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Encyclopedia > History of Rastafarians
Haile Selassie, Rastafarian God and King

Rastafarians call themselves such after Ras (prince) Tafari Makonnen, whose coronation as Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia on November 2, 1930 inspired them to believe that the messiah had returned. It grew strongly both in rural Jamaica and in the capital Kingston between the thirties and the sixties when reggae producers like Coxsone Dodd began to let Rastafarians bring their music and their lyrics into what was a booming industry. The fame of Bob Marley brought Rastafari to the world, and as of 2000 there are more than a million Rastafarians worldwide, and a vibrant roots reggae culture. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Haile Selassie, Rastafari God and King Rastafarianism, or the Rastafarian movement, or simply Rasta as adherents prefer to call it, is a religious movement which reveres the former emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie, who as King of Kings and Lord of Lords, and as the Lion of Judah, is seen... A prince (from the Latin princeps) is a male member of royalty or a royal family. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is the religious symbol for God incarnate in the Rastafarian religion. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ Anointed one, Standard Hebrew Mašíaḥ, Tiberian Hebrew Māšîªḥ) is a human descendant of King David who will rebuild the nation of Israel and bring world peace by restoring the Davidic Kingdom. ... Location of Kingston Kingston (population 600,000) is the capital of Jamaica and it is located southeast of the country. ... Clement Seymour Sir Coxsone Dodd (Kingston, Jamaica, January 26, 1932 – May 5, 2004) was a Jamaican record producer who was influential in the development of reggae and other forms of Jamaican music in the 1950s, 60s and later. ... Roots Reggae is the name given to Rastafarian reggae music from Jamaica, which evolved from Ska and Rocksteady and made famous by the legendary singer/songwriter Bob Marley. ...

Contents

Marcus Garvey

The Rastas see Marcus Garvey as a second John the Baptist for having prophecised the coming of Selassie when he said, "Look to Africa, for there a king shall be crowned". Marcus Garvey believed in Pan-Africanism, the belief that all black people of the world should join in brotherhood and retake the continent of Africa from the white colonial powers. He promoted his cause of black pride throughout the twenties and thirties, and was particularly successful and influential among lower-class blacks in Jamaica and in rural communities. His ideas have been hugely influential in the development of Rastafari culture, who regarded him as a prophet, Garvey never identified himself with the movement, and wrote a critical article about Selassie for abandoning Ethiopia. The first Rastas had been Garveyites, so Rastafari can be seen as a development of Garveyism. In Rasta mythology it is the Black Star Liner (a ship bought by Garvey to encourage repatriation to Liberia) that takes them home to Africa. John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or John the Dipper) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ... Tutankhamuns cane, depicting both white-skinned and black-skinned enemies of Egypt held under the thumb of the pharaoh Afrocentrism is a worldview or perspective that is centered on Africa and Africans. ...


Modern holy books

The Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy

The Holy Piby written by Robert Athlyi Rogers from Anguilla in 1928, is acclaimed by many Rastafarians as a primary source. Robert Athlyi Rogers, who founded an Afrocentric religion in the US and West Indies in the 1920s. Rogers' religious movement, the Afro Athlican Constructive Church, saw Ethiopians (in the Biblical sense of Black Africans) as the chosen people of God, and proclaimed Marcus Garvey, the prominent Black Nationalist, an apostle. The church preached self-reliance and self-determination for Africans. The Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy, written during the 1920s by a preacher called Fitz Balintine Pettersburg. It is a surrealistic stream-of-consciousness polemic against the white colonial power structure, a palimpsest of Afrocentric thought, brimming with rage and energy. The Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy Author: Rev. ... The Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy Author: Rev. ... The Holy Piby was written by Robert Athlyi Rogers, who founded an Afrocentric religion in the US and West Indies in the 1920s. ... The Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy, written during the 1920s by a proto-Rastafarian preacher, Fitz Balintine Pettersburg, is of historical and religious significance to Rastafarians. ...


Early years

Emperor Haile Selassie, whom the Rastafarians call Jah, was crowned "King of Kings, Lord of Lords, and Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah". Selassie almost immediately gained a following among what came to be known as the Rastafarians. As Ethiopia was the only African country to escape colonialism, and Haile Selassie was the only black leader accepted among the kings and queens of Europe, the early Rastas viewed him with great reverence. Jah is traditionally thought to be a shortened form of the name Yahweh or Jehovah. ...


