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Encyclopedia > History of New Orleans

The history of New Orleans, Louisiana traces its development from its founding by the French, through its period under Spanish control, then back to French rule before being sold to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase. It has been one of the most important cities in the South for most of its history. Nickname: The Crescent City, The Big Easy, The City That Care Forgot Official website: http://www. ... Official language(s) English and French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans at last census; probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 31st 134,382 km² 210 km 610 km 16 29°N to 33°N 89°W to 94°W Population... From Frank Bond, Louisiana and the Louisiana Purchase. ... The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ...

Contents


Colonial Era

New Orleans is a historic city. Sign at Jackson Square in the French Quarter.
New Orleans is a historic city. Sign at Jackson Square in the French Quarter.

Before the founding of what would become known as the city of New Orleans, the area was inhabited by Native Americans who took advantage of Bayou St. John (known to the natives as Bayouk Choupique) which flowed into Lake Pontchartrain and the short distance between its headwaters and the Mississippi River to create a portage. This became an important trade route. French explorers, fur trappers, and traders arrived in the area by the 1690s, some making settlements amid the Native American village of thatched huts along the bayou. By the end of the decade a French encampment called "Port Bayou St. Jean" was near the head of the Bayou, and a small fort "St. Jean" was established at the mouth of the Bayou in 1701. Download high resolution version (715x727, 149 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (715x727, 149 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... An Atsina named Assiniboin Boy Photo by Edward S. Curtis. ... Bayou St. ... Landsat image of Lake Pontchartrain Map showing Lake Pontchartrain Lake Pontchartrains north shore at Fontainebleau State Park near Mandeville, Louisiana in 2004 Lake Pontchartrain at New Orleans during Hurricane Georges in 1998 Lake Pontchartrain (local English pronunciation ) (French: Lac Pontchartrain, pronounced ) is a brackish lake in southeastern Louisiana, the... This article is about the river in the United States. ... For the Gentoo Linux package manager, see Portage (software). ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ... A dogs fur usually consists of longer, stiffer, guard hairs—which can be straight, wiry, or wavy, and of various lengths, hiding a soft, short-haired undercoat. ... A bayou (pronounced or ) is a small, slow-moving stream or creek formed in the former bed of a river. ... Spanish Fort, also known as Old Spanish Fort and Fort St. ...


New Orleans was founded in 1718 by the French as Nouvelle-Orléans, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville. The site was selected because it was a rare bit of natural high ground along the flood-prone banks of the lower Mississippi, and was adjacent to the trading route and portage between the Mississippi and Lake Pontchartrain via Bayou St. John. It was, from this founding, intended to be an important colonial city. The city was named in honor of the then Regent of France, Philip II, Duke of Orléans. The priest-chronicler Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix described it in 1721 as a place of a hundred wretched hovels in a malarious wet thicket of willows and dwarf palmettos, infested by serpents and alligators; he seems to have been the first, however, to predict for it an imperial future. In 1722 Nouvelle-Orléans was made the capital of French Louisiana, replacing Biloxi in that role. Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville (February 23, 1680–March 7, 1767) was a colonizer and governor of Louisiana. ... Philippe of Orléans Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Philippe Charles (August 2, 1674 – December 2, 1723) called Duke of Chartres (1674–1701), and then Duke of Orléans (1701–1723) was Regent of France from 1715 to 1723. ... Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix (29 October 1682 - 1 February 1761) was a French Jesuit traveller and historian distinguished as the first historian of New France. ... Louisiana sold in 1803 by Napoléon to USA, which was a portion of the historical extent of French Louisiana Louisiana (French language: La Louisiane) was the name of an administrative district of New France in the 17th and 18th centuries. ... Biloxi and Mississippi coast Biloxi is a city located in Harrison County, Mississippi. ...


In September of that year, a hurricane struck the city, blowing most of the structures down. After this, the administrators enforced the grid pattern dictated by Bienville but hitherto mostly ignored by the colonists. This grid is still seen today in the streets of the city's "French Quarter". This article is about weather phenomena. ... GRID can refer to : GRID computing short for gay-related immune deficiency, a former name for AIDS. See also homosexuality and medical science General Repository for Interaction Datasets, a database of biological interactions hosted at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Canada This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... French Quarter: upper Chartres street looking down towards Jackson Square and the spires of St. ...


Much of the population in early days was of the wildest and, in part, of the most undesirable character: deported galley-slaves, trappers, gold-hunters and city scourings; and the governors letter's are full of complaints regarding the riffraff sent as soldiers as late as Kerlerecs administration (1753-1763).


Two of the lakes in the vicinity commemorate respectively Louis Phelypeaux, Count Pontchartrain, minister and chancellor of France, and Jean Frederic Phelypeaux, Count Maurepas, minister and secretary of state; a third is really a landlocked inlet of the sea, and its name (Lake Borgne) has reference to its incomplete or defective character. Lake Borgne is a lagoon in eastern Louisiana of the Gulf of Mexico. ...


In 1763, the colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire as a secret provision of the Treaty of Fontainebleau, confirmed in the Treaty of Paris, but no Spanish governor came to take control until 1766. Some of the early French settlers were never happy with Spanish rule, and repeatedly petitioned to be returned to French control. A fire destroyed 856 buildings in the city on March 21, 1788, and another destroyed 212 buildings in December 1794; after this brick replaced wood as the main building material. In 1795-1796 the sugar industry was first put upon a firm basis. The last twenty years of the 18th century were especially characterized by the growth of commerce on the Mississippi, and the development of those international interests, commercial and political, of which New Orleans was the center. Within the city, the Carondelet Canal, connecting the back of the city along the river levee with Lake Pontchartrain via Bayou St. John, opened in 1794, which was a boost to commerce. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Treaty of Fontainebleau refers to a number of agreements signed at Fontainebleau, France, often at the Château de Fontainebleau: October 24, 1745 creating a military alliance between Louis XV of France and Charles Edward Stuart. ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763 was signed on February 10, 1763, by the Kingdom of Great Britain, France and Spain with Portugal in agreement. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... A weathered brick wall. ... A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood derives from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... Commerce is the trading of something of value between two entities. ... The Carondelet Canal, also known as the Old Basin Canal, was a canal in New Orleans, Louisiana from 1794 through 1938. ...


