipation of mankind from Judaism."
1853
Blood libels in Saratov and throughout Russia.
1858
Edgardo Mortara, a six-year-old Jewish boy whom a maid had baptised during an illness, is taken from his parents in Bologna, an episode which aroused universal indignation in liberal circles.
1862
During the American Civil War General Grant issues General Order № 11 (1862), ordering all Jews out of his military district, suspecting them of pro-Confederate sympathy. President Lincoln directs him to rescind the order. Polish Jews are given equal rights. Old privileges forbidding Jews to settle in some Polish cities are abolished.
1871
Speech of Pope Pius IX in regard to Jews: "of these dogs, there are too many of them at present in Rome, and we hear them howling in the streets, and they are disturbing us in all places."
1878
Adolf Stoecker, German anti-Semitic preacher and politician, founds the Social Workers' Party, which marks the beginning of the political anti-Semitic movement in Germany.
1879
Heinrich von Treitschke, German historian and politician, justifies the anti-Semitic campaigns in Germany, bringing anti-Semitism into learned circles.
1879
Wilhelm Marr coins the term Anti-Semitism to distinguish himself from religious Anti-Judaism.
1881-1884
Pogroms sweep southern Russia, propelling mass Jewish emigration from the Pale of Settlement: about 2 million Russian Jews emigrated in period 1880-1924, many of them to the United States (until the National Origins Quota of 1924 and Immigration Act of 1924 largely halted immigration to the U.S. from Eastern Europe and Russia). The Russian word "pogrom" becomes international.
1882
The Tiszaeszlár blood libel in Hungary arouses public opinion throughout Europe.
1882
First International Anti-Jewish Congress convenes at Dresden, Germany.
1882 May
A series of "temporary laws" by Tsar Alexander III of Russia (the May Laws), which adopted a systematic policy of discrimination, with the object of removing the Jews from their economic and public positions, in order to "cause one-third of the Jews to emigrate, one-third to accept baptism and one-third to starve" (according to a remark attributed to Konstantin Pobedonostsev)
1887
Russia introduces measures to limit Jews access to education, known as the quota.
1891
Blood libel in Xanten, Germany.
1891
Expulsion of 20,000 Jews from Moscow, Russia. The Congress of the United States eases immigration restrictions for Jews from the Russian Empire. (Webster-Campster report)
1893
Karl Lueger establishes anti-Semitic Christian Social Party and becomes the Mayor of Vienna in 1897.
The treason conviction of Alfred Dreyfus.
The treason conviction of Alfred Dreyfus.
1894
The Dreyfus Affair in France. In 1898 Émile Zola publishes open letter J'accuse!
1895
A. C. Cuza organizes the Alliance Anti-semitique Universelle in Bucharest, Romania.
1899
Houston Stewart Chamberlain, racist and anti-Semitic author, publishes his Die Grundlagen des 19 Jahrhunderts which later became a basis of National-Socialist ideology.
1899
Blood libel in Bohemia (the Hilsner case).

1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Pius VII, O.S.B., born Barnaba Nicolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti (August 14, 1740 – August 20, 1823), was Pope from March 14, 1800 to August 20, 1823. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Contemporary etching depicting Hep-Hep riot in Frankfurt Hep-Hep riots were pogroms against Jews in Germany and other Central European countries including Austria Poland and Czechoslovakia. ... Naval Battle of Navarino by Carneray 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... // Cantonists in Prussia Cantonists (German: Kantonist, or a person living in a canton) were recruits in Prussia in 1733-1813, liable for draft in one of the cantons. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (February 18, Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Damascus affair was an accusation of ritual murder and blood libel against Jews in Damascus in 1840. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... 1844 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Bruno Bauer (September 6, 1809 - April 13, 1882), was a German theologian, philosopher and historian. ... On the Jewish Question (German: Zur Judenfrage) is an essay by Karl Marx written in autumn 1843 and first published in February 1844 in Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group kills people as a form of human sacrifice, and uses their blood in various rituals. ... Saratov (Russian: ) is a major city in southern European Russia. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Edgardo Mortara (August 27, 1851–March 11, 1940), a Jewish-born Italian Catholic priest, became the centre of an international controversy when, as a six-year-old boy, he was seized from his Jewish parents by the Papal authorities and taken to be raised as a Catholic. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in the local dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly, between Reno River and Sàvena River. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Lincoln, President Ulysses S. Grant, General Jefferson Davis, President Robert E. Lee, General Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action... General Grant may refer to the following: Ulysses S. Grant, a Union general in the American Civil War General Grant tree, the largest Giant Sequoia in the Grant Grove section of Kings Canyon National Park General Grant, a sailing ship This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... General Order No. ... A privilege—etymologically private law or law relating to a specific individual—is an honour, or permissive activity granted by another person or a government. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Blessed Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878, making him the longest-reigning Pope since the Apostle St. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Adolf Stoecker (December 11, 1835 - February 2, 1909) was an anti-semitic German theologian and politician. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Heinrich von Treitschke (September 15, 1834 - April 28, 1896), German historian and political writer, was born at Dresden. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Wilhelm Marr (1819-1904) was a German agitator and theorist, who coined the term antisemitism as a euphemism for the German Judenhass, or Jew-hate. Marr was an unemployed journalist, who claimed that he had lost his job due to Jewish interference. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... The Pale of Settlement (Russian: Черта оседлости - cherta osedlosti) was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to near the border with eastern/central Europe. ... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... National Origins Quota of 1924 according to Immigration Act of May 26, 1924, was the first permanent limitation on immigration, established the “national origins quota system. ... President Coolidge signs the immigration act on the White House South Lawn along with appropriation bills for the Veterans Bureau. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Tiszaeszlár blood libel, also known as the Tiszaeszlár Affair, was a blood libel and trial that set off anti-semitic agitation in Hungary in 1882 - 1883. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Brühls Terrace and the Frauenkirche Dresden [ˈdreːsdn̩] (Sorbian/Lusatian Drježdźany), the capital city of the German federal state of Saxony, is situated in a valley on the river Elbe. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Alexander III (March 10, 1845 – November 1, 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from March 14, 1881 until his death in 1894. ... On May 15, 1882, Tsar Alexander III of Russia introduced the so-called Temporary laws which stayed in effect for more than thirty years and came to be known as the May Laws. ... Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev (Константин Иванович Победоносцев in Russian) (1827 - 1907) was a Russian jurist, statesman, and thinker. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group kills people as a form of human sacrifice, and uses their blood in various rituals. ... 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow (Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, pronounciation: Moskva), capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 878. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1924) Area Approx. ... 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Karl Lueger Karl Lueger (IPA ) (October 24, 1844-March 10, 1910) was an Austrian politician and mayor of Vienna, known for his overtly anti-semitic and racist policies, as well as his skills as an administrator. ... Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Dégradation dAlfred Dreyfus Licence : Source : http://cti. ... Image File history File links Dégradation dAlfred Dreyfus Licence : Source : http://cti. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Émile Zola Émile Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A. C. Cuza (Alexandru C. Cuza; November 8, 1857, IaÅŸi—1947) was a Romanian far right politician and theorist. ... Bucharest (population 2. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Houston Stewart Chamberlain Houston Stewart Chamberlain (September 9, 1855 - January 9, 1927) was a British author noted for his works concerning the Aryan race. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group kills people as a form of human sacrifice, and uses their blood in various rituals. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Hilsner Affair (also known as Hilsner Trial, Hilsner Case or Polná Affair) was series of anti-semitic trials as a result of accusation of blood libel of Jew Leopold Hilsner in Bohemia in 1899 and 1900. ...

