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Encyclopedia > History of South Carolina
[edit]
History of
South Carolina
Colonial period
  American Revolution  
Antebellum

South Carolina is one of the original states of the United States of America, and its history has been remarkable for an extraordinary commitment to political independence, whether from overseas or federal control. As a cornerstone of mercantilism and the slave trade, as the powder keg of the American Civil War, as the home of Jim Crow, and as the heart of the Dixiecrat movement, South Carolina's history has been the epitome of decentralization (Anti-federalism) in the U.S. Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude... The history of the colonial period of South Carolina has roots in French, Spanish, and English efforts to colonize North America. ... This article covers the history of South Carolina during the American Revolution. ... Antebellum South Carolina is typically defined by historians as the period of South Carolina between the War of 1812 and the American Civil War. ... Mercantile redirects here. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... This box:      The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anti-Federalism was the name given to two distinct counter-movements in the late 18th Century American politics: The first Anti-Federalist movement formed in reaction to the Federalist movement of the 1780s. ...


Although the area that is now the contemporary U.S. state of South Carolina has been populated since at least 13,000 BC (when tool-making nomads began to leave material remains), the documented history of South Carolina begins in 1540 with the visit of Hernando de Soto. The proprietary colony of Carolina was first settled at Charles Town in 1670, mostly by immigrants from the English colony of Barbados. There was discontent with the Lords Proprietors from the earliest years of the colony, which erupted into a general overthrow after the Yamasee War of 1715-1717. In 1719 the colony was officially made a crown colony, although the Lords Proprietors held their rights until 1729. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... For the Peruvian economist, see Hernando de Soto (economist). ... A proprietary colony is a colony in which the king gave land to one or more people called proprietors. ... The Carolina Colony grants Haystack of 1663 and 1665 The Province of Carolina from 1663 to 1729, was a North American British colony. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Lord Proprietor was a colonial title for the rulers of certain British colonies in America, such as Maryland or Carolina. ... The Yamasee War (1715–1716) was a conflict between Native Americans, principally of the Yamasee tribe, and British colonists, which occurred in South Carolina. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ...


Differences between the northern and southern parts of Carolina were recognized during proprietary rule and separate governors established. The de facto separation of the two colonies was made official when they were admitted as crown colonies in 1729.


South Carolina declared independence from Great Britain and set up its own government on March 15, 1776. It joined the United States by signing the Declaration of Independence. For two years its president was John Rutledge who became governor. On February 5, 1778, South Carolina became the first state to ratify the first constitution of the U.S., the Articles of Confederation. is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies were independent of Great Britain. ... John Rutledge (September 17, 1739 – July 18, 1800) was Governor of South Carolina, delegate to the Constitutional Convention, signer of the United States Constitution, and served on the U.S. Supreme Court (Chief Justice from August to December 1795). ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ...

An 1861 engraving of Fort Sumter before the attack that began the Civil War.

With the election of Abraham Lincoln on an anti-slavery platform in 1860, South Carolina immediately and with considerable unanimity decided to secede. On December 20, 1860 it became the first state to leave the Union and in February it joined the Confederate States of America. In April the American Civil War began when Confederate forces attacked the American fort at Fort Sumter, in Charleston, 1861. After the Confederate defeat, South Carolina underwent Reconstruction. Freed slaves benefited from this, gaining numerous civil rights; however, the gains were short-lived, and were eventually taken away by the Jim Crow laws that were especially severe in South Carolina. Civil rights for South Carolina's African Americans would remain diminished until the Civil Rights struggle of the mid-20th century. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Fort Sumter, located in Charleston, South Carolina, was named after General Thomas Sumter. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... This box:      The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ...


From 1865 to 1940 the state was poor and educational levels were low. Most people lived on farms and grew cotton. The more affluent were landowners, who subdivided the land into farms operated by tenant farmers or sharecroppers, along with land operated by the owner using hired labor. The Piedmont area industrialized, with textile factories that turned the raw cotton into yard and cloth for sale on the national market. Sharecropping is a system of farming in which employee farmers work a parcel of land in return for a fraction of the parcels crops. ... Piedmont is a census-designated place located in South Carolina. ...


Politically the state was part of the Solid South, with no elected black officials between 1900 and the late 1960s. Segregation was rigidly enforced in the Jim Crow era. The Civil Rights laws of the 1960s ended segregation and allowed the blacks to vote. By 2000 South Carolina was solidly Republican at the presidential level, but state and local government was contested by the two parties. The cotton regime ended by the 1950s. As factories were built across the state, the great majority of farmers left agriculture. The population continued to grow, reaching 4 million in 2000, as coast areas became prime locations for tourists and retirees. With a poverty rate of 13.5%, the state was only slightly worse than the national average of 11.7% The phrase Solid South describes the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era, 1876-1964. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1]. Segregation... Jim Crow can refer to several subjects: James F. Crow, Professor Emeritus of Genetics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...

Contents

Colonial period

Main article: Colonial period of South Carolina The history of the colonial period of South Carolina has roots in French, Spanish, and English efforts to colonize North America. ...

The Carolina Colonies
The Carolina Colonies

By the end of the 16th century, the Spanish and French had left the area of South Carolina after several reconnaissance missions and failed colonization attempts. In 1629, Charles I granted his attorney general a charter to everything between latitudes 36 and 31. He called this land the Province of Carlana, which would later be changed to "Carolina" for pronunciation, after the Latin form of his own name. In 1663, Charles II gave the land to eight nobles, the Lords Proprietors, who ruled the Province of Carolina as a proprietary colony. After the Yamasee War of 1715-1717 the Lords Proprietors came under increasing pressure and were forced to relinquish their charter to the crown in 1719. The proprietors retained their right to the land until 1729 when the colony was officially split into the provinces of North Carolina and South Carolina, crown colonies. Image File history File links Carolinacolony. ... Image File history File links Carolinacolony. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... Lord Proprietor was a colonial title for the rulers of certain British colonies in America, such as Maryland or Carolina. ... The Carolina Colony grants Haystack of 1663 and 1665 The Province of Carolina from 1663 to 1729, was a North American British colony. ... The Yamasee War (1715–1716) was a conflict between Native Americans, principally of the Yamasee tribe, and British colonists, which occurred in South Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest City = Charlotte Largest city {{{LargestCity}}} Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude...


In April 1670 settlers arrived at Albemarle Point, at the junction of the Ashley River and Cooper River, and founded Charles Town, named in honor of King Charles II. The Ashley River is a river in South Carolina which meets with the Cooper River in Charleston before discharging into the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Cooper River is a river in the U.S. state of South Carolina. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ...