The population of New Orleans also suffered from epidemics of yellow fever, malaria, and smallpox, which would periodically return throughout the 19th century until the successful suppression of the city's final outbreak of yellow fever in 1905. Through Pinckney's Treaty signed on October 27, 1795, Spain granted the United States "Right of Deposit" in New Orleans, allowing Americans to use the city's port facilities. In 1800, Spain and France signed the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso stipulating that Spain gave Louisiana back to France, though it had to remain under Spanish control as long as France wished to postpone the transfer of power. In April 1803, Napoleon sold Louisiana (which then included portions of more than a dozen present-day states) to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase. A French prefect, Pierre Clément de Laussat, who had arrived in New Orleans on 23 March 1803 formally took control of Louisiana for France on November 30, only to handle it over to the United States on December 20. In the meantime he created New Orleans' first city council. In epidemiology, an epidemic (from Greek epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during a... Red blood cell infected with Malaria, derived from male aria (Italian for bad air) and formerly called ague or marsh fever in English, is an infectious disease which causes about 350-500 million infections with humans and approximately 1. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... Pinckneys Treaty, also known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo or the Treaty of Madrid, was signed in San Lorenzo de El Escorial on October 27, 1795 and established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Seaport, a painting by Claude Lorrain, 1638 The Port of Wellington at night. ... The Treaty of San Ildefonso (formally titled the Preliminary and Secret Treaty between the French Republic and His Catholic Majesty the King of Spain, Concerning the Aggrandizement of His Royal Highness the Infant Duke of Parma in Italy and the Retrocession of Louisiana) was a secretly negotiated treaty between France... From Frank Bond, Louisiana and the Louisiana Purchase. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere, to make in front, i. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining, as the final day of November. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At this time the city of New Orleans had a population of about 10,000 people.


19th century

Early 19th century: A rapidly growing commercial center

Prosperous home along Bayou St. John from the start of the 19th century: home of James Pitot, second mayor of the city of New Orleans.
Prosperous home along Bayou St. John from the start of the 19th century: home of James Pitot, second mayor of the city of New Orleans.

The next dozen years were marked by the beginnings of self-government in city and state; by the excitement attending the Aaron Burr conspiracy (in the course of which, in 1806-1807, General James Wilkinson practically put New Orleans under martial law); by the immigration from Cuba of French planters; and by the American War of 1812. From early days it was noted for its cosmopolitan polyglot population and mixture of cultures. The city grew rapidly, with influxes of Americans, French and Creole French (people of French descent born in the Americas), many of the latter fleeing from the revolution in Haiti. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2699 KB) Summary The 200 year old Pitot House along Bayou St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2699 KB) Summary The 200 year old Pitot House along Bayou St. ... James Pitot (1784 - 1831 ) was the second Mayor of New Orleans. ... Vice President Aaron Burr This article is about the U.S. Vice President. ... General James Wilkinson James Wilkinson (1757 - December 28, 1825) was a U.S. soldier and statesman, who was associated with several scandals and controversies. ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ... The term multilingualism can refer to rather different phenomena. ... The term Louisiana Creole refers to people of any race or mixture thereof who are descended from settlers in colonial Louisiana before it became part of the USA in 1803 with the Louisiana Purchase, or to the culture and Creole cuisine typical of these people. ...


During the War of 1812 the British sent a force to try to conquer the city, but they were defeated by forces led by Andrew Jackson some miles down river from the city at Chalmette, Louisiana on January 8, 1815 (commonly known as the Battle of New Orleans). The city was attacked by a conjunct expedition of British naval and military forces from Halifax, Nova Scotia, and other points. The American government managed to obtain early information of the enterprise and prepared to meet it with forces (regular and militia) under Maj.-Gen. Andrew Jackson. The British advance was made by way of Lake Borgne, and the troops landed at a fisherman's village on 23 December 1814, Major-General Sir E. Pakenham taking command there on the 25th. An immediate advance on the still insufficiently prepared defences of the Americans might have led to the capture of the city, but this was not attempted, and both sides remained inactive for some time awaiting reinforcements. At last in the early morning of the 8th of January 1815 (after the Treaty of Ghent had been signed) a direct attack was made on the now strongly entrenched line of the defenders at Chalmette, near the Mississippi River. It failed disastrously with a loss of 2,000 out of 9,000 British troops engaged, among the dead being Pakenham and Major-General Gibbs. The expedition was soon afterwards abandoned and the troops embarked for England. The War of 1812 (in Britain, the American War of 1812), was fought between the United States and British Empire from 1812 to 1815, on land in North America and at sea around the world. ... Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845), was the first governor of Florida (1821), seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), hero of the Battle of New Orleans (1815), a founder of the Democratic Party, and the eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy. ... The unincorporated community of Chalmette is the parish seat of St. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Edward Pakenham † John Lambert Andrew Jackson Strength 11,000–14,500 4,000–6,000 Casualties 2,700 71 {{{notes}}} The Battle of New Orleans, also known as the Battle of Chalmette Plantation, took place on January 8, 1815, during the War of 1812... Please read first: This article is about the Nova Scotia community. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (358th in leap years). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Edward Michael Pakenham (March 19, 1778 – January 8, 1815) was a British general who was killed at the Battle of New Orleans. ... Signing of the Treaty of Ghent The Treaty of Ghent, signed on December 24, 1814, in Ghent, Belgium, ended the War of 1812 between the United States and United Kingdom. ...