20th century

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Roman Catholic Church adhered to a distinction between "good anti-Semitism" and "bad anti-Semitism". The "bad" kind promoted hatred of Jews because of their descent. This was considered un-Christian because the Christian message was intended for all of humanity regardless of ethnicity; anyone could become a Christian. The "good" kind criticized alleged Jewish conspiracies to control newspapers, banks, and other institutions, to care only about accumulation of wealth, etc. Many Catholic bishops wrote articles criticizing Jews on such grounds, and, when accused of promoting hatred of Jews, would remind people that they condemned the "bad" kind of anti-Semitism.[10] The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins and sees itself as the same Church founded by Jesus and maintained through Apostolic Succession from the Twelve Apostles. ...

The victims of a 1905 pogrom in Dnipropetrovsk
The victims of a 1905 pogrom in Dnipropetrovsk
1903
The Kishinev pogrom: 49 Jews murdered.
1903
The first publication of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion hoax in St. Petersburg, Russia (by Pavel Krushevan).
1909
Salomon Reinach and Florence Simmonds refer to "this new Anti-Semitism, masquerading as patriotism, which was first propagated at Berlin by the court chaplain Stöcker, with the connivance of Bismarck." [11] Similarly, Peter N. Stearns comments that "the ideology behind the new anti-Semitism [in Germany] was more racist than religious." [12]
1911
The Blood libel trial of Menahem Mendel Beilis in Kiev.
1915
The World War I prompts expulsion of 250,000 Jews from Western Russia.
The Leo Frank trial and lynching in Atlanta, Georgia turns the spotlight on anti-Semitism in the United States and leads to the founding of the Anti-Defamation League.
1917-1921
Attacked for being revolutionaries or counter-revolutionaries, unpatriotic pacifists or warmongers, religious zealots or godless atheists, capitalist exploiters or bourgeois profiteers, masses of Jewish civilians (by various estimates 70,000 to 250,000, the number of orphans exceeded 300,000) were murdered in pogroms in the course of Russian Civil War. Out of estimated 900 mass pogroms:
1919-1922
Soviet Yevsektsiya (the Jewish section of the Communist Party) attacks Bund and Zionist parties for "Jewish cultural particularism". In April 1920, the All-Russian Zionist Congress is broken up by Cheka led by Bolsheviks, whose leadership and ranks included many anti-Jewish Jews. Thousands are arrested and sent to Gulag for "counter-revolutionary... collusion in the interests of Anglo-French bourgeoisie... to restore the Palestine state." Hebrew language is banned, Judaism is suppressed, along with other religions.
1920
The Jerusalem pogrom of April, 1920 of old Yishuv, incited by Haj Amin Al-Husseini.
The Protocols issued by Russian emigrants in Paris, 1927
The Protocols issued by Russian emigrants in Paris, 1927
The idea that the Bolshevik revolution was a Jewish conspiracy for the world domination sparks worldwide interest in The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. In a single year, five editions are sold out in England alone. In the US Henry Ford prints 500,000 copies and begins a series of anti-Semitic articles in The Dearborn Independent newspaper.
1921 May 1-4
Jaffa riots in Palestine.
1921-1925
Outbreak of Anti-Semitism in USA, led by Ku Klux Klan.
1924
The National Origins Quota of 1924 and Immigration Act of 1924 largely halted immigration to the U.S. from Eastern Europe and Russia; many later saw these governmental policies as having anti-Semitic undertones, as a great many of these immigrants coming from Russia and Eastern Europe were Jews (the "outbreak of anti-Semitism" mentioned in the above entry may have also played a part in the passage of these acts).
1925
Adolf Hitler publishes Mein Kampf.
1929 August 23
The ancient Jewish community of Hebron is destroyed in the Hebron massacre. [14]
1933-1941
Persecution of Jews in Germany rises until they are stripped of their rights not only as citizens, but also as human beings. During this time anti-Semitism reached its all-time high.[2]
  • Law against Overcrowding of German Schools and Universities
  • Law for the Reestablishment of the Professional Civil Service (ban on professions)
1934
2,000 of Afghani Jews expelled from their towns and forced to live in the wilderness.
1935
Nuremberg Laws introduced. Jewish rights rescinded. The Reich Citizenship Law strips them of citizenship. The Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor:
  • Marriages between Jews and citizens of German or kindred blood are forbidden.
  • Sexual relations outside marriage between Jews and nationals of German or kindred blood are forbidden.
  • Jews will not be permitted to employ female citizens of German or kindred blood as domestic servants.
  • Jews are forbidden to display the Reich and national flag or the national colors. On the other hand they are permitted to display the Jewish colors.
1938
Anschluss, pogroms in Vienna, anti-Jewish legislation, deportations to concentration camps.
  • Decree authorizing local authorities to bar Jews from the streets on certain days
  • Decree empowering the justice Ministry to void wills offending the "sound judgment of the people"
  • Decree providing for compulsory sale of Jewish real estate
  • Decree providing for liquidation of Jewish real estate agencies, brokerage agencies, and marriage agencies catering to non-Jews
  • Directive providing for concentration of Jews in houses
1938
Father Charles E. Coughlin, Roman Catholic priest, starts anti-Semitic weekly radio broadcasts in the United States.
1938 November 9-10
Kristallnacht (Night of The Broken Glass). In one night most German synagogues and hundreds of Jewish-owned German businesses are destroyed. Almost 100 Jews are killed, and 10,000 are sent to concentration camps.[15]
1938 November 17
Racial legislation introduced in Italy. Anti Jewish economic legislation in Hungary.
1938 July 6-15
Evian Conference: 31 countries refuse to accept Jews trying to escape Nazi Germany (with exception of Dominican Republic). Most find temporary refuge in Poland. See also Bermuda Conference.
1939
The "Voyage of the damned": S.S. St. Louis, carrying 907 Jewish refugees from Germany, is turned back by Cuba and the US.[16]
1939 February
The Congress of the United States rejects the Wagner-Rogers Bill, an effort to admit 20,000 Jewish refugee children under the age of 14 from Nazi Germany.[17]
General Eisenhower inspecting prisoners' corpses at a liberated concentration camp, 1945
General Eisenhower inspecting prisoners' corpses at a liberated concentration camp, 1945
1939-1945
The Holocaust. About 6 million Jews, including 1.5 million children, systematically killed by Nazi Germany. See also Holocaust denial.
1941
The Farhud pogrom in Baghdad results in 200 Jews dead, 2,000 wounded.
1946 July 4
The Kielce pogrom. 37 (+2) Jews were massacred and 80 wounded out of about 200 who returned home after World War II. There were also killed 2 non-Jewish Poles.
1946
Nikita Khrushchev, then the first secretary of Communist party of Ukraine, closes many synagogues (the number declines from 450 to 60) and prevents Jewish refugees from returning to their homes: "It is not in our interests that the Ukrainians should associate the return of the Soviet power with the return of the Jews." [18]
1948 January 13
Solomon Mikhoels, actor-director of the Moscow State Jewish Theater and chairman of Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee is killed in suspicious car accident (see MGB). Mass arrests of prominent Jewish intellectuals and suppression of Jewish culture follow under the banners of campaign on rootless cosmopolitanism and anti-Zionism.
1948-2001
Anti-Semitism played a major role in the Jewish exodus from Arab lands. The Jewish population in the Arab Middle East and North Africa has decreased from 900,000 in 1948 to less than 8,000 in 2001.
1948 During the Siege of Jerusalem of the Arab-Israeli War, Arab armies were able to conquer the part of the West Bank and Jerusalem; they expelled all Jews (about 2,000) from the Old City (the Jewish Quarter) and destroyed the ancient synagogues that were in Old City as well.
1952 August 12-13
The Night of the Murdered Poets. Thirteen most prominent Soviet Yiddish writers, poets, actors and other intellectuals were executed, among them Peretz Markish, Leib Kwitko, David Hofstein, Itzik Feffer, David Bergelson, Der Nister. [19] [20]