Throughout the Colonial Period, the Carolinas participated in many wars against the Spanish and the Native Americans, including the Yamasee and Cherokee tribes. In its first decades, South Carolina's plantations were relatively small and the colony's wealth came from Indian trade, mainly in deerskins and Indian slaves. In the first decades of the 18th century, rice plantations began to flourish along the coast. After the Yamasee War the backcountry's Indian population was greatly reduced. This article is about the colonial history of the United States. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The Yamasee War (1715–1716) was a conflict between Native Americans, principally of the Yamasee tribe, and British colonists, which occurred in South Carolina. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... The deerskin trade between Colonial America and the Native Americans was one of the most important trading relationships between Europeans and Native Americans, especially in the southeast. ... Indian slavery was the practice of using indigenous peoples of the Americas as slaves, which existed with the Spanish from the earliest days on the Caribbean islands they first settled. ...


The newly emptied backcountry was then settled largely by Scots-Irish migrants from Pennsylvania and Virginia, while the low country was dominated by mostly wealthy plantation owners who brought in white indentured teenage boys and girls as laborers. The political tensions between the lowcountry and upcountry became a recurring theme for generations. Scots-Irish (also called Ulster Scots) is a Scottish ethnic group that historically resided in Ireland which ultimately traces its roots back to settlers from Scotland, and to a lesser extent, England. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Fundamentally, a plantation is usually a large farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar cane, or trees and the like is cultivated, usually by resident laborers. ...


Two agricultural crops, both cultivated by slave labor were the primary reason why South Carolina became one of the wealthiest colonies prior to the Revolution. Rice culture was begun along the coast mainly from the Georgetown and Charleston areas, about the beginning of the 18th century and grew rapidly. The rice varieties and the cultural knowledge were brought by slaves from West Africa. In time the best rice was selected and became known as Carolina Gold, which denoted not only its color but its ability to produce great fortunes for plantation owners. [1] Agriculture (encompassing farming, grazing, and the tending of orchards, vineyards and timberland) is the production of food, feed, fiber and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... Location of Georgetown in South Carolina Coordinates: Country United States State South Carolina County Georgetown Government  - Mayor Lynn Wood Wilson Area  - City 7. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ...


Indigo culture and processing in South Carolina was begun by Eliza Lucas Pinckney in the 1740s. An "Indigo Bonanza" followed, with South Carolina production approaching a million pounds in the late 1750s. This growth was stimulated by a British bounty of six pence per pound. [2] Eliza Lucas Pinckney (c. ...


In addition the colonial economy was derived from sales of pelts (primarily deerskins), and naval stores and timber. Shipbuilding was begun, using the prime timbers of the Live oak. An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... Binomial name Quercus virginiana Mill. ...


Interestingly, until about 1830, South Carolina had the largest Jewish population in the United States and all of North America, most of them living in Charleston (see History of the Jews in Charleston, South Carolina and the History of Jews in South Carolina). For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... There is a long history of Jews living in Charleston, South Carolina, USA. The charter of the Carolina Colony, drawn up by John Locke in 1669, granted liberty of conscience to all settlers, expressly mentioning Jews, heathens, and dissenters. ...


Revolutionary War

John Rutledge had many roles in South Carolina's history throughout the American Revolution.
John Rutledge had many roles in South Carolina's history throughout the American Revolution.

Main article: South Carolina during the American Revolution 18th century painting of John Rutledge This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 18th century painting of John Rutledge This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This article covers the history of South Carolina during the American Revolution. ...


Prior to the American Revolution, the British began taxing American colonies to raise revenue, particularly outraging South Carolinians with the Townsend Acts that taxed tea, paper, wine, glass, and oil. To protest the Stamp Act, South Carolina sent wealthy rice planter Thomas Lynch, twenty-six-year-old lawyer John Rutledge, and Christopher Gadsden to the Stamp Act Congress, held in 1765 in New York. Other taxes were removed, but tea taxes remained. Soon South Carolinians, like the Boston Tea Party, began to dump tea into the Charleston Harbor, followed by boycotts and protests. John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Look up revenue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the material. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Other notable people share this name. ... John Rutledge (September 17, 1739 – July 18, 1800) was Governor of South Carolina, delegate to the Constitutional Convention, signer of the United States Constitution, and served on the U.S. Supreme Court (Chief Justice from August to December 1795). ... Christopher Gadsden (1724-1805) was an American general and statesman during the American Revolution. ... The Stamp Act Congress was a meeting in New York City in October 1765 of delegates from the American Colonies that discussed and acted upon the recently passed Stamp Act. ... This article is about the state. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... This article is about a 1773 American protest. ... This page is about boycott as a form of protest. ... 2003 GMO USDA protest Protest expresses relatively overt reaction to events or situations: sometimes in favour, more often opposed. ...


South Carolina declared independence from Great Britain and set up its state government on March 15, 1776. Many of the South Carolinian battles fought during the American Revolution were with loyalist Carolinians and the Cherokee tribe which had allied itself with the British. This was to General Henry Clinton's advantage, whose strategy was to march his troops north from St. Augustine and sandwich George Washington in the North. Clinton alienated loyalists and enraged Patriots by attacking and nearly annihilating a fleeing army of Patriot soldiers that posed no threat. He also threatened to take away the parole of Patriot prisoners of war unless they took up arms against their fellow Americans. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... General Sir Henry Clinton K.B. Commander-in-Chief of British troops in America. ... Nickname: Location in St. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Go to american revolution at wiki to get the same information provided below! This article concerns Patriots in the Revolutionary War. ... Combatants Britain 17th Lancers{then called Dragoons} British Legion (1778) United States 3rd Virginia Detachment composed of 2nd and 7th Virginia Regiments Commanders Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton Colonel Abraham Buford Strength 270 400 Casualties 5 killed 12 wounded {11 horses killed 19 horses wounded} 113 killed 150 wounded and paroled... It has been suggested that Medical parole be merged into this article or section. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


On October 7, 1780, at Kings Mountain, Pickens led a body of North and South Carolinians and attacked British Major Patrick Ferguson and his body of American loyalists on a hilltop. This was a major victory for the patriots, especially because it was won by militiamen and not trained Continentals. Kings Mountain is considered to be the turning point in the southern campaigns since it forced General Cornwallis to split his troops, making his plan for a major push north impossible. Patriots regained control of Charleston and South Carolina with untrained militiamen by trapping Colonel Banastre "No Quarter" Tarleton's troops along a river. is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Patriot militia Loyalist militia Commanders William Campbell, John Sevier, Frederick Hambright, Joseph McDowell, Benjamin Cleveland, James Williams†, Isaac Shelby Patrick Ferguson† Strength 900 (+500 nearby) 1,100 (+200 nearby) Casualties 28 killed (including James Williams), 62 wounded 157 killed, 163 wounded, 698 captured (nine of the captured were later... Patrick Ferguson (1744–1780), was a British Army officer, rifle-designer, and early advocate of light infantry. ... A militia is a group of citizens organized to provide paramilitary service. ... Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis (December 31, 1738-October 5, 1805) was a British general and colonial governor. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Lieutenant-Colonel Banastre Tarleton by Sir Joshua Reynolds Sir Banastre Tarleton, 1st Baronet (August 21, 1754–January 25, 1833) was a British soldier and politician. ...


