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Encyclopedia > History of Polish Intelligence Services

This article covers the history of Polish Intelligence Services dating back to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Image File history File links Acap. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Contents

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Although the first official Polish government service entrusted with espionage, intelligence and counter-intelligence was not formed until 1918, in preceding centuries the Polish state developed a network of informers in surrounding countries. A number of envoys and ambassadors also gathered intelligence information, mostly through bribery. Among such spies was Jan Andrzej Morsztyn, a notable Polish poet of the 17th century. Polish kings and military commanders (hetmans) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, such as Stanisław Koniecpolski, had espionage networks. The hetmans were responsible for espionage in the Ottoman Empire, its vassals states, and disputed territories such as Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania, as well as Muscovy and among the restless Cossacks. Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ... Jan Andrzej Morsztyn Jan Andrzej Morsztyn (1621-1693) was a noble (szlachcic), poet and official in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... Hetman`s coat of arms Hetman StanisÅ‚aw Koniecpolski of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Hetman was the title of the second highest military commander (after the monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, known from 1569 to 1795 as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Noble Family Koniecpolski Coat of Arms Pobóg Parents Aleksander Koniecpolski Anna Sroczycka Consorts Katarzyna Żółkiewska (1615) Krystyna Lubomirska (1619) Zofia OpaliÅ„ska (1656) Children Aleksander Koniecpolski Date of Birth 1590/1594 Place of Birth Koniecpol Date of Death March 11, 1646 Place of Death Brody StanisÅ‚aw Koniecpolski, (1590... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Bulgarian: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


1914–1918

In 1914 Józef Piłsudski created the Polish Military Organisation, an intelligence and special ops organization which worked alongside the Polish Legions. As such it was independent of Austria and loyal to Piłsudski (and to a future, independent Poland). Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman Political party none (see Sanacja for details), formerly PPS Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays... Polska Organizacja Wojskowa (POW, Polish for Polish Military Organisation) was a secret military union created by Józef Piłsudski in November of 1914, during the Great War. ... Polish Legions (Polish Legiony Polskie) was the name of Polish armed forces created in August of 1914 in Galicia. ...


1918–1921

Poland formed its armed forces immediately after becoming an independent nation in 1918. Influenced by the French Military Mission to Poland, the Polish General Staff was divided into several departments, each entrusted with different tasks: Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The French Military Mission to Poland was an effort by France to aid the nascent Second Polish Republic after it achieved its independence in November, 1918, at the end of the First World War. ...

  1. Oddział I [Section I] – Organisation and mobilization;
  2. Oddział II – Intelligence and Counter-intelligence;
  3. Oddziału III – Training and Operations;
  4. Oddział IVQuartermaster.

The Second Department, often called Dwójka (Polish for Number Two), was formed in October of 1918, even before Poland declared its independence. Initially called Information Department of the General Staff, it was divided into "sections": Quartermaster is a term usually referring to a military unit which specializes in supplying and provisioning troops, or to an individual who does the same. ... For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

  • Sekcja I – reconnaissance and close intelligence
  • Sekcja II
  • Sekcja III – general intelligence and surveillance abroad (both East and West)
  • Sekcja IV – preparation of a frontline bulletin
  • Sekcja V – contacts with both military and civilian authorities.
  • Sekcja VI – contacts with attaches in Berlin, Vienna, Budapest, Moscow and Kyiv
  • Sekcja VII – Ciphers

An extensive network of informers, both domestic and foreign, developed very rapidly. Poland's tragic economic situation, caused by more than a century of foreign occupation, proved to be the key. In the 19th century and early 20th century, the economic and political situation forced hundreds of thousands of Poles to emigrate to almost every country in the world. With the advent of Polish independence many emigrees offered their services to Polish intelligence agencies. Others, most notably Poles living in the former Russian Empire and trying to return home through war-torn Russia, provided priceless information on Russian logistics, order of battle and the status of all parties involved in the Russian Civil War. Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Bolshevik side in the Russian Civil War, or more specifically the Russian government between the October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... National motto: None Official language Belarusian Capital Minsk, Currently in Exile in Canada National anthem Vajacki marÅ¡ Chairperson of the Rada Ivonka Survilla Independence  - Declared  - Forced into Exile Treaty of Brest-Litovsk March 25, 1918 January 5, 1919 The Belarusian Peoples Republic (Belarusian: Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка, eng. ... For other uses, see Galicia. ... ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... An order of battle (often abbreviated as ORBAT, OOB, or OB) is an organizational tool used by military intelligence to list and analyze enemy military units. ... The Russian Civil War (1917-1922) began immediately after the collapse of the Russian provisional government and the Bolshevik takeover of Petrograd, rapidly intensifying after the dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly and signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. ...


In Western Europe (most notably Germany, France and Belgium), Polish diaspora often formed the backbone of heavy industry; approximately one million people of Polish descent lived in the Ruhr Valley alone. Many of these provided information on industrial production as well as the economic situation in surrounding countries. For other uses, see Polonia (disambiguation). ... Geography Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area (German Ruhrgebiet or, colloquially, Ruhrpott) is a metropolitan area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to the west, and Lippe to the north. ...