The population of the city doubled in the 1830s and by 1840, the city's population was around 102,000, fourth largest in the U.S, the largest city away from the Atlantic seaboard, as well as the largest in the South. Categories: US geography stubs ... The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ...


The introduction of natural gas (about 1830); the building of the New Orleans and Pontchartrain Railway (1820-1830), one of the earliest in the United States; the introduction of the first steam cotton press (1832), and the beginning of the public school system (1840) marked these years; foreign exports more than doubled in the period 1831-1833. In 1838 the commercially important New Basin Canal opened a shipping route from the lake to Uptown New Orleans. Travellers in this decade have left pictures of the animation of the river trade more congested in those days of river boats and steamers and ocean-sailing craft than today; of the institution of slavery, the quadroon balls, the medley of Latin tongues, the disorder and carousals of the river-men and adventurers that filled the city. Altogether there was much of the wildness of a frontier town, and a seemingly boundless promise of prosperity. The crisis of 1837, indeed, was severely felt, but did not greatly retard the city's advancement, which continued unchecked until the Civil War. In 1849 Baton Rouge replaced New Orleans as the capital of the state. In 1850 telegraphic communication was established with St. Louis and New York City; in 1851 the New Orleans & Jackson Railway, the first railway outlet northward, now part of the Illinois Central, and in 1854 the western outlet, now the Southern Pacific, were begun. Natural gas, commonly referred to as gas, is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane. ... The New Basin Canal, also known as the New Orleans Canal and the New Canal, was a shipping canal in New Orleans, Louisiana from the 1830s through the 1940s. ... Uptown is a large area of New Orleans, Louisiana. ... It has been suggested that Chattel slavery be merged into this article or section. ... Quadroon describes a person with one quarter African or black ancestry. ... 1840 Whig campaign poster blames Van Buren for hard times The Panic of 1837 was an economic depression, one of the most severe financial crises in the history of the United States. ... Combatants Union (remaining U.S. states) Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln† Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 2,213,363 1,064,200 Casualties KIA: 110,100 Total dead: 359,500 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000 Wounded: 137,000+  The... Capitol Building Baton Rouge is the capital of Louisiana, a state of the United States of America. ... Nickname: Gateway City, Gateway to the West, or Mound City Official website: http://stlouis. ... Nickname: The Big Apple Official website: City of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area Total 468. ... Categories: Rail stubs | Defunct railroad companies of the United States | Defunct companies | Illinois railroads | Iowa railroads | Louisiana railroads | Missouri railroads | South Dakota railroads | Wisconsin railroads ... The Southern Pacific Railroad (AAR reporting mark SP) was an American railroad. ...


In 1836 the city was divided into three municipalities: The First being the French Quarter and Faubourg Tremé. the Second being Uptown (then meaning all settled areas upriver from Canal Street) and the Third being Downtown (the rest of the city from Esplanade Avenue on down river). For 2 decades the three Municipalities were essentially governed as separate cities, with the office of Mayor of New Orleans having only a minor role in facilitating discussions between Municipal governments. French Quarter: upper Chartres street looking down towards Jackson Square and the spires of St. ... Treme (historically sometimes called Tremé or Faubourg Tremé) is a neighborhood in the downtown portion the city of New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Canal Street is a major thoroughfare in the city of New Orleans, Louisiana. ... The post of Mayor of the city of New Orleans, Louisiana has been held by the following individuals: Etienne de Boré 1803-04 James Pitot 1804-05 John Watkins 1805-07 James Mather 1807-12 Charles Trudeau 1812 Nicholas Girod 1812 LeBreton Dorgenois 1812 Nicholas Girod 1812-15 Augustin Macarty...


The importance of New Orleans as a commercial center was reinforced when the United States Federal Government established a branch of the United States Mint there in 1838, along with two other Southern branch mints at Charlotte, North Carolina and Dahlonega, Georgia. Such action was deemed necessary largely because in 1836 President Andrew Jackson had issued an executive order called a specie circular which demanded that all land transactions in the United States be conducted in cash, thus increasing the need for minted money. In contrast to the other two Southern branch mints, which only minted gold coinage, the New Orleans Mint produced both gold and silver coinage, which perhaps marked it as the most important branch mint in the country. The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... Mrs. ... The name Southern has applied to a number of things over the years. ... Nickname: The Queen City, The Hornets Nest Official website: http://www. ... Dahlonega is a town located in Lumpkin County, Georgia, USA, and is its county seatGR6. ... Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845), was the first governor of Florida (1821), seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), hero of the Battle of New Orleans (1815), a founder of the Democratic Party, and the eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy. ... An executive order is an edict issued by a member of the executive branch of a government, usually the head of that branch. ... The Specie Circular (Coinage Act) was an executive order issued by U.S. President Andrew Jackson in 1836 and carried out by President Martin Van Buren. ... Cash usually refers to money in the form of currency, such as bills or coins. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... A postcard dated 12 July 1907 showing the New Orleans Mint during its last few years of operation as a branch mint facility. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ...


The mint produced coins from 1838 until 1861, when Confederate forces occupied the building and used it briefly as their own coinage facility until it was recaptured by Union forces the following year. For other meanings of confederate and confederacy, see confederacy (disambiguation) National Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God our Vindicator) Official language English de facto nationwide Various European and Native American languages regionally Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861–April 9, 1865 Largest... Map of the division of the states during the Civil War. ...


On 3 May 1849, a Mississippi River levee breech at Sauve's Crevasse (upriver from the city, around modern Kenner, Louisiana) created the worst flooding in terms of area covered under water in the city's history. While Hurricanes, severe storms, and breaks in levees around Lake Pontchartrain and drainage canals have flooded parts of city a number of times since, the city has not suffered from floods due to the River since (though it had a narrow escape in 1927). May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A levee, levée (from the feminine past participle of the French verb lever, to raise), floodbank or stopbank is a natural or artificial embankment or dike, usually earthen, which parallels the course of a river. ... Kenner is a city located in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana, on the East Bank of the Mississippi River. ...


