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Encyclopedia > History of New South Wales
This article is part of the series
History of Australia
States and Territories
New South Wales
Victoria
Queensland
Western Australia
South Australia
Tasmania
Australian Capital Territory
Northern Territory

Contents

Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... The history of Australia began when humans first migrated to the Australian continent from the north, at least 40-45,000 years before present. ... This article describes the history of Victoria. ... Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the northeast part of the continent. ... The human history of Western Australia started when Australias first inhabitants arrived on the northwest coast about 55,000 years ago. ... This article details the history of South Australia from the first human activity in the region to the 20th century. ... The history of Tasmania begins in prehistory where it is believed that the island was joined to the mainland until the end of the most recent ice age approximately 10 000 years ago. ... The History of the Australian Capital Territory details the Australian Capital Territorys development from before white settlement to Canberras planning by the Chicago architect Walter Burley Griffin and subsequent development to the present day. ... The history of the Northern began over 40,000 years ago when Indigenous Australians settled the region. ...


Foundation and growth

Governor Lachlan Macquarie
Governor Lachlan Macquarie

In 1770 Captain James Cook sailed along the east coast of Australia, the first European to do so. On 22 August, at Possession Island in the Torres Strait, Cook wrote in his journal: "I now once more hoisted English Coulers and in the Name of His Majesty King George the Third, took possession of the whole Eastern Coast from the above Latitude down to this place by the name of New South Wales." What exactly about the Australian coast reminded Cook of South Wales is not known. Cook's proclamation made the whole of Australia British territory, except for the western third, which was still regarded as Dutch New Holland. New South Wales as proclaimed by Cook extended from Tasmania to Cape York. Download high resolution version (635x772, 443 KB)Illustration from Volume I of The Picturesque Atlas of Australasia by Andrew Garran, 1888 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (635x772, 443 KB)Illustration from Volume I of The Picturesque Atlas of Australasia by Andrew Garran, 1888 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 1770 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... James Cook, portrait by Nathaniel Dance, c. ... August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... Possession Island is a rocky island nearly 2 miles long, which is the northernmost and largest of the Possession Islands. ... The Torres Strait - Cape York Peninsula is at the top; several of the Torres Strait Islands can be seen strung out towards Papua New Guinea (North is downwards in this image) The Torres Strait is a body of water which lies between Australia and the Melanesian island of New Guinea. ... George III (George William Frederick) (4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain, and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ... South Wales is an area of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the East and South, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the North and West. ... Map of a part of New Holland made by William Dampier in 1699 New Holland is a historic name for the island continent of Australia. ... Motto: Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Nickname: The Apple Isle Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Governor Premier Const. ... This article is about the peninsula located in the Australian state of Queensland; it should not be confused with either Yorke Peninsula, in South Australia, or Cape York, Greenland. ...


This claim was not made good until January 1788, when Arthur Phillip arrived with the First Fleet to found a convict settlement at what is now Sydney. Phillip, as Governor of New South Wales, exercised nominal authority over all of Australia east of the 135th meridian, as well as New Zealand. For the next 40 years the History of New South Wales was identical with the History of Australia, since it was not until 1803 that any settlements were made outside the current boundaries of New South Wales, and these, at Hobart and Launceston in Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania), were at first dependencies of New South Wales. It was not until 1825 that Van Diemen's Land became a separate colony. In 1829 Western Australia was proclaimed a colony, and the border between it and New South Wales was set at the 129th meridian. 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Admiral Arthur Phillip (1786 portrait by Francis Wheatley, National Portrait Gallery, London) Admiral Arthur Phillip (11 October 1738 – 31 August 1814) was a British naval officer, governor of the first European settlement in Australia and founder of the city of Sydney. ... The First Fleet is the name given to the group of people and ships who sailed from the United Kingdom in May 1787 to establish the first European colony in New South Wales. ... Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and with a population of over four million people is the most populous city in Australia. ... List of Governors of New South Wales See Governors of the Australian states for a description and history of the office of Governor. ... The history of Australia began when humans first migrated to the Australian continent from the north, at least 40-45,000 years before present. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Hobart is the state capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. ... Launceston City Council, Coat of Arms Launceston City Council, Tasmania Launceston is a small city in the north of Tasmania, Australia, population of approximately 98,000, located at the juncture of the North Esk, South Esk, and Tamar rivers. ... Van Diemens Land was the original name used by Europeans for the island of Tasmania, now part of Australia. ... 1825 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: Cygnis Insignis (Distinguished by its swans) Nickname: Wildflower State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Governor Premier Const. ...


The indigenous Australians or Aboriginal people had lived in what is now New South Wales for at least 50,000 years, making their living through hunting, gathering and fishing. The impact of European settlement on these people was immediate and devastating. They had no natural resistance to European diseases, and epidemics of measles and smallpox spread far ahead of the frontier of settlement, radically reducing population and fatally disrupting indigenous society. Although there was some resistance to European occupation, in general the indigenous people were evicted from their lands without difficulty. Dispossession, disease, violence and alcohol reduced them to a remnant with a generation in most areas. However, in 2001 the Indigenous Australian population of New South Wales was 134,888 according to the census, making it the state with the largest Indigenous Australian population. The Indigenous Australians are the first inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands, continuing their presence during European settlement. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ...