After the outbreak of the Polish-Bolshevik War in early 1919, intelligence from the East proved vital to Poland's survival in the war against a far superior enemy. A separate cell within Polish intelligence was formed, taking over most intelligence duties during the war. The organisation was named Biuro Wywiadowcze (Intelligence Bureau), and was composed of seven departments: Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919–1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory The Polish-Soviet War (also known as the Polish-Bolshevik War or the Polish-Russian War) was the war (February 1919 – March 1921) that determined the borders between the Russian... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...

  1. – Organisation;
  2. – Offensive "A";
  3. – Offensive "B";
  4. – Offensive "C";
  5. – Defensive;
  6. – Internal propaganda;
  7. – Counter-intelligence.

The fourth department, Offensive intelligence "C", became the most developed as it carried out all duties connected with "front-line" reconnaissance and intelligence, as well as "long-range" intelligence and surveillance in countries surrounding Bolshevist Russia, including Siberia (still in hands of the White Russians), Turkey, Persia, China, Mongolia and Japan. The third department, Offensive intelligence "B", controlled the intelligence network in European Russia. Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Bolshevik side in the Russian Civil War, or more specifically the Russian government between the October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейц&#1099... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ...


Additional information was obtained from Russian defectors and POWs, who crossed the Polish lines in their thousands, especially after the Battle of Warsaw of 1920. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad Wisłą) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


1921–1939

See also: Prometheism

After the end of the Polish-Bolshevik War and the Treaty of Riga, the structure and tasks of Polish intelligence had to change in order to cope with new objectives. Although Poland had won most of its border conflicts with surrounding powers (most notably the war with Russia and the Greater Poland Uprising of 1918-19 against Germany), its international position was far from rosy. By mid 1921 a new structure of the Dwójka was introduced, composed of three main departments, each overseeing different offices: Prometheism (Polish: Prometeizm) was a political project initiated by Polands Józef PiÅ‚sudski. ... The Peace of Riga (also known as the Treaty of Riga, Polish: Traktat Ryski) signed on 18th March 1921 between Poland and Soviet Russia ended the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

  • Organisation Department:
  1. Organisation;
  2. Training;
  3. People;
  4. Finances;
  5. Own Ciphers and codes, communication and foreign press.
  • Records Department:
  1. East;
  2. West;
  3. North;
  4. South;
  5. Statistical Office;
  6. Nationalities and minorities;
  • Intelligence Department:
  1. Technology of intelligence;
  2. Central agents' bureau;
  3. Counter-intelligence;
  4. Foreign Ciphers (Biuro Szyfrów);
  5. Radio surveillance and wire-tapping techniques.

Until the late 1930s the Soviet Union was seen as the most likely aggressor and main enemy of Poland. Because of that, the 2nd Department developed an extensive network of agents both within the borders of Poland's eastern neighbour and in other neighbouring countries. Apart from so-called passive intelligence (radio surveillance, press reports and similar activities), in the early 1920s Polish intelligence started to develop a network for offensive intelligence. The Eastern Office (Referat "Wschód" in Polish) had several dozen bureaus, mostly attached to Polish consulates in Moscow, Kiev, Leningrad, Kharkov and Tbilisi. The Biuro Szyfrów ( (?), Polish for Cipher Bureau) was the Polish agency concerned with cryptology between World Wars I and II. The Bureau enjoyed notable successes against Soviet cryptography during the Polish-Soviet War, helping to preserve Polands independence. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Kharkov (rus: Ха́рьков) or Kharkiv (ukr: Ха́рків) is the second largest city in Ukraine, a center of Kharkivska oblast. It is situated in the northeast of the country and has a population of two million. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Georgia Established c. ...


Short-range reconnaissance was carried out by forces from the Border Defence Corps created in 1924. On several occasions soldiers crossed the border disguised as smugglers, partisans, or ordinary bandits. They gathered information on the location of Soviet troops and the morale of the Soviet people. At the same time Soviet forces carried out similar missions on Polish soil. The situation finally stabilized in 1925; however, missions such as these still occurred from time to time. Border Defence Corps (Polish Korpus Ochrony Pogranicza, KOP) was a Polish military unit created in 1924 for defence of the eastern border against armed Soviet raids and local bandits. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Overall, the efforts of Polish Intelligence in the years between the two World Wars created a useful gauge of the capabilities of Poland's main potential adversaries: Germany and the USSR. Nonetheless this information was largely irrelevant when war came in September, 1939. Good intelligence simply could not offset the overwhelming superiority of the German and Soviet armed forces. The conquest of Poland lasted only a few weeks; too short a time for intelligence services to make a significant contribution. With Poland conquered, Polish Intelligence Services had to remove its command to French and British Allied territories.