New Orleans was the capital of the state of Louisiana until 1849.


As a principal port it had a leading role in the slave trade, while at the same time having North America's largest community of free persons of color. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


The Civil War

Panoramic View of New Orleans-Federal Fleet at Anchor in the River, ca. 1862.
Panoramic View of New Orleans-Federal Fleet at Anchor in the River, ca. 1862.

Early in the American Civil War New Orleans was captured by the Union without a battle in the city itself, and hence was spared the destruction suffered by many other cities of the American South. It retains a historical flavor with a wealth of 19th century structures far beyond the early colonial city boundaries of the French Quarter. Download high resolution version (1092x1404, 362 KB)Panoramic View of New Orleans-Federal Fleet at Anchor in the River, ca. ... Download high resolution version (1092x1404, 362 KB)Panoramic View of New Orleans-Federal Fleet at Anchor in the River, ca. ... Combatants Union (remaining U.S. states) Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln† Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 2,213,363 1,064,200 Casualties KIA: 110,100 Total dead: 359,500 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000 Wounded: 137,000+  The... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... French Quarter: upper Chartres street looking down towards Jackson Square and the spires of St. ...


The political and commercial importance of New Orleans, as well as its strategic position, marked it out as the objective of a Union expedition soon after the opening of the Civil War. Captain D.G. Farragut was selected by the Union government for the command of the Western Gulf squadron in January 1862. The four heavy ships of the squadron (none of them armoured) were with many difficulties brought up to the head of the passes, and around them assembled nineteen smaller vessels (mostly gunboats) and a flotilla of twenty mortar-boats under Commander David Dixon Porter. The main defences of the Mississippi consisted of the two permanent forts, Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip. These were of masonry and brick construction, armed with heavy rifled guns as well as smooth-bores, and placed on either bank so as to command long reaches of the river and the surrounding flats. In addition, the Confederates had some improvised ironclads and gunboats, large and small. On the 16th of April, after elaborate reconnaissances, the Union fleet steamed up into position below the forts, and on the 18th the mortar-boats opened fire. Their shells fell with great accuracy, and although one of the boats was sunk and two disabled, Fort Jackson was seriously damaged. But the defences were by no means crippled even after a second bombardment on the 19th, and a formidable obstacle to the advance of the Union main fleet was a boom between the forts designed to detain the ships under close fire should they attempt to run past. At that time the eternal duel of ship versus fort seemed to have been settled in favor of the latter, and it was well for the Union government that it had placed its ablest and most resolute officer at the head of the squadron. Gunboats were repeatedly sent up at night to endeavour to destroy the boom, and the bombardment went on, disabling only a few guns but keeping the gunners of Fort Jackson under cover. At last the gunboats Pinola and Itasca ran in and broke a gap in the boom, and at 2 AM on the 24th the fleet weighed, Farragut in the corvette Hartford leading. After a severe conflict at close quarters, with the forts and with the ironclads and fire rafts of the defence, almost all the Union fleet (except the mortar-boats) forced its way past. At noon on the 25th, Farragut anchored in front of New Orleans; Forts Jackson and St. Philip, isolated and continuously bombarded by the mortarboats, surrendered on the 28th; and soon afterwards the military portion of the expedition occupied the city. Map of the division of the states during the Civil War. ... Admiral David Glasgow Farragut David Glasgow Farragut (July 5, 1801 – August 14, 1870) was the commander-in-chief of the U.S. Navy during the American Civil War. ... A gunboat is literally a boat carrying one or more guns. ... See Also: Fleet Floatilla ... Portrait of David Dixon Porter during the Civil War Admiral David Dixon Porter (June 8, 1813 – February 13, 1891) was a United States naval officer who became one of the most noted naval heroes of the Civil War. ... Fort Jackson, Drawn in 1817 Fort Jackson is a masonry fort located near the mouth of the Mississippi River in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana. ... Fort St. ... Ironclad warships, frequently shortened to just ironclads, were ships sheathed with thick iron plates for protection. ... French steam corvette Dupleix (1856-1887) Canadian corvettes on antisubmarine convoy escort duty during World War II. A corvette is a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship, smaller than a frigate. ...


The commander, General Benjamin Butler, subjected New Orleans to a rigorous martial law so tactlessly administered as greatly to intensify the hostility of South and North. In the city Butler was nicknamed "The Beast", or "Spoons Butler" (the latter arising from silverware looted from local homes by some Union troops, though there was no evidence that Butler himself was personally involved in such thievery). Butler's administration did have benefits to the city, which was kept both orderly and due to his massive cleanup efforts unusually healthy by 19th century standards. Towards the end of the war General Natanial Banks held the command at New Orleans. Benjamin Franklin Butler Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was an American lawyer, soldier and politician. ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ... A nickname is a short, clever, cute, derogatory, or otherwise substitute name for a person or things real name (for example, Tom is short for Thomas). ... Starch-polyester disposable cutlery Cutlery refers to any hand utensil used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food. ... Nathaniel Prentice Banks [sometimes spelled incorrectly Prentiss] (January 30, 1816–September 1, 1894), American politician and soldier, was born at Waltham, Massachusetts. ...


Late 19th Century: Reconstruction and Conflicts

Enlarge
Victor Pierson, Paul Poincy. Volunteer Firemen’s Parade, March 4th 1872, representing the gathering of the New Orleans fire brigades around the statue of Henry Clay.

The city again served as capital of Louisiana from 1865 to 1880. Image File history File links Victor_Pierson,_Paul_Poincy. ... Image File history File links Victor_Pierson,_Paul_Poincy. ... Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ... Henry Clay Henry Clay (April 12, 1777 in Hanover County, Virginia, USA – June 29, 1852 in Washington, D.C.) was a leading American statesman and orator who served in both the House of Representatives and Senate. ...