In 1787, John Rutledge, Charles Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, and Pierce Butler went to Philadelphia where the Constitutional Convention was being held and constructed what served as a detailed outline for the U.S. Constitution. The federal Constitution was ratified by the state in 1787, and the new state constitution was ratified in 1790 without the support of the Upcountry. Charles Pinckney Charles Pinckney (October 26, 1757–October 29, 1824) was an American politician who was a signer of the United States Constitution, Governor of South Carolina, a Senator and a member of the House of Representatives. ... Charles Cotesworth (C.C.) Pinckney (February 5, 1746 – August 16, 1825), was an early American statesman and a signer of the U.S. Constitution. ... Pierce Butler Pierce Butler (July 11, 1744 - February 15, 1822) was a soldier, planter, and statesman, recognized as one of United States Founding Fathers. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme...


Antebellum South Carolina

Main article: Antebellum South Carolina Antebellum South Carolina is typically defined by historians as the period of South Carolina between the War of 1812 and the American Civil War. ...

An image of The Compromise Tariff of 1833 that would lower rates on tariffs over 10 years in an agreement between John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay.

Due to the invention of the cotton gin in 1786, the economies of Upcountry and Lowcountry became fairly equal in wealth. The Lowcountry could grow long staple cotton, but the Upcountry's soil could only grow short staple cotton. Lowcountry cotton had been easier to separate by hand until Eli Whitney's cotton gin made it as easy to separate Upcountry cotton as it was to separate Lowcountry cotton. The invention caused farmers to require a larger number of workers. Upcountry planters began to import slaves. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x1194, 76 KB)An image of The Compromise Tariff of 1833 that would lower rates on tariffs over 10 years in an agreement between John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x1194, 76 KB)An image of The Compromise Tariff of 1833 that would lower rates on tariffs over 10 years in an agreement between John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay. ... John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century, best known as a spokesman for slavery, nullification and the rights of electoral minorities, such as slave-holders. ... Henry Clay, Sr. ... Cotton gin A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibres from the seedpods and the sometimes sticky seeds. ... Eli Whitney Eli Whitney (b. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ...


To avoid the dangers of corruption in Charleston, the capital was moved to Columbia. Before the War of 1812, the state's Congressmen voted to prevent Northern industry from exporting any goods, leading to inter-sectional tensions. After the war, however, John C. Calhoun proclaimed the need for more industry, and proposed higher protective tariffs. He later reversed course. This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century, best known as a spokesman for slavery, nullification and the rights of electoral minorities, such as slave-holders. ...


In 1828, John C. Calhoun decided that constitutionally, the state government of each state within that state had more power than the federal government. Consequently, if a state deemed it necessary, it had the right to "nullify" any federal law within its boundaries. When in 1832, South Carolina's houses quickly "nullified" the hated federally mandated tariffs, President Andrew Jackson declared this an act of open rebellion and ordered U.S. ships to South Carolina to enforce the law.[1]


Calhoun resigned as vice president, planning on becoming a senator in South Carolina to stop its run toward secession while solving the problems inflaming his fellow Carolinians. Before federal forces arrived at Charleston, Calhoun and Henry Clay agreed upon a compromise tariff that would lower rates over 10 years. Henry Clay, Sr. ...


Tensions over the institution of slavery were a key feature of South Carolina life during the antebellum period. In 1822, free black craftsman and preacher Denmark Vesey was convicted for having masterminded a plan to overthrow Charlestonian whites by slaves and free blacks. Whites established curfews and forbade assembly of large numbers of African Americans and the education of slaves. Since the mere presence of free blacks was seen as dangerous, South Carolina leaders also made it illegal for slaveholders to free their slaves without a special degree from the state legislature. This intensified already existing hostility between the abolitionist Northern States and the slave-advocating Southern States. Denmark Vesey (originally Telemaque, 1767? — July 2, 1822) was an African American slave, and later a freeman, who planned what would have been one of the largest slave rebellions in the United States had word of the plans not been leaked. ... A curfew can be one of the following: An order by the government for certain persons to return home before a certain time. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


American Civil War

See the main article South Carolina in the Civil War. Prewar tensions Very few South Carolina whites saw emancipation as an option. ...


Prewar tensions

Very few South Carolina whites saw emancipation as an option. Whites feared that if blacks, the vast majority in most parts of the state, were freed, they would try to "Africanize" their cherished society and culture as they had seen happen after slave revolutions in some areas of the West Indies. Carolinian leaders were divided between devoted Unionists that opposed any sort of secession, and those who believed secession was a state's right. John C. Calhoun noted that the dry and barren West could not support a plantation system and would remain slaveless. Thus, Calhoun proposed that Congress should not exclude slavery from territories but let each state choose for itself whether it would allow slaves within its borders. After Calhoun's death in 1850, however, South Carolina was left without a leader great enough in national standing and character to prevent more militant Carolinian factions' desire to secede immediately. Andrew Pickens Butler argued against Charleston publisher Robert Barnwell Rhett, who advocated immediate and, if necessary, independence. Butler won the battle, but Rhett outlived him. This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century, best known as a spokesman for slavery, nullification and the rights of electoral minorities, such as slave-holders. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Andrew Pickens Butler (November 18, 1796-May 25, 1857, was an American statesman and one of the authors of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. ... Robert Barnwell Rhett of South Carolina was a lawyer, state legislator, state attorney general (1832), U.S. representative (1837-49), and senator (1850-52). ...


When it was seen that President Abraham Lincoln would be elected, a number of conventions organized around the Deep South to discuss the options. States with strong pro-secession movements such as Alabama and Mississippi sent delegates to the convention where they advised the Carolinians to "take the lead and secede at once." On December 20, 1860, South Carolinians in Charleston voted to secede from the Union. President James Buchanan declared the secession illegal but did not act to stop it. For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868) was the 15th president of the United States (1857–1861). ...


Fort Sumter

1861, inside the fort flying the Confederate Flag.

Six days later, on the day after Christmas, Major Robert Anderson, commander of the U.S. troops in Charleston, withdrew his men against orders into the island fortress of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. South Carolina militia swarmed over the abandoned mainland batteries and trained their guns on the island. Sumter was the key position to preventing a naval invasion of Charleston, so the Confederacy could not afford to allow federal forces to remain there indefinitely . More important, having a foreign country (the USA) control its largest harbor meant that the Confederacy was not really independent--which was Lincoln's point. confederate flag flying over fort sumter -- photo from 1861 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... confederate flag flying over fort sumter -- photo from 1861 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The following are the flags used by the short-lived Confederate States of America. ... Anderson after the War Robert Anderson (June 14, 1805 – October 26, 1871) was a Union Army officer in the American Civil War, known for his command of Fort Sumter at the start of the war. ... Fort Sumter, located in Charleston, South Carolina, was named after General Thomas Sumter. ...