1939–1945

Until 1939 Polish intelligence services did not, as a rule, collaborate with the intelligence services of other countries. A partial exception was France, Poland's closest ally: even then cooperation was lukewarm, with neither side sharing their most precious secrets. An important exception was the long-term collaboration between France's Gustave Bertrand and Poland's Cipher Bureau, headed by Gwido Langer. The situation only began to change in 1939, when war appeared certain and Britain and France entered into a formal military alliance with Poland. Main engagements of Polish forces Westerplatte – Mokra – Bzura – Enigma – Narvik – Battle of Britain – Tobruk – Gazala – Dieppe – Lenino – Monte Cassino – Ostra Brama – V2 Capture – Warsaw Uprising - Falaise – Studzianki - Market Garden – Scheldt – Seelow Heights – Bautzen – Berlin // 1939 poster. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gustave Bertrand (died 1976) was a French military intelligence officer who made a vital contribution to the decryption, by Polands Cipher Bureau, of German Enigma ciphers beginning in December 1932. ... The Biuro Szyfrów ( (?), Polish for Cipher Bureau) was the Polish agency concerned with cryptology between World Wars I and II. The Bureau enjoyed notable successes against Soviet cryptography during the Polish-Soviet War, helping to preserve Polands independence. ... Gwido Langer (died March 30, 1948) was chief of the Polish General Staffs Cipher Bureau from at least mid-1931. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The most important result of the subsequent information sharing was the transfer of Polish techniques for breaking German Enigma Machine ciphers to France and Britain. The initial break had been made in late 1932 by mathematician Marian Rejewski, working for the Polish General Staff's Cipher Bureau. His work was substantially facilitated by intelligence provided by Bertrand. With the help of fellow mathematicians Henryk Zygalski and Jerzy Różycki, Rejewski developed techniques to decrypt German Enigma-enciphered messages on a regular and timely basis. The plugboard, keyboard, lamps, and finger-wheels of the rotors emerging from the inner lid of a three-rotor German military Enigma machine (version with labels) The Enigma machine was a cipher machine used to encrypt and decrypt secret messages. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ... Marian Rejewski (probably 1932, the year he first solved the Enigma machine). ... The Biuro Szyfrów ( (?), Polish for Cipher Bureau) was the Polish agency concerned with cryptology between World Wars I and II. The Bureau enjoyed notable successes against Soviet cryptography during the Polish-Soviet War, helping to preserve Polands independence. ... Henryk Zygalski, about 1930. ... Jerzy Różycki, about 1928. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ...


Six-and-a-half years after the initial Polish decryption of Enigma ciphers, French and British intelligence representatives were briefed on Polish achievements at a trilateral conference held at Cipher Bureau facilities in the Kabaty Woods, just south of Warsaw, on July 25, 1939; barely five weeks before the outbreak of World War II. This formed the basis for early Enigma decryption by the British at Bletchley Park, northwest of London; without the head start provided by Poland, British reading of Enigma encryptions might have been delayed several years, or even have failed. The Biuro Szyfrów ( (?), Polish for Cipher Bureau) was the Polish agency concerned with cryptology between World Wars I and II. The Bureau enjoyed notable successes against Soviet cryptography during the Polish-Soviet War, helping to preserve Polands independence. ... Kabaty is the southernmost neighbourhood of the city of Warsaw, located in the borough of Ursynów. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... During World War II, codebreakers at Bletchley Park decrypted and interpreted messages from a large number of Axis code and cipher systems, including the German Enigma machine. ...


Key Polish Cipher Bureau personnel escaped from Poland on September 17, 1939, on the Soviet Union's entry into eastern Poland, and eventually reached France. There, at "PC Bruno" outside Paris, they resumed cracking Enigma ciphers through the "Phony War" (October 1939—May 1940). Following the fall of northern France to the Germans, the Polish-French-Spanish cryptological organisation, sponsored by French Major Gustave Bertrand, continued its work at "Cadix" in the southern, Vichy "Free Zone" until that too was occupied by German forces in November 1942. is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... PC Bruno was the code name for the intelligence station operated at a farmhouse in the west of France to which French cryptanalysts retired after Paris was captured by the Germans in 1940. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... British Ministry of Home Security Poster of a type that was common during the Phony War The Phony War, or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gustave Bertrand (died 1976) was a French military intelligence officer who made a vital contribution to the decryption, by Polands Cipher Bureau, of German Enigma ciphers beginning in December 1932. ... Polish-French Cadix radio-intelligence team, southern France, 1940-1942. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the 1939 Invasion of Poland, practically the entire Second Department command apparatus managed to escape through Romania and soon reached France and Britain. Reactivating agent networks throughout Europe, they immediately began co-operating with British and French intelligence agencies. After the Fall of France the entire Second Department ended up in Britain. Combatants Poland Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalev (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolák) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft Total... In World War II, Battle of France or Case Yellow (Fall Gelb in German) was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries, executed 10 May 1940 which ended the Phony War. ...


