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Encyclopedia > History of United States Republican Party

The Republican Party was born in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. For the current party and its history since 1980 see Republican Party (United States) The Republican Party was established in 1854 by a coalition of former Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free-Soilers who opposed the expansion of slavery and held a Hamiltonian vision for modernizing the United States. ...

The Schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin where the Republican Party was organized in 1854
The Schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin where the Republican Party was organized in 1854

Contents

Download high resolution version (864x1152, 301 KB)A photograph of the Little White Schoolhouse of Ripon, WI. Taken November 4 by User:Laharl. ... Download high resolution version (864x1152, 301 KB)A photograph of the Little White Schoolhouse of Ripon, WI. Taken November 4 by User:Laharl. ...


1854-1860

The new party was created in 1854 as an act of defiance against what activists denounced as the Slave Power--the powerful class of slaveholders who were conspiring to control the federal government and to spread slavery nationwide. The name "Republican" gain such favor in 1854 simply because as a title it connected voters with the original political organization of Thomas Jefferson in the 1790s. Thus the leaders drew upon the tradition of the National Republican Party of John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay, as well as Jefferson's Democratic-Republican Party. The party founders adopted the name "Republican" to indicate it was the carrier of "republican" beliefs about civic virtue, and opposition to aristocracy and corruption. The Slave Power was the term used in the Northern United States in the period 1840-1865 to describe the political power of the slaveholding class in the South. ... The First Party System is the term historians give to the political system operating the United States from about 1792 to 1820. ... The National Republican Party was a United States political party that existed in the first half of the 19th century. ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was an American lawyer, diplomat, politician, and President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 3, 1829). ... Henry Clay (April 12, 1777 in Hanover County, Virginia, USA – June 29, 1852 in Washington, D.C.) was a leading American statesman and orator who served in both the House of Representatives and Senate. ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ...


Ripon, Wisconsin and Jackson, Michigan, claim the birthplace honors, but many other cities had similar meetings at about the same time. Delegates in Jackson, Michigan on July 6, 1854 declared their new party opposed to the expansion of slavery into new territories, as permitted by the proposed Kansas-Nebraska Act. They selected a state-wide slate of candidates. More than just expansion, the party opposed what it called the Slave Power, that is the political control over the national government exerted by southern slave owners. Besides opposition to slavery, the new party put forward a vision of modernization--emphasizing higher education, banking, railroads, industry and cities, while promising free homesteads to farmers. They vigorously argued that free labor was superior to slavery and the very foundation of civic virtue and true American values. (The value system was called "republicanism".) The Republicans absorbed the previous traditions of its members, most of whom had been Whigs, and some of whom had been Democrats or members of third parties especially the Free Soil Party and American Party. Many Democrats who joined up were rewarded with governorships: (Nathaniel P. Banks of Massachusetts, Kinsley Bingham of Michigan, William H. Bissell of Illinois, Salmon P. Chase of Ohio, Hannibal Hamlin of Maine, Samuel J. Kirkwood of Iowa, Ralph Metcalf of New Hampshire, Lot Morrill of Maine, and Alexander Randall of Wisconsin) or seats in the U.S. Senate (Bingham and Hamlin, as well as James R. Doolittle of Wisconsin, John P. Hale of New Hampshire, Preston King of New York, Lyman Trumbull of Illinois, and David Wilmot of Pennsylvania.) Since its inception, its chief opposition has been the Democratic Party, but the amount of flow back and forth of prominent politicians between the two parties was quite high from 1854 to 1896. Ripon is a city located in Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin. ... Jackson is a city located in the south central area of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... The Kansas–Nebraska Act was an Act of Congress passed on January 23, 1854 organizing a territorial government for the lands that later became the states of Kansas and Nebraska. ... The Slave Power was the term used in the Northern United States in the period 1840-1865 to describe the political power of the slaveholding class in the South. ... Whig Party banner from 1848 with candidates Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore. ... The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States organized in 1848 that petered out by about 1852. ... The Know-Nothing movement was a nativist American political movement of the 1850s. ... // History Predecessors The Democratic Partys origins lie in the original Republican Party founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1792. ... Nathaniel Prentiss Banks (January 30, 1816–September 1, 1894), American politician and soldier, was born at Waltham, Massachusetts. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Photographic portrait of Hannibal Hamlin Hannibal Hamlin (August 27, 1809 – July 4, 1891) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... Samuel Jordan Kirkwood (December 20, 1813 - September 1, 1894), twice represented Iowa as a United States Senator; first, from 1866 to 1867 and again from 1877 to 1881. ... John Parker Hale (March 31, 1806 - November 19, 1873) was an American politician. ... Preston King (October 14, 1806-November 12, 1865) was a Representative and a Senator from New York; born in Ogdensburg, New York on October 14, 1806. ... Lyman Trumbull was the United States Senator from Illinois during the American Civil War Categories: American politician stubs ... David Wilmot (January 20, 1814–March 16, 1868) was a U.S. abolitionist and political figure. ... // History Predecessors The Democratic Partys origins lie in the original Republican Party founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1792. ...

Abraham Lincoln, the 1st Republican to be elected President of the United States (1861–1865).
Abraham Lincoln, the 1st Republican to be elected President of the United States (18611865).