On February 4, a congress of seven cotton states met in Montgomery, Alabama, and approved a new constitution for the Confederate States of America. Lincoln argued that the United States were "one nation, indivisible," and denied the Southern states' right to secede. South Carolina entered the Confederacy on February 8, 1861 thus ending fewer than six weeks of being an independent State of South Carolina. Virginia politician Roger Pryor told Charleston that the only way to get Old Dominion to join the Confederacy was for South Carolina to instigate war with the United States. The obvious place to start was right in the midst of Charleston Harbor. is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Coordinates: , Country State County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Government  - Mayor Bobby Bright Area  - City  156. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Roger Atkinson Pryor (July 19, 1828 – March 14, 1919) was an American jurist, politician, newspaper editor, and Confederate general during the American Civil War. ...


About 6,000 men were stationed around the rim of the harbor, ready to take on the 60 men in Fort Sumter. At 4:30 a.m. on April 12, after two days of intense negotiations, and with Union ships just outside the harbor, the firing began. The decision was made by President Jefferson Davis and his cabinet. Edmund Ruffin is usually credited with being given the honor firing the first shot. Thirty-four hours later, Anderson's men raised the white flag and were allowed to leave the fort with colors flying and drums beating, saluting the U.S. flag with a 50-gun salute before taking it down.[2] is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Edmund Ruffin Edmund Ruffin (January 5, 1794 – June 18, 1865) was born in Prince George County, Virginia. ...


Civil War devastates the state

The South was at a disadvantage in number, weaponry, and maritime skills--few southerners were sailors. Federal ships sailed south and blocked off one port after another. As early as November, Union troops occupied the Sea Islands in the Beaufort area, establishing an important base for the men and ships who would obstruct the ports at Charleston and Savannah. When the plantation owners, many of which had already gone off with the Confederate Army elsewhere, fled the area, the Sea Island slaves became the first "freedmen" of the war, and the Sea Islands became the laboratory for Northern plans to educate the African Americans for their eventual role as full American citizens. Beaufort is a city in Beaufort County, South Carolina, United States, situated on the Beaufort River. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... This article is in need of attention. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ...


Despite South Carolina's important role in the start of the war, and a long unsuccessful attempt to take Charleston from 1863 onward, few military engagements occurred within the state's borders until 1865, when Sherman's Army, having already completed its march to the Sea in Savannah, marched to Columbia then north into North Carolina. There was little resistance to his advance. Sherman's 1865 march through the Carolinas resulted in the burning of Columbia and numerous other towns. Poverty would mark the state for generations to come. South Carolina lost 12,922 men to the war, 23% of its male white population of fighting age, and the highest percentage of any state in the nation. “General Sherman” redirects here. ...


On February 21, 1865, with the Confederate forces finally evacuated from Charleston, the black 55th Massachusetts Regiment marched through the city. At a ceremony at which the U.S. flag was once again raised over Fort Sumter, former fort commander Robert Anderson was joined on the platform by two men: African American Union hero Robert Smalls and the son of Denmark Vesey. is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Robert Smalls (April 5, 1839 - February 23, 1915) was an African American slave who became a naval hero at the same time he freed himself and his family in May 1862 from slavery. ... Denmark Vesey (originally Telemaque, 1767? — July 2, 1822) was an African American slave, and later a freeman, who planned what would have been one of the largest slave rebellions in the United States had word of the plans not been leaked. ...


Reconstruction 1865-1877

Interracial animosity

African-Americans had long comprised the majority of the state's population and began to play a prominent role in the South Carolina government for the first time during Reconstruction. Despite the anti-Northern fury of their prewar and wartime politics, most South Carolinians, including the state's leading opinion-maker, Wade Hampton III, believed that white citizens would do well to accept President Johnson's terms for full reentry to the Union. However, the state legislature, in 1865, passed "Black Codes," angering Northerners, who accused the state of imposing semi-slavery on the Freedmen. The South Carolina black codes have been described:[3] Beginning in 1790, the United States Census Bureau collected the population statistics of South Carolina. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Wade Hampton during the Civil War Wade Hampton III (March 28, 1818 – April 11, 1902) was a Confederate cavalry leader during the American Civil War and afterwards a politician from South Carolina, representing it as governor and U.S. Senator. ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... The Black Codes were laws passed to restrict civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans, particularly former slaves. ... A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. ...

"Persons of color contracting for service were to be known as "servants," and those with whom they contracted, as "masters." On farms the hours of labor would be from sunrise to sunset daily, except on Sunday. The negroes were to get out of bed at dawn. Time lost would be deducted from their wages, as would be the cost of food, nursing, etc., during absence from sickness. Absentees on Sunday must return to the plantation by sunset. House servants were to be at call at all hours of the day and night on all days of the week. They must be "especially civil and polite to their masters, their masters' families and guests," and they in return would receive "gentle and kind treatment." Corporal and other punishment was to be administered only upon order of the district judge or other civil magistrate. A vagrant law of some severity was enacted to keep the negroes from roaming the roads and living the lives of beggars and thieves."

The Black codes outraged northern opinion and apparently were never put into effect in any state.


After winning the 1866 elections, the Radical Republicans took control of the Reconstruction process. The Army registered all male voters, and elections returned a Republican government comprised of a coalition of Freedmen, Carpetbaggers and Scalawags. The federally mandated new Constitution of 1868 brought democratic reforms. Scalawags supported it, but most whites viewed the Republican government as representative of black interests only and were largely unsupportive. Laws forbidding former Confederates, virtually the entire native white male population, from bearing arms only exacerbated the tensions, especially as rifle-bearing black militia units began drilling in the streets of South Carolina towns. Adding to the interracial animosity was many whites' sense that their former slaves had betrayed them. Before the war, most slaveholders had convinced themselves that that they were treating their slaves well and had thus earned their slaves' loyalty. When the Union Army rolled in and slaves deserted by the thousands (though many did not), slaveholders were stunned. The black population scrambled to enjoy and preserve its new rights while the white population attempted to claw its way back up the social ladder by denying blacks those same rights. Radical Republicans were certain Republicans in Congress and other federal and state leaders during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras in U.S. history. ... American usage In the United States, the negative term carpetbagger was used to refer to a Northerner who traveled to the South after the American Civil War, through the late 1860s and the 1870s, during Reconstruction. ... The term scalawag or scallywag traces its origin to the post-Civil War era in the South of the United States. ...


