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Encyclopedia > History of Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia is a Canadian province located on Canada's Maritimes. Originally part of New England, it become self-governing in 1848 and joined the Canadian Confederation in 1867. Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Official languages none (English, French, Gaelic) Flower Mayflower Tree Red Spruce Bird Osprey Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 11 10 Area Total... Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ... The Maritime provinces. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... A self-governing colony is a colony with an elected legislature, in which politicians are able to make most decisions without reference to the colonial power with formal or nominal control of the colony. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ...

Contents

Early history

Paleo-Indians camped at locations in present-day Nova Scotia approximately 11,000 years ago. Archaic Indians are believed to have been present in the area between 1,000 and 5,000 years ago. Mi'kmaq, the First Nations of the province and region, are their direct descendants. Paleo-Indians is an English term used to refer to the ancient peoples of America who were present at the end of the last Ice Age. ... Campsites are often situated in or near forests. ... In the sequence of North American cultural stages first proposed by Gordon Willey and Phillip Phillips in 1958, the Archaic stage was the second period of human occupation in the Americas, from around 8000 BC to 1000 BC although as its ending is defined by the adoption of sedentary farming... It has been suggested that Lnu be merged into this article or section. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity used in Canada. ...


Some believe that the Vikings may have settled in Nova Scotia at some time, though there is little evidence of this and claim is deeply disputed. The only authenticated Viking settlement in North America is L'Anse aux Meadows, which establishes the fact that Vikings explored North America 500 years before Christopher Columbus. Viking colonisation site at LAnse-aux-Meadows Viking colonisation site at LAnse-aux-Meadows LAnse aux Meadows (from the French LAnse-aux-Méduses (Jellyfish Cove)) is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains...


Early European Explorations

While there is some debate over where he landed, it is most widely believed that the Italian explorer John Cabot visited present-day Cape Breton in 1497.[1] The first European settlement in Nova Scotia was established in 1604. The French, led by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts established the first capital for the colony Acadia at Port Royal in 1604 at the head of the Annapolis Basin. Giovanni Caboto (c. ... Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada NASA landsat photo of Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (French: île du Cap-Breton, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Cheap Breatuinn, Míkmaq: Únamakika, simply: Cape Breton) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pierre Dugua, the Sieur de Monts, (c. ... The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... Port Royal is a small rural community in the western part of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... Events January 14 – Hampton Court conference with James I of England, the Anglican bishops and representatives of Puritans September 20 – Capture of Ostend by Spanish forces under Ambrosio Spinola after a three year siege. ... The Annapolis Basin is a sub-basin of the Bay of Fundy, located on the southwestern shores of the bay, along the northwestern shore of Nova Scotia and at the western end of the Annapolis Valley. ...


In 1620, the Plymouth Council for New England, under King James I (of England) & VI (of Scots) designated the whole shorelines of Acadia and the Mid-Atlantic colonies south to the Chesapeake Bay as New England. The first documented Scottish settlement in the Americas was of Nova Scotia in 1621. On 29 September 1621, the charter for the foundation of a colony was granted by James VI to Sir William Alexander and, in 1622, the first settlers left Scotland. Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The sea to sea grant of Plymouth Council for New England is shown in green. ... James VI and I (James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland. ... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... James VI and I (James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland. ... Sir William Alexander (c. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one strikes me with impunity) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the Crowns March 24, 1603  - Act of Union...


This settlement initially failed due to difficulties in obtaining a sufficient number of skilled emigrants and in 1624, James VI created a new order of Baronets; admission to this order was obtained by sending 6 labourers or artisans, sufficiently armed, dressed & supplied for 2 years, to Nova Scotia, or by paying 3,000 merks to William Alexander. For 6 months, no one took up this offer until James compelled one to make the first move. A baronet (traditional abbreviation Bart, modern abbreviation Bt), is the holder of an hereditary title awarded by the British Crown, known as a baronetcy. ... A merk was a Scottish silver coin. ...