At that time Britain was in a difficult situation, badly in need of intelligence from occupied Europe after rapid German advances disrupted its networks and put German forces in areas where Britain had few agents. Following the personal intervention of Churchill and Sikorski in September 1940, co-operation between British and Polish intelligence organisations entered a new era. The Polish Second Department and its networks were put under partial British control and worked under the direct orders and direction of SIS (Secret Intelligence Service) for the rest of the war. “Churchill” redirects here. ... Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski (May 20, 1881 – July 4, 1943; pronounced ) was a Polish military and political leader. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Already in the first half of 1941 Polish agents in France supplied Britain with intelligence on U-boat movements from French Atlantic ports. The network in France grew to 1500 members and supplied vital information about the German military in France before and during the course of Operation Overlord. Agents working in Poland in the spring of 1941 supplied extensive intelligence about German preparations for their , invasion of the Soviet Union. For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Maresal Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Gariboldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor...


Polish spies also supplied extensive information on atrocities at Auschwitz (Report of Witold Pilecki) and German extermination operations in Poland during the Holocaust. Polish Intelligence gave the British crucial information on Germany's secret weapons projects, including the V-1 and V-2 rockets, which allowed Britain to set back the German campaign by bombing the main development facility at Peenemunde in 1943. Overall, Poland's European networks supplied the Allies with information on just about all aspects of the German war effort. Out of 45,770 reports received by British Intelligence during the war, nearly half (22,047) were supplied by Polish agents. Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ... Witold Pilecki (May 13, 1901 – May 25, 1948; pronounced [vitɔld pileʦki]; codenames Roman Jezierski, Tomasz Serafiński, Druh, Witold) was a soldier of the Second Polish Republic, founder of the resistance movement Secret Polish Army (Tajna Armia Polska) and member of the Home... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... The Vergeltungswaffe 1 Fi 103 / FZG-76 (V-1), known as the Flying bomb, Buzz bomb or Doodlebug, was the first modern guided missile used in wartime and the first cruise missile. ... For other uses, see V2. ... Peenemündes position in Germany Peenemünde is a village in the northeast of the German island of Usedom on the Peene river, on the easternmost part of the German Baltic coast. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Second Department was officially disbanded on March 15, 1946, its archives taken over by the British. At the time of its dissolution it employed 170 officers and 3500 agents, not including headquarters staff. It is quite likely that at least some of these agents continued to work directly for Britain during the Cold War years. is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the war the Polish Intelligence contribution to the British war effort was kept completely secret. This was understandable, as the need for secrecy persisted due to the start of the Cold War. However in later years, as official British histories were released, the role of Polish Intelligence barely rated a mention. Only when knowledge of British decryption of the Enigma code was revealed to the general public in the late 1970s did the Polish contribution come to the fore; even then the first versions of the story, based on partial information, claimed that Polish Intelligence was only able to steal a German Enigma machine. Only gradually was it revealed that the Polish effort had been much more sophisticated, relying primarily on mathematical analysis. Efforts of historians to gain access to documents describing the rest of the Polish Intelligence efforts were met with stonewalling and claims that all pertinent archives had been destroyed. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


In recent years British and Polish governments have begun efforts to jointly produce an accurate and adequate account of the Polish Intelligence contribution to the British war effort. The key Anglo-Polish Historical Committee Report on the subject, written by leading historians and experts granted unprecedented access to British intelligence archives, was published in July 2005; it concluded that 43 per cent of all reports received by British secret services from continental Europe in 1939-45 came from Polish sources[1] (for additional information see: [1], [2], [3]). Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also: Home Army and V1 and V2

Aside from military operations, the Polish Home Army was also heavily involved in intelligence work, including work done with regard to the German Wunderwaffe - the V-1 flying bomb and the V-2 rocket. ...

1945–1989

Main articles: Główny Zarząd Informacji Wojska Polskiego, Służba Bezpieczeństwa, and Ministerstwo Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego

Główny Zarząd Informacji Wojska Polskiego (GZI WP) - Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army, was a name of a first military Police and counterespionage organ in communist Poland after the World War 2. ... Służba Bezpieczeństwa (or SB) Ministerstwa Spraw Wewnętrznych, of the Ministry of Internal Affairs - was the name of communist internal intelligence agency and secret police, established in the Peoples Republic of Poland in 1956, SB was the main organ in Poland responsible for political repression, until... Ministerstwo Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego - MBP (Ministry of Public Security) - was the name of Polish secret police Intelligence and Counter-espionage organ from 1945 to 1954. ...

Civilian branches

Following the occupation of Poland by the Soviet Union and formation of the new puppet government, the Soviets formed new intelligence and internal security formations and agencies. But officer staff were trained by Soviet special services already from 1943 on. The same year a group of about 120 Poles began special training in an NKVD school in the town of Kuybyshev, now Samara. At the same time, in NKVD-NKGB schools all over the USSR, hundreds of German, Romanian, Czechoslovakian and Bulgarian people underwent the same training in order to prepare them for work in future special services in their respective countries. Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... Kuybyshev may refer to: Valerian Kuybyshev, a Russian revolutionary Kuybyshev (town), a town in Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia Kuybyshev, former name of the Russian city of Samara (1935–1990) and the Russian town of Bolgar (1935–1991) Category: ... Samara (Russian: ) (from 1935 to 1991—Kuybyshev ()) is the sixth-largest city in Russia. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... The Peoples Commissariat for State Security (Народный комиссариат государственной безопасн&#1086... Czechoslovakia (Czech: Československo, Slovak: Česko-Slovensko/before 1990 Československo) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1992 (except for the World War II period). ...