During the 1930s, depression wracked Jamaica and Ethiopia alike. Fascist Italy under Benito Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in 1935 (see Second Italo-Abyssinian War), marking one of the major preceding events of World War 2. Haile Selassie, in exile in the United Kingdom, formed the Ethiopian World Federation to unite black support worldwide for Ethiopian sovereignty. Rastafarians looked to their bibles, and saw what they believed to be the fulfilling of many prophecies from the book of Revelations. Events and trends Technology Jet engine invented First atom was split with a particle accelerator Golden Age of radio begins in U.S. Science Nuclear fission discovered by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann Pluto, the ninth planet from the Sun, is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh British biologist Arthur... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Italian troops fortify a position in Abyssinia Lasting seven months from 1935-1936, the Second Italo-Abyssinian War is often seen as a precursor to World War II and a demonstration of the inefficiency of the League of Nations. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... Revelations may refer to: revelation prophecy The New Testament Book of Revelation an episode of the television series Babylon 5; see Revelations (Babylon 5). ...


In 1934 Leonard Howell was the first Rasta to be charged with sedition for refusing loyalty to the King of England George V. The British government would not tolerate Jamaicans loyal to Haile Selassie in what was then their colony. He was the most outstanding of the early leaders of Rastafarianism. He was imprisoned for two years, and then founded the Pinnacle commune. The herb also gained a spiritual significance as a holy sacrament among the above-mentioned Nyahbinghi warriors. Leonard P. Howell (1898 - ?) is the founder of the Rastafarian religious movement. ... Sedition is a deprecated term of law to refer to non-overt conduct such as speech and organization that is deemed by the legal authority as tending toward insurrection against the established order. ... A monarch is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion... King George V King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Emperor of India His Majesty King George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert) (3 June 1865–20 January 1936) was the last British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, changing the name to the House... A pinnacle (from Latin pinnaculum, a little feather, pinna) is an architectural ornament originally forming the cap or crown of a buttress or small turret, but afterwards used on parapets at the corners of towers and in many other situations. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates, in the sense of being a visible symbol or manifestation of invisible divine grace. ...


In 1954, the Pinnacle commune was destroyed by Jamaican authorities. By the 1950s, Rastafarianism's message of racial pride and unity had unnerved the ruling class of Jamaica, and confrontations between the poor black Rastas and middle-class white police were common. Many Rastas were beaten, and some killed. Others were humiliated by having their sacred dreadlocks cut off. 1954 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. ...


On October 4, 1963, Haile Selassie addressed the United Nations with his famous peace speech (http://www.bobmarley.com/life/rastafari/war_speech.html) from which Bob Marley made the song 'War'. The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945 and now made up of 191 states. ... Bob Marley Robert Nesta Marley (February 6, 1945 - May 11, 1981), better known as Bob Marley, was a singer, guitarist, and songwriter from Saint Ann, Jamaica. ...


Visit of Selassie to Jamaica

Haile Selassie visited Jamaica on April 21, 1966. Somewhere between one and two hundred thousand Rastafarians from all over Jamaica descended on Kingston airport having heard that the man whom they considered to be God was coming to visit them. They waited at the airport smoking lots of cannabis and playing drums. When Haile Selassie arrived at the airport he refused to get off the aeroplane for an hour until Mortimer Planner, a well known Rasta persuaded him that it was safe to do so. From then on the visit was a success. Rita Marley, Bob Marley's wife converted to the Rastafarian faith after seeing Haile Selassie, and her fervour was what drew Bob Marley into the faith himself. April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Rasta hairstyle Rastafarianism is a religious movement that believes in the divinity of former emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia. ... Location of Kingston Kingston (population 600,000) is the capital of Jamaica and it is located southeast of the country. ... Marijuana leaves Some home-grown marijuana, or more precisely, cannabis bud, which is well-cured, i. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... Mortimer Planno Planner, born in 1920 in Kingston, Jamaica, is a Rastafarian elder, and is considered one of the ideological founders of this back-to- Africa religion. ... Alpharita Constantia Marley Anderson, better known as Rita Marley (b. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: Faith The word faith has various uses; its central meaning is equivalent to belief, trust or confidence. As such, the object of faith can be either a person (or even an inanimate object or state of affairs) or a proposition (or body of propositions, such...


