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Encyclopedia > History of Naples

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|}</nowiki>:This article is about the history of the Italian city of Naples. For other details see the main article. Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ...

Contents

Naples in the Ancient Era and in Late Antiquity

Bay of Naples
Bay of Naples

Everything in Naples—the buildings, museums and even the language spoken by the natives—bear traces of all the periods in its history, from its Greek birth until the present day. Image File history File links View of Naples, Italy. ...


The first settlers in the future Naples were Greek sailors from Rhodos who founded the merchant colony called Parthenope on tiny Megaride island and the neighbouring Pizzofalcone hill. Parthenope was named after the siren in Greek mythology said to have washed ashore at Megaride after throwing herself into the sea when she failed to bewitch Ulysses with her song. The island is the site of the more modern Castel dell'Ovo, "Egg Castle"). In Greek mythology, Rhodos was a son of Hermes and Aphrodite. ... Parthenope may refer to: The asteroid 11 Parthenope. ... Castel dellOvo. ...


Around the 5th century BC, the area was occupied by inhabitants of the Greek colony of Cuma, who displaced the original inhabitants to the east where they founded Neapolis (meaning "New City" in the Greek language). The original Parthenope came to be called, simply, "old city"—Palaepolis. The two separate cities grew into a single unit in the third century, BC. Neapolis had a powerful line of walls, in front of which the Carthaginian invader Hannibal had to retreat when the city was allied with the Romans. Other features were an odeon and a theatre, plus the temple of Castor and Pollux, the Dioscures, the city's gods. Although conquered by the Romans in the 4th century BC, Naples long retained its Greek culture. (It is significant that modern Neapolitans may still refer to themselves as "Parthenopeans".) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kymi. ... Greek ( IPA: (with a palatalized k as a rule) or simply IPA: — Hellenic) is an Indo-European language with a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in that language family. ... This article is about the ancient city-state of Carthage in North Africa. ... Hannibal, the son of Hamilcar Barca, (247 BC – ca. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Odeon was a building used for musical performance in Athens built in the 5th century BC. Hence, any building in ancient Greece or the ancient Roman Empire was called an odeon. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... In Greek mythology the Dioskouroi (Διόσκουροι), Kastor and Polydeuces (Κάστωρ και Πολυδεύκης), in Roman mythology the Gemini (Latin, twins) or Castores, Castor and Pollux are the twin sons of Leda and the brothers of Helen of Troy and Clytemnestra. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ...


In the Roman era the city was a flourishing centre of Hellenistic culture that attracted Romans wanting to perfect their knowledge of Greek culture. The pleasant climate made it a renowned pleasure resort, as recounted by Virgil and manifested by the number of luxurious villas that dotted the coast from the Gulf of Pozzuoli to the Sorrentine peninsula. The famous district of Posillipo takes is name from the ruins of Villa Pausilypon, meaning, in Greek, is "a pause or respite from worry". Romans connected the city to the rest of Italy with their famous roads, excavated galleries to link Naples to Pozzuoli, enlarged the port, and added public baths and aqueducts for the wellbeing of the people. This improved greatly the quality of life in Naples. The city was also celebrated for its many feasts and spectacles. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Greece is often referred to as the cradle of Western civilisation and ancient Athens was considered to be its center. ... Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or Vergil, was a classical Roman poet, the author of the Eclogues, the Georgics and the substantially completed Aeneid, the last being an epic poem of twelve books that became... Pozzuoli is a city of the province of Napoli, in the Italian region of Campania. ... Sorrento is a small city in Campania, Italy, with some 16,500 inhabitants. ... Mount Vesuvius as seen from Posillipo Posillipo is a residential quarter of Naples, called Pusilleco in the Neapolitan language. ... Pont du Gard, France, a Roman aqueduct built circa 19 BC. It is one of Frances top tourist attractions and a World Heritage Site. ...


According to legend St. Peter and St. Paul themselves were in the city to preach. Christians had a prominent role in the late years of the Roman Empire. The subterranean areas of Naples include notable catacombs, especially in the northern part of the city. The first paleo-Christian basilicas were built next to the entrances of the catacombs The greatly popular patron of the city, San Gennaro (St. Januarius), was decapitated here in 305 AD, and since the 5th century he is commemorated by the basilica of San Gennaro extra Moenia. The Cathedral of Naples, as well, is dedicated to the patron saint. According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Januarius is the name of a month in the ancient Roman calendar, called January in English. ... Events May 1 - Diocletian and Maximian, emperors of Rome, retire from office. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... San Gennaro extra Moenia (San Gennaro Beyond the Walls) is a church in Naples, Italy. ... The 17th century apse. ...