New South Wales struggled in its early days for economic self-sufficiency, since supplies from Britain were few and inadequate. The whaling industry provided some early revenue, but it was the development of the wool industry by John MacArthur and other enterprising settlers that created the colony's first major export industry. For the first half of the 19th century New South Wales was essentially a sheep run, supported by the port of Sydney and a few subsidiary towns such as Newcastle (founded in 1797) and Bathurst (1815). In 1821 there were still only 36,000 Europeans in the country. Although the number of free settlers began to increase rapidly after the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, convicts were still 40% of the population in 1820, and it was not until the 1820s that free settlers began to occupy most of what is now rural New South Wales, producing fine wool for export to the knitting mills of industrial Britain. The period from 1820 to 1850 is regarded as the golden age of the squatters. The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch Whaling is the hunting and killing of whales. ... Wool in a shearing shed Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, AR Wool sheep, Royal Melbourne Show Wool is the fibre derived from the hair of animals of the Caprinae family, principally sheep and goats, but the hair of other mammals... Alternate meanings: John D. MacArthur, John R. Macarthur John Macarthur (1767-1834), soldier, politician and pioneer of the Australian wool industry, was born in Devonshire, but the MacArthurs are an old Argyll family, from which the American military hero General Douglas MacArthur was also descended. ... A view of Newcastle from Stockton Newcastle is Australias sixth largest city and the second largest in the state of New South Wales. ... 1797 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Location of Bathurst in New South Wales (red) Bathurst is a regional centre in the state of New South Wales, Australia. ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule over France. ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about occupying land without legal permission but with ethical intentions and means to use empty space usefully. ...

William Wentworth
William Wentworth

Constitutionally, New South Wales was founded as an autocracy run by the Governor, although he nearly always exercised his powers within the restraints of British law. In practice the early Governors ruled by consent, with the advice of military officers, officials and leading settlers. The military deposed Governor William Bligh in 1808, but this led to the appointment of Lachlan Macquarie, a strong Governor who re-established the authority of the civil power. In 1825 the New South Wales Legislative Council, Australia's oldest legislative body, was established, as an appointed body to advise the Governor. In the same year trial by jury was introduced, ending the military's judicial power. In 1842 the Council was made partly elective, through the agitation of democrats like William Wentworth. This development was made possible by the abolition of transportation of convicts to New South Wales in 1840, by which time 150,000 convicts had been sent to Australia. After 1840 the settlers saw themselves as a free people and demanded the same rights they would have had in Britain. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (868x1158, 781 KB) Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (868x1158, 781 KB) Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... William Bligh in 1814 Vice Admiral of the Blue William Bligh, FRS (9 September 1754 - 7 December 1817) was an officer of the British Royal Navy and colonial administrator. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Governor Lachlan Macquarie Colonel Lachlan Macquarie (31 January 1762–1 July 1824), British military officer and colonial administrator, served as Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821 and had a leading role in the social, economic and architectural development of that colony. ... 1825 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Legislative Council, or upper house, is one of the two chambers of the parliament of New South Wales in Australia. ... A jury trial is a trial in which the judge of the facts, as opposed to the judge of the law, is a jury, made up of citizens who are usually randomly selected and are generally not legal professionals. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... William Charles Wentworth (early 1790 - 20 March 1872), Australian explorer, journalist and politician, was one of the leading figures of early colonial New South Wales. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


A golden age of a new kind began in 1851 with the discovery of gold near Bathurst. In that year New South Wales had about 200,000 people, a third of them within a day's ride of Sydney, the rest scattered along the coast and through the pastoral districts, from the Port Phillip District in the south to Moreton Bay in the north. In 1836 a new colony of South Australia had been established, and its territory separated from New South Wales. The gold rushes of the 1850s brought a huge influx of settlers, although initially the majority of them went to the richest goldfields at Ballarat and Bendigo, in the Port Phillip District, which in 1851 was separated to become the colony of Victoria. Victoria soon had a larger population than New South Wales, and its upstart capital, Melbourne, outgrew Sydney. But the New South Wales goldfields also attracted a flood of prospectors, and by 1857 the colony had more than 300,000 people. In 1858 a new gold rush began in the far north, which led in 1859 to the separation of Queensland as a new colony. New South Wales thus attained its present borders, although what is now the Northern Territory remained part of the colony until 1863, when it was handed over to South Australia. 1851 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Bathurst can refer to several cities in English-speaking countries: Bathurst, New Brunswick (Canada) Bathurst, New South Wales (Australia) Bathurst, South Africa, near Grahamstown on the eastern cape. ... The City of Port Phillip is a Local Government Area in Victoria, Australia. ... Moreton Bay from space, from a NASA photograph Moreton Bay is a large bay on the eastern coast of Australia 19km from Brisbane, Queensland. ... Charles Darwin 1836 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: United for the Common Wealth Nickname: Festival State Other Australian states and territories Capital Adelaide Government Governor Premier Const. ... Ballarat is the largest inland city in Victoria, Australia, approximately 120 kilometres north-west of Melbourne, with a population of 87,000 people. ... Bendigo (36°45′S 144°16′E) is a regional city in central Victoria (Australia), located in the City of Greater Bendigo. ... 1851 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Melbourne is the state capital and largest city in the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-largest city in Australia (after Sydney), with a population of approximately 3. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1858 is a common year starting on Friday. ... 1859 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Motto: Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Nickname: Sunshine State/Smart State Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Governor Premier Const. ... Motto: None Nickname: ? Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Administrator Chief Minister Const. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ...