The great significance of this event in the development of the Rastafarian religion should not be underestimated. Having been outcasts in society they gained a temporary respectability for the first time. By making the rasta religion more acceptable it opened the way for the commercialisation of reggae which led to the inexorable spread of Rastafarianism. Reggae is a style of music developed in Jamaica and is closely linked to the Rastafarian religion, though not universally popular among them. ...


Because of Haile Selassie's visit, April 21 is celebrated as Grounation Day. It was during this visit that Selassie famously told the Rastafarian community leaders that they should not emigrate to Ethiopia until they had liberated the people of Jamaica. This dictum came to be known as "liberation before repatriation." April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... Liberation means to be freed (or change from a state of lacking freedom to having freedom), see freedom. ... Repatriation (from late Latin repatriare - to restore someone to his homeland) is a term frequently used to describe the process of return of refugees to their homes, most notably after a war. ...


Selassie then met with several Rasta elders in Addis Ababa and allowed Rastafarians and other people of African descent to settle on his personal land in Shashamane. average temperature and precipitations per month Addis Ababa (Amharic አዲስ አበባ, new flower) is the capital of Ethiopia. ... Shashamane (or Shashemene) is a town in the Ethiopian province of Shoa, about 150 miles from the capital of Addis Ababa. ...


Walter Rodney

In 1968, Walter Rodney, an author and professor at the University of the West Indies, published a pamphlet on his experiences with the Rastafarians titled Groundings with My Brothers. It became a benchmark in the Caribbean Black Power movement. Combined with Rastafarianism, both philosophies spread rapidly to various Caribbean nations, including Trinidad and Tobago, Dominica, and Grenada. Walter Rodney (March 23, 1942 - June 13, 1980) was a prominent Guyanese historian and political figure. ... Black Power is a slogan which describes the aspiration of many Africans (whether they be in Africa or abroad) to national self-determination. ...


Music

Music of Jamaica
Kumina Nyabinghi
Mento Ska
Rocksteady Reggae
Jamaican sound system Lovers rock
Dub Dancehall
Dub poetry Toasting
Raggamuffin Rastafarian
Roots reggae Rockers reggae
US UK
Timeline and Samples
British Caribbean Other Anglophone islands
Anguilla Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica
Bermuda Antigua and Barbuda
Montserrat Bahamas and Dominica
Turks and Caicos Barbados and St. Lucia
Caymans Grenada and St. Kitts and Nevis
Virgin Islands St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Other islands
Aruba and the Dutch Antilles - Cuba - Dominican Republic - Haiti - Martinique and Guadeloupe - Puerto Rico

Music has long played an integral role in Rastafari, and the connection between the religion and various kinds of music has become well-known due to the international fame of musicians like Bob Marley and Peter Tosh. Jamaica is an island country in the Caribbean Sea, known as the birthplace of many popular musical genres, including reggae, dub, raggamuffin and ska. ... Kumina is both the religion and the music practiced by the people of eastern Jamaica. ... Nyabinghi is a legendary Amazon queen, who was said to have possesed a Ugandan woman named Muhumusa in the 19th century. ... Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced reggae music. ... This page is about ska, the musical style. ... This article is about the Jamaican music. ... Reggae is a style of music developed in Jamaica and is closely linked to the Rastafarian religion, though not universally popular among them. ... A sound system is a Jamaican patois term for a large street party. ... For the Sade album, Lovers Rock, see Lovers Rock Lovers Rock is Britains main contribution to reggae. ... Dub is a form of Jamaican music, which developed in the early 1970s. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican reggae which developed around 1979, with artists such as Barrington Levy and others who went on to become the Roots Radics. ... Dub Poetry is a form of performance poetry consisting of spoken word over reggae rhythms, that originated in Jamaica in the 1970s. ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... Raggamuffin (or ragga) is a kind of reggae that includes digitized backing instrumentation. ... Rastafarianism is a religion from Jamaica that has since spread throughout the world. ... Roots Reggae is the name given to Rastafarian reggae music from Jamaica, which evolved from Ska and Rocksteady and made famous by the legendary singer/songwriter Bob Marley. ... Reggae is a style of music developed in Jamaica and is closely linked to the Rastafarian religion, though not universally popular among them. ... The vast majority of the inhabitants of the United States are immigrants or descendents of immigrants. ... 1966 in music Download sample of Alton Ellis rocksteady track Girl Youve Got a Date. Download sample of Cincinatti Kid by Prince Buster, a legendary ska artist. ... The Turks and Caicos Islands are an overseas dependency of the United Kingdom. ... The Cayman Islands are a Caribbean island chain, currently a territory of the United Kingdom. ... Aruba and the five main islands of the Netherlands Antilles are part of the Lesser Antilles island chain. ... The former French colonies of Martinique and Guadeloupe are small islands in the Caribbean. ... Music is an art, entertainment, or other human activity which involves organized sound, though definitions may vary. ... Bob Marley Robert Nesta Marley (February 6, 1945 - May 11, 1981), better known as Bob Marley, was a singer, guitarist, and songwriter from Saint Ann, Jamaica. ... Peter Tosh (October 9, 1944 - September 11, 1987) was a pioneer reggae musician. ...