In July 1944 in Moscow a temporary Polish puppet government was established by the name of Polish Committee of National Liberation (Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego), or PKWN. The PKWN was organised as thirteen departments (resorty). One of them was the Department of Public Security (Resort Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego), or RBP, headed by long-time Polish communist Stanisław Radkiewicz. The largest and the most important department in the RBP, Department 1, was responsible for counter-espionage and headed by Roman Romkowski. By September 1945 Department 1 had become so large that three additional departments were created, as well as two separate Sections. By the close of 1944, the Department of Public Security totalled 3000 employees. 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... A propaganda photo of a citizen reading the PKWN Manifesto, issued on July 22, 1944 The Polish Committee of National Liberation (Polish Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego, PKWN), also known as the Lublin Committee, was the provisional Communist Polish government created under the direction and auspices of Moscow. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


On December 31, 1944, the PKWN was joined by several members of the Polish government in exile, among them Stanisław Mikołajczyk. It was then transformed into the Provisional Government of Republic of Poland (Polish: Rząd Tymczasowy Republiki Polskiej, or RTRP), and the departments were renamed to ministries, the Department of Public Security becoming the Ministry of Public Security (Ministerstwo Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego), or MBP. is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... StanisÅ‚aw MikoÅ‚ajczyk StanisÅ‚aw MikoÅ‚ajczyk (1901 - 1966), Polish politician, was Prime Minister of the Polish government in exile during World War II, and later Deputy Prime Minister in postwar Poland. ... RzÄ…d Tymczasowy Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej (RTRP, Provisional Government of Republic of Poland) has been created by Krajowa Rada Narodowa on the night of 31 December in place of the previous governmental body, the Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego. ... Ministerstwo BezpieczeÅ„stwa Publicznego - MBP (Ministry of Public Security) - was the name of Polish secret police Intelligence and Counter-espionage organ from 1945 to 1954. ...


The Ministry of Public Security was responsible for both intelligence and counter-espionage as well as surveillance of citizens and suppression of dissent of any kind. They generally did not employ former officers of the "Dwojka" or follow the traditions of pre-war Polish intelligence services. Personnel were recruited for their "political reliability". New formations were trained by Soviet NKVD experts. Additionally, and especially in the early years (1945–49), Soviet officers in Polish uniforms overlooked their operations. After Stalin's death in 1953 and a couple of months later defection of Col. Józef Światło, a high-ranking MBP officer to the West, one year later Ministry of Public Security was cancelled and replaced by two separate administrations - Committee for Public Security (Komitet do Spraw Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego) or Kds.BP and Ministry of Internal Affairs (Ministerstwo Spraw Wewnętrznych) or MSW.
In any debate, sometimes the more powerful opponent will try to silence the other rather than trying to defeat their arguments. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Józef ÅšwiatÅ‚o Józef ÅšwiatÅ‚o (1915-1975) was a high-ranking official of Ministry of Public Security of Poland (deputy director of 10th Department). ...


Kds.BP - was responsible for: Intelligence and Counter-espionage, government protection as well as political police. And from September 3, 1955 to 28 November 1956, Główny Zarząd Informacji Wojska Polskiego (Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army) which was the Military Police and Counter-espionage Agency, when under control of Kds.BP. is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Główny ZarzÄ…d Informacji Wojska Polskiego (GZI WP) - Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army, was a name of a first military Police and counterespionage organ in communist Poland after the World War 2. ...


MSW - was responsible for: supervision of the local governments, Militsiya, correctional facilities and fire rescue, as well as border and internal guards. A member of a Russian special purpose police team (OMSN), equipped with a 9A91 submachine gun. ...