The 1876 gubernatorial election

Main article: South Carolina gubernatorial election of 1876 The 1876 South Carolina gubernatorial election was held on November 7, 1876 to select the governor of the state of South Carolina. ...


The Ku Klux Klan raids began shortly thereafter, terrifying blacks and black sympathizers in an attempt to reestablish white supremacy. Most of the state's "better element" showed little tolerance for such violence, especially when undertaken anonymously, and largely squelched the movement locally after a few years. In 1876, Piedmont towns were the site of numerous demonstrations by the Red Shirts—white Democrats determined to win the upcoming elections by any means possible. Named for their trademark red shirts (worn to mock the historic "waving of the bloody shirt" of the radical Republicans), the Red Shirts turned the tide in South Carolina, convincing whites that this could indeed be the year they regain control. Before the election, Republican Governor Chamberlain asked Washington for assistance and President Ulysses S. Grant sent 1,100 federal troops to keep order and ensure a "fair" election. Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ... The Red Shirts of South Carolina were the supporters of Wade Hampton in the South Carolina gubernatorial election of 1876 and the gubernatorial election of 1878. ... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Daniel Henry Chamberlain (June 23, 1835–1907) was a governor of South Carolina and member of the Yale based Skull and Bones Society. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ...


Using as a model the ", which had redeemed that state in 1874, South Carolina Redeemers employed intimidation, persuasion, and control of the blacks. Armed with heavy pistols and rifles they rode on horseback to every Republican meeting, and demanded a chance to speak. The Red Shirts milled among the crowds, and each selecting a black man to watch, privately threatened to shoot him if he raised a disturbance; they organized hundreds of rifle clubs, then obeying proclamations to disband, sometimes reorganized as missionary societies or dancing clubs--with rifles. They set up an ironclad economic boycott against Black activists and Scalawags who refused to vote the Democratic ticket, turning them out of employment and avoiding all contacts with them. They beat down the opposition — but always just within the law. Only a few confrontations drew blood. Wade Hampton made more than forty speeches across the state. Thousands of Black Republicans joined his cause; donning the Red Shirts, they paraded with the whites. Most Scalawags "crossed Jordan," as switching to the Democracy was called. On election day, there was trickery and intimidation on all sides, employed by both parties, and the returns were disputed all the way to Washington, where they played a central role in the Compromise of 1877. Both parties claimed victory, and for a while, two separate state assemblies did business side by side on the floor of the State House (their Speakers shared the Speaker's desk, but each had his own gavel) until the Democrats moved to their own building, where they continued to pass resolutions and held forth with the state's business, just as the Republicans were doing. The Republican State Assembly tossed out results of the tainted election and reelected Chamberlain as governor. A week later, General Wade Hampton III took the oath of office for the Democrats. Finally, after months of this, and a couple of near shoot-outs in April 1877, President Rutherford B. Hayes, in return for the South's support of his own convoluted presidential "victory" over Samuel Tilden, withdrew federal troops from Columbia. At this point, the Republican government dissolved and Chamberlain headed back north, as Wade Hampton and his Redeemers took control. The South Carolina civil disturbances of 1876 were a series of race riots and civil unrest sparked by the intense emotions developed because of the gubernatorial election of 1876 in South Carolina. ... A drawing by Joseph Keppler depicts Roscoe Conkling as Mephistopheles, as Rutherford B. Hayes strolls off with a woman labeled as Solid South. The caption quotes Goethe: Unto that Power he doth belong / Which only doeth Right while ever willing Wrong. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. ...


Conservative rule 1877-1890

Wade Hampton III, the "Savior of South Carolina"
Wade Hampton III, the "Savior of South Carolina"

The Democrats were led by General Wade Hampton III and other former Confederate veterans who espoused a return to the policies of the antebellum period. Known as the Conservatives, or the Bourbons, they favored a minimalist approach by the government and a conciliatory policy towards blacks while maintaining white supremacy. Also of interest to the Conservatives was the restoration of the University of South Carolina to its prominent prewar status as the leading institution of higher education in the state and the region. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 512 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (3216 × 3768 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 512 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (3216 × 3768 pixel, file size: 1. ... Wade Hampton during the Civil War Wade Hampton III (March 28, 1818 – April 11, 1902) was a Confederate cavalry leader during the American Civil War and afterwards a politician from South Carolina, representing it as governor and U.S. Senator. ... Bourbon Democrat was a term used in the United States from 1876 to 1904 to refer to a conservative or reactionary member of the Democratic Party, especially one who supported President Grover Cleveland in 1884–1896 and Alton B. Parker in 1904. ... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ... The University of South Carolina, Columbia (USC or Carolina) is a public, co-educational, research university located in Columbia, South Carolina, United States. ...


Once in power, the Democrats quickly consolidated their position and sought to repair the damage done to the state by the Radical Republicans. They pressured Republicans to resign from their positions and within a year both the legislative and judiciary were firmly in the control of the Democrats. Furthermore they launched investigations into the corruption and frauds committed by eminent Republicans during Reconstruction, but all charges were dropped when the federal government similarly dropped its charges against the white participants of the violence during the 1876 election campaign. The South Carolina civil disturbances of 1876 were a series of race riots and civil unrest sparked by the intense emotions developed because of the gubernatorial election of 1876 in South Carolina. ...


With their position secure, the Democrats next tackled the state debt. Massive corruption and the squandering of the resources of the state by the Republicans during Reconstruction caused the state debt to spiral out of control to $25 million by 1873. Many Democrats from the upcountry, led by Martin Gary, pushed for the entire state debt to be canceled, but he was bitterly opposed by those from Charleston who were the chief holders of the bonds. A compromise moderated by Wade Hampton was achieved and by October of 1882, the state debt was reduced to $6.5 million. Martin Gary as a State Senator Martin Witherspoon Gary (March 25, 1831 – April 9, 1881) was a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War and a Democratic politician in postbellum South Carolina. ...


Other legislative accomplishments by the Conservatives went to its primary benefactors, the planting and business class. Taxes across the board were reduced and funding was cut for programs that generally assisted the blacks. Oral contracts were made to be legally binding, breach of contract was enforced as a criminal offense, and those who were in debt to planters could be forced to work off their debt. In addition, the University of South Carolina along with The Citadel were reopened and generously supported by the state government. The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina, is a state-supported, comprehensive college located in Charleston, South Carolina. ...