Nyabinghi music is the most integral form of Rastafarian music. It is played at worship ceremonies called grounations, which including drumming, chanting and dancing along with prayer and smoking of ritual ganja. Nyabinghi probably comes from an East African movement from the 1850s to the 1950s that was led by women who militarily opposed European imperialism. This form of nyabinghi was centered around Muhumusa, a healing woman from Uganda who organized resistance against German colonialists. The British later led efforts against nyabinghi, classifying it as witchcraft through the Witchcraft Ordinance of 1912. In Jamaica, nyabinghi was appropriated for similar anti-colonial efforts, and is often danced to invoke the power of Jah against an oppressor. Nyabinghi is a legendary Amazon queen, who was said to have possesed a Ugandan woman named Muhumusa in the 19th century. ... Prayer is an effort to communicate with God, or to some deity or deities, either to offer praise to the deity, to make a request of the deity, or simply to express ones thoughts and emotions to the deity. ... Cannabis is a plant also known as Cannabis sativa, hemp, or marijuana. ... East Africa is a region generally considered to include: Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Somalia Tanzania Uganda [[Image:Example. ... Events and Trends Crimean war (1854 - 1856) fought between Imperial Russia and an alliance consisting of the United Kingdom, the Second French Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Ottoman Empire. ... Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. ... A cartoon portraying the British Empire as an octopus, reaching into foreign lands Imperialism is a policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics... Witchcraft is an originally derogatory term for the practice of magic forms that are not sanctioned by society. ... Jah is traditionally thought to be a shortened form of the name Yahweh or Jehovah. ...


The drum is a symbol of the Africanness of Rastafarianism, and some sects of the religion believe that Jah's spirit or divine energy is present in the drum. African music survived slavery because many slaveowners encouraged it as a method of keeping morale high. Afro-Caribbean music arose with the influx of influences from the native peoples of Jamaica, as well as the European slaveowners. A monument celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, erected in Victoria Tower Gardens, Millbank, Westminster, London Wiktionary has a definition of: Slavery Slavery can mean one or more related conditions which involve control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or...


Another form of Rastafarian music is called burru drumming, which was first played in the Parish of Clarendon, Jamaica, and then in West Kingston. Burru was later introduced to the burgeoning Rasta community in Kingston. Clarendon is said to be the third largest parish in Jamaica. ...


Maroons, or communities of escaped slaves, kept purer African musical traditions alive in the interior of Jamaica, and were also founders of Rastafarianism. This article needs cleanup. ...


Popularization and recording

The first recording of Rastafarian music was perhaps Count Ossie, followed by the 1950s recording of various forms of burru, Pocomania and other Jamaican religions. in 1953, Ossie introduced akete drums to Rastafarian communities in West Kingston, using styles and rhythms adapted from burru. Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Ossie then recorded with the Fokes Brothers on "Oh Carolina", a song produced by Prince Buster. "Oh Carolina" was the first popular song from Jamaica, and the same recording session produced the ska hits "They Got to Go" and "Thirty Pieces of Silver". Ossie later became well-known for other recordings (with his band, The Mystic Revelation of Rastafari), especially 1974's Grounation, which featured roots percussion and musical styles. Cecil Bustamente Campbell (born May 28, 1938 in Kingston, Jamaica), better known as Prince Buster, is one of the most important figures in the history of ska music. ... This page is about ska, the musical style. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ...