In 1627, there was a wider uptake of baronetcies, and thus more settlers available to go to Nova Scotia. However, in 1627, war broke out between England and France and the French re-established a settlement at Port Royal which they had originally settled. Later that year, a combined Scottish and English force destroyed the French settlement, forcing them out. In 1629, the first Scottish settlement at Port Royal was inhabited. The colony's charter, in law, made Nova Scotia (defined as all land between Newfoundland and New England) a part of mainland Scotland, this was later used to get around the English navigation acts. However, this did not last long: in 1631, under King Charles I, the Treaty of Suza was signed which returned Nova Scotia to the French. The Scots were forced by Charles to abandon their mission before their colony had been properly established and the French assumed control of the Mi'kmaq and other First Nations territory. Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right)1 Capital Winchester, then London from 11th century. ... Port Royal is a small rural community in the western part of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Navigation Acts The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws which, beginning in 1651, restricted foreign shipping. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ...


In 1654, King Louis XIV of France appointed aristocrat Nicholas Denys as Governor of Acadia and granted him the confiscated lands and the right to all its minerals. English colonists captured Acadia in the course of King William's War, but England returned the territory to France in the Treaty of Ryswick at the wars end. The territory was recaptured by forces loyal to Britain during the course of Queen Anne's War, and its conquest confirmed by the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713. France retained possession of Île St Jean (Prince Edward Island) and Île Royale (Cape Breton Island), on which it established a fortress at Louisbourg to guard the sea approaches to Quebec. This fortress was captured by American colonial forces then returned by the British to France, then ceded again after the French and Indian War of 1755. Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... The first of the French and Indian Wars, King Williams War (1689–1697) , was the North American theater of the War of the Grand Alliance (1688–1697) fought principally in Europe between the armies of France under Louis XIV and those of a coalition of European powers including England. ... The Treaty of Ryswick was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (also known as Rijswijk) in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands). ... Queen Annes War (1702–1713) was the second in a series of four French and Indian Wars fought between France and Great Britain in North America for control of the continent and was the counterpart of War of the Spanish Succession in Europe. ... The Treaty of Utrecht comprised a series of peace treaties signed in Utrecht in March and April 1713 that helped end the War of the Spanish Succession. ... // Events April 11 - War of the Spanish Succession: Treaty of Utrecht June 23 - French residents of Acadia given one year to declare allegiance to Britain or leave Nova Scotia Canada first Orrery built by George Graham Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713... Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti The Small Protected By The Great) Official languages English Flower Pink Ladys Slipper Tree Red Oak Bird Blue Jay Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Lieutenant-Governor Barbara Oliver Hagerman Premier Pat Binns (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 4 4 Area Total  - Land  - Water... Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada NASA landsat photo of Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (French: île du Cap-Breton, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Cheap Breatuinn, Míkmaq: Únamakika, simply: Cape Breton) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America. ... Fortress Louisbourg (fr. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Flower Blue Flag Iris (Iris versicolor Linné) Tree Yellow Birch Bird Snowy Owl Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of... Combatants France native allies: * Algonquin * Huron Great Britain native allies: * Iroquois Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) The French and Indian War was the nine year North American chapter of the Seven Years War. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


British Colony

Thus mainland Nova Scotia became a British colony in 1713, although Samuel Vetch had a precarious hold on the territory as governor from the fall of Acadian Port-Royal (Annapolis Royal) in October 1710. British governing officials became increasingly concerned over the unwillingness of the French-speaking, Roman Catholic Acadians, who were the majority of colonists, to pledge allegiance to the British Crown, then George II. The colony remained mostly Acadian despite the establishment of Halifax as the province's capital, and the settlement of a large number of foreign Protestants (some French and Swiss but mostly German) at Lunenburg in 1753. In 1755, the British forcibly expelled the over 12,000 Acadians in what became known as the Grand Dérangement, or Great Expulsion. Samuel Vetch (December 9, 1668-April 30, 1732) a British military officer and colonial governor of Nova Scotia. ... Annapolis Royal [[1]] , population 548 (Nova Scotia Statistical Review 2004 [[2]] ) was founded in 1610, down and across the Annapolis River from the site of Port Royal, which was the first permanent European settlement in North America north of Florida. ... Acadians are the original French settlers of parts of the northeastern region of North America comprising what is now the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen_in_Parliament) legislative power. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... The foreign Protestants were a group of immigrants to Nova Scotia in the mid-18th century. ... The Great Upheaval (le Grand Dérangement), also known as the Great Expulsion or the Acadian Expulsion, is the eviction of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia between 1755 and 1763, ordered by governor Charles Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council. ...