John C. Frémont ran as the first Republican nominee for President in 1856, using the political slogan: "Free soil, free labor, free speech, free men, Frémont." Although Frémont's bid was unsuccessful, the party showed a strong base. It dominated in New England, New York and the northern Midwest, and had a strong presence in the rest of the North. It had almost no support in the South, where it was roundly denounced in 1856-60 as a divisive force that threatened civil war. The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 ended the domination of the fragile coalition of pro-slavery southern Democrats and conciliatory northern Democrats which had existed since the days of Andrew Jackson. Instead, a new era of Republican dominance based in the industrial and agricultural north ensued. Republicans still often refer to their party as the "party of Lincoln" in honor of the first Republican President. Portrait of Abraham Lincoln. ... Portrait of Abraham Lincoln. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... John C. Frémont John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813–July 13, 1890), born John Charles Fremon, was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the United States Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first Presidential candidate of a major... The presidential seal was first used by president Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... A political slogan is a slogan used in a political context. ... The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States organized in 1848 that petered out by about 1852. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845), was the seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), hero of the Battle of New Orleans (1815), a founder of the Democratic Party, and the eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy. ...

In the 19th century the United States invented or developed a number of new methods for conducting American Election Campaigns. ...

1860-1890

Lincoln proved brilliantly successful in uniting all the factions of his party to fight for the Union. However he usually fought the Radical Republicans who demanded harsher measures. Most Democrats at first were War Democrats, and supportive until the fall of 1862. When Lincoln added the abolition of slavery as a war goal, many war Democrats became "peace Democrats.". All the state Republican parties accepted the antislavery goal except Kentucky. In Congress the party passed major legislation to promote rapid modernization, including a national banking system, high tariffs, an income tax, many excise taxes, paper money issued without backing ("greenbacks"), a huge national debt, homestead laws, and aid to education and agriculture. The Republicans denounced the peace-oriented Democrats as Copperheads and won enough War Democrats to maintain their majority in 1862, and reelect Lincoln easily in 1864. During the war upper middle class men in major cities formed Union Leagues, to promote and help finance the war effort. Radical Republicans were certain Republicans in Congress and other federal and state leaders during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras in U.S. history. ... War Democrats were those who broke with the majority of the Democratic Party and supported the military policies of President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War of 1861-1865. ... The Copperheads were a group of Northern Democrats who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ... War Democrats were those who broke with the majority of the Democratic Party and supported the military policies of President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War of 1861-1865. ... A Union League is one of a number of organizations established 1863-64 during the American Civil War to promote loyalty to the Union side and the policies of Abraham Lincoln. ...


In Reconstruction how to deal with the ex-Confederates and the freed slaves or Freedmen were the major issues. By 1864 Radical Republicans controlled Congress and demanded more aggressive action against slavery, and more vengeance toward the Confederates. Lincoln held them off just barely. Republicans at first welcomed President Andrew Johnson; the Radicals thought he was one of them and would take a hard line in punishing the South. Johnson however broke with them and formed a loose alliance with moderate Republicans and Democrats. The showdown came in the Congressional elections of 1866, in which the Radicals won a sweeping victory and took full control of Reconstruction, passing key laws over the veto. Johnson was impeached by the House, but acquitted by the Senate. With the election of Ulysses S. Grant in 1868 the radicals had control of Congress, the party and the Army, and attempted to build a solid Republican base in the South using the votes of Freedmen, Scalawags and Carpetbaggers, supported directly by U.S. Army detachments. The Republicans all across the South formed local clubs called Union Leagues that effectively mobilized the voters, discussed issues, and when necessary fought off Ku Klux Klan attacks. Thousands died on both sides. Reconstruction-era military districts in the South For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. ... Radical Republicans were certain Republicans in Congress and other federal and state leaders during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras in U.S. history. ... For other people named Andrew Johnson, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. ... The term scalawag or scallywag traces its origin to the post-Civil War era in the South of the United States. ... American usage In the United States, the negative term carpetbagger was used to refer to a Northerner who traveled to the South after the American Civil War, through the late 1860s and the 1870s, during Reconstruction. ... A Union League is one of a number of organizations established 1863-64 during the American Civil War to promote loyalty to the Union side and the policies of Abraham Lincoln. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ...


Grant supported radical reconstruction programs in the South, the 14th Amendment, equal civil and voting rights for the freedmen; most of all he was the hero of the war veterans, who marched to his tune. The party had become so large that factionalism was inevitable; it was hastened by Grant's tolerance of high levels of corruption typified by the Whiskey Ring. The "Liberal Republicans" split off in 1872 on the grounds that it was time to declare the war finished and bring the troops home. Many of the founders of the GOP joined the movement, as did many powerful newspaper editors. They nominated Horace Greeley, who gained unofficial Democratic support, but was defeated in a landslide. The depression of 1873 energized the Democrats. They won control of the House, and formed "Redeemer" coalitions which recaptured control of each southern state, in some cases using threats and violence. In the United States, the Whiskey Ring was a scandal, exposed in 1875, involving diversion of tax revenues in a conspiracy among government agents, politicians, whiskey distillers, and distributors. ... Liberal Republicans were an American political party that existed during the 1872 election. ... Horace Greeley (1811-1872) Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811–November 29, 1872) was an American newspaper editor, reformer and politician. ... Redeemers, a loose political coalition in the post-Civil War U.S. South, consisted of prewar Democrats, Union Whigs, Confederate army veterans, and individuals interested in industrial development. ...

1874 Keppler cartoon of Grant using Whiskey Ring and corruption to hold GOP together.
1874 Keppler cartoon of Grant using Whiskey Ring and corruption to hold GOP together.