Throughout the years of the Civil War and the Reconstruction period the history of the city is inseparable from that of the state. All the constitutional conventions were held here, the seat of government again was here (in 1864-1882) and New Orleans was the center of dispute and organization in the struggle between political and ethnic blocks for the control of government. A constitutional convention is a gathering of delegates for the purpose of writing a new constitution or revising an existing constitution. ...


There was a major street riot of the 30 July 1866, at the time of the meeting of the radical constitutional convention. July 30 is the 211th day (212th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 154 days remaining. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


New Orleans annexed the city of Algiers, Louisiana, across the Mississippi River, in 1870. The city also continued to expanded upriver, annexing the town of Carrollton, Louisiana in 1874. Algiers is a community in Louisiana, part of the city of New Orleans. ... Carrollton is a neighborhood of uptown New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. It is the part of uptown New Orleans furthest up river from the French Quarter. ...


On 14 September 1874 armed forces led by the White League defeated the integrated Republican metropolitan police and their allies in pitched battle in the French Quarter and along Canal Street. The White League forced the temporary flight of the William P. Kellogg government, installing John McEnery as Governor of Louisiana. Kellogg and the Republican administration were reinstated in power 3 days later by United States troops. Early 20th century segregationists would celebrate the short-lived triumph of the White League as a victory for "white supremacy" and dubbed the conflict "The Battle of Liberty Place". For decades a monument commemorating the event stood near the foot of Canal Street. September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... During the 19th century, the White League was a racist Louisiana white terror organization in the mold of the Ku Klux Klan. ... William Pitt Kellogg (December 8, 1830 August 10, 1918) was an American politician. ... Error creating thumbnail: convert: unable to open image `/mnt/upload3/wikipedia/en/e/e7/Rex_theatre. ... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds that the white race is superior to other races. ...


U.S. troops also blocked the White League Democrats in January 1875, after they had wrested from the Republicans the organization of the state legislature. Nevertheless, the revolution of 1874 is generally regarded as the independence day of Reconstruction, although not until President Hayes withdrew the troops in 1877 and the Packard government fell did the Democrats actually hold control of the state and city. The financial condition of the city when the whites gained control was very bad. The tax-rate had risen in 1873 to 3%. The city defaulted in 1874. On the interest of its bonded debt, later refunding this ($22,000,000 in 1875) at a lower rate, so as to decrease the annual charge from $1,416,000 to $307,500. Reconstruction-era military districts in the South For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, and military leader from the U.S. state of Ohio. ...


The New Orleans Mint was reopened in 1879, minting mainly silver coinage, including the famed Morgan silver dollar from 1879 to 1904. Dollar coins have been minted in the United States in both gold and silver versions. ...

1888 German map of New Orleans, with surrounding communities of Algiers, Carrollton, Gretna.

The city suffered flooding in 1882. 1888 German Map of New Orleans - From German Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: New Orleans, Louisiana History of New Orleans Categories: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon ... 1888 German Map of New Orleans - From German Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: New Orleans, Louisiana History of New Orleans Categories: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon ... The city of Gretna is the parish seat of Jefferson Parish, in the US state of Louisiana. ...


The city hosted the 1884 World's Fair, called the World Cotton Centennial. A Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ... The 1884 Worlds Fair was held in New Orleans, Louisiana. ...


An electric lighting system was introduced to the city in 1886; limited use of electric lights in a few areas of town had preceded this by a few years.


On 15 October 1890, Chief-of-Police David C. Hennessy was shot, and reportedly his dying words informed a colleague that he was shot by "Dagos", an insulting term for Italians. On 13 March 1891 a group of Italian Americans on trial for the shooting were acquitted. However a mob stormed the jail and lynched the accused and a number of other Italian-Americans. Local historians still debate whether some of those lynched were connected to the Mafia, but most agree that a number of innocent people were lynched during the Chief Hennessy Riot. The government of Italy protested, as some of those lynched were still Italian citizens, and the government of the United States eventually paid reparations to Italy. October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... David C. Hennessey (??-1890) was the police chief of New Orleans in the late 19th century. ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... An Italian-American is an American of Italian descent either born in America or someone who has immigrated. ... Lynching is violence, usually murder, conceived by its perpetrators as extra-legal execution, or used as a terrorist method of enforcing social domination. ... The Mafia, also referred to in Italian as Cosa Nostra (which translates as Thing of Ours), is an organized criminal secret society which evolved in mid-19th century Sicily. ...


In the 1890s much of the city's public transportation system, hitherto relying on mule-drawn streetcars on most routes supplemented by a few steam locomotives on longer routes, was electrified. For other uses of the word mule, see mule (disambiguation). ...


With a large educated "colored" population that had long interacted with the "white" population, racial attitudes were comparatively liberal for the deep south. Many in the city objected to the government of the State of Louisiana's attempt to enforce strict racial segregation, and hoped to overturn the law with a test case in 1892. The case found its way to the United States Supreme Court in 1896 as Plessy v. Ferguson which resulted in upholding segregation, which would be enforced with ever growing strictness for more than half a century. Error creating thumbnail: convert: unable to open image `/mnt/upload3/wikipedia/en/e/e7/Rex_theatre. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Holding The separate but equal provision of public accommodations by state governments is constitutional under the Equal Protection Clause. ...


In 1896 Mayor John Fitzpatrick proposed combining existing library resources to create the city's first free public library, the Fisk Free and Public Library. This entity later became known as the New Orleans Public Library. John Fitzpatrick (Fairfield, Vermont, May 1, 1844 - April 8, 1919) was an Irish-American mayor of New Orleans from April 25, 1892 to April 27, 1896. ... Librarians and patrons in a typical larger urban public library A public library is a library which is accessible by the public and is often operated by civil servants and funded from public sources. ... The New Orleans Public Library (NOPL) is the public library service of the city of New Orleans, Louisiana. ...