The colony's jurisdiction changed during this time. Nova Scotia was granted a supreme court in 1754 with the appointment of Jonathan Belcher and a Legislative Assembly in 1758. In 1763 Cape Breton Island became part of Nova Scotia. In 1769, St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) became a separate colony. The county of Sunbury was created in 1765, and included all of the territory of current day New Brunswick and eastern Maine as far as the Penobscot River. In 1784 the western, mainland portion of the colony was separated and became the province of New Brunswick, and the territory in Maine entered the control of the newly independent American state of Massachusetts. Cape Breton became a separate colony in 1784 only to be returned to Nova Scotia in 1820. Jonathan Belcher (1682-1757) was colonial governor of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and New Jersey. ... The Nova Scotia House of Assembly is the legislative branch of the provincial government of Nova Scotia, Canada. ... Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada NASA landsat photo of Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (French: île du Cap-Breton, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Cheap Breatuinn, Míkmaq: Únamakika, simply: Cape Breton) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America. ... Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti The Small Protected By The Great) Official languages English Flower Pink Ladys Slipper Tree Red Oak Bird Blue Jay Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Lieutenant-Governor Barbara Oliver Hagerman Premier Pat Binns (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 4 4 Area Total  - Land  - Water... Sunbury County was a county in the crown colony of Nova Scotia from 1765 to 1784. ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Official languages English, French Flower Purple Violet Tree Balsam Fir Bird Black-capped Chickadee Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 10 10 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Official languages English, French Flower Purple Violet Tree Balsam Fir Bird Black-capped Chickadee Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 10 10 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

During the colonial period, Nova Scotia issued its own postage stamps printed in England. This distinctive diamond shape (issued between 1851 and 1857) was also used by neighbouring New Brunswick.
During the colonial period, Nova Scotia issued its own postage stamps printed in England. This distinctive diamond shape (issued between 1851 and 1857) was also used by neighbouring New Brunswick.

Ancestors of more than half of present-day Nova Scotians arrived in the period following the Acadian Expulsion. Between 1759 and 1768, about 8000 New England Planters responded to Governor Charles Lawrence's request for settlers from the New England colonies. Several years later, approximately 30,000 United Empire Loyalists (American Tories) settled in Nova Scotia (when it comprised present-day Maritime Canada) following the defeat of the British in the American Revolutionary War. Of these 30,000, 14,000 went to New Brunswick and 16,000 to Nova Scotia. Approximately 3,000 of this group were slaves of African ancestry, about a third of which soon relocated themselves to Sierra Leone in 1792. Large numbers of Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots emigrated to Cape Breton and the western portion of the mainland during the late 18th century and 19th century. About one thousand Ulster Scots settled in mainly central Nova Scotia during this time, as did just over a thousand farming migrants from Yorkshire and Northumberland between 1772 and 1775. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (782x765, 259 KB) Summary Nova Scotia stamp from 1851 has an E from the TH Saunders watermark on the reverse. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (782x765, 259 KB) Summary Nova Scotia stamp from 1851 has an E from the TH Saunders watermark on the reverse. ... The Great Upheaval (le Grand Dérangement), also known as the Great Expulsion or the Acadian Expulsion, is the eviction of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia between 1755 and 1763, ordered by governor Charles Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council. ... The New England Planters were settlers from the New England colonies who responded to requests by the lieutenant governor and, subsequently, governor of Nova Scotia, Charles Lawrence, to settle lands left vacant by the Acadian Expulsion of 1755. ... Charles Lawrence (December 14, 1709 – October 19, 1760) was a British military officer who, as lieutenant governor and subsequently governor of Nova Scotia, was responsible for overseeing the expulsion of Acadians from the colony in the Great Upheaval. ... The name United Empire Loyalists is given to those British Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other British Colonies as an act of fealty to King George III after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War. ... The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... Combatants American Revolutionaries, France, Dutch Republic, Spain, American Indians Kingdom of Great Britain, German mercenaries, Loyalists, American Indians Commanders George Washington, Comte de Rochambeau, Nathanael Greene, Bernardo de Gálvez Sir William Howe, Sir Henry Clinton, Lord Cornwallis (more commanders) The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Canadian Gaelic (Gaelic: Gàidhlig Canadanach, locally just Gaelic or The Gaelic) is the dialect of Scots Gaelic that has been spoken continuously for more than 200 years on Cape Breton Island and in isolated enclaves on the Nova Scotia mainland. ... The Scottish Highlands are considered to be the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Former official flag of Northern Ireland and de facto civil flag. ... Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Northumberland is a county in northern England. ...