Reconstruction came to an end when the contested election of 1876 was awarded by a special electoral commision to Republican Rutherford B. Hayes who promised, through the unofficial Compromise of 1877 to withdraw federal troops from control of the last three southern states. The region then became the Solid South, giving overwhelming majorities of its electoral votes and Congressional seats to the Democrats until 1964. The GOP, as it was now nicknamed, split into "Stalwart" and "Half-Breed" factions; they fought over patronage and civil service reform, but other policy differences were slight. In 1884, "Mugwump" reformers rejected James G. Blaine as corrupt and helped elect Democrat Grover Cleveland; most returned to the party by 1888. Image File history File links Rings. ... Image File history File links Rings. ... The Florida Case Before the Electoral Commission by Cornelia Adele Strong Fassett The Electoral Commision was a fifteen-member body that was used to resolve disputes in U.S. presidential elections, best known for its use in the 1876 election between Samuel J. Tilden and Rutherford B. Hayes. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822–January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, and military leader from the U.S. state of Ohio. ... In United States the Compromise of 1877 was an informal, unwritten deal that settled the disputed Election of 1876 by awarding the White House to the Republican Rutherford Hayes on the implicit understanding he would remove the federal troops that were propping up Republican state governments in South Carolina, Florida... The phrase Solid South describes the reliable electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era. ... For Australian ships of the name Stalwart, see HMAS Stalwart For the military vehicle, see Alvis Stalwart (FV620) The Stalwarts were a faction of the United States Republican Party, towards the end of the nineteenth century. ... Mugwumps were Republicans who supported Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the 1884 United States presidential election. ... James G. Blaine James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was the 22nd (1885–1889) and 24th (1893–1897) President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms. ...


As the Northern post-bellum economy boomed with heavy and light industry, railroads, mines, and fast-growing cities, as well as prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to keep the fast growth going. They supported big business generally, hard money (i.e. the gold standard), high tariffs, and high pensions for Union veterans. By 1890, however, the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers. The high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections, even defeating McKinley himself. This article is on the monetary principle. ... A tariff is a tax on imported goods. ... The Sherman Antitrust Act was the first government action to limit trusts (A combination of firms or corporations who agree not to lower prices below a certain rate for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices throughout a business or an industry). ... The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC; 1887 - 1995) was a government regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland. ... The McKinley Tariff of 1890 was what set the average ad valorem tariff rate for imports to the United States at 48%, and protected agriculture. ...


From 1860 to 1912 the Republicans took advantage of the association of the Democrats with "Rum, Romanism and Rebellion". Rum stood for the liquor interests and the tavernkeepers, in contrast to the GOP, which had a strong dry element. "Romanism" meant the Catholics, especially the Irish, who staffed the Democratic party in every big city, and whom the Republicans denounced for political corruption. "Rebellion" stood for the Confederates who tried to break the Union in 1861, and the Copperheads in the North who sympathized with them. The Copperheads were a group of Northern Democrats who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ...


Demographic trends aided the Democrats, as the German and Irish Catholic immigrants were Democrats, and outnumbered the English and Scandinavian Republicans. During the 1880s and 1890s, the Republicans struggled against the Democrats' efforts, winning several close elections and losing two to Grover Cleveland (in 1884 and 1892). Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...

Theodore Roosevelt represented the progressive faction of the Republican Party.
Theodore Roosevelt represented the progressive faction of the Republican Party.

In the 19th century the United States invented or developed a number of new methods for conducting American Election Campaigns. ... Portrait of Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919). ... Portrait of Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919). ... Theodore Roosevelt (born Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ... Progressivism in the United States // Overview Progressivism refers to two political phenomena: Populist Political Progressivism Joel loves progressivism he enjoys his paper on it. ...

1896-1932: The Fourth Party System

The election of William McKinley in 1896 is widely seen as a resurgence of Republican dominance and is sometimes cited as a realigning election. McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Panic of 1893, and that the GOP would guarantee a sort of pluralism in which all groups would benefit. He denounced William Jennings Bryan, the Democratic nominee, as a dangerous radical whose plans for "Free SIlver" at 16-1 (or Bimetallism) would bankrupt the economy. The name Mckinley redirects here. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Realigning election or critical election or realignment are terms from political history and political science. ... The Panic of 1893 was a serious decline in the economy of the United States that began in 1893 and was precipitated in part by a run on the gold supply. ... William Jennings Bryan, 1907 William Jennings Bryan (March 19, 1860–July 26, 1925) was an American lawyer, statesman, and politician. ... In economics, bimetallism is a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit can be expressed either with a certain amount of gold or with a certain amount of silver: the ratio between the two metals is fixed by law. ...


McKinley relied heavily on industry and the middle classes for his support and cemented the Republicans as the party of business; his campaign manager, Ohio's Marcus Hanna, developed a detailed plan for getting contributions from the business world, and McKinley outspent his rival William Jennings Bryan by a large margin. This emphasis on business was in part mitigated by Theodore Roosevelt, McKinley's successor after assassination, who engaged in trust-busting. McKinley was the first president to promote pluralism, arguing that prosperity would be shared by all ethnic and religious groups. In United States and other democracies, political campaigns larger than a few individuals generally include a campaign manager whose role is to coordinate the campaigns operations. ... Marcus Alonzo Hanna (September 24, 1837 - February 15, 1904) was an American industrialist and politician from Cleveland, Ohio. ... William Jennings Bryan, 1907 William Jennings Bryan (March 19, 1860–July 26, 1925) was an American lawyer, statesman, and politician. ... Theodore Roosevelt (born Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ... Trust-busting refers to government activities designed to break up trusts or monopolies. ... Pluralism is, in the general sense, the affirmation and acceptance of diversity. ...