The separation and rapid growth of Victoria and Queensland mark the real beginning of New South Wales as a political and economic entity distinct from the other Australian colonies. Rivalry between New South Wales and Victoria was intense throughout the second half of the 19th century, and the two colonies developed in radically different directions. Once the easy gold ran out by about 1860, Victoria absorbed the surplus labour force from the goldfields in manufacturing, protected by high tariff walls. Victoria became the Australian stronghold of protectionism, liberalism and radicalism, its politics typified by David Syme and his newspaper The Age. New South Wales, which was less radically affected demographically by the gold rushes, remained more conservative, still dominated politically by the squatter class and its allies in the Sydney business community. New South Wales, as a trading and exporting colony, remained wedded to free trade, and its conservative politics were well represented by John Fairfax's Sydney Morning Herald. 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... A tariff is a tax on imported goods. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of protecting a nations manufacturing base from the effects of foreign competition (such as including Dumping) by means of high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and other means of reducing importation. ... This article discusses liberalism as a major political ideology as it developed and stands currently. ... In political science, the label radical denotes one who desires extreme change of all or part of the social order. (Britannica Deluxe CD2000). ... The Age is a broadsheet daily newspaper, which has been published in Melbourne, Australia since 1854. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... John Fairfax (1804 - 1877) is notable for the incorporation of the major newspapers of modern day Australia. ... ...


Self-government

Sir Henry Parkes
Sir Henry Parkes

The end of transportation and the rapid growth of population following the gold rush led to a demand for "British instututions" in New South Wales, which meant an elected parliament and responsible government. In 1851 the franchise for the Legislative Council was expanded, but this did not satisfy the settlers, many of whom (such as the young Henry Parkes) had been Chartists in Britain in the 1840s. Successive Governors warned the Colonial Office of the dangers of republicanism if the demands for self-government were not met. There was, however, a prolonged battle between the conservatives, now led by Wentworth, and the democrats as to what kind of constitution New South Wales would have. The key issue was control of the pastoral lands, which the democrats wanted to take away from the squatters and break up into farms for settlers. Wentworth wanted a hereditary upper house controlled by the squatters to prevent any such possibility. The radicals, led by rising politicians like Parkes and radical journalists like Daniel Deniehy, ridiculed suggestions of a "bunyip aristocracy." Image File history File links Download high resolution version (467x612, 33 KB) Summary Taken from Eminent citizens [of] New South Wales, 1850-1900, published 1910, and thus in the public domain under Australian copyright. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (467x612, 33 KB) Summary Taken from Eminent citizens [of] New South Wales, 1850-1900, published 1910, and thus in the public domain under Australian copyright. ... Responsible government is a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ... 1851 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Henry Parkes Sir Henry Parkes (27 May 1815 – 27 April 1896), Australian politician, is sometimes called the Father of Federation and is at least considered the most prominent among the Australian Founding Fathers. ... Chartism is also an alternative term for technical analysis Chartism was a movement for social and political reform in the United Kingdom during the mid-19th century. ... Republicanism is the idea of a nation being governed as a republic. ... Daniel Henry Deniehy (18 August 1828 - 22 October 1865), Australian journalist and politician, was an early advocate of democracy in colonial New South Wales. ... The bunyip (devil or spirit) is a mythical creature from Australian Aboriginal mythology. ...


The result was the New South Wales Constitution Act of 1855, steered through the British Parliament by the veteran radical Lord John Russell, who wanted a constitution which balanced democratic elements against the interests of property, as did the Parliamantary system in Britain at this time. The Act created a bicameral Parliament of New South Wales, with a lower house, the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, consisting of 54 members elected by adult males who met a moderate property qualification (anyone who owned property worth a hundred pounds, or earned a hundred pounds a year, or held a pastoral licence, or who paid ten pounds a year for lodgings, could vote). The Assembly districts were heavily malapportioned in favour of the rural areas. The Legislative Council was to consist of at least 21 members (but with no upper limit) appointed for life by the Governor, and Council members had to meet a higher property qualification. 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... John Russell, 1st Earl Russell (August 18, 1792 - May 28, 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was a Whig politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... In government, bicameralism (bi + Latin camera, chamber) is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The Parliament of New South Wales consists of the Governor of New South Wales, the New South Wales Legislative Council and the New South Wales Legislative Assembly. ... The Legislative Assembly, or lower house, is one of the two chambers of the parliament of New South Wales in Australia. ... Malapportionment is broad and systematic variance in the size of electoral constituencies (at least within electoral systems which have them). ...