In 1897 the quasi-legal red light district called Storyville opened and soon became a famous attraction of the city. A red-light district is a neighborhood where prostitution is a common part of everyday life. ... Storyville was the legalized prostitution district of New Orleans, Louisiana from 1897 through 1917. ...


The Robert Charles Riots occurred in July of 1900. Well armed African-American Robert Charles held off a group of policemen who came to arrest him for days, killing several of them. A White mob started a race riot, terrorizing and killing a number of African Americans unconnected with Charles. The riots were stopped when a group of White businessmen quickly printed and nailed up flyers saying that if the rioting continued they would start passing out firearms to the Colored population for their self-defence. A race riot or racial riot is an outbreak of violent civil unrest in which race is a key factor. ...


20th century

Much of the city is located below sea level between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, so the city is surrounded by levees. Until the early 20th century, construction was largely limited to the slightly higher ground along old natural river levees and bayous, since much of the rest of the land was swampy and subject to frequent flooding. This gave the 19th century city the shape of a crescent along a bend of the Mississippi, the origin of the nickname The Crescent City. In the 1910s engineer and inventor A. Baldwin Wood enacted his ambitious plan to drain the city, including large pumps of his own design which are still used when heavy rains hit the city. Wood's pumps and drainage allowed the city to expand greatly in area. For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... A levee, levée (from the feminine past participle of the French verb lever, to raise), floodbank or stopbank is a natural or artificial embankment or dike, usually earthen, which parallels the course of a river. ... A nickname is a short, clever, cute, derogatory, or otherwise substitute name for a person or things real name (for example, Tom is short for Thomas). ... Albert Baldwin Wood (December 1, 1879 - May 10, 1956) was an inventor and engineer from New Orleans, Louisiana. ...

New Orleans panorama from 1919
New Orleans panorama from 1919

In 1905 Yellow Fever was reported in the city, which had suffered under repeated epidemics of the disease in the previous century. As the role of mosquitos in spreading the disease was newly understood, the city embarked on a massive campaign to drain, screen, or oil all cisterns and standing water (breeding ground for mosquitos) in the city and educate the public on their vital role in preventing mosquitos. The effort was a success and the disease was stopped before reaching epidemic proportions. President Theodore Roosevelt visited the city to demonstrate the safety of New Orleans. The city has had no cases of Yellow Fever since. Download high resolution version (2802x420, 498 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2802x420, 498 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Genera See text. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ...


In 1909 the New Orleans Mint ceased coinage, with active coining equipment shipped to Philadelphia.


New Orleans was hit by major storms in the 1909 Atlantic hurricane season and again in the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season. The 1909 Atlantic hurricane season was an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. ... The 1915 Atlantic hurricane season was an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. ...


In 1917 the Department of the Navy ordered the Storyville District closed, over the opposition of Mayor Martin Behrman. The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations around the globe. ... Martin Behrman (14 October 1864–12 January 1926), an American Democratic politician, was the longest-serving mayor in New Orleans history. ...

Canal Street, looking away from the river, 1920s
Canal Street, looking away from the river, 1920s

In 1923 the Industrial Canal opened, providing a direct shipping link between Lake Pontchartrain and the Mississippi River. Canal Street, New Orleans, 1920s, from period postcard, no copyright note. ... The Industrial Canal is the common term for the Inner Harbor Navigational Canal (IHNC), a 5. ...


In the 1920s an effort to "modernize" the look of the city removed the old cast-iron balconies from Canal Street, the city's commercial hub. In the 1960s, another "modernization" effort replaced the Canal Streetcar Line with buses. Both of these moves came to be regarded as mistakes long after the fact, and the streetcars returned to a portion of Canal Street at the end of the 1990s, and construction to restore the entire line was completed in April of 2004.


The City's river levees narrowly escaped being topped in the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927. The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 was the most destructive river flood in United States history until the Hurricane Katrina flood of 2005. ...


In 1927 a project was begun to fill in the shoreline of Lake Pontchartrain and create levees along the lake side of the city. Previously areas along the lakefront like Milneburg were build up on stilts, often over water of the constantly shifting shallow shores of the Lake.


There have often been tensions between the city, with its desire to run its own affairs, and the government of the State of Louisiana wishing to control the city. Perhaps the situation was never worse than in the early 1930s between Louisiana Governor Huey P. Long and New Orleans Mayor T. Semmes Walmsley, when armed city police and state troopers faced off at the Orleans Parish line and armed conflict was only narrowly avoided. Huey Pierce Long (August 30, 1893–September 10, 1935), known as The Kingfish, was an American politician; he was governor of Louisiana (1928–1932), Senator (1932–1935) and a presidential hopeful before his assassination. ...


During World War II, New Orleans was the site of the development and construction of Higgins boats under the direction of Andrew Higgins. General Dwight D. Eisenhower proclaimed these landing craft vital to the Allied victory in the war. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... The Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel (LCVP) or Higgins boat was a landing craft used extensively in World War II. The craft was designed by Andrew Higgins of Louisiana, based on boats made for operating in swamps and marshes. ... Andrew Jackson Higgins (28 August 1886 – 1 August 1952) was the founder and owner of Higgins Industries, the New Orleans-based manufacturer of Higgins boats (LCVPs) during World War II. General Dwight Eisenhower is quoted as saying, Andrew Higgins . ... Dwight David Eisenhower, (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969, popularly known as Ike) was an American soldier and politician. ...


The suburbs saw great growth in the second half of the 20th century; the largest suburb today is Metairie, which borders New Orleans to the west. Metairie (local pronunciations , ) is an unincorporated, census-designated place (CDP) located in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana. ...


The 1947 Fort Lauderdale Hurricane hit the city in September of 1947. The levees & pumping system succeeded in protecting the city proper from major flooding, but there was many areas of the new suburbs in Jefferson Parish were deluged, and Moisant Airport was shut down under 2 feet of water. The Fort Lauderdale Hurricane (or Pompano Beach Hurricane or Forgotten Hurricane) was an intense category 5 hurricane that affected Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi in September of 1947. ... Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport (IATA: MSY, ICAO: KMSY), formerly Moisant Field, is located in Kenner, Louisiana and is the primary commercial airport for the greater New Orleans area of southeast Louisiana. ...