1896 GOP poster warns against free silver.
1896 GOP poster warns against free silver.

Roosevelt did not seek another term in 1908, instead endorsing Secretary of War William Howard Taft as his successor, but the widening division between progressive and conservative forces in the party resulted in a third-party candidacy for Roosevelt on the Progressive, or "Bull Moose" ticket in the election of 1912. He finished ahead of Taft, but the split in the Republican vote resulted in a decisive victory for Democrat Woodrow Wilson, temporarily interrupting the Republican era. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (805x577, 162 KB) Summary Republican campaign poster from 1896 attacking free silver. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (805x577, 162 KB) Summary Republican campaign poster from 1896 attacking free silver. ... Major party conventions The 1908 Republican Convention was held in Chicago from 16 June to 19 June. ... William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, the 27th President of the United States, and the 10th Chief Justice of the United States. ... Progressivism is a political philosophy whose adherents promote public policies that they believe would lead to positive social change. ... For related and other uses, see Conservatism (disambiguation) Conservatism [derivative of conserve; from Latin conservare, to keep, guard, observe] in its true and classic sense is a simple philosophy that emphasizes a disposition to preserve, and an ability to improve. Classical conservatism does not readily avail itself to the ideology... The United States Progressive Party refers to three distinct political parties in 20th-century United States politics. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States (1913–1921). ...


The party controlled the presidency throughout the 1920s, running on a platform of opposition to the League of Nations, high tariffs, and promotion of business interests. Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover were resoundingly elected in 1920, 1924, and 1928 respectively. Although the party did very well in large cities and among ethnic Catholics in presidential elections of 1920-24, it was unable to hold those gains in 1928. By 1932 the cities--for the first time ever--had become Democratic strongholds. The African American vote held for Hoover in 1932, but started moving toward Roosevelt. By 1940 the majority of northern blacks were voting Democratic. Southern blacks who could vote (in border states) were split; disenfranchised blacks in the South probably preferred the Republicans. The 1920s were a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, serving from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933), was a successful mining engineer, humanitarian, and administrator. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Introduction Incumbent President Coolidge was relatively popular, and the economy was booming. ... The campaign The Republican Convention was held in Kansas City, Missouri from 12 June to 15 June, where Hoover became the partys candidate on the first ballot. ...


The Great Depression cost Hoover the presidency with the 1932 landslide election of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Roosevelt's New Deal coalition controlled American politics for most of the next three decades, excepting the two-term presidency of Republican Dwight Eisenhower. Dorothea Langes Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven children, age twenty-nine, in Nipomo, California, March 1936. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only person to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... The New Deal coalition was the poop alignment of interest groups and voting blocs who supported the New Deal and voted for United States Democratic Party presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1966, and which made the Democratic Party the majority party during that time. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ...


Second half of the twentieth century

Richard Nixon's electoral victories were forerunners to a GOP electoral realignment.
Richard Nixon's electoral victories were forerunners to a GOP electoral realignment.

The post-war emergence of the United States as one of two superpowers and rapid social change caused the Republican Party to divide into a conservative faction (dominant in the West and Southeast) and a liberal faction (dominant in New England) – combined with a residual base of inherited progressive Republicanism active throughout the century. A Republican like U.S. Sen. Robert Taft of Ohio represented the Midwestern wing of the party that continued to oppose New Deal reforms and continued to champion isolationism. Thomas Dewey represented the Northeastern wing of the party. Dewey did not reject the New Deal programs, but demanded more efficiency, more support for economic growth, and less corruption. He was more willing than Taft to support Britain in 1939-40. After the war the isolationists wing strenuously opposed the United Nations, and was half-hearted in opposition to world Communism. Dwight Eisenhower, a NATO commander, defeated Taft in 1952 on foreign policy issues. The two men were not far apart on domestic issues. The conservatives made a comeback under the leadership of Barry Goldwater who defeated Nelson Rockefeller as the Republican candidate in the 1964 presidential convention. Goldwater was strongly opposed to the New Deal and the United Nations, but he rejected isolationism and containment, calling for an aggressive anti-Communist foreign policy. Richard Nixon Uploaded from the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs website File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Richard Nixon Uploaded from the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs website File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Realigning election or critical election or realignment are terms from political history and political science. ... First Flag of New England, 1686-c. ... For the current Governor of Ohio, see Bob Taft. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal The New Deal is the name given to the series of programs implemented under President Franklin D. Roosevelt with the goal of stabilizing, reforming and stimulating the United States economy during the Great Depression. ... International Relations Theory Realism Liberalism Idealism Neoconservatism Institutionalism Functionalism Marxism Critical theory Isolationism Isolationism is a foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military and political policy with a policy of economic nationalism (protectionism). ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in two elections (1944 and 1948), losing both times. ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization that describes itself as a global association of governments facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Barry Goldwater Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a United States politician and a founding figure in the modern conservative movement in the USA as well as being a major inspiration for many of his youthful followers to join the libertarian movement. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979), an American politician, was Governor of New York from 1959 to 1973 and the 41st Vice President of the United States of America from December 19, 1974 to January 20, 1977. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Any long-term movement toward the GOP was interrupted by the Watergate Scandal, which forced Nixon to resign in 1974 under threat of impeachment. Gerald Ford succeeded Nixon and gave him a full pardon--thereby giving the Democrats a powerful issue they used to sweep the 1974 off-year elections. Ford never fully recovered, and in 1976 he barely defeated Ronald Reagan for the nomination. The taint of Watergate and the nation's economic difficulties contributed to the election of Democrat Jimmy Carter in 1976, running as a Washington outsider. The Watergate Complex (now the Watergate Hotel) as depicted in Government Exhibit 1. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... For the submarine, see USS Jimmy Carter (SSN-23). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Moderate Republicans of 1940-80

