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Encyclopedia > History of Shia Islam

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Shī‘a Islam
Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...



Image File history File links Basmala. ...

Branches

Twelver · Ismaili · Zaidi Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Zaidiyya, Zaidism or Zaydism (Arabic: الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is a ShÄ«a maðhab (sect, school) named after the Imām Zayd ibn ˤAlÄ«. Followers of the Zaidi fiqh are called Zaidis (or are occasionally called Fivers in the West). ...

People of the House

Muhammad
Ali ibn Abu Talib
Fatima Zahra
HasanHusayn
Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...

Beliefs & Practices

Succession of Ali
Imamate of the Family
SahabaThe Four Companions
View of the Qur'an
Ghadir KhummKarbala
Mourning of Muharram
Light of Aql The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... For other views of Sahaba and a short description, see sahaba. ... The Four Companions, also called the Four Pillars of the Sahaba is a Shia term that refers to the four Sahaba Shia belive stayed most loyal to Ali after the death of Muhammad: Miqdad Abu Dharr Salman al-Farsi Ammar ibn Yasir. ... This is a sub-article to Shia Islam and Quran The Shia view of the Quran has some differences from the Sunni view but it must be noted that the text of the Quran is exactly identical in both Shia and Sunni. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The word Hadith refers to a saying of the Prophet of Islam. ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 5000+ 123 (72 Adult Men (Tabari)and 51 Children including a sixmonth old infant) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2... The Mourning of Muharram is an important period of mourning in the Shia branch of Islam, taking place in Muharram which is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Shias believe that the souls of the Prophets and the Imams are derived from the first light in the universe which was created by Allah, the light of Aql, which in Arabic roughly translates as knowledge. ...

See Also

History of Shia Islam

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Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam or Shi‘ism is the largest minority denomination based on the Islamic faith .Shias adhere to the teachings of Muhammad and the religious guidance of his family (who are referred to as the Ahl al-Bayt) or his descendents known as Shi'a Imams. Muhammad's bloodline continues only through his daughter Fatima Zahra and cousin Ali which alongside Muhammad's grandsons are the Ahl al-Bayt. Thus, Shi'as consider Muhammad's descendents as the true source of guidance while considering the first three ruling Sunni caliphs a historic occurrence and not something attached to faith. Shia Islam, like Sunni Islam, has at times been divided into many branches; however, only three of these currently have a significant number of followers and each of them has a separate trajectory. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ...


From political viewpoint the history of Shia is formed from several parts. The first part is emergence of Shia which starts after Prophet's death in 632 and lasts until Battle of Karbala in 680. This part coincides with the Imamah of Ali, Hasan and Husayn. The second part is the differentiation and distinction of Shia as a separate sect in Muslim community and opposition of Sunni caliph. This part starts after battle of Karbala and lasts until the formation of Shia states about 900. During this section Shia is divided into several branches. The third section is the period of Shia states. The first Shia state was Idrisid dynasty (780-974) in Maghreb. Then Alavids dynasty (864 - 928) established in Mazandaran (Tabaristan), north of Iran. These dynasties were local. But they followed by two great and powerful dynasty. Fatimid Caliphate which formed in Ifriqiya in 909. Then ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt and the Levant until 1171. The Buyid dynasty emerged in Daylaman, north of Iran, about 930 and then ruled over central and western part of Iran and Iraq until 1048. In Yemen Imams of various dynasties usually of the Zaidi sect established a theocratic political structure that survived from 897 until 1962. Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 5000+ 123 (72 Adult Men (Tabari)and 51 Children including a sixmonth old infant) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Madhhab(مذهب) (Madhahib, pl) is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence (fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... The Idrisids were the first Arab dynasty in the western Maghreb, ruling from 788 to 985, and can be thought of as the originators of an independent Morocco. ... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea in the north. ... The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... In medieval history, Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah (Arabic: إفريقية) was the area comprising the coastal regions of what are today western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria. ... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ...

Contents

From Saqifa to Karbala

See also: saqifah, Rashidun, First Fitna, Second Fitna, and Battle of Karbala

Muhammad began preaching Islam at Mecca before migrating to Medina, from where he united the tribes of Arabia into a singular Arab Muslim religious polity. With Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community. While Ali ibn Abi Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, and the rest of Muhammad's close family were washing his body for burial, at a gathering attended by a small group of Muslims at Saqifah, Umar ibn al-Khattab, a prominent companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr, who was Muhammad's intimate friend and collaborator. Others added their support and Abu Bakr was made the first caliph. This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali ibn Abi Talib had been designated his successor. According to Sunni accounts, Muhammad died without having appointed a successor, and with a need for leadership, they gathered and voted for the position of caliph. Shi'a accounts differ by asserting that Muhammad had designated Ali as his successor on a number of occasions, including on his death bed. Ali had many friends, followers and supporters who believed that he should have succeeded Muhammad. This did not create an immediate division, however, because Ali did not fight against the elected caliphs.[1] [2] The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... Saqifah, also known as Saqifa Bani Saeda or Saqifat Bani Saida, was a roofed building used by the tribe, or banu, of Saida, of the faction of the Khazraj, of the city of Medina in the Hijaz, northwestern Arabia. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... The Second Fitna, or Second Islamic civil war, was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic world during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the caliph Muawiya I. There seems to be a lack of solid consensus on the exact range of years... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 5000+ 123 (72 Adult Men (Tabari)and 51 Children including a sixmonth old infant) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Hijra may refer to: Hijra (Hegira/Hijrah/Hejira) is an Arabic term referring to the migration of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Arabs are a semitic race. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Saqifah, also known as Saqifa Bani Saeda or Saqifat Bani Saida, was a roofed building used by the tribe, or banu, of Saida, of the faction of the Khazraj, of the city of Medina in the Hijaz, northwestern Arabia. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ...