View of flooding after Hurricane Betsy as viewed from President Lyndon Johnson's Air Force One airplane, 10 September, 1965
View of flooding after Hurricane Betsy as viewed from President Lyndon Johnson's Air Force One airplane, 10 September, 1965

In January of 1961 a meeting of the city's white business leaders publically endorsed desegregation of the city's public schools. That same year Victor H. Schiro became the city's first mayor of Italian-American ancestry. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x1302, 1550 KB) View of flooding in New Orleans after Hurricane Betsy (showing Lower 9th Ward area, Mississippi River at top left), as seen from the air aboard Air Force One. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x1302, 1550 KB) View of flooding in New Orleans after Hurricane Betsy (showing Lower 9th Ward area, Mississippi River at top left), as seen from the air aboard Air Force One. ... Air Force One is the air traffic control call sign of any U.S. Air Force aircraft carrying the President of the United States (it is a common misconception that Air Force One refers to a single airplane). ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... -Victor Hugo Vic Schiro (1904 - 1992) was a New Orleans, Louisiana politician who served on the New Orleans City Council and was Mayor of New Orleans 1961 - 1969. ...


In 1965 the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal was completed, connecting the Industial Canal with the Gulf of Mexico. The Canal was expected to be an economic boon and eventually replace the Mississippi Riverfront as the Metro Area's main commercial harbor, but "MRGO" failed to live up to commercial expectations and from its early days was blamed for environmental degradation and increasing the area's risk of hurricane storm surge. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In September of 1965 the city was hit by Hurricane Betsy. Windows blew out of television station WWL while it was broadcasting. In an effort to prevent panic, mayor Vic Schiro memorably told TV and radio audiences "Don't believe any false rumors, unless you hear them from me." A breach in the Industrial Canal produced catastrophic flooding of the city's Lower 9th Ward. President Lyndon Johnson quickly flew to the city to promise federal aid. Hurricane Betsy was a powerful hurricane of the 1965 Atlantic hurricane season which caused enormous damage in the Bahamas, Florida, and Louisiana. ... WWL is an TLA (three-letter acronym) with several meanings: the Worldwide Lexicon open source project WWL-TV, New Orleans affiliate for CBS WWL-AM This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Industrial Canal is the common term for the Inner Harbor Navigational Canal (IHNC), a 5. ... The Ninth Ward or 9th Ward is a distinctive region of New Orleans, Louisiana that is located in the easternmost downriver portion of the city. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ...


In 1978 City Councilman Ernest N. Morial became the first person of African-American ancestry elected mayor. Ernest Nathan Morial (known as Dutch) (1929 - 1989) was a U.S. political figure. ...


While long one of the U.S.'s most visited cities, tourism boomed in the last quarter of the 20th century, becoming a major force in the local economy. Areas of the French Quarter and Central Business District which were long oriented towards local residential and business uses switched to largely catering to the tourist industry. More than 3 million tourists visited the Taj Mahal (India) in 2004. ...


A century after the Cotton Centennial Exhibition, New Orleans hosted another World's Fair, the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition. The 1984 Louisiana World Exposition was a Worlds Fair held in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1984. ...

A view across Uptown New Orleans, with the Central Business District in the background, mid 1990s
A view across Uptown New Orleans, with the Central Business District in the background, mid 1990s

The city experienced severe flooding in the May 8th 1995 Louisiana Flood when heavy rains suddenly dumped over a foot of water on parts of town faster than the pumps could remove the water. Water filled up the streets, especially in lower lying parts of the city. Insurance companies declared more automobiles totaled than in any other United States incident up to that time. New Orleans, a view from Uptown with the Central Business District skyline in the background. ... The May 8th 1995 New Orleans Flood struck the Greater New Orleans metropolitan area, shutting down the city for two days. ...


On the afternoon of Saturday, December 14, 1996, the Bright Field freightliner/bulk cargo vessel slammed into the New Orleans Riverwalk mall and hotel complex on Poydras Street Wharf along the Mississippi River. Amazingly, nobody died in the accident, although about 116 were injured. 15 shops and 456 hotel rooms were demolished. The freightliner was unable to be removed from the crash site until January 6, 1997, by which time the site had become something of a "must-see" tourist attraction. December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Cargo is a term used to denote goods or produce being transported generally for commercial gain, usually on a ship, plane, train or truck. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII in Roman) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


21st century

In May of 2002, businessman Ray Nagin was elected mayor. Unaligned with any of the city's traditional political blocks, many voters were attracted to his pledges to fight corruption and run the city on a more business like basis. Ray Nagin Clarence Ray Nagin, Jr. ...


In September of 2004, an estimated 600,000 people evacuated from Greater New Orleans and the surrounding area when projected tracks of Hurricane Ivan included a possible major hit of the city. Hurricane Ivan was the ninth named storm, the sixth hurricane, the fourth major hurricane, and the strongest hurricane of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. ...


Hurricane Katrina

An aerial view of flooded areas of Central City and Central Business District, with the New Orleans Arena and Louisiana Superdome at center.
Enlarge
An aerial view of flooded areas of Central City and Central Business District, with the New Orleans Arena and Louisiana Superdome at center.
Main article: Effect of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans

The city suffered from the effects of a major hurricane on and after August 29, 2005, as Hurricane Katrina made landfall in the gulf coast near the city. In the aftermath of the storm, what has been called "the largest civil engineering disaster in the history of the United States" [1] flooded the majority of the ciy when the levee and floodwall system protecting New Orleans failed. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2878x1850, 4497 KB) Summary From [1], an aerial view from a United States Navy helicopter showing floodwaters around the much of the New Orleans Central Business District in New Orleans. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2878x1850, 4497 KB) Summary From [1], an aerial view from a United States Navy helicopter showing floodwaters around the much of the New Orleans Central Business District in New Orleans. ... This article needs to be updated. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hurricane Katrina was the costliest and one of the deadliest hurricanes in the history of the United States. ...