These seemed like formidable barriers to democracy, but in practice they did not prove so, because the Constitution Act could be modified by simple majorities of both Houses. In 1858 the property franchise for the Assembly was abolished, and the secret ballot introduced. Since the principle that the Governor should always act on the advice of his ministers was soon established, a Premier whose bills were rejected by the Council could simply advise the Governor to appoint more members until the opposition was "flooded": usually the threat of "flooding" was enough. The ministry of Charles Cowper marked the victory of colonial liberalism, although New South Wales liberals were never as radical as those in Victoria or South Australia. The major battle for the liberals, unlocking the lands from the squatters, was more or less won by John Robertson, five times Premier during the 1860s, who passed the Robertson Land Acts to break up the squatters' estates. 1858 is a common year starting on Friday. ... The Polling by William Hogarth (1755); Before the secret ballot was introduced voter intimidation was commonplace The secret ballot is a process in elections where the choice of the voters is kept confidential. ... List of Premiers of New South Wales Before the 1890s there was no formal party system in New South Wales. ... Charles Cowper was the Premier of the Colony of New South Wales on five different occasions from 1856 to 1870. ... Sir John Robertson (Born Bow, October 15, 1816; Died Watsons Bay, May 8, 1891. ... The Crown Lands Acts 1861 (NSW) were introduced by the New South Wales Premier, John Robertson, in 1861 to reform land holdings and in particular to break the squatters domination of land tenure. ...


From the 1860s onwards government in New South Wales became increasingly stable and assured. Fears of class conflict faded as the population bulge resulting from the gold rushes was accommodated on the newly available farmlands and in the rapidly growing towns. The last British troops left the colony in 1870, and law and order was maintained by the police and a locally raised militia, which had little to do apart from catching a few bushrangers. The only issue which really excited political passions in this period was education, which was the source of bitter conflict between Catholics, Protestants, and secularists, who all had conflicting views on how schools should be operated, funded and supervised. This was a major peroccupation for Henry Parkes, the dominant politician of the period (he was Premier five times between 1872 and 1889). In 1866 Parkes, as Education Minister, brought in a compromise Schools Act that brought all religious schools under the supervision of public boards, in exchange for state subsidies. But in 1880 the secularists won out when Parkes withdrew all state aid for church schools and established a statewide system of free secular schools. 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Bushrangers were criminals who used theVipin Panwar Hindi PoetYoung Uttaranchal Australian bush as a refuge to hide from the authorities between committing their robberies, roughly analogous to the British-American highwayman. Their targets often included small-town banks or coach services. ... Protestantism is a movement within Christianity, representing a splitting away from the Roman Catholic Church during the mid-to-late Renaissance in Europe —a period known as the Protestant Reformation. ... Secularism is commonly defined as the idea that religion should not interfere with or be integrated into the public affairs of a society. ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


New South Wales and Victoria continued to develop along divergent paths. Parkes and his successor as leader of the New South Wales liberals, George Reid, were Gladstonian liberals committed to free trade, which they saw as both economically beneficial and as necessary for the unity of the British Empire. They regarded Victorian protectionism as economically foolish and narrowly parochial. It was this hostility between the two largest colonies, symbolised by Victorian customs posts along the Murray River, which prevented any moves towards uniting the Australian colonies, even after the advent of the railways and the telegraph made travel and communication between the colonies much easier by the 1870s. So long as Victoria was larger and richer than New South Wales, the mother colony (as it liked to see itself) would never agree to surrender its free trade principles to a national or federal government which would be dominated by Victorians. George Houstoun Reid (25 February 1845 – 12 September 1918), Australian politician and fourth Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland, son of a Church of Scotland minister, migrated to Victoria with his family as a child. ... William Ewart Gladstone (December 29, 1809 - May 19, 1898) was a British Liberal politician and Prime Minister (1868-1874, 1880-1885, 1886 and 1892-1894). ... The British Empire was, at one time, the foremost global power and the largest empire in history. ... The Murray River, or River Murray, is Australias second-longest river in its own right (the longest being its tributary the Darling). ...


Federation and statehood

George Reid
George Reid

By the 1890s, however, several factors began to change this situation. The great land boom in Victoria in the 1880s was followed a prolonged depression, which allowed New South Wales to recover the economic and demographic superiority it had lost in the 1850s. There was a steady rise in imperial sentiment in the 1880s and '90s, which made the creation of united Australian dominion seem an important imperial project. The intrusion of other colonial powers such as France and Germany into the south-west Pacific area made colonial defence an urgent question, which became more urgent with the rise of Japan as an expansionist power. Finally the issue of Chinese and other non-European immigration made federation of the colonies an important issue, with advocates of a White Australia policy arguing the necessity of a national immigration policy. reupload of image that was originally Georgereid. ... reupload of image that was originally Georgereid. ... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time The White Australia policy is a popular term which refers to the policies once held by all governments and all mainstream political parties in Australia based on excluding non-white people from immigrating to the...