Reggae

During the 1970s, Rastafari mushroomed in popularity internationally, largely due to the fame of Bob Marley, who incorporated nyabinghi and Rastafarian chanting into his music. Songs like "Rastaman Chant" led to the religion and reggae music being seen as closely intertwined in the consciousness of audiences across the world, especially among oppressed and poor groups of African Americans and Native Americans, First Nations Canadians, Australian Aborigines and New Zealand Maori, and throughout most of Africa. Reggae was born from poor blacks in Trenchtown, the main ghetto of Kingston, Jamaica, who listened to radio stations from the United States. Jamaican musicians, many of them being Rastas, soon blended traditional Jamaican folk music, American R&B and jazz into ska, which was to form reggae under the influence of soul. Reggae began entering the international consciousness in the early 1970s. Many orthodox Rastas refuse reggae as a form of commercial music and "sell-out to Babylon." Reggae and ska are not to be confused with the sacred music of the Rastafarians, called burru or nyahbinghi drumming. Other reggae musicians with strong Rastafarian elements in their music include Ras Michael, Prince Lincoln Thompson, Bunny Wailer Prince Far I, Israel Vibration and literally hundreds more. Events and trends Although in the United States and in many other Western societies the 1970s are often seen as a period of transition between the turbulent 1960s and the more conservative 1980s and 1990s, many of the trends that are associated widely with the Sixties, from the Sexual Revolution... Bob Marley Robert Nesta Marley (February 6, 1945 - May 11, 1981), better known as Bob Marley, was a singer, guitarist, and songwriter from Saint Ann, Jamaica. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... First Nations is the current title used by Canada to describe the various societies of the indigenous peoples, called Native Americans in the U.S. They have also been known as Indians, Native Canadians, Aboriginal Americans, Amer-Indians, or Aboriginals, and are officially called Indians in the Indian Act, which... Australian Aborigines are the indigenous peoples of Australia. ... Te Puni, Māori Chief Māori is the name of the indigenous people of New Zealand, and their language. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Reggae is a style of music developed in Jamaica and is closely linked to the Rastafarian religion, though not universally popular among them. ... Location of Kingston Kingston (population 600,000) is the capital of Jamaica and it is located southeast of the country. ... Events and trends Although in the United States and in many other Western societies the 1970s are often seen as a period of transition between the turbulent 1960s and the more conservative 1980s and 1990s, many of the trends that are associated widely with the Sixties, from the Sexual Revolution... Experience album cover Prince Lincoln Thompson, known as Sax, was a Jamaican singer, player of instruments and songwriter with the reggae band the Royal Rasses, and a Rastafarian. ... Bunny Wailer, also known as Bunny Livingston, was an original member of reggae group The Wailers along with Bob Marley and Peter Tosh. ... Prince Far I (1945-1983) was a reggae singer. ... Israel Vibration is a reggae band, featuring a vocal harmony trio. ...


See also

Rastafarian vocabulary Sects of Rastafari The Rastafarian vocabulary is part of an intentionally created dialect of English. ... There are 3 main sects of Rastafari. ...


External links

  • rastafarian.nl website about Rastafari (http://www.rastafarian.nl)
  • Jamaican Observer article on Leonard Howell (http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/columns/html/20020222t170000-0500_21712_obs_leonard_p_howell__universal_prophet.asp)
  • How the Holy Piby influenced Rastafari (http://www.bobmarley.com/life/rastafari/holypiby.html)

  Results from FactBites:
 
HISTORY (1325 words)
The name "Rastafarian" is a Jamaican rendering of "Ras Tafari" and is the name given to the members of the movement.
Rastafarians had to fight hard and dirty for their beliefs to be accepted by Jamaicans in power.
Rastafarians reinterpret the Old Testament claiming that they are true present-day prophets, the reincarnated Mosses, Joshua, Isaiah, and Jeremiah (Morrish, 1982, 63).
Religious Movements Homepage: Rastafarianism (3950 words)
Many Rastafarians believed that his death was staged by the media in an attempt to bring their faith down, while others claimed that Haile Selassie I had trodded on to the perfect flesh, and sits on the highest point of Mount Zion where He and Empress Menen await the Time of Judgement.
Rastafarians came to the United States in large numbers as a result of the general migration of Jamaicans in the 1970s.
Also, eight Lafayette, LA, children, whose Rastafarian values forbade them from cutting their dreadlocked hair, were recently allowed to reattend school after officials banned a school rule excluding "extremes in hair styles." According to the lawsuit, the family had been denied its constitutional rights of free expression and free practice of its Rastafarian religion.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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