The succession to Muhammad is an extremely contentious issue. Muslims ultimately divided into two branches based on their political attitude towards this issue, which forms the primary theological barrier between the two major divisions of Muslims: Sunni and Shi'a, with the latter following Ali as the successor to Muhammad. The two groups also disagree on Ali's attitude towards Abu Bakr, and the two caliphs who succeeded him: Umar (or `Umar ibn al-Khattāb) and Uthman or (‘Uthmān ibn ‘Affān). Sunnis tend to stress Ali's acceptance and support of their rule, while the Shi'a claims that he distanced himself from them, and that he was being kept from fulfilling the religious duty that Muhammad had appointed to him. The Sunni Muslims say that if Ali was the rightful successor as ordained by God Himself, then it would have been his duty as the leader of the Muslim nation to make war with these people (Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman) until Ali established the decree. Shia claim, however, that Ali did not fight Abu Bakr, Umar or Uthman, because firstly he did not have the military strength and if he decided to, it would have caused a civil war amongst the Muslims, which was still a nascent community throughout the Arab world.[3] The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Uthman, Othman, Osman, Usman, or Ozman (Arabic: عثمان) is a male Arabic given name meaning the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people, honest, caring, sincere, genuine, and attractive. The following people share this name: Uthman Ibn Affan Osman I Uthman I, a Marinid caliph Usman dan Fodio...


Differentiation and distinction

Division into branches

Twelvers history

Main article: Twelvers

Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ...

Imams era

Occultation era

Esmaili history

Main article: Ismaili
See also: Mustaali, Nizari, and Alavi Bohra

The Ismāʿīlī (Urdu: اسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-Ismāʿīliyyūn; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the Shīa community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... This group is named Mustaali because they follow Imam Mustalli, after Imam Mustansir Billah, and not Nazaar whom the Aga Khan group consider as their Imam. ... Main article: Ismaili The Nizārīyya (Arabic النزاريون Al-Nizarin) are the largest branch of the Ismāīlī (in Persian: اسماعیلیه) and make up over two thirds of Ismāīlī Muslims. ... Alavi Bohra (Arabic: علوی بوہرہ) are a subsect of Ismaili Mustaali. ...

Setr

Old Da'vat

See also: Fatimid Empire

The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ...

New Da'vat

See also: Hashashin

Hashshashin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Zaidiyya history

Main article: Zaidiyyah
See also: Alavids, Buyids, Ukhaidhirids, and Rassids

Zaidiyya, Zaidism or Zaydism (Arabic: الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is a ShÄ«a maðhab (sect, school) named after the Imām Zayd ibn ˤAlÄ«. Followers of the Zaidi fiqh are called Zaidis (or are occasionally called Fivers in the West). ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Āl-i Buyeh, were a Shiite tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Banu Ukhaidhir (Arabic: ) established a kingdom in Al-Yamamah (central Arabia) in 866 C.E.. They were descendents of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah and his grandson Al-Hassan, and at least one contemporary traveller [1] describes them as having been Shiites of the Zaydi persuasion. ... The Rassids were the first Zaidi Imams of Yemen, with their capital at Sada, in the highlands. ...

Other sects

Qarmatians

Main article: Qarmatians

The Qarmatians (from Arabic qaramita قرامطة, also spelled Carmathians, Qarmathians, Karmathians etc. ...

Alevis

Main article: Alevi

This box:      Alevis ( Turkish: Aleviler or Alevilik; Kurdish: ) are a religious, sub-ethnic, and cultural community in Turkey numbering in the tens of millions. ...

Alawism

Main article: Alawism

Religions Alawism Scriptures Quran, Kitab al Majmu Languages Arabic, Turkish The Alawites are a Middle Eastern sect of Shiite Islam[2][3] prominent in Syria. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Chirri, Mohamad (1982). The Brother of the Prophet Mohammad. Islamic Center of America, Detroit, MI. Alibris ID 8126171834. 
  2. ^ See:
    • Holt (1977a), p.57
    • Lapidus (2002), p.32
    • Madelung (1996), p.43
    • Tabatabaei (1979), p.30–50
  3. ^ Sahih Bukhari 5.57.50

References

  • Holt, P. M.; Bernard Lewis (1977a). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521291364. 
  • Lapidus, Ira (2002). A History of Islamic Societies, 2nd, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521779333. 
  • Madelung, Wilferd (1996). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521646960. 
  • Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn; Seyyed Hossein Nasr (translator) (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Suny press. ISBN 0-87395-272-3. 

For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... Wilferd Madelung is the Laudian Professor of Arabic at the University of Oxford. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ...

See also

  • Historical Shi'a-Sunni relations

// Origins of the schism Shias record the start of the schism with the death of Muhammad, and in their view, a violent coup détat against Ali in his first day as caliph, which they argue was automatic without recourse to an election or a formal investiture. ...

External links

  • Four Centuries of Influence of Iraqî Shî‘ism on Pre-Safavid Iran

 
 

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