In 1955 UN General Assembly's session a high Soviet official still denied the "rumors" about their disappearance. Image File history File links Jewish victims of one of the pogroms in Ekaterinoslav in 1905. ... Image File history File links Jewish victims of one of the pogroms in Ekaterinoslav in 1905. ... Dnipropetrovsk (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) is Ukraines third largest city with 1. ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Kishinev pogrom was a pogrom (anti-Jewish riot) that took place in Kishinev, then part of the Bessarabia province of Imperial Russia (currently ChiÅŸinău is the capital of independent Moldova) on April 6-7, 1903. ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1992 Russian language imprint, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet image The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Russian: ) is a fraudulent text published in the Russian Empire in the early 20th century that purports to describe a plan to achieve world domination by Jews. ... A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. ... Pavel Aleksandrovich Krushevan (Russian language: Павел Александрович Крушеван; 1860 - 1909) was a journalist, editor and publisher in the Imperial Russia. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Salomon Reinach (August 29, 1858 - 1932) was a French archaeologist. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Adolf Stoecker (December 11, 1835 - February 2, 1909) was an anti-semitic German theologian and politician. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group kills people as a form of human sacrifice, and uses their blood in various rituals. ... Menahem Mendel Beilis (Russian: ; 1874-1934) was a Ukrainian Jew accused of blood libel and ritual murder in a notorious 1913 trial, known as the Beilis trial or Beilis affair. The process sparked international criticism of the anti-Semitic policies of the Russian Empire. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... Lucille and Leo Frank at Franks trial. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755... Symon Petlyura (Симон Петлюра; also spelt Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 – May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian politician. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... Volodymyr Vynnychenko (Ukrainian: Volodymyr Kyrylovych Vynnychenko) (July 26 [O.S. July 14] 1880 – March 6, 1951) was a Ukrainian politician, statesman, and writer. ... The Green Army, which functioned during the Russian Civil War, had its roots in nonpolitical, anarchist or nationalist movements, and formed a third force in contradistinction both to the Reds and to the Whites. ... White army may refer to: The military arm of the White movement, a loose coalition of anti-Bolshevik forces in the Russian Civil War The Saudi Arabian National Guard The National Guard of Kuwait This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Anton Denikin on the day of his resignation in 1920 Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 - August 8, 1947) was a Russian army officer before and during... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Yevsektsiya (alternative spelling: Yevsektsia), Russian: ЕвСекция, the abbreviation of the phrase Еврейская секция (Yevreyskaya sektsiya) was the Jewish section of the Soviet Communist party created to challenge and eventually destroy... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Cheka-KGB emblem: sword and shield The Cheka (ЧК - чрезвычайная комиссия) was the first of many Soviet secret police organizations, created by decree on December 20, 1917 by Vladimir Lenin and led by Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky. ... Bolsheviks (Russian: IPA , derived from bolshinstvo, majority) were members of the Bolshevik faction of the Marxist Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction[1] at the Second Party Congress in 1903 and ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: // Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... Hebrew redirects here. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... This article describes violent events in the Old City of Jerusalem in April 4-7, 1920. ... Yishuv is a Hebrew word meaning settlement. ... Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ... This image is a book cover. ... This image is a book cover. ... 1992 Russian language imprint, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet image The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Russian: ) is a fraudulent text published in the Russian Empire in the early 20th century that purports to describe a plan to achieve world domination by Jews. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... A conspiracy theory attempts to explain the ultimate cause of an event or chain of events (usually political, social, or historical events) as a secret, and often deceptive, plot by a covert alliance of powerful or influential people or organizations. ... WORLD DOMINATION is KOMPRESSORs first compact disc release. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... The Dearborn Loser was a newspaper published by Henry Ford from 1919 through 1927. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... On May 1, 1921, a scuffle began in Tel Aviv-Jaffa between rival groups of Jewish Bolsheviks, carrying Yiddish banners demanding Soviet Palestine, and Socialists parading on May Day. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... National Origins Quota of 1924 according to Immigration Act of May 26, 1924, was the first permanent limitation on immigration, established the “national origins quota system. ... President Coolidge signs the immigration act on the White House South Lawn along with appropriation bills for the Veterans Bureau. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hitler redirects here. ... Cover of Mein Kampf (First Edition) Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The mostly deserted market in the old city. ... The mostly deserted market in the old city. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... This article is about the year. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Anthem: Suroudi Milli Capital (and largest city) Kabul Pashto Persian (DarÄ«)[1] Government Islamic Republic  - President Hamid Karzai  - Vice President Ahmad Zia Massoud  - Vice President Karim Khalili Independence from the United Kingdom   - Declared August 8, 1919   - Recognized August 19, 1919  Area  - Total 652,090 km² (41st) 251,772 sq mi... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... It has been suggested that Reich Citizenship Law be merged into this article or section. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Father Charles Edward Coughlin (October 25, 1891 - October 27, 1979) was a Roman Catholic priest from Royal Oak, Michigan, a priest from Shrine Catholic Church, and one of the first evangelists to preach to a widespread listening audience over the medium of radio during the Great Depression. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... Dots represent large cities where synagogues were destroyed. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Evian Conference was convened at the initiative of US President Franklin D. Roosevelt in July, 1938 to discuss the problem of Jewish refugees. ... The Bermuda Conference was held on April 19, 1943 at Hamilton, Bermuda. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The SS was a steamship which is most famous for carrying 963 Jewish refugees, fleeing the Holocaust during World War II. It was repeatedly denied permission to land in safe harbors in North America and was turned back from Florida on June 4, 1939 after being turned away from Cuba. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Congress in Joint Session. ... 1939 February. ... Supreme Allied Commander General Dwight Eisenhower inspects bodies at concentration camp 1945. ... Supreme Allied Commander General Dwight Eisenhower inspects bodies at concentration camp 1945. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... This article is becoming very long. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... This article is about the year. ... Farhud (translation from Arabic: pogrom, violent dispossession) was a violent pogrom against the Jews of Iraq on June 1-2, 1941. ... Baghdad ( translit: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... Kielce pogrom refers to the events on July 4, 1946, in the Polish town of Kielce, when forty Polish Jews were massacred and eighty wounded out of about two hundred Holocaust survivors who returned home after World War II. Among victims were also two Gentile Poles. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: ; English: Nikita Sergeevič Hruŝëv; IPA: ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov; April 17, 1894 [O.S. April 5]–September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, the sociopolitical ideology based on Marxism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Young Mikhoels Solomon Mikhoels (real surname - Vovsi), Yiddish: ; Russian: (16 March [O.S. 4 March] 1890 - January 12/13, 1948) was a Soviet Jewish actor and director in Yiddish theater and the chairman of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee. ... The Moscow State Jewish Theater, Russian language: Московский Государственный Еврейский Театр, also known by its acronym GOSET: ГОСЕТ) was a Yiddish theater company established in 1919 and shut down in 1948 by the Soviet authorities. ... The Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC, Russian language: Еврейский антифашистский комитет, ЕАК) was formed in Kuibyshev in April 1942 with the official support of the Soviet authorities. ... The Ministry of State Security (MGB) ( Russian: Министерство государственной безопасности (Ministerstvo Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti)) was... Rootless cosmopolitan (Russian language: безродный космополит, bezrodny kosmopolit) was a Soviet euphemism during Joseph Stalins anti-Semitic campaign of 1948–1953, which culminated in the exposure of the alleged Doctors plot. The term and the persecutions by the authorities unmistakably targeted the Jews. ... Anti-Zionism is a term used to describe several different political and religious points of view that have in common some form of opposition to Zionism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the year 2001. ... The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century emigration of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Israel Transjordan, Palestinian militias Commanders Unknown Unknown Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties unknown unknown The siege of Jerusalem was an attempt from Transjordan and local Arab Palestinian Militias to isolate and destroy Jewish Jerusalem. ... ... ... A Jewish quarter is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Night of the Murdered Poets (Russian: ) refers to the night of 12 to 13 August 1952, when thirteen of the most prominent Yiddish writers, poets, artists, musicians and actors of the Soviet Union were secretly executed on the orders from Josef Stalin in the basement of the Lubyanka prison... Peretz Markish (Yiddish: ; Russian: ; 7 December (O.S. 25 November) 1895 in Polonnoye, currently Ukraine - 12 August 1952 in Moscow) was a Jewish Soviet writer who wrote in Yiddish. ... Leib Kvitko (Russian: ) (October 15, 1890 — August 12, 1952) was a prominent Yiddish poet, an author of familiar childrens poems and a member Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC). ... David Hofstein (Russian: ; 1889 — August 13, 1952) was a Yiddish poet. ... Itzik Feffer, Itzhak Pfeffer, or Itzik Fefer (Russian (language): Исаак Соломонович Фефер) (1900—August 12, 1952) was a Soviet Yiddish poet who fell victim to Stalins purges. ... David (or Dovid) Bergelson (דוד בערגעלסאָן) (August 12, 1884–August 12, 1952) was a Yiddish language writer. ... Der Nister (1884 in Berdichev, Ukraine – 1950 the Soviet Gulag) was the penname of Pinchas Kahanovich, a Yiddish author, philosopher, translator, and critic. ...