Next big changes come already in 1956. Committee for Public Security was cancelled and Ministry of Internal Affairs (MSW) took over his responsibilities. Departments responsible for political police in Kds.BP, when under control to MSW as Służba Bezpieczeństwa or.(SB) From 1956 to the fall of communism in Poland, besides the Ministry of Defense, MSW was one of biggest and strongest administrations in Poland, responsible for - Intelligence, Counter-espionage, anti-state activity in country (SB), government protection, confidential communications, supervision of the local governments, militsiya, correctional facilities, and fire rescue. Ministry of Internal Affairs was divided on departments the most important departments were: 1st - foreign operations and intelligence-gathering, 2nd - Organizing and conduct battles with spy activities measured against People's Republic of Poland by capitalistic states, penetrate foreign intelligence centers by using secret agents, 3rd (Służba Bezpieczeństwa) - anti-state activities in country and protection of state secrets. Except departments and sections, MSW had control over - Main Command of Militsiya (Komenda Główna Milicji Obywatelskiej) or KG/MO, Main Command of fire rescue (Komenda Główna Straży Pożarnych) or KG/SP, Main Command of command of Territorial Anti-aircraft Defense (Komenda Główna Terenowej Obrony Przeciwlotniczej) KG/TOP, Main Management of Geodesy and Cartography (Główny Zarząd Geodezji i Kartografii), Central Office of Health Services (Centralny Zarząd Służby Zdrowia. Ministry of Internal Affairs also had control over command of Internal Troops, which was - Command of Internal Security Corp. (Dowództwo Korpusu Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego) or KBW, Command of Border Guard (Dowództwo Wojsk Ochrony Pogranicza) or KOP, and Management of Information of Internal Troops (Zarząd Informacji Wojsk Wewnetrznych). Through 1980's MSW was in numbers - 24 390 in Security Service (Służba Bezpieczeństwa) or SB, 62 276 in Citizens Militsiya (Milicja Obywatelska) or MO, 12 566 in Motorized Reserves of the Citizens Militia (Zmotoryzowane Odwody Milicji Obywatelskiej) or ZOMO, 20 673 Administratively-Economic Units (Jednostki administracyjno-gospodarcze), 4 594 in Ministry schools plus students. Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... SÅ‚użba BezpieczeÅ„stwa (or SB) Ministerstwa Spraw WewnÄ™trznych, of the Ministry of Internal Affairs - was the name of communist internal intelligence agency and secret police, established in the Peoples Republic of Poland in 1956, SB was the main organ in Poland responsible for political repression, until... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1948–1956 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (First)  - 1981-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski (Last) Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. Osóbka-Morawski  - 1947-1952 and 1954-1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz  - 1952-1954 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1970-1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz  - 1980 Edward Babiuch  - 1980-1981... SÅ‚użba BezpieczeÅ„stwa (or SB) Ministerstwa Spraw WewnÄ™trznych, of the Ministry of Internal Affairs - was the name of communist internal intelligence agency and secret police, established in the Peoples Republic of Poland in 1956, SB was the main organ in Poland responsible for political repression, until...


Military branches

First military special services in Poland after WW2 were created in 1943 as part of the Polish Military in the USSR. First organ that dealt with military counterespionage was called Directorate of Information by the commander-in-chief of the Polish Army (Zarząd Informacji Naczelnego Dowódcy Wojska Polskiego - ZI NDWP) . November 30, 1944, commander-in-chief of Polish Army general Michał Rola-Żymierski in his #95 order transformed the ZI NDWP into the Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army (Główny Zarząd Informacji Wojska Polskiego) or. GZI WP. Then from 30 November 1950, GZI WP, became Main Directorate of Information of Ministry of Defense (Główny Zarząd Informacji Ministerstwa Obrony Narodowej) or GZI MON. In September 1955, GZI MON became part of Committee for Public Security (Komitet do spraw Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego), with was the well known successor of Ministerstwo Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego more known as Urząd Bezpieczeństwa or UB, and was called Main Directorate of Information of the Committee for Public Security or GZI KdsBP. In November 1956 GZI Kds.BP separated from Committee for Public Security, and returned to previous role becoming again Main Directorate of Information of Ministry of Defense. After the reform instituted by Władysław Gomułka in 1956, and the role GZI played in repressions and executions, one year later in 1957 Main Directorate of Information of Ministry of Defense was cancelled and replaced by Military Internal Service (Wojskowa Służba Wewnętrzna - or. WSW). The WSW continuously operated as the main military police and counterespionage service until the fall of communism in Poland. Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... MichaÅ‚ Å»ymierski MichaÅ‚ Å»ymierski (true name MichaÅ‚ ŁyżwiÅ„ski, pseudonym Rola; 1890-1989) was a Polish military officer and Marshal of Poland since 1945. ... Główny ZarzÄ…d Informacji Wojska Polskiego (GZI WP) - Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army, was a name of a first military Police and counterespionage organ in communist Poland after the World War 2. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Ministerstwo BezpieczeÅ„stwa Publicznego - MBP (Ministry of Public Security) - was the name of Polish secret police Intelligence and Counter-espionage organ from 1945 to 1954. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw GomuÅ‚ka (February 6, 1905, Krosno – September 1, 1982) was a Polish Communist leader. ...