On August 26th, tracks which had previously indicated the hurricane was heading towards the Florida Gulf Coast shifted, the city became aware that a possible major hurricane hit threatened. In the Gulf of Mexico, the hurricane grew to a devastating Category 5, as it turned north towards New Orleans. Voluntary evacuation was advised on Saturday the 27th. The following morning, when the hurricane was upgraded to a Category 5 storm, the city government issued a mandatory evacuation of the entire city, the first such order ever issued in New Orleans. Some 80% of the population succeeded in leaving before the storm. Interstate highways were made outbound on both sides in an emergency "contraflow" plan first used (much less smoothly) the previous year for Hurricane Ivan. An estimated 1 million people evacuated from Greater New Orleans and nearby areas before the storm. The evacuation no doubt saved tens of thousands, perhaps hundreds of thousands, of lives. However, some 20% of New Orleans residents were still in the city when the storm hit. This included people who refused to leave home, those who felt their homes were adiquate shelter from the storm, and people without cars or without finanacial means to leave. Many residents were simply left stranded in the city. Some took refuge in the Superdome, which was designated as a storm shelter for those who could not leave. Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a scale classifying most Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the levels of tropical depression and tropical storm and thereby become hurricanes. ... Emergency evacuation is the movement of persons from a dangerous place due to the threat or occurrence of a disastrous event. ...


The eye of the storm missed the city by only 10 to 15 miles, and strong winds ravaged the city, shattering windows, spreading debris in many areas, and bringing heavy rains and flooding to the eastern areas of the city.


The situation worsened when levees of four of the city's canals were breeched. Storm surge was funneled in via the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet which breached in multiple places. This surge also filled the Industrial Canal which breeched either from the surge or the effects of being hit by a loose barge (the ING 4727). The London Avenue Canal and the 17th Street Canal were breached by the elevated waters of Lake Pontchartrain. Some areas that initally seemed to suffer little from the storm found themselves flooded by rapidly rising water on 30 August. As much as 80% of the city, much of which is below sea level, was flooded, with water reaching a depth of 25 feet (7.6 meters) in some areas. Water levels were similar to those of the 1909 Hurricane, but as many areas which were swamp or farmland in 1909 had become heavily settled since, the effects were massivly worse. The most recent estimates of the damage from the storm, by several insurance companies, are 10 to 25 billion USD [2], while the total economic loss from the disaster has been estimated at 100 billion USD. If the storm damage totals reach the estimated maximum, it will surpass Hurricane Andrew as the costliest hurricane in United States history. [3] This article is about the type of dam. ... The Canal du Midi in Toulouse, France. ... ... The Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal (also known as MRGO, MR-GO or Mr. ... The Industrial Canal is the common term for the Inner Harbor Navigational Canal (IHNC), a 5. ... ING 4727 is a barge belonging to Ingram Barge Company that became famous when it went through through a levee and landed in a residential neighborhood of New Orleans, Louisiana during Hurricane Katrina. ... The London Avenue Canal in New Orleans, Louisiana does not connect Lake Pontchartrain to the Mississippi River. ... Woman walks dog along the levee beside the floodwall on the Metarie side of the Canal, 11 November, 2005. ... Landsat image of Lake Pontchartrain Map showing Lake Pontchartrain Lake Pontchartrains north shore at Fontainebleau State Park near Mandeville, Louisiana in 2004 Lake Pontchartrain at New Orleans during Hurricane Georges in 1998 Lake Pontchartrain (local English pronunciation ) (French: Lac Pontchartrain, pronounced ) is a brackish lake in southeastern Louisiana, the... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... The word billion and its equivalents in other languages refer to one of two different numbers, depending on whether the writer is using the long or short scale. ... This article is about general United States currency. ... Hurricane Andrew was one of the most destructive hurricanes ever to hit the United States. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ...


More than 1,000 have died in Louisiana alone, though a final count has not yet been possible (the discovery of more bodies of flood victims continues to be common news as of late March, 2006) . Three weeks later, some areas of the city were re-flooded by Hurricane Rita. The city government at first declared the city off-limits to residents and warned that those remaining may be removed by force, supposedly for their health and safety. However, the city was slowly repopulated starting in late September. Hurricane Rita is the fourth-most-intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded and the most intense tropical cyclone observed in the Gulf of Mexico. ...


It only became clear with investigations in the months after Katrina that the disaster which flooded the majority of the city was not directly due to the storm being more powerful than the city's defenses were supposed to protect against, but rather to what investigators termed "the costliest engineering mistake in American history". The United States Army Corps of Engineers misdesigned the levee and floodwall system and supervised their construction to even lower standards than their faulty designs. The Orleans Levee Board, made only minimal prefunctary efforts in their assigned task of inspecting the city's vital defenses. Legal investigations of criminal negligence are pending. United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


While many residents and businesses returned to the task of rebuilding the city, especially in less severely damaged sections, the effects of the Hurricane on the economy and demographics of the city are expected to be dramatic and long term, although as of March, 2006, many details are yet to be clear. More than half of New Orleanians have yet to return to the city, and it is unknown how many will. The City government is essentially bankrupt from the disaster, relying on Federal and State aid.


References

  • Grace King: New Orleans, the Place and the People (1895)
  • Henry Rightor: Standard History of New Orleans (1900)
  • John Smith Kendall: History of New Orleans (1922)

Grace King, 1887 Grace Elizabeth King (1852-1932) was an American author of Louisiana stories, history, and biography, and a leader in historical and literary activities. ...

External links

  • History of New Orleans
  • The Historic New Orleans Collection Quarterly, available online as a pdf file
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

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