1952
The Prague Trials in Czechoslovakia.
1953
The Doctors' plot false accusation in the USSR. Scores of Soviet Jews dismissed from their jobs, arrested, some executed. The USSR was accused of pursuing a "new anti-Semitism." [21] Stalinist opposition to "rootless cosmopolitans" – a euphemism for Jews – was rooted in the belief, as expressed by Klement Gottwald, that "treason and espionage infiltrate the ranks of the Communist Party. This channel is Zionism." [22] This newer anti-Semitism was, in effect, a species of anti-Zionism.
1964
The Roman Catholic Church under Pope Paul VI issues the document Nostra Aetate as part of Vatican II, repudiating the doctrine of Jewish guilt for the Crucifixion.
"Judaism Without Embellishments" published by the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR in 1963
"Judaism Without Embellishments" published by the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR in 1963
1960s-1991
The rise of Zionology in the Soviet Union. In 1983, the Department of Propaganda and the KGB's Anti-Zionist committee of the Soviet public orchestrates formally "anti-Zionist" campaign.
1968
Polish 1968 political crisis. The state-organized anti-Semitic campaign in the People's Republic of Poland under guise of "anti-Zionism" drives out most of remaining Jewish population.
1972
The Munich Olympic Massacre.
1983
The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod officially disassociates itself from "intemperate remarks about Jews" in Luther's works. Since then, many Lutheran church bodies and organizations have issued similar statements. (See Martin Luther and the Jews)
Since 1987
Activities of Pamyat and other "nonformal" ultra-nationalist organizations in the Soviet Union.
1992 March 17
The Israeli Embassy Attack in Buenos Aires. 29 killed, and 242 wounded.
1994 July 18
Buenos Aires. The Argentina-Israeli Mutual Association building bombing. 86 killed, 300 wounded.
1999 August 10
Buford O. Furrow, Jr. kills mail carrier Joseph Santos Ileto and shoots five people in the August 1999 Los Angeles Jewish Community Center shooting.