As a result the movement for federation was initiated by Parkes with his Tenterfield Oration of 1889 (earning him the title "Father of Federation"), and carried forward after Parkes' death by another New South Wales politician, Edmund Barton. Opinion in New South Wales about federation remained divided through the 1890s. The northern and southern border regions, which were most inconvenienced by the colonial borders and the system of intercolonial tariffs, were strongly in favour, while many in the Sydney commercial community were sceptical, fearing that a national Parliament would impose a national tariff (which was indeed what happened). The first attempt at federation in 1891 failed, mainly as a result of the economic crisis of the early '90s. It was the federalists of the border regions who revived the federal movement in the later '90s, leading up to the Constitutional Convention of 1897-98 which adopted a draft Australian Constitution. The Tenterfield Oration was a speech given by Sir Henry Parkes at the Tenterfield School of Arts, New South Wales, Australia on 24 October 1889 advocating the Federation of the six Australian colonies, which were at the time self-governed but under the distant central authority of the British Colonial... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... SIR Edmund Barton (18 January 1849–7 January 1920), Australian politician and judge, was the first Prime Minister of Australia and a founding justice of the High Court of Australia. ... 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... In Australian history, the term Constitutional Convention refers to four distinct gatherings. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX in Roman) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900 (in full, An Act to constitute the Commonwealth of Australia) is the primary constitutional text of the Commonwealth of Australia. ...


When the draft was put to referendum in New South Wales in 1899, Reid (Free Trade Premier from 1894 to 1899), adopted an equivocal position, earning him the nickname "Yes-No Reid." The draft was rejected, mainly because New South Wales voters thought it gave the proposed Senate, which would dominated by the smaller states, too much power. Reid was able to bargain with the other Premiers to modify the draft so that it suited New South Wales interests, and the draft was then approved. On 1 January 1901 New South Wales ceased to be a self-governing colony and became a state of the Commonwealth of Australia. Although the new Governor-General and Prime Minister were sworn in in Sydney, Melbourne was to be the new national capital until a new seat of government was established. This was to be in New South Wales, but at least 100 miles (160km) from Sydney. The first Prime Minister (Barton) the first Opposition Leader (Reid) and the first Labor leader (Chris Watson) were all from New South Wales. A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Australian Senate chamber Entrance to the Senate The Australian Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Michael Jeffery, Governor-General of Australia The Governor-General of Australia is the representative in Australia of Australias head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, who lives in the United Kingdom. ... The office of Prime Minister is in practice the most powerful political office in the Commonwealth of Australia. ... Hon Chris Watson John Christian Watson (9 April 1867(exact date uncertain) - 18 November 1941), Australian politician and third Prime Minister of Australia, usually known as Chris Watson, was born in Valparaíso, Chile, probably on April 9, 1867. ...


Federation to World War II

Jack Lang
Jack Lang

At the time of federation the New South Wales economy was still heavily based on agriculture, particularly wool growing, although mining - coal from the Hunter Valley and silver, lead and zinc from Broken Hill - was also important. Federation was followed by the imposition of protective tariffs just as the Sydney Free Traders had feared, and this boosted domestic manufacturing. Farmers, however, suffered from increased costs, as well as from the prolonged drought that afflicted the state at the turn of the century. A further boost to both manufacturing and farming came from the increased demand during World War I. By the 1920s New South Wales was overtaking Victoria as the centre of Australian heavy industry, symbolised by the Broken Hill Proprietary (BHP) steelworks at Newcastle, opened in 1915, and another steel mill at Port Kembla in 1928. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (994x1359, 1057 KB) Summary This image shows a photograph of Jack Lang, taken in the 1930s. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (994x1359, 1057 KB) Summary This image shows a photograph of Jack Lang, taken in the 1930s. ... The Hunter Valley is a region of New South Wales, approximately 160 kilometers north of Sydney, Australia with an approximate population of 700,000 people, most of which live in the Newcastle Metro area including Newcastle, Lake Macquarie and Maitland city councils. ... Broken Hill Post Office Royal Exchange Hotel, Broken Hill Broken Hill street, with the Indian Pacific and the actual broken hill visible in the background Broken Hill Broken Hill (31°57′S 141°27′E) is an isolated mining city and Local Government Area in the far west of outback... World War I, also known as the First World War and (before 1939) the Great War, the War of the Nations, War to End All Wars, was a world conflict lasting from August 1914 to the final Armistice (cessation of hostilities) on November 11, 1918. ... The Broken Hill Proprietary Company (BHP) was incorporated in 1895, operating the mine at Broken Hill in western New South Wales. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Port Kembla is a seaport near Wollongong, in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The growth of manufacturing and mining brought with it the growth of an industrial working class. Trade unions had been formed in New South Wales as early as the 1850s, but it was great labour struggles of the 1890s that led them to move into politics. The most important was the Australian Workers' Union (AWU), formed from earlier unions by William Spence and others in 1894. The defeat of the great shearers' and maritime strikes in the 1890s led the AWU to reject direct action and to take the lead in forming the Labor Party. Labor had its first great success in 1891, when it won 35 seats in the Legislative Assembly, mainly in the pastoral and mining areas. This first parliamentary Labor Party, led by Joseph Cook, supported Reid's Free Trade government, but broke up over the issue of free trade versus protection, and also over the "pledge" which the unions required Labor members to take always to vote in accordance with majority decisions. After federation Labor, led by James McGowen, soon recovered, and won its first majority in the Assembly in 1910, when McGowen became the state's first Labor Premier. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Australian Workers Union (AWU) is one of Australias largest and oldest trade unions. ... William Guthrie Spence (7 August 1846 - 13 December 1926), Australian trade union leader and politician, played a leading role in the formation of both Australias largest union, the Australian Workers Union, and the Australian Labor Party. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Australian Labor Party or ALP is Australias oldest political party. ... 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Rt Hon Joseph Cook Sir Joseph Cook (7 December 1860 - 30 July 1947), Australian politician and sixth Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Silverdale, a small mining town near Newcastle-under-Lyme in Staffordshire, England. ... James Sinclair Taylor McGowen (Born At Sea August 16, 1855; Died Petersham, April 7, 1922}. Premier of New South Wales October 21, 1910 - June 30, 1913. ... -1...