It was in Naples, in Lucullus' villa in what is now Castel dell'Ovo, that Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, was imprisoned after being deposed in 476. Naples suffered much during the Gothic Wars between Ostrogoths and Byzantines in the sixth century: in 542 it fell to the troops of Totila but not much later became Greek once again. When the Lombards invaded and conquered much of Italy in the following years, Naples remained loyal to the Byzantines. Lucius Licinius Lucullus (c. ... Castel dellOvo. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... This is a list of Roman Emperors with the dates they controlled the Roman Empire. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ostrogoths Franks Visigoths Commanders Belisarius Narses Mundalias Germanus Justinus Liberius Theodoric the Great Witigis Totila The Gothic War, was a war fought in Italy in 535-552. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Events The plague killed upwards of 100,000 in Constantinople and perhaps two million or more in the rest of the Byzantine Empire (possibly exaggerated). ... Totila, born in Treviso, was king of the Ostrogoths, chosen after the death of his uncle Ildibad, having engineered the assassination of Ildibads short-lived successor his cousin Eraric in 541. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


The Duchy of Naples

Main article: Duchy of Naples
See also: List of the dukes of Naples

At the time of the Lombard invasion Naples had a population of about 30,000-35,000. In 615, under Giovanni Consino, Naples rebelled for the first time against the Exarch of Ravenna, the emperor's plenipotentiary in Italy. In reply, the first form of duchy was created in 638 by the Exarch Eleutherius, but this official came from abroad and had to answer to the strategos of Sicily. At that time the Duchy of Naples controlled an area corresponding roughly to the present day Province of Naples, encompassing the area of Vesuvius, the Campi Flegrei, the Sorrentine peninsula, Giugliano, Aversa, Afragola, Nola and the islands of Ischia and Procida. Capri was later part of the duchy of Amalfi The Duchy of Naples (Latin: Ducatus Neapolitanus), born as a Byzantine province governed by a military commander (dux), rapidly became a de facto independent state, lasting more than five centuries during the Early and High Middle Ages. ... The dukes of Naples were the military commanders of the ducatus Neapolitanus, a Byzantine outpost in Italy, one of the few remaining after the coming of the Lombards and Saracens. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Events The Edict of Paris grants extensive rights to the Frankish nobility. ... The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperors enemies in Italy, the Lombards. ... Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Events Islamic calendar introduced The Muslims capture Antioch, Caesarea Palaestina and Akko Births Deaths October 12 - Pope Honorius I Categories: 638 ... Eleutherius (d. ... The term strategos (plural strategoi; Greek στρατηγός) is used in Greek to mean general. In the hellenistic and Byzantine Empires the term was also used to describe a military governor. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The province of Naples (Italian: Provincia di Napoli) is a province in the Campania region of Italy. ... Mount Vesuvius (Italian: Monte Vesuvio) is a volcano east of Naples, Italy, located at 40°49&#8242;N 14°26&#8242; E. It is the only active volcano on the European mainland, although it is not currently erupting. ... Campi Flegrei (Burning Fields) is a large volcanic area situated in the west area of Napoli, Italy. ... Sorrento is a small city in Campania, Italy, with some 16,500 inhabitants. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Afragola is an important city of southern Italy. ... For other uses, see Nola (disambiguation). ... The island of Ischia near Naples, Italy. ... View of Corricella from Cape Pizzaco. ... Capri (Italian pronunciation Cápri, usual English pronunciation Caprí) is an Italian island off the Sorrentine Peninsula. ... The Amalfi coast. ...


In 661 Naples, with the permission of the emperor Constans II, was ruled by a local duke, Basilius, whose allegiance to the emperor soon became merely nominal. In 763 the duke Stephen II switched his allegiance from Constantinople to the Pope. In 840 Duke Sergius I made the succession to the duchy hereditary, and thenceforth Naples was de facto totally independent. At this time the city was mainly a military centre, ruled by an aristocracy of warriors and landowners, even though it had been forced to surrender to the neighbouring Lombards much of its inland territory. Naples was not a merchant city as were other Campanian sea cities such as Amalfi and Gaeta, but had a respectable fleet that took part in the Battle of Ostia against the Saracens in 849. In any event, Naples did not hesitate to ally itself with infidels if it proved advantageous to do so: in 836, for example, Naples asked for support from the