1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Prague Trials were a series of Stalinist and largely anti-Semitic show trials in Czechoslovakia. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Doctors plot (Russian language: дело врачей (doctors affair), врачи-вредители (doctors-saboteurs) or врачи-убийцы (doctors-killers)) was an alleged conspiracy to eliminate the leadership of the Soviet Union by means of Jewish doctors poisoning top leadership. ... Rootless cosmopolitan (Russian language: безродный космополит, bezrodny kosmopolit) was a Soviet euphemism during Joseph Stalins anti-Semitic campaign of 1948–1953, which culminated in the exposure of the alleged Doctors plot. The term and the persecutions by the authorities unmistakably targeted the Jews. ... Klement Gottwald (November 23, 1896, DÄ›dice (VyÅ¡kov), South Moravia, Austria-Hungary (now Czechia) - March 14, 1953) was a Czechoslovakian Communist politician, longtime leader of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSÄŒ or CPCz or CPC), prime minister and president of Czechoslovakia. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins and sees itself as the same Church founded by Jesus and maintained through Apostolic Succession from the Twelve Apostles. ... Pope Paul VI (Latin: ), (Italian: Paolo VI), born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini (September 26, 1897 – August 6, 1978), reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1963 to 1978. ... Nostra Aetate is the Declaration on the Relation of the Church with Non-Christian Religions of the Second Vatican Council. ... The Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... Crucifixion of St. ... Judaism Without Embellishments, (Ukrainian edition) by Trofim Kichko, published by the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in 1963: It is in the teachings of Judaism, in the Old Testament, and in the Talmud, that the Israeli militarists find inspiration for their inhuman deeds, racist theories, and expansionist designs. ... Judaism Without Embellishments, (Ukrainian edition) by Trofim Kichko, published by the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in 1963: It is in the teachings of Judaism, in the Old Testament, and in the Talmud, that the Israeli militarists find inspiration for their inhuman deeds, racist theories, and expansionist designs. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Zionology (Russian language: сионология sionologiya) was a doctrine promulgated in the Soviet Union during the course of the Cold War, and intensified after 1967 Six Day War. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for Committee for State Security, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ... On March 29, 1983, the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union has approved the resolution 101/62ГС to Support the proposition of the Department of Propaganda of the Central Committee and the KGB USSR about the creation of the Anti-Zionist... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Banners from March 1968. ... The Peoples Republic of Poland or Polish Peoples Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1989, during its period of rule by the Communist party, officially called the Polish United Workers Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, or PZPR). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Black September terrorist on the balcony of the Israeli hostel at the Olympic village The Munich Massacre occurred at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany, when members of the Israeli amateur wrestling team were taken hostage by the Palestinian group Black September, an organization designated terrorist by the United... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS) is the second-largest Lutheran body in the United States. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Martin Luther has been accused of Anti-Semitism, primarily in relation to his work On the Jews and their Lies. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The symbol of NPF Pamyat with the Russian swastika Pamyat (Russian language: Память, English translation: Memory) is a Russian ultra-nationalist organization identifying itself as the Peoples National-patriotic Orthodox Christian movement. History In the end of 1970s, a historical association Vityaz (В&#1080... Ultra-nationalists are extreme nationalists or patriots. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... The Israeli Embassy attack in Buenos Aires was a bomb attack against Israels embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina on March 17, 1992. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Coordinates: Found 1536, 1580 Chief of Government Jorge Telerman Area    - City 203 km²  (78. ... The AMIA Bombing was an attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (Argentine Israelite Mutual Association, or AMIA) building in Buenos Aires on July 18, 1994. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Buford ONeal Furrow, Jr. ... The August 1999 Los Angeles Jewish Community Center shooting occurred on August 10, 1999, at around 10:50 a. ...

21st century

2001 after September 11
"Support of Israel" is among the reasons cited by Osama bin Ladin/Al-Qaeda for the 9/11 attacks.
2002
Massive European wave of attacks on Jews and Jewish institutions between March and May, with largest number of attacks occurring in France.
2003 October 16
The Malaysian Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir Mohammed draws standing ovation at the 57-member Organization of the Islamic Conference for his speech. An excerpt: "...But today the Jews rule this world by proxy. They get others to fight and die for them... They invented socialism, communism, human rights and democracy so that persecuting them would appear to be wrong..."
2003
The Istanbul Bombings.
2004 June
A series of attacks on Jewish cemeteries in Wellington, New Zealand.
2004 September
The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, a part of the Council of Europe, called on its member nations to "ensure that criminal law in the field of combating racism covers anti-Semitism" and to penalize intentional acts of public incitement to violence, hatred or discrimination, public insults and defamation, threats against a person or group, and the expression of anti-Semitic ideologies. It urged member nations to "prosecute people who deny, trivialize or justify the Holocaust". The report was drawn up in wake of a rise in attacks on Jews in Europe. The report said it was Europe's "duty to remember the past by remaining vigilant and actively opposing any manifestations of racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and intolerance... Anti-Semitism is not a phenomenon of the past and... the slogan 'never again' is as relevant today as it was 60 years ago." ([3])
2005 September
Throughout the Polish election Radio Maryja continued to promote antisemitic views, including denial of the facts of the Jedwabne pogrom in 1941. Their support of right-wing conservative Law and Justice party is considered a major factor in their electoral victory. [23]
2005 October
A nazi swastika was spray-painted to the side of Temple Beth El synagogue in Portland, Maine.
2005
A group of 15 members of the State Duma of Russia demands that Judaism and Jewish organizations be banned from the country. In June, 500 prominent Russians demand that the state prosecutor investigate ancient Jewish texts as "anti-Russian" and ban Judaism. The investigation was launched, but halted among international outcry.
2005 December
Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad widens the hostility between Iran and Israel by denying the Holocaust during a speech in the Iranian city of Zahedan. He made the following comments on live television: "They have invented a myth that Jews were massacred and place this above God, religions and the prophets." Continuing, he suggested that if the Holocaust had occurred, that it was the responsibility of Europeans to offer up territory to Jews: "This is our proposal: give a part of your own land in Europe, the United States, Canada or Alaska to them [the Jews] so that the Jews can establish their country." See Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Israel
2006 February
A French Jew, Ilan Halimi is kidnapped and tortured to death for 23 days in what Paris police have officially declared an anti-Semitic act [24] and this event causes international outcry. [25] On May 9, the Helsinki Commission held a briefing titled "Tools for Combating Anti-Semitism: Police Training and Holocaust Education". [26]
2006 March
Two synagogues in Montreal were vandalized with spray-painted swastikas and Nazi SS symbols. [27]
2006 July
Naveed Afzal Haq kills Pamela Waechter and injures five others in the July 2006 Seattle Jewish Federation shooting.
2006 August
A restaurant called Hitlers' Cross opened in Bombay. After protests from the Indian Jewish community, Israel and Germany the proprietors announced that they would change the name. [28]
2006 December
The International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust was a two-day conference that opened on December 11, 2006 in Tehran, Iran; many saw it as a conference rife with antisemitism, anti-Zionism, and Holocaust denial.

Anti-Semitism is regarded by some as a cause of the continuing terrorism against Israel over the course of the Arab-Israeli conflict. This article is about the year 2001. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mahathir bin Mohamad (born December 20, 1925 in Alor Star, Kedah) was the Prime Minister of Malaysia from July 16, 1981 to 2003. ... The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC; Arabic: منظمة المؤتمر الإسلامي; Turkish: Ä°slam Konferansı Örgütü; Persian: سازمان کنفرانس اسلامی; French: Organisation de la Conférence Islamique) is an inter-governmental organization with a Permanent Delegation to the United Nations. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Istanbul Bombings were two terrorist attacks carried out on two days in November 2003. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wellington (Te Whanganui-a-Tara or Poneke in Māori) is the capital of New Zealand, the countrys second largest urban area and the most populous national capital in Oceania. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC) is an independent body (agency) of the European Union based in Vienna whose goal is to provide the EU with objective, reliable and comparable data at European level on the phenomena of racism and xenophobia in order to help them take... The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg European Flag: used by the Council of Europe and by the European Union The Council of Europe (French: Conseil de lEurope , German: Europarat /ˌɔɪ.ˈro. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Signs such as this one in Łagów are a common sight in rural Poland, indicating the local frequency of the station. ... The Jedwabne Pogrom (or Jedwabne Massacre) was a massacre of Jewish people living in and near the town of Jedwabne in Poland that occurred during World War II, in July 1941. ... Then-Prime Minister Marcinkiewicz, Lech KaczyÅ„ski, and Maria KaczyÅ„ska during KaczyÅ„skis swearing in as President of Poland, December 23, 2005. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...   (Persian: ‎ ​, IPA: ), transcribed into English as Mahmud or Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad, Ahmady Nejad) (born October 28, 1956) is the current president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... Zahedan (Persian: زاهدان) is an Iranian city and the center of the province of Sistan and Baluchistan. ... During his presidency, Mahmoud Ahmadinejads speeches and statements have contributed to increased tensions between Iran and Israel, and between Iran and a few Western nations. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ilan Halimi (1982? - 13 February 2006) was a young French Jew of Moroccan descent kidnapped on 21 January 2006, by a gang . ... Torture murder is a loosely defined legal term to describe murderers who kill their victims by slowly torturing them to death over a prolonged period of time. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Concordia Salus Coordinates: Country Canada Province Québec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area    - City 366. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Naveed Afzal Haq (born September 23, 1975) is an American man of Pakistani descent who committed the July 2006 Seattle Jewish Federation shooting. ... The July 2006 Seattle Jewish Federation shooting occurred on July 28, 2006, at around 4:00 p. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hitlers Cross was the name of a Hitler-themed restaurant at Kharghar in Navi Mumbai, a satellite city of Mumbai. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust was opened on December 11, 2006 in Tehran, Iran, by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to question the scale of the Holocaust. ... Anti-Zionism is a term used to describe several different political and religious points of view that have in common some form of opposition to Zionism. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... Since the failure of the Camp David Summit in the summer of 2000, many acts of terrorism were committed by individuals, militant Palestinian groups, and members of the Palestinian National Authority against Israeli civilians. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


See also

The Eternal Jew (German: Der ewige Jude): 1937 German poster advertising an antisemitic Nazi movie. ... New antisemitism is the concept of an international resurgence of attacks on Jewish symbols, as well as the acceptance of antisemitic beliefs and their expression in public discourse, coming from three political directions: the political left, far-right, and Islamism. ... List of blood libels against Jews. ... It has been suggested that Christian opposition to anti-Semitism be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity and anti-Semitism. ... This article describes issues of antisemitism (hostility towards or discrimination against Jews) in the Arab world. ... This article covers: The prevalence of antisemitism amongst Muslims - and whether it is more or less common than amongst people of other religions. ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... The history of the Jews in Poland reaches back over a millennium. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... In compiling the history of ancient Israel and Judah, there are many available sources. ... This article describes the history of the modern State of Israel, from its Independence Proclamation in 1948 to the present. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Anti-Zionism is a term used to describe several different political and religious points of view that have in common some form of opposition to Zionism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Righteous Among the Nations (Hebrew: חסידי אומות העולם, Hasidei Umot HaOlam), in contemporary usage, is a term often used to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust in order to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis. ... This is a list of resources analyzing antisemitism in the alphabetical order of authors name. ...