This early experience of government, plus the social base of New South Wales party in the rural areas rather than in the militant industrial working class of the cities, made New South Wales Labor notably more moderate than its counterparts in other states, and this in turn made it more successful at winning elections. The growth of the coal, iron, steel and shipbuilding industries gave Labor new "safe" areas in Newcastle and Wollongong, while the mining towns of Broken Hill and the Hunter also became Labor strongholds. As a result of these factors, Labor has ruled New South Wales for 58 of the 95 years since 1910, and every leader of the New South Wales Labor Party except one has become Premier of the state. Wollongong (IPA: ) is an industrial city located on the eastern coast of Australia in the state of New South Wales. ... -1...


But Labor came to grief in New South Wales as elsewhere during World War I, when the Premier, William Holman, supported the Labor Prime Minister Billy Hughes in his drive to introduce conscription. New South Wales voters rejected both attempts by Hughes to pass a referendum authorising conscription, and in 1916 Hughes, Holman, Watson, McGowen, Spence and many other founders of the party were expelled, forming the Nationalist Party under Hughes and Holman. Federal Labor did not recover from this split for many years, but New South Wales Labor was back in power by 1920, although this government lasted only 18 months, and again from 1925 under Jack Lang. World War I, also known as the First World War and (before 1939) the Great War, the War of the Nations, War to End All Wars, was a world conflict lasting from August 1914 to the final Armistice (cessation of hostilities) on November 11, 1918. ... William Arthur Holman (Born Clapham, London August 4, 1871; Died Gordon, June 6, 1934) was an Australian Labor Party Premier of New South Wales, Australia, who split with the party on the conscription issue in 1916 during World War 1, and immediately became Premier of a conservative Nationalist Party Government. ... The Right Honourable William Morris Billy Hughes, PC (September 25, 1862 - October 28, 1952), Australian politician, was the seventh Prime Minister of Australia, the longest-serving member of the Australian Parliament, and one of the most colourful figures in Australian political history. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January-February January 1 - The Royal Army Medical Corps first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... The Nationalist Party of Australia was an Australian political party formed in 1917 from a merger of pro-conscription members of the Labor Party (who had been operating under the banner National Labor after their earlier split with the Labor party) with the Commonwealth Liberal Party. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jack Lang John Thomas Lang (December 21, 1876 - September 27, 1975), Australian politician, was Premier of New South Wales for two terms, from 1925-27, and 1930-32. ...


In the years after World War I it was the farmers rather than the workers who were the most discontented and militant class in New South Wales. The high prices enjoyed during the war fell with the resumption of international trade, and farmers became increasingly discontented with the fixed prices paid by the compulsory marketing authorities set up as a wartime measure by the Hughes government. In 1919 the farmers formed the Country Party, led at national level by Earle Page, a doctor from Grafton, and at state level by Michael Bruxner, a small farmer from Tenterfield. The Country Party used its reliable voting base to make demands on successive non-Labor governments, mainly to extract subsidies and other benefits for farmers, as well as public works in rural areas. 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party. ... Sir Earle Christmas Grafton Page (August 8, 1880 – December 20, 1961), Australian politician, was the eleventh Prime Minister of Australia. ... Grafton is reachable by road from Sydney and Brisbane on the Pacific Highway (Highway 1) Grafton, (population 17,110), is a small cathedral city on the northern east coast of New South Wales, Australia. ... Tenterfield is a town and Local Government Area in New South Wales, Australia. ...