First Polish Military Intelligence after WW2 was Oddział II Sztabu Generalnego Ludowego Wojska Polskiego (2nd Section of General Staff of the Polish People's Army) or Odział II Szt Gen LWP, so it bore the same name that his precursor from before world war 2. Odział II Szt Gen WP, was establish in July 18, 1945, but his origin reaches May 1943 when first reconnaissance company was created in Polish Army units in USSR. Between July 1947 and June 5, 1950, 2nd Section of General Staff of the Polish People's Army, operated in structure of the Ministry of Public Security together with civilian intelligence branch as a Department VII. In June 5, 1950, it has returned to the Ministry of Defense. The first head of Odział II Szt Gen WP, was Colonel Gieorgij Domeradzki, in November 1945 this position was occupy by general Wacław Komar, and between October 1950 and March 1951 by soviet officer Konstantin Kahnikov. The last in command of 2nd Section of General Staff of the Polish People's Army was Igor Suchacki.
November 15, 1951 Polish Defence Minister Konstantin Rokossovsky in his order (#.0088) transformed 2nd Section of General Staff of the Polish People's Army to 2nd Directorate of General Staff of the Polish Army (Zarząd II Sztabu Generalnego Wojska Polskiego). Inside organization was transformed from Section to Directorates and Intelligence work among United States, Great Britain, Federal Republic of Germany, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland and Austria, has been expanded among to countries like Norway, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Turkey and Israel. In 1990 2nd Directorate of General Staff of the Polish Army was join with military Counter-intelligence - Military Internal Service (Wojskowa Służba Wewnętrzna - or. WSW, that way Intelligence and Counter-intelligence was working under one structure which was Zarząd II Wywiadu i Kontrwywiadu - 2nd Directorate for Intelligence and Counter-intelligence. Then in 1991 2nd Directorate for Intelligence and Counter-intelligence was transformed on to Military information services - Wojskowe Służby Informacyjne (or. WSI). Military information services or WSI. Responsible for military Intelligence and Counter-intelligence, continues to function under this name to this day. Armia Ludowa (AL, pronounced ; English Polish Peoples Army) was a Polish World War II resistance organisation. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Department of Defence redirects here. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovskiy (Russian: Константин Константинович Рокоссовский, Polish: Konstanty Rokossowski) (December 21, 1896 – August 3, 1968) was a Soviet military commander and Polish Defence Minister. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... WSW may be: West-South-West War§ow West-Southwest, a compass point for Boxing the compass Wheelchair Sports Worldwide World Series Wrestling, a professional wrestling promotion wsw is a type of computer internet bookmark file Medical definition: Women who have sex with women (see [1]) Category: ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Military Information Services - Wojskowe SÅ‚użby Informacyjne or WSI, is a name of Polish Military intelligence and counter intelligence agency. ... This article covers the history of Polands intelligence services. ...


1989–present

After the changes of 1989 the Służba Bezpieczeństwa was disbanded by the first free government under the prime minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki. A new agency, called Urząd Ochrony Państwa or UOP (State Protection Office) was formed and was staffed mainly by the former SB officers who successfully passed a verification procedure. Its mission was primarily general espionage and intelligence gathering as well as counter-espionage and fight against high ranked organised crime. It was commanded by a career intelligence officer but was directly supervised by a civilian government official, Coordinator for the Special Services. SÅ‚użba BezpieczeÅ„stwa (or SB) Ministerstwa Spraw WewnÄ™trznych, of the Ministry of Internal Affairs - was the name of communist internal intelligence agency and secret police, established in the Peoples Republic of Poland in 1956, SB was the main organ in Poland responsible for political repression, until... Tadeusz Mazowiecki (born April 18, 1927 in PÅ‚ock) is a Polish author, journalist, social worker and politician, formerly one of the leaders of the Solidarity movement, and the first non-communist prime minister in Central and Eastern Europe after World War II. Tadeusz Mazowiecki as Prime Minister of Poland... UrzÄ…d Ochrony PaÅ„stwa (UOP) (Office for State Protection) was the Polish intelligence agency. ...


For most of the time the agency evaded public attention, although it was dragged into political fighting over appointments of its chiefs, lustration and some perceived failures with organized crime cases. In 2002 the new, post-communist left-wing government reorganized the special services by dividing them into two agencies – Agencja Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego (Internal Security Agency) and Agencja Wywiadu (Intelligence Agency). The move was widely perceived as a way of cleansing the higher ranks of the intelligence from the officers appointed by previous right-wing governments. Lustration is, literally, a sacrifice, or ceremony, by which cities, fields, armies, or people, defiled by crimes, pestilence, or other cause of uncleanness, were purified. During the period after the fall of the various European Communist states in 1989–1991, the term came to refer to the policy of... This article covers the history of Polands intelligence services. ... Agencja Wywiadu (AW) - Polish intelligence agency, tasked with the gathering of public and secret information abroad, vital for the country of Poland. ...


It is worth noting that the military intelligence continued to function under a slightly altered name (Wojskowe Służby Informacyjne) and without much organisational change – at least none that would be visible to the general public. The new Polish conservative government declared dissolution of the WSI and creating new services (October 2005), since the agency skipped serious external reforms after the collapse of communism in 1989. Throughout the transformation the WSI was involved in dubious operations, arms sales to UN-sanctioned states and corruption scandals. In 2006 WSI was split into Służba Kontrwywiadu Wojskowego and Służba Wywiadu Wojskowego. Military Information Services - Wojskowe SÅ‚użby Informacyjne or WSI, is a name of Polish Military intelligence and counter intelligence agency. ...


Notable operations

Operation Simoom (Polish: Operacja Samum) was a top secret Polish intelligence operation conducted in Iraq in the 1990. ...