Canadian Confederation

Nova Scotia was the first colony in British North America and in the British Empire to achieve responsible government in January-February 1848 and become self-governing through the efforts of Joseph Howe. Pro-Confederate premier Charles Tupper led Nova Scotia into the Canadian Confederation in 1867, along with New Brunswick and the Province of Canada. British North America was an informal term first used in 1783, but uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Responsible government is a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ... A self-governing colony is a colony with an elected legislature, in which politicians are able to make most decisions without reference to the colonial power with formal or nominal control of the colony. ... Joseph Howe, PC (December 13, 1804 – June 1, 1873) was born the son of John Howe and Mary Edes at Halifax, Nova Scotia . ... Not to be confused with Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper who was Sir Charles Tuppers son. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Official languages English, French Flower Purple Violet Tree Balsam Fir Bird Black-capped Chickadee Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 10 10 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked... Note: for information about Canadas present-day provinces, see Provinces and territories of Canada. ...


In the Provincial election of 1868, the Anti-Confederation Party won 18 out of 19 Federal seats, and 35 out of 38 seats in the provincial legislature. For seven years, William Annand and Joseph Howe led the ultimately unsuccessful fight to convince British Imperial authorities to release Nova Scotia from Confederation. The government was vocally against Confederation, contending that it was no more than the annexation of the Province to the pre-existing province of Canada: Anti-Confederation was the name used by several parties in what is now Atlantic Canada by movements opposed to Canadian confederation. ... William Annand (April 10, 1808 - October 12, 1887) was a Nova Scotia publisher and politician. ...

"...the scheme [confederation with Canada] by them assented to would, if adopted, deprive the people [of Nova Scotia] of the inestimable privilege of self-government, and of their rights, liberty, and independence, rob them of their revenue, take from them the regulation of trade and taxation, expose them to arbitrary taxation by a legislature over which they have no control, and in which they would possess but a nominal and entirely ineffective representation; deprive them of their invaluable fisheries, railroads, and other property, and reduce this hitherto free, happy, and self-governed province to a degraded condition of a servile dependency of Canada."

– from Address to the Crown by the Government (Journal of the House of Assembly, Province of Nova Scotia, 1868)

A motion passed by the Nova Scotia House of Assembly in 1868 refusing to recognize the legitimacy of Confederation has never been rescinded. Repeal, as anti-confederation became known, would rear its head again in the 1880s, and transform into the Maritime Rights Movement in the 1920s. Some Nova Scotia flags flew at half mast on Canada Day as late as that time.


References

  1. ^ University of Virginia - Corcoran Department of History (1991). The Cabot Dilemma: John Cabot's 1497 Voyage & the Limits of Historiography. Retrieved on 2007-02-09.

  Results from FactBites:
 
AllRefer.com - Nova Scotia : History and Politics, Canada (Canadian Political Geography) - Encyclopedia (513 words)
Under the Peace of Utrecht (1713–14), the Nova Scotia peninsula was awarded to England, although Cape Breton Island was retained by the French.
With the influx (from 1783) of United Empire Loyalists leaving the American colonies, lingering sentiment in favor of joining the new United States was overwhelmed, and New Brunswick and Cape Breton became (1784) separate colonies.
Nova Scotia has recently struggled to stabilize an economy damaged by decline in the mining and steel industries.
History (from Nova Scotia) --  Encyclopædia Britannica (919 words)
In the 17th and 18th centuries Nova Scotia experienced instabilities of colonization, struggles for power originating in the rivalries between London and Paris, and migratory and military pressure from the colonies to the south that were to become the United States.
It comprises the peninsula of Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island (separated from the mainland to the southwest by the narrow Strait of Canso), and a number of small adjacent islands.
History is a science—a branch of knowledge that uses specific methods and tools to achieve its goals.
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