The Great Depression which began in 1929 ushered a period of unprecedented political and class conflict in New South Wales. The mass unemployment and collapse of commodity prices brough ruin to both city workers and to farmers. The beneficiary of the resultant discontent was not the Communist Party, which remained small and weak, but Jack Lang's Labor populism. Lang's second government was elected in November 1930 on a policy of repudiating New South Wales' debt to British bondholders and using the money instead to help the unemployed through public works. This was denounced as illegal by conservatives, and also by James Scullin's federal Labor government. The result was that Lang's supporters in the federal Caucus brought down Scullin's government, causing a second bitter split in the Labor Party. in May 1932 the Governor, Sir Philip Game, convinced that Lang was acting illegally, dismissed his government, and Labor spent the rest of the 1930s in opposition. Dorothea Langes Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven children, age thirty-two, in Nipomo, California, March 1936. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article is about the historical Communist Party of Australia, dissolved in 1991. ... 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Rt Hon James Scullin James Henry Scullin (September 18, 1876 - January 28, 1953), Australian politician and ninth Prime Minister of Australia, was born in the small town of Trawalla, in western Victoria, the son of a railway worker of Irish descent. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) is a leap year starting on Friday. ... Air Vice-Marshal Sir Philip Woolcott Game (March 30, 1876–February 4, 1961) was a British Royal Air Force commander and Governor of New South Wales, Australia. ...


By the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the differences between New South Wales and the other states that had emerged in the 19th century had faded as a result of federation and economic development behind a wall of protective tariffs. New South Wales continued to outstrip Victoria as the centre of industry, and increasingly of finance and trade as well. The radicalism of the Lang period subsided as the Depression eased, and his removal as Labor Leader in 1939 marked the permanent (as it turned out) defeat of the left of the New South Wales Labor Party. Labor returned to office under William McKell in 1941 and stayed in power for 24 years. World War II saw another surge in industrial development to meet the needs of a war economy, and also the elimination of unemployment. When Ben Chifley, a railwayman from Bathurst, became Prime Minister in 1945, New South Wales Labor assumed what it saw as its rightful position of national leadership. Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 8 million military deaths {{{notes}}} World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a military conflict that took place between 1939 and 1945. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sir William McKell William John McKell (26 September 1891 - 11 January 1985), twelfth Governor-General of Australia, was born in Pambula New South Wales, the son of a butcher. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Joseph Benedict Chifley (September 22, 1885 - June 13, 1951), Australian politician and 16th Prime Minister of Australia, was one of Australias most influential Prime Ministers. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Postwar New South Wales

Bob Carr
Bob Carr

The postwar years, however, saw renewed industrial conflict, culminating in the 1949 coal strike, largely fomented by the Communist Party, which crippled the state's industry. This contributed to the defeat of Chifley's government at the 1949 elections and the beginning of the long rule of Robert Menzies, a Victorian Liberal. The postwar years also saw massive immigration to Australia, begun by Chifley's Immigration Minister, Arthur Calwell, and continued under the Liberals. Sydney, hitherto an almost entirely British and Irish city by origin (apart from a small Chinese community), became increasingly multi-cultural, with many immigrants from Italy, Greece, Malta and eastern Europe (including many Jews), and later from Lebanon and Vietnam, permanently changing its character. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... The 1949 Australian coal strike is notable as being the first time that Australian military forces were used during peacetime to break a Trade union strike. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Sir Robert Gordon Menzies (20 December 1894 – 14 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia, serving a total of eighteen and a half years in office from 1939 to 1941 and from 1949 to 1966. ... The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian liberal conservative political party. ... Rt Hon Arthur Calwell (with young migrant, 1949) Arthur Augustus Calwell (August 28, 1896 - July 8, 1973) Australian politician, was Leader of the Australian Labor Party from 1960 to 1967. ...


Labor stayed in power until 1965, growing increasingly conservative and (according to its critics) lazy and even corrupt in office. In 1965 a vigorous Liberal leader, Robert Askin, finally broke Labor's long grip on power, and stayed in office for ten years. During these years Sydney began its transformation into a world city and a centre of the arts, with the building of the Sydney Opera House as the great symbol of the period. The rest of the state, however, began a gradual decline, demographically and economically, as Australia lost some of its traditional export markets for primary products in Britain and as New South Wales' iron, steel and shipbuilding industries became increasingly uncompetitive in the face of competition from Japan and other new entrants. Sydney's share of the state's population and wealth grew steadily. One consequence of this was a strong secessionist movement in the New England region of northern New South Wales, which for a time looked as though it might succeed in forming a new state, but which faded away in the late 1960s. 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link goes to calendar). ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link goes to calendar). ... The Honourable Sir Robert William Askin, GCMG, (Born Sydney, April 4, 1907; Died September 9, 1981. ... A side view of the Sydney Opera House The Sydney Opera House is located at , in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... New England is the name given to a region in the north of the state of New South Wales, Australia. ...