Notable Polish intelligence personnel

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Lt. ... Jan Leśniak (1898 — 1976, Vienna) was a Polish military intelligence officer in the Interbellum and World War II. He was from fall 1935 deputy director of the Polish General Staffs German Office and for a year, from April 1938, its director. ... Colonel Stefan A. Mayer (1895 — March 23, 1981, London) was a Polish military intelligence officer and prewar chief of the Intelligence Department within the Polish General Staffs Section II (Oddział II). ... Wiktor Michałowski (died 1973) was a Polish Army officer who worked at the interbellum Polish Cipher Bureaus German section, . Reportedly he participated, as a lieutenant, in the initial, unsuccessful Polish attempts to break the German Enigma cipher, along with then-Lt. ... Mieczysław Zygfryd Słowikowski (Jazgarzew, near Warsaw, 1896 — 1989, London), also known as Rygor-Słowikowski, was a Polish Army officer whose intelligence work in North Africa facilitated Allied preparations for the 1942 Operation Torch landings. ... Image:Zbigniew Siemiatkowski. ...

References

  1. ^ Kwan Yuk Pan, Polish veterans to take pride of place in victory parade, Financial Times, July 5 2005. Last accessed on 31 March 2006.

The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. ...

Sources

  • Richard A. Woytak (1979). On the Border of War and Peace: Polish Intelligence and Diplomacy in 1937-1939, and the Origins of the Ultra Secret. Boulder, East European Quarterly, distributed by Columbia University Press, New York. ISBN 0-914710-42-7. 
  • Maj. Gen. Mieczysław Rygor-Słowikowski (1988). in translated by George Slowikowski: In the Secret Service: the Lighting of the Torch. London, The Windrush Press. ISBN 0-900075-40-6. 
  • Józef Kasparek (1992). Przepust karpacki: tajna akcja polskiego wywiadu (The Carpathian Back Door: a Covert Polish Intelligence Operation). Warsaw, Sigma NOT. ISBN 83-85001-96-4. 
  • Paweł Samuś (1998). Akcja Łom: Polskie działania dywersyjne na Rusi Zakarpackiej w świetle dokumenów Oddziału II Sztabu Głównego WP (Operation Crowbar: Polish Diversionary Operations in Transcarpathian Ruthenia in Light of Documents of Section II of the Polish General Staff), Kazimierz Badziak, Giennadij Matwiejew, Warsaw, Adiutor. ISBN 83-86100-31-1. 
  • Władysław Kozaczuk (1999). Bitwa o tajemnice: służby wywiadowcze Polski i Niemiec, 1918-1939 (Secret Battle: the Intelligence Services of Poland and Germany, 1918-1939). Warsaw, Książka i Wiedza. ISBN 83-05-13083-5. 
  • Grzegorz Nowik (2004). Zanim złamano Enigmę: Polski radiowywiad podczas wojny z bolszewicką Rosją 1918 - 1920 (Before Enigma Was Broken: Polish Radio Intelligence during the Polish-Soviet War, 1918 - 1920). Warsaw, RYTM Oficyna Wydawnicza. ISBN 83-7399-099-2. 
  • Tessa Stirling et al. (2005). "vol. I: the Report of the Anglo-Polish Historical Committee", Intelligence Co-operation between Poland and Great Britain during World War II. London, Vallentine Mitchell. ISBN 0-85303-656-X. 
  • Henryk Piecuch, Brudne gry: ostatnie akcje Służb Specjalnych (seria: "Tajna Historia Polski") [Dirty Games: the Last Special Services Operations ("Secret History of Poland" series)], Warsaw, Agencja Wydawnicza CB, 1998.

Richard Andrew Woytak (Poland, December 18, 1940 — March 6, 1998, Monterey, California, USA) was an American historian of Polish descent who specialized in European history of the Interbellum and World War II. He was the author of the 1979 book, On the Border of War and Peace: Polish Intelligence and... This article covers the history of Polish Intelligence Services. ... Ultra (sometimes capitalized ULTRA) was the name used by the British for intelligence resulting from decryption of German communications in World War II. The term eventually became the standard designation in both Britain and the United States for all intelligence from high-level cryptanalytic sources. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Mieczysław Zygfryd Słowikowski (Jazgarzew, near Warsaw, 1896 — 1989, London), also known as Rygor-Słowikowski, was a Polish Army officer whose intelligence work in North Africa facilitated Allied preparations for the 1942 Operation Torch landings. ... Józef Kasparek (1915-2002) was a Polish lawyer, historian and political scientist. ... This article covers the history of Polish Intelligence Services. ... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov kraj... Władysław Kozaczuk (1923 — 2003, Warsaw, Poland) was a Polish historian who published a dozen books, several of them in multiple editions. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef Piłsudski Edward Rydz-Śmigły Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000...

See also

It has been suggested that Wojsko be merged into this article or section. ... About 10km from village of Stare Kiejkuty is a restricted military area that is the headquarters of Military Unit 2669; officially it is described as training center for news service cadres. ... Extraordinary rendition is an American extra-judicial procedure which involves the sending of untried criminal suspects, suspected terrorists or alleged supporters of groups which the US Government considers to be terrorist organizations, to countries other than the United States for imprisonment and interrogation. ...

External links

  • Oil Secrets of Polish Intelligence

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