The term Rockefeller Republican was used 1960-80 to designate to a faction of the party holding "moderate" views similar to those of the late Nelson Rockefeller, governor of New York from 1959 to 1974 and vice president under President Gerald Ford in 1974-77. Before Rockefeller, Tom Dewey, governor of New York 1942-54 and GOP presidential nominee in 1944 and 1948 was the leader. Dwight Eisenhower and Richard Nixon reflected many of their views. An important leader in the 1950s was Connecticut Republican Senator Prescott Bush, father and grandfather of presidents. After Rockefeller left the national stage in 1976, this faction of the party was more often called "moderate Republicans," in contrast to the conservatives who rallied to Ronald Reagan. Historically Rockefeller Republicans were moderate or liberal on domestic and social policies. They favored New Deal programs, including regulation and welfare. They were very strong supporters of civil rights. They were strongly supported by big business on Wall Street (New York City). In fiscal policy they favored balanced budgets and relatively high tax levels to keep the budget balanced. They sought long-term economic growth through entrepreneurships, not tax cuts. In state politics, they were strong supporters of state colleges and universities, low tuition, and large research budgets. They favored infrastructure improvements, such as highway projects. In foreign policy they were internationalists, and anti-Communists. They felt the best way to counter Communism was sponsoring economic growth (through foreign aid), maintaining a strong military, and keeping close ties to NATO. Geographically their base was the Northeast, from Pennsylvania to Maine. Barry Goldwater crusaded against the Rockefeller Republicans, beating Rockefeller narrowly in the California primary of 1964. That set the stage for a conservative resurgence, based in the South and West, in opposition to the Northeast. Ronald Reagan continued in the same theme, but George H. W. Bush was more closely associated with the moderates. Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979), an American politician, was Governor of New York from 1959 to 1973 and the 41st Vice President of the United States of America from December 19, 1974 to January 20, 1977. ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in two elections (1944 and 1948), losing both times. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Prescott Sheldon Bush (born May 15, 1895 in Columbus, Ohio — died October 8, 1972 in New York City, New York,) was a United States Senator from Connecticut and a Wall Street executive banker with Brown Brothers Harriman. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... The NATO flag NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on... Barry Goldwater Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a United States politician and a founding figure in the modern conservative movement in the USA as well as being a major inspiration for many of his youthful followers to join the libertarian movement. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... George Herbert Walker Bush, GCB, (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). ...


The South Becomes Republican

In the century after Reconstruction, the white South identified with Democratic Party. The Democrats' lock on power was so strong, the region was called the Solid South. The Republicans controlled certain parts of the Appalachian mountains, but they sometimes did compete for statewide office in the border states. Before 1964, the southern Democrats saw their party as the defender of the southern way of life, which included a respect for states' rights and an appreciation for traditional southern values. They repeatedly warned against the aggressive designs of Northern liberals and Republicans, as well as the civil rights activists they denounced as "outside agitators." Thus there was a serious barrier to becoming a Republican. Reconstruction-era military districts in the South For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... The phrase Solid South describes the reliable electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era. ...


However, between 1964 and 2004, the Democratic lock on the South was broken. The long-term cause was that the region was becoming more like the rest of the nation and could not long stand apart in terms of racial segregation. Modernization that brought factories, businesses, and cities, and millions of migrants from the North; far more people graduated from high school and college. Meanwhile the cotton and tobacco basis of the traditional South faded away, as former farmers moved to town or commuted to factory jobs. The immediate cause of the political transition involved civil rights. The civil rights movement caused enormous controversy in the white South with many attacking it as a violation of states' rights. When segregation was outlawed by court order and by the Civil Rights acts of 1964 and 1965, a die-hard element resisted integration, led by Democratic governors Orval Faubus of Arkansas, Lester Maddox of Georgia, and, especially George Wallace of Alabama. These populist governors appealed to a less-educated, blue-collar electorate that on economic grounds favored the Democratic party, but opposed segregation. After passage of the Civil Rights Act most Southerners accepted the integration of most institutions (except public schools). With the old barrier to becoming a Republican removed, traditional Southerners joined the new middle class and the Northern transplants in moving toward the Republican party. Integration thus liberated Southern politics, just as Martin Luther King had promised. Some critics allege that the old racism has not totally disappeared but instead is hidden in the Republican vote, and can be seen in Nixon’s Southern Strategy. Meanwhile the newly enfranchised black voters supported Democratic candidates at the 85-90% level. Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom The Civil Rights Movement refers to a set of noted events and reform movements aimed at abolishing public and... Orval Eugene Faubus (7 January 1910–14 December 1994) was a six-term Democratic Governor of Arkansas, infamous for his 1957 stand against integration of Little Rock, Arkansas schools in defiance of U.S. Supreme Court rulings. ... Lester Garfield Maddox (September 30, 1915–June 25, 2003) was an American Democratic Party politician who was governor of the U.S. state of Georgia from 1967 to 1971. ... George Wallace George Corley Wallace (August 25, 1919 – September 13, 1998) was an American politician who was elected Governor of Alabama as a Democrat four times (1962, 1970, 1974 and 1982) and ran for U.S. President four times as well (in 1964, 1968, 1972 and 1976). ... The Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr, Ph. ... In American politics, the Southern strategy refers to the focus of the Republican party on winning U.S. Presidential elections by securing the electoral votes of the U.S. Southern states, originally through support for states rights. ...