By the late 1880's, the agrarian movement swept through the state and raised the awareness of the farming class to assert their political rights. They pressured the legislature to establish an agriculture college, which the legislature complied with great reluctance by adding an agriculture college to the University of South Carolina in 1887. However, Ben Tillman engaged in demagogy to provoke the farmers into demanding a separate agriculture college completely isolated from the politics in Columbia and the Conservatives finally relented in 1889. The Farmers Alliance was an organized agrarian economic movement among U.S. farmers that flourished in the 1880s. ... Benjamin Tillman Benjamin Ryan Tillman (August 11, 1847 - July 3, 1918) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina from 1890 to 1894 and as a United States Senator from 1895 until his death. ... Demagogy (from Greek demos, people, and agogos, leading) refers to a political strategy for obtaining and gaining political power by appealing to the popular prejudices, fears, and expectations of the public — typically via impassioned rhetoric and propaganda, and often using nationalistic or populist themes. ...


Tillman era 1890-1914

Statue of Ben Tillman, one of the most outspoken advocates of racism to serve in Congress.
Statue of Ben Tillman, one of the most outspoken advocates of racism to serve in Congress.

In 1890, Ben Tillman set his sights on the gubernatorial contest of that year. The farmers of the state rallied behind his candidacy and Tillman easily defeated the Conservative nominee, A.C. Haskell. The Conservatives failed to grasp the strength of the farmer's movement in the state and they no longer engendered respect for having fought so gallantly for the state in the Civil War. Not only that, but Tillman's "humorous and coarse speech appealed to a majority no more delicate than he in matters of taste."[4] Download high resolution version (1000x1761, 1736 KB)Ben Tillman statue on SC statehouse grounds Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL, Pollinator 04:53, Dec 31, 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1000x1761, 1736 KB)Ben Tillman statue on SC statehouse grounds Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL, Pollinator 04:53, Dec 31, 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The 1890 South Carolina gubernatorial election was held on November 4, 1890 to select the governor of the state of South Carolina. ... A.C. Haskell as a law professor Alexander Cheves Haskell (September 22, 1839 – April 13, 1910) was a Colonel in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War and a Democratic politician in postbellum South Carolina. ...


The Tillman movement succeeded in enacting a number of Tillman's proposals and pet projects. Among those was the crafting of a new state constitution and a state dispensary system for alcohol. Tillman held a "pathological fear of Negro rule"[5] and devised a new constitution as a means to deprive blacks of voting rights without violating the Fifteenth Amendment. After the promulgation of the Constitution of 1895, the usual black vote dropped from approximately 15,000 to under 5,000 and blacks were also excluded from the Democratic primary. The state Dispensary, described as "Ben Tillman’s Baby", was never popular in the state and violence broke out in Darlington over its enforcement. In 1907, the Dispensary Act was repealed and in 1915 the legal sale of alcohol was prohibited by referendum. The South Carolina Dispensary system was a state-run monopoly on liquor sales in the United States state of South Carolina which operated from 1893 to 1907 statewide and until 1916 in some counties. ... The Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution, adopted in 1870 in response to the American Civil War, prevented any state from denying the right to vote to any male citizen twenty-one years old or older on account of his race. ... Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... Darlington is a city in Darlington County, in northeastern South Carolina. ...


Tillman's influence on the politics of South Carolina began to wane after his ascension to the U.S. Senate in 1895. The Conservatives recaptured the legislature in 1902 and aristocratic planter Duncan Clinch Heyward won the gubernatorial election. They made no substantial changes and in fact Heyward continued to enforce the Dispensary Act at great difficulty. The state continued its rapid pace of industrialization and this gave rise to a new class of voters, the cotton mill workers. The sharecroppers and mill workers coalesced behind the candidacy of Tillmanite Cole Blease in the gubernatorial election of 1910 because they felt like he was making them an important part of the political force of the state. However, once in office Blease never initiated any policies that were beneficial to the mill workers or poor farmers. Instead his four years in office were highly erratic in behavior and it helped pave the way for a progressive, Richard I. Manning, to win the governorship in 1914.[6] Duncan Clinch Heyward (June 24, 1864 – January 23, 1943) was Democratic Governor of South Carolina from January 20, 1903 to January 15, 1907. ... The 1902 South Carolina gubernatorial election was held on November 4, 1902 to select the governor of the state of South Carolina. ... Coleman Livingston Blease (October 8, 1868–January 19, 1942) was a politician from the U.S. state of South Carolina known for his populist appeals and racism. ... The 1910 South Carolina gubernatorial election was held on November 8, 1910 to select the governor of the state of South Carolina. ... Richard Irvine Manning III (August 15, 1859 - September 11, 1931) was a politician from the U.S. state of South Carolina. ... The 1914 South Carolina gubernatorial election was held on November 3, 1914 to select the governor of the state of South Carolina. ...


Economic booms and busts

In 1886, Atlanta newspaper publisher Henry W. Grady, speaking before a New York audience, proclaimed his vision of a "New South", a South based on the Northern economic model. By now, the idea had already struck some enterprising South Carolinians that the cotton they were shipping north could also be processed in South Carolina. The idea was not entirely new to South Carolinians; in 1854, De Bow's Commercial Review of the South & West, founded by Charleston-born James Dunwoody Brownson De Bow, had boasted to investors of South Carolina's potential for manufacturing, citing its three lines of rail roads, inexpensive raw materials, nonfreezing rivers, and labor pool. Portrait of Henry Grady Henry Woodfin Grady (May 17, 1851 – December 23, 1889) was a journalist and orator who helped reintegrate the states of the former Confederacy into the Union after the American Civil War. ... New South is a term that has been used intermittently since the American Civil War to describe the American South, in whole or in part. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... James Dunwoody Brownson DeBow (1820-1867) was an American publisher and statistician best known for his influential magazine DeBows Review A resident of New Orleans, De Bow used his magazine to advocate for the expansion of southern agriculture and commerce so that the southern economy could become independent of... Investment is a term with several closely related meanings in finance and economics. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... Diesel and electric trains and locomotives replaced steam in many countries in the decades after World War II. Many countries since the 1960s have adopted High-speed railways. ...


These enticements remained constant after the Civil War, and by the end of the 19th century, the textile industry was exploding across South Carolina, particularly upstate because of its turbine-turning rivers, bringing relief from the depressed sharecropper economy. For whites, things were looking up. In 1902, the Lowcountry hosted the Charleston Expedition, drawing visitors from around the world, with the hope of impressing them on the idea that the state was on the rebound. On April 9, President Theodore Roosevelt, whose mother had attended school in Columbia, made an appearance, smoothing over the still simmering animosities between the North and the South. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... For other uses, see Mother (disambiguation). ...