Since the 1970s New South Wales has undergone an increasingly rapid economic and social transformation. Old industries such as steel and shipbuilding have largely disappeared, and although agriculture remains important its share of the state's income is smaller than ever before. New industries such as information technology, education, financial services and the arts, largely centred in Sydney, have risen to take their place. Coal exports to China are increasingly important to the state's economy. Tourism has also become hugely important, with Sydney as its centre but also stimulating growth on the North Coast, around Coffs Harbour and Byron Bay. As aviation has replaced shipping, most new migrants to Australia have arrived in Sydney by air rather than in Melbourne by ship, and Sydney now gets the lion's share of new arrivals, mostly from Asia, Latin America and the Middle East. Coffs Harbour jetty and harbour, including Muttonbird Island, looking north Location of Coffs Harbour in New South Wales (red) Coffs Harbour is a coastal city and Local Government Area in northern New South Wales, Australia. ... Cape Byron Lighthouse Byron Bay (, ) is a town in the state of New South Wales on the eastern most point of the mainland of Australia. ...


In recent years Sydney has also undergone a major social liberalisation, with huge entertainment and gambling industries. There has been a sharp decline in religious practice, despite the best efforts of Sydney's two outspoken Archbishops, George Pell (Catholic) and Peter Jensen (Anglican), although an evangelical Christian "bible belt" has developed in the north-western suburbs. Another contrary trend has been the emergence of a large Muslim community. Sydney has gained a reputation for secularism and hedonism, with the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras becoming a world-famous event. George Cardinal Pell with Pope John Paul II The Most Reverend Dr George Cardinal Pell (born 8 June 1941), Australian clergyman, has been the Roman Catholic archbishop of Sydney since March 2001 and a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church since October 2003. ... The Most Rev Peter Jensen (born 11 July 1943), is the Anglican Archbishop of Sydney, Australia, and Metropolitan of the Province of New South Wales. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God)) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras is a parade and pride festival for the gay and lesbian community, held annually in Sydney, Australia. ...


Sydney's increasing dominance of Australian life has been marked by the fact that for 14 years it has provided Australia's Prime Minister (first Paul Keating and since 1996 John Howard), and by its hosting of the 2000 Olympic Games. Despite Howard's domination of Australian politics, Labor has retained its grip on New South Wales, holding power under Neville Wran and Barrie Unsworth from 1976 to 1988 and again under Bob Carr and Morris Iemma since 1995. Two recent Premiers have been of non-British background: Nick Greiner (Liberal 1988-1992), who is of Hungarian descent, and Iemma, the current Premier, whose parents are Italian. The current Governor of New South Wales, Marie Bashir, is of Lebanese origin. Paul John Keating (born 18 January 1944), Australian politician and 24th Prime Minister of Australia, came to prominence first as the reforming Treasurer in the Hawke government, then as the Prime Minister who pulled off an upset victory in the unwinnable election of 1993. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... For other uses, see John Howard (disambiguation). ... The Games of the XXVII Olympiad or the Millennium Olympics were the Summer Olympic Games held in 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... The Honourable Neville Kenneth Wran AC, QC, (born October 11, 1926) was the Premier of New South Wales in 1976 until 1986. ... Barrie Unsworth (born Dubbo, 16 April 1934), is an Australian politician. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII in Roman) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hon. ... The Hon. ... 1995 (MCMXCV in Roman) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nicholas Frank Hugo Greiner (born April 27, 1947) was the parliamentary leader of the Liberal Party in New South Wales, Australia and also Premier from 1988 to 1992. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII in Roman) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII in Roman) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Marie Bashir Her Excellency Professor Marie Roslyn Bashir, Lady Shehadie AC (born 1930) is the current Governor of New South Wales. ...


Most commentators predict that Sydney and the coast areas of northern New South Wales will continue to grow in the coming decades, although Bob Carr and others have argued that Sydney (which by 2005 had over 4 million people) cannot grow any bigger without putting intolerable strain on its environment and infrastructure. The southern coastal areas around Canberra are also expected to grow, although less rapidly. The rest of the state, however, is expected to continue to decline, as traditional industries disappear. Already many small towns in western New South Wales have lost so many services and businesses that they are no longer viable, causing population to consolidate in regional centres like Dubbo and Wagga Wagga. This trend will become even more proncounced if global warming makes the inland areas more arid than they already are. 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Dubbo in New South Wales (red) Dubbo is a Local Government Area in the central-west of New South Wales, Australia. ... Wagga Wagga Civic Centre Location of Wagga Wagga in New South Wales (red) Wagga Wagga (pronounced Wogga Wogga) is a city in New South Wales, Australia. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1856 to 2005 Mean temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is an increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans. ...


References

  • Graham Freudenberg, Cause for Power: The Official History of the New South Wales Labor Party, Pluto Press 1991
  • Gordon Greenwood, Australia: A Social and Political History, Angus and Robertson 1955
  • A.C.V. Melbourne, Early Constitutional Development in Australia, University of Queensland Press 1963
  • Edward Shann, An Economic History of Australia, Georgian House 1930

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