Books

  • ISBN 0-7065-1327-4 Anti-Semitism, Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem, 1974.
  • ISBN 1-55972-436-6 But Were They Good for the Jews? Over 150 Historical Figures Viewed Fom a Jewish Perspective (by Elliot Rosenberg)
  • ISBN 0-06-015698-8 A History of the Jews (by Paul Johnson)
  • ISBN 0-7879-6851-X The New Anti-Semitism (by Phyllis Chesler)
  • ISBN 0-06-054246-2 Never Again?: The Threat of the New Anti-Semitism (by Abraham Foxman)
  • ISBN 0-300-08486-2 Stalin's Secret Pogrom: The Postwar Inquisition of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (by Joshua Rubenstein)
  • ISBN 0-253-33784-4 The Moscow State Yiddish Theater (by Jeffrey Veidlinger)
  • ISBN 0-8276-0636-2 History and Hate: The Dimensions of Anti-Semitism (ed. David Berger)
  • ISBN 0-8091-2702-4 The Anguish of the Jews: Twenty-Three Centuries of Antisemitism (by Edward H. Flannery)
  • ISBN 0-88619-064-9 None is too many: Canada and the Jews of Europe, 1933-1948 (by Irving M. Abella, Harold M. Troper)
  • ISBN 0-8050-5944-X The Enemy at His Pleasure: A Journey Through the Jewish Pale of Settlement During World War I (by S. Ansky, translated by Joachim Neugroschel)
  • ISBN 0-393-31839-7 Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice (by Bernard Lewis)
  • ISBN 0-8419-0910-5 The Destruction of European Jews (by Raul Hilberg) Holmes & Meier Publishers. 1985
  • ISBN 0-275-98101-0 Islam at War (by George Nafziger & Mark Walton) Greenwood Publishers Group. 2003

Shloyme Zanvl Rappoport (1863–1920), better known by the pseudonym S. Ansky, was a scholar who documented Jewish folklore and mystical beliefs. ... George F. Nafziger is an American writer, an author and editor of numerous books and articles in military history. ...

References

  1. ^ Our common inhumanity: anti-semitism and history by Richard Webster (a review of Antisemitism: The Longest Hatred by Robert S. Wistrich, Thames Methuen, 1991
  2. ^ Socrates Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History VI,16
  3. ^ "Toledo", Catholic Encyclopedia [1]
  4. ^ Benbassa, Esther (2001). The Jews of France: A History from Antiquity to the Present. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09014-9.
  5. ^ Ben-Sasson, H.H., Editor; (1969). A History of The Jewish People. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-674-39731-2 (paper).
  6. ^ Halsall, Paul (1996). Innocent III: Letter on the Jews 1199. Internet Medieval Source Book. Fordham University. Retrieved on 2006-11-27.
  7. ^ [Ben-Sasson, H.H., Editor; (1969). A History of The Jewish People. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-674-39731-2 (paper).]
  8. ^ Rindfleisch article in the Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) by Gotthard Deutsch, S. Mannheimer
  9. ^ Paul Johnson, A History of the Jews (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1987), 242.
  10. ^ David Kertzer, The Popes Against the Jews.
  11. ^ Reinach, Salomon & Simmonds, Florence. Orpheus: A General History of Religions, G. P. Putnam & Sons, 1909, p. 210.
  12. ^ Stearns, Peter N. Impact of the Industrial Revolution: Protest and Alienation. Prentice Hall, 1972, p. 56.
  13. ^ Solzhenitsyn 200 Years Together. Note: in the source the numbers don't add up to full 100%
  14. ^ Hebron Massacre
  15. ^ Kristallnacht and The World's Response
  16. ^ The Tragedy of the S.S. St. Louis
  17. ^ A Decision Not to Save 20,000 Jewish Children
  18. ^ Joseph Schechtmann, Star in Eclipse: Russian Jewry Revisited
  19. ^ Stalin's Secret Pogrom: The Postwar Inquisition of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (introduction) by Joshua Rubenstein
  20. ^ Seven-fold Betrayal: The Murder of Soviet Yiddish by Joseph Sherman
  21. ^ Schwarz, Solomon M. "The New Anti-Semitism of the Soviet Union," Commentary, June 1949.
  22. ^ Pravda 1952, November 21
  23. ^ Stephen Roth Institute, Annual Report, Poland
  24. ^ Rally honors legacy of slain French Jew by Norm Oshrin (NJ Jewish News)
  25. ^ Rutgers University Students Pay Tribute to Hate-Crime Victim May 01, 2006
  26. ^ OSCE at 'Critical Point' in Fight Against Anti-Semitism May 12, 2006
  27. ^ "Global Anti-Semitism:Selected Incidents Around the World in 2006"
  28. ^ The Coordination Forum for Countering Antisemitism

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 27 is the 331st day (332nd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... David I. Kertzer is Paul Dupee, Jr. ... Salomon Reinach (August 29, 1858 - 1932) was a French archaeologist. ... Solzhenitsyn was exiled from the Soviet Union for his book The Gulag Archipelago. ...

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