In South Carolina, things continued to improve even after the Tillman era ended with the election of progressive Governor Richard Irvine Manning III in 1914. The expansion of brightleaf tobacco around 1900 from North Carolina brought an agricultural boom, which was broken by the depression, but recovered and lasted until near the end of the 20th century. In 1919, the invasion of the boll weevil destroyed the state's cotton crop which, despite it having not paid well since before the Civil War, was still the state's primary crop. Blacks and low-income whites left the state in droves for better jobs up north. The expansion of military bases, followed by domestic and foreign investment in manufacturing, have helped revitalized the state. Richard Irvine Manning III (August 15, 1859 - September 11, 1931) was a politician from the U.S. state of South Carolina. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ... Binomial name Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 Wikispecies has information related to: Boll weevil The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a beetle measuring an average length of six millimeters (¼ inch). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... A military base is an isolated facility, settlement, or installation that shelters military equipment and personnel. ...


Desegregation

Compared to hot spots such as Mississippi and Alabama, desegregation went rather smoothly during the 1950s and 1960s in South Carolina. And yet, as early as 1948, when Strom Thurmond ran for president on the States Rights ticket, South Carolina whites were showing their discontent with the Democrats' post–World War II continuation of the New Deal's federalization of power. The process began in Rock Hill in 1961, when nine black Friendship Junior College students took seats at the whites-only lunch counter at a downtown McCrory's and refused to leave.[7] When police arrested them, the students were given the choice of paying $200 fines or serving 30 days of hard labor in the York County jail. The Friendship Nine, as they became known, chose the latter, gaining national attention in the American Civil Rights Movement because of their decision to use the "jail, no bail" strategy. Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... In American politics and constitutional law, states rights are guaranteed by the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, (i. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ... Rock Hill is the largest city in York County, South Carolina, and a satellite city of Charlotte, North Carolina. ... Lunch is an abbreviation of luncheon, meaning a midday meal. ... J.G. McCrorys or McCrory Stores is a defunct chain of five and dime stores in the United States based in York, Pennsylvania. ... A fine is money paid as a financial punishment for the commission of minor crimes or as the settlement of a claim. ... York County is a county located in the U.S. state of South Carolina. ... The Friendship Nine was a group of African-American men who went to jail after staging a sit-in at a segregated McCrorys lunch counter in Rock Hill, South Carolina in 1961. ... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ...


When the time came for Clemson to allow Harvey Gantt into its classes in 1962, after the state and the college's board of trustees had exhausted all legal recourse to prevent it, word went out from influential whites that no violence or otherwise unseemly behavior would be tolerated. Gantt's entrance into the school occurred without incident, and the March 16, 1963, Saturday Evening Post praised the state's handling of the crisis, with an article titled "Desegregation with Dignity: The Inside Story of How South Carolina Kept the Peace". Twenty years later, Gantt would go on to serve as mayor of Charlotte, North Carolina. Clemson University is a public, coeducational, land-grant, research university located in Clemson, South Carolina, United States. ... Harvey B. Gantt ( Born: 1943, Charleston, South Carolina) is an architect and politician. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... There have been many publications called the Saturday Evening Post; several were/are local British newspapers. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... “Charlotte” redirects here. ...


In 1964, Barry Goldwater's platform galvanized South Carolina's conservative Democrats and led to major defections into the Republican Party, most notably Senator Thurmond. Unfortunately, the tragic shooting at Orangeburg in 1968 made one great exception to the state's peaceful desegregation. Three students were killed and more than 30 others wounded by police overreacting to the violence of students protesting a segregated bowling alley. Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... On February 8, 1968, around 200 protestors had gathered on the campus of South Carolina State University to protest the segregation of the towns only bowling alley. ... A wound is a physical trauma where the skin is torn, cut or punctured. ... A bowler releases the ball. ...


In 1970, when South Carolina celebrated its Tricentennial, more than 80% of its residents had been born in the state. Since then, however, Northerners have discovered South Carolina's golf courses and beaches. The state, particularly the coastal areas but increasingly inland as well, has become more popular as a tourist destination and magnet for new arrivals. Even some descendants of black Carolinians who moved out of the South during the Jim Crow years have moved back. Despite these new arrivals, about 69% of residents are native born. This article is about the sport. ... Beaches is a 1988 movie adapted by Mary Agnes Donoghue from the novel Beaches by Iris Rainer Dart. ...


References

Recent events

In the 1970s, South Carolina elected its first Republican governor since Reconstruction. In 1987 and 1991, the state elected and reelected Governor Caroll Campbell, another Republican. Republican David Beasley, a former Democrat who claimed to have undergone a spiritual rebirth that caused him to reconsider his views, ran for governor as a Republican and won. As governor, Beasley surprised everyone and risked the wrath of Southern traditionalists by announcing, in 1996, that as a Christian he could not justify keeping the Confederate flag flying over the State House, knowing that it offended black South Carolinians. Traditionalists were further shocked when Bob Jones III, of Bob Jones University, announced that he held the very same view. David Muldrow Beasley (born February 26, 1957) is a United States politician. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that the section intro from the article Civil flag be merged into this article or section. ... Bob Jones III Robert Reynolds Jones III (b. ... Bob Jones University Bob Jones University (BJU) is a private, Protestant Fundamentalist, liberal arts[1] university located in Greenville, South Carolina. ...


Beasley went into the 1998 elections with such an edge in popularity that the top two Democratic candidates did not even bother to run. Remarkably, Beasley was brought down by the Democrats' third stringer, Lancaster State Assemblyman Jim Hodges. Hodges, a former opponent of legalized gambling, now attacked Beasley's opposition to the creation of a state lottery and to the continued growth of video gaming in the state, which Hodges painted as salvation tax base for public education. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Gov. ... Caravaggio, The Cardsharps, c. ... A lottery is a popular form of gambling which involves the drawing of lots for a prize. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... // Public education is education mandated for the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. ...


Despite Hodge's unwillingness to join Beasley in his opposition to the flying of the Confederate battle flag, the NAACP, though at the same time demanding a boycott of the state over that very same issue, announced its support for Hodges. In 1998, 90% of African American Carolinians voted for Hodges, causing the election to swing his way. By USA Today's reckoning, the Collins Company, maker of video gambling machines, had given at least $3.5 million in donations to Hodge's campaign. Others claim the numbers went over twice that high. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ...