The South's transition to a Republican stronghold took decades. First the states started voting Republican in presidential elections--the Democrats countered that by nominating Southerners who could carry some states in the region, such as Jimmy Carter in 1976 and 1980, and Bill Clinton in 1992 and 1996; the strategy did not work with Al Gore in 2000, or John Edwards in 2004. Then the states began electing Republican senators to fill open seats caused by retirements, and finally governors and state legislatures changed sides. Georgia was the last state to fall, with Sonny Perdue taking the governorship in 2002. The Republicans finally took control of the Texas congressional delegation in 2004. Republicans aided the process with systematic gerrymandering that protected the African American and Hispanic vote (as required by the Civil Rights laws), but split up the remaining white Democrats so that Republicans mostly would win. In 2006 the Supreme Court is considering the redistricting of Texas by Tom DeLay that swung the Congressional delegation to the GOP. For the submarine, see USS Jimmy Carter (SSN-23). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. ... This article is about the American attorney and politican. ... George Ervin Sonny Perdue III (born December 20, 1946) is the current governor of the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Thomas Dale DeLay (born April 8, 1947) is an American politician from Sugar Land, Texas and a prominent Republican. ...


In addition to its white middle class base, Republicans attracted strong majorities from the evangelical Christian vote, which had been nonpolitical before 1980. The national Democratic Party's support for liberal social stances such as abortion, criminal law issues such as abolition of the death penalty, and same-sex marriage drove many former Democrats into a Republican party that was embracing the conservative views on these issues. Conversely, liberal Republicans in the northeast began to join the Democratic Party. In 1969 in The Emerging Republican Majority, Kevin Phillips, argued that support from Southern whites and growth in the Sun Belt, among other factors, was driving an enduring Republican electoral realignment. Today, the South is again solid, but the reliable support is for Republican presidential candidates. Exit polls in 2004 showed that Bush led Kerry by 70-30% among whites, who comprised 71% of the Southern voters. Kerry had a 90-9% lead among the 18% of the voters who were black. One third of the Southerners said they were white evangelicals; they voted for Bush by 80-20%. [1] Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... Same-sex marriage is marriage between two people who are of the same characteristic sex. ... There are several people called Kevin Phillips: Kevin Phillips, political commentator and writer Kevin Phillips, England and Southampton football player This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Sun Belt, highlighted in red The Sun Belt is a region of the United States generally considered to stretch across the South and Southwest. ... Realigning election or critical election or realignment are terms from political history and political science. ...


GOP and the Elephant

Nast 1874 cartoon of GOP elephant.
Nast 1874 cartoon of GOP elephant.

The Republican party is known as the G.O.P.. According to the Oxford English Dictionary the first known reference to the Republican party as the "grand old party" came in 1876. The first use of the abbreviation G.O.P. is dated 1884. The symbol of the Republican party, an elephant, dates from an 1874 cartoon by Thomas Nast. is considered the first important use of the symbol. In the early 20th century, the traditional symbol of the Republican Party in Midwestern states such as Indiana and Ohio was the eagle, as opposed to the Democratic rooster. This symbol still appears on Indiana ballots. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1082x744, 301 KB) Summary November 7, 1874 by Thomas Nast in Harpers Weekly Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1082x744, 301 KB) Summary November 7, 1874 by Thomas Nast in Harpers Weekly Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP). ... Thomas Nast (September 27, 1840–December 7, 1902) was a famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 38th 94,321 km² 225 km 435 km 1. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus (largest metropolitan area is Cleveland) Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 34th 116,096 km² 355 km 355 km 8. ... Genera Several, see below. ... Rooster in grass, demonstrating the alert stance before sounding an alarm A cock or rooster is a male chicken, the female being a hen. ...


Famous Republicans

James G. Blaine James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... Joseph Cannon at the 1904 Republican Convention Joseph Gurney Cannon (May 7, 1836 – November 12, 1926) was a United States politician and is widely regarded as the most powerful Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1903 through 1911. ... Charles Curtis Charles Curtis (January 25, 1860 – February 8, 1936) was a Representative and a Senator from Kansas as well as the 31st Vice President of the United States. ... -1... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in two elections (1944 and 1948), losing both times. ... Mark Hanna Marcus Alonzo Hanna (also known as Marcus A. Hanna, and Mark A. Hanna ) (September 24, 1837 – February 15, 1904) was an industrialist and Republican politician from Ohio. ... George Frisbie Hoar George Frisbie Hoar (29 August 1826–30 September 1904) was a prominent United States politician. ... Charles Evans Hughes (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was Governor of New York, United States Secretary of State, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of the government of the United States, and presides over the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Henry Cabot Lodge Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924), was a Republican statesman and noted historian. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 44th 10,555 mi²; 27,360 km² 183 mi; 295 km 113 mi; 182 km 13. ... Joseph Raymond McCarthy Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908 – May 2, 1957) was a Republican Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 to 1957. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 23rd 169,790 km² 420 km 500 km 17 42°30N to 47°3N 86°49W to 92°54W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 18th 5,453,896 38. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... Thomas Brackett Reed (October 18, 1839 - December 7, 1902) was a U.S. Representative from Maine, and Speaker of the House from 1889-1891 and from 1895-1899. ... The term Speaker is usually the title given to the presiding officer of a countrys lower house of parliament or congress (ie: the House of Commons or House of Representatives). ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979), an American politician, was Governor of New York from 1959 to 1973 and the 41st Vice President of the United States of America from December 19, 1974 to January 20, 1977. ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... Thaddeus Stevens Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792 - August 11, 1868), also known as The Great Commoner, was a United States Representative from Pennsylvania. ... Charles Sumner Charles Sumner (January 6, 1811–March 11, 1874) was an American politician and statesman from the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 - October 20, 1950) was an American politician. ... Robert Alphonso Taft I (September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953), of the Taft family political dynasty of Ohio, was a United States Senator and Presidential candidate in the United States Republican Party. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 to April 1956 and November 1956 to 1964 as a Democrat and from 1964 to 2003 as a Republican. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 40th 82,965 km² 320 km 420 km 6 32°430N to 35°12N 78°030W to 83°20W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 26th 4,012... Arthur Hendrick Vandenberg (March 22, 1884–April 18, 1951) was a Republican Senator from the state of Michigan who participated in the creation of the United Nations. ... Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... Governors Arnold Schwarzenegger and Gray Davis with President George W. Bush (2003) Seal of the Governor of California (without the Roman numerals designating the governors sequence) See also: List of pre-statehood governors of California, List of Governors of California The Governor of California is the highest executive authority... The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of the government of the United States, and presides over the Supreme Court of the United States. ...

Presidents, Vice Presidents and presidential tickets

Election year Result Nominees and office-holders President
President Vice President # Term
1856 Lost John C. Frémont William L. Dayton
1860 Won Abraham Lincoln Hannibal Hamlin 16th 1861 – 1865
1864 Won Andrew Johnson[1]
1868 Won Ulysses Grant Schuyler Colfax 18th 1869 – 1877
1872 Won Henry Wilson
1876 Won Rutherford Hayes William A. Wheeler 19th 1877 – 1881
1880 Won James Garfield Chester Arthur 20th 1881
Chester Arthur none 21st 1881 – 1885
1884 Lost James G. Blaine John A. Logan
1888 Won Benjamin Harrison Levi P. Morton 23rd 1889–1893
1892 Lost Whitelaw Reid
1896 Won William McKinley Garret A. Hobart 25th 1897 – 1901
1900 Won Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt none 26th 1901 – 1909
1904 Won Charles W. Fairbanks
1908 Won William Howard Taft James S. Sherman 27th 1909 – 1913
1912 Lost Nicholas M. Butler
1916 Lost Charles Evans Hughes Charles W. Fairbanks
1920 Won Warren Harding Calvin Coolidge 29th 1921 – 1923
Calvin Coolidge none 30th 1923 – 1929
1924 Won Charles G. Dawes
1928 Won Herbert Hoover Charles Curtis 31st 1929 – 1933
1932 Lost
1936 Lost Alf Landon Frank Knox
1940 Lost Wendell Lewis Willkie Charles L. McNary
1944 Lost Thomas Dewey John W. Bricker
1948 Lost Earl Warren
1952 Won Dwight Eisenhower Richard Nixon 34th 1953 – 1961
1956 Won
1960 Lost Richard Nixon Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
1964 Lost Barry Goldwater William E. Miller
1968 Won Richard Nixon Spiro Agnew 37th 1969 – 1974
1972 Won
Gerald Ford Nelson Rockefeller 38th 1974 – 1977
1976 Lost Bob Dole
1980 Won Ronald Reagan George H. W. Bush 40th 1981 – 1989
1984 Won
1988 Won George H. W. Bush Dan Quayle 41st 1989 – 1993
1992 Lost
1996 Lost Robert Joseph Dole Jack French Kemp
2000 Won George Walker Bush Dick Cheney 43rd 2001–present
2004 Won
2008 See List of potential nominees
  1. Lincoln was succeeded by Democrat Andrew Johnson who ran on a Union ticket with him in 1864.

Presidential electoral votes by state. ... John C. Frémont John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813–July 13, 1890), born John Charles Fremon, was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the United States Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first Presidential candidate of a major... William Lewis Dayton (February 17, 1807 – December 1, 1864) was an American lawyer from Freehold Borough, New Jersey. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... Photographic portrait of Hannibal Hamlin Hannibal Hamlin (August 27, 1809 – July 4, 1891) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other people named Andrew Johnson, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Ulysses Simpson Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American Civil War General and the 18th (1869–1877) President of the United States. ... Schuyler Colfax Schuyler Colfax (March 23, 1823–January 13, 1885) was a Representative from Indiana and the 17th Vice President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Henry Wilson Henry Wilson (February 16, 1812–November 22, 1875) was a Senator from Massachusetts and the eighteenth Vice President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 - January 17, 1893) was the 19th (1877-1881) President of the United States. ... William Almon Wheeler (June 30, 1819–June 4, 1887) was a Representative from New York and the nineteenth Vice President of the United States. ... Summary Keeping a promise made during the 1876 campaign, incumbent President Rutherford Hayes did not seek re-election. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States (1881), and the second U.S. President to be assassinated. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829—November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as 21st President of the United States. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829—November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as 21st President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... James G. Blaine James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... John Alexander Logan (February 8, 1826 – December 26, 1886), American soldier and political leader, was born in what is now Murphysboro, Jackson County, Illinois. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Benjamin Harrison VI (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901) was the 23rd President of the United States. ... Levi Parsons Morton. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Whitelaw Reid (October 27, 1837 - December 15, 1912) was a U.S. politician and newspaper editor. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The name Mckinley redirects here. ... Garret Augustus Hobart (June 3, 1844–November 21, 1899) was the twenty-fourth Vice President of the United States. ... Summary The election was held on November 6, 1900. ... Theodore Roosevelt (born Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ... Theodore Roosevelt (born Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ... Summary The election was held on November 8, 1904. ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... Major party conventions The 1908 Republican Convention was held in Chicago from 16 June to 19 June. ... William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, the 27th President of the United States, and the 10th Chief Justice of the United States. ... James Schoolcraft Sherman (October 24, 1855 – October 30, 1912) was a Representative from New York and the 27th Vice President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Nicholas Murray Butler (April 2, 1862 – December 7, 1947) was the co-winner with Jane Addams of the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Charles Evans Hughes (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was Governor of New York, United States Secretary of State, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 - August 2, 1923) was the 29th (1921-1923) President of the United States and the sixth President to die in office. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Introduction Incumbent President Coolidge was relatively popular, and the economy was booming. ... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933), was a successful mining engineer, humanitarian, and administrator. ... Charles Curtis Charles Curtis (January 25, 1860 – February 8, 1936) was a Representative and a Senator from Kansas as well as the 31st Vice President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Alfred M. Landon Alfred Mossman Alf Landon (September 9, 1887 – October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician from Kansas, notable nationally for his 1936 nomination as the Republican opponent of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer, born in Elwood, Indiana, the only native of Indiana to be nominated as the presidential candidate for a national party, having never held any sort of high elected office. ... Charles L. McNary Charles Linza McNary ( June 12, 1874 - February 25, 1944) was a U.S. Republican politician from Oregon, best known for serving as Minority Leader of the United States Senate from 1933 to 1944. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in two elections (1944 and 1948), losing both times. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Barry Goldwater Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a United States politician and a founding figure in the modern conservative movement in the USA as well as being a major inspiration for many of his youthful followers to join the libertarian movement. ... William Edward Miller (March 22, 1914 – June 24, 1983), was an American politician. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996), born Spiros Anagnostopoulos in Towson, Maryland, was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1973 under President Richard M. Nixon. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979), an American politician, was Governor of New York from 1959 to 1973 and the 41st Vice President of the United States of America from December 19, 1974 to January 20, 1977. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) is best known as a former Republican United States Senate Majority Leader, Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, and was named after the raison brand Dole raisons. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... George Herbert Walker Bush, GCB, (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The election was held on November 8, 1988. ... George Herbert Walker Bush, GCB, (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). ... James Danforth Quayle (born February 4, 1947) was the 44th Vice President of the United States under George H. W. Bush (1989-1993). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) is best known as a former Republican United States Senate Majority Leader, Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, and was named after the raison brand Dole raisons. ... Jack French Kemp, Jr. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is currently (since 2001) the 46th Vice President of the United States under President George W. Bush. ... Presidential election results map. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 2008 is scheduled to occur on November 4, 2008. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 2008 is scheduled to occur on November 4, 2008. ... For other people named Andrew Johnson, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ...

References

Primary Sources

  • Cantril, Hadley and Mildred Strunk, eds. Public Opinion, 1935-1946 (1951), compilation of public opinion polls from the United States and elsewhere.
  • Schlesinger, Arthur Meier, Jr. ed. History of American Presidential Elections, 1789-2000 (various multivolume editions, latest is 2001). For each election includes brief history and selection of primary documents.

Secondary Sources

  • American National Biography (1999) 20 volumes; contains short biographies of all politicians no longer alive.
  • Burnham, Walter Dean, ed. Critical Elections and the Mainsprings of American Politics. New York (1970)
  • Gould, Lewis. Grand Old Party: A History of the Republicans (2003), the best overview.
  • Jensen, Richard. Grass Roots Politics: Parties, Issues, and Voters, 1854-1983 (1983)
  • Kleppner, Paul, et al. The Evolution of American Electoral Systems (1983), applies party systems model
  • MacNeil, Neil. Forge of Democracy: The House of Representatives (1963)
  • Mayer, George H. The Republican Party, 1854-1966. 2d ed. (1967)
  • Rutland, Robert Allen. The Republicans: From Lincoln to Bush (1996)
  • Shafer, Byron E. and Anthony J. Badger, eds. Contesting Democracy: Substance and Structure in American Political History, 1775-2000 (2001), essays by specialists on each time period
  • Schlesinger, Arthur Meier, Jr. ed. History of American Presidential Elections, 1789-2000 (various multivolume editions, latest is 2001). For each election includes short history and selection of primary document. Essays on the most important election are reprinted in Schlesinger, The Coming to Power: Critical presidential elections in American history (1972)

1854 to 1932

  • Dearing, Mary. Veterans in Politics: The Story of the GAR (1952)
  • Donald, David. Lincoln (1999)
  • David Donald, Charles Sumner and the Coming of the Civil War (1960)
  • David Donald, Charles Sumner and the Rights of Man (1970), covers Civil War and Reconstruction
  • Edwards, Rebecca. Angels in the Machinery: Gender in American Party Politics from the Civil War to the Progressive Era (1997)
  • Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War (1970)
  • Garraty, John. Henry Cabot Lodge: A Biography (1953)
  • Gienapp, William E. The Origins of the Republican Party, 1852-1856 (1987)
  • Gienapp, William E. "Nativism and the Creation of a Republican Majority in the North Before the Civil War", Journal of American History 72 (December 1985) pp: 529-59
  • Gosnell, Harold F. Boss Platt and His New York Machine: A Study of the Political Leadership of Thomas C. Platt, Theodore Roosevelt, and Others (1924)
  • Hesseltine, William B. Ulysses S. Grant: Politician (1935)
  • Hoogenboom, Ari. Outlawing the Spoils: A History of the Civil Service Reform Movement, 1865-1883 (1968)
  • Hoogenboom, Ari. Rutherford B. Hayes: Warrior and President (1995)
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1932 to 1980

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  • Ladd Jr., Everett Carll with Charles D. Hadley. Transformations of the American Party System: Political Coalitions from the New Deal to the 1970s 2d ed. (1978)
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  • Patterson, James T. Mr. Republican: A Biography of Robert A. Taft (1972)
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Political Parties of the United States
Major Parties  Democratic    Republican
Third Parties  Constitution     Green     Libertarian     Reform
Smaller Parties Peace and Freedom    Socialist    Socialist Workers    VT Progressive
Historical Parties Anti-Masonic  Democratic-Republican  Federalist  Progressive  Whig
See List of political parties in the United States for a complete list.

 
 

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