After the election, however, with public opinions steadfastly against video gambling, Hodges asked for a statewide referendum on the issue, claiming that he would personally join the expected majority in saying "no" on legalized gambling, but vowing not to campaign against it. Critics in both parties suggested that Hodge's debts to Collins and other members of the state's multibillion-dollar gambling industry were keeping him from campaigning against legalized gambling. The idea for a referendum would have worked except that holding one would have violated the state constitution, which makes no provision for them except for ratification of amendments to the constitution itself. However, state legislators shut down the state's video casinos soon after Hodges took office, aided by the public outcry after a Georgia woman killed her 10-day-old baby by leaving her in a sweltering car while she gambled in a Ridgeland casino. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political campaign is an organized effort to influence the decision making process within a group. ... A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ... Debt is that which is owed. ... In the context of the United States of America, a state constitution is the governing document of a U.S. state, comparable to the U.S. Constitution which is the governing document of the United States. ... An amendment is a change to the constitution of a nation or a state. ... The term baby can refer to: an infant a very early computer—the Small-Scale Experimental Machine, nicknamed Baby a musician – Brian Williams – who performs under the name Baby. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ridgeland is a town located in Jasper County, South Carolina. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Upon his election, Hodges announced that, while he had not said anything up until that moment, he agreed with Beasley's increasingly popular compromise on the Confederate flag issue, supporting the flag's transfer to a Confederate monument on the State House's grounds. Though many Carolinians agreed with this position as the only solution and admired Hodges' solution to nuclear waste shipments to the state, Hodges alienated many moderate voters in a variety of ways, enough so that most of the state's major newspapers supported Mark Sanford to replaces Hodges in 2002. The state's mishandling of the Hurricane Floyd evacuation in 1999 had fingers pointing in Hodges' way. The lack of hurricanes in the 2000 and 2001 seasons did not give Carolinians a chance to see if Hodge's post-Floyd revisions to the plan would work. Look up Compromise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Monument (disambiguation). ... Political Punk band from Victorville, Ca WWW.MYSPACE.COM/NUCLEARWASTEX ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Marshall Mark Clement Sanford, Jr. ... Lowest pressure 921 mbar (hPa; 27. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ...


In 2002, South Carolinians were surprised to learn that most of the funds from his "South Carolina Education Lottery" were going to pay for college scholarships, rather than trying to improve the rural and inner-city elementary, middle, and high schools that Hodges had gotten elected by maligning. Critics, including leaders at Hodge's church, the United Methodist, denounced the lottery as taxing the poor to pay for services for the middle class. On top of this, Hodges insisted that a full $3 million be sent to Allen University, Benedict College, Morris College, Claflin University, and Vorhees College, all private schools with a significant number of non-South Carolinian students. Note: The term scholarship can mean either the methods employed by scholars (see scholarly method) or an award of access to an institution and/or money for an individual for the purposes of furthering their education. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China An artists rendering of an aerial view of the Maryland countryside: Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), Aerial Series: Ploughed Fields, Maryland, 1974, acrylic and mixed materials on apertured double canvas, 52... An inner city is the central area of a major city. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Middle school and junior high school cover a period of education that straddles primary education and secondary education and serve as a bridge between them. ... High school, or secondary school, is the last segment of compulsory education in Hong Kong, United States, Australia, Canada, China, Korea and Japan. ... The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination, and the second-largest Protestant one, in the United States. ... Look up Poor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Allen University was founded in 1870 as Payne Institute, dedicated to providing education to freed African-American slaves. ... Benedict College is an historically African-American liberal arts college located in Columbia, South Carolina. ... Claflin University is located in Orangeburg, South Carolina. ... Private schools, in the United States, Australia, Scotland, and other English-speaking countries, are schools not administered by local or national government, which retain the right to select their student body and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition rather than with public funds. ...


In the lottery's first year, Hodges and his supporters awarded $40 million for "LIFE Scholarships", granted to any South Carolinian with a B average, graduation in the top 30% of the student's high school class, and a 1,100 SAT score[8]. He and his supporters also awarded $5.8 million for "HOPE Scholarships" which had even lower standards. In 2002, Hodges and legislators were chagrined to learn that only about 40% of the LIFE scholars were able to maintain the necessary 3.0 GPA needed to renew their scholarship for sophomore years. Hodges campaigned for reelection in 2002 against Republican moderate Mark Sanford, former U.S. congressman from Sullivan's Island, and lost. Academic procession during the University of Canterbury graduation ceremony. ... For other uses, see SAT (disambiguation). ... The initials GPA can refer, among other things, to Grade Point Average; see Grade (education) Guinness Peat Aviation General Practice Australia, a private, independent medical accreditation society Greyhound Pets of America This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ... Marshall Mark Clement Sanford, Jr. ... A Congressman or Congresswoman (generically, Congressperson) is a politician who is a member of a Congress. ...


Bibliography

Textbooks and surveys

University of South Carolina Press (or USC Press), founded in 1944, is a university press that is part of University of South Carolina. ...

Scholarly secondary studies: to 1865

Scholarly secondary studies: since 1865

  • Bass, Jack and Marilyn W. Thompson. Ol' Strom: An Unauthorized Biography of Strom Thurmond,. (2003)
  • David L. Carlton, Mill and Town in South Carolina, 1880-1920 (1982
  • Clarke, Erskine. Our Southern Zion: A History of Calvinism in the South Carolina Low Country, 1690-1990 (1996)
  • William J. Cooper Jr., The Conservative Regime: South Carolina, 1877-1890 (1968).
  • Lacy K. Ford, "Rednecks and Merchants: Economic Development and Social Tensions in the South Carolina Upcountry, 1865-1900," Journal of American History, LXXI (September 1984), 294-318; in JSTOR
  • Kantrowitz, Stephen. Ben Tillman & the Reconstruction of White Supremacy (2002)
  • Kantrowitz, Stephen. "Ben Tillman and Hendrix McLane, Agrarian Rebels: White Manhood, 'The Farmers,' and the Limits of Southern Populism." Journal Title: Journal of Southern History. Volume: 66. Issue: 3. (2000) pp. 497+. in JSTOR online edition
  • Keyserling, Harriet. Against the Tide: One Woman's Political Struggle. University of South Carolina Press, 1998.

This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...

Local studies

Primary documents

  • Pike, James Shepherd, The Prostrate State: South Carolina Under Negro Government(New York, 1874). hostile report on Reconstruction full text online at Making of America, University of Michigan
  • Salley, Alexander S. ed. Narratives of Early Carolina, 1650-1708 (1911)
  • Woodmason Charles. The Carolina Backcountry on the Eve of the Revolution Edited by Richard J. Hooker. (1953), a missionary reports

Notes

  1. ^ South Carolina: History. Retrieved on August 26, 2005.
  2. ^ During this salute, one of the guns exploded, killing a young soldier—the only casualty of the bombardment and the first casualty of the war.
  3. ^ Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer, A History of the United States since the Civil War (1917) 1:128–129
  4. ^ Lander, Ernest: A History of South Carolina 1865-1960, page 34. University of South Carolina Press, 1970.
  5. ^ Lander, Ernest: A History of South Carolina 1865-1960, page 40. University of South Carolina Press, 1970.
  6. ^ Lander, Ernest: A History of South Carolina 1865-1960, page 53. University of South Carolina Press, 1970.
  7. ^ Siglas, Mike (2003). South Carolina. Emeryville, CA: Avalon Travel Publishing. ISBN 1-56691-545-7.
  8. ^ Scholarships South Carolina Department of Education. Retrieved on August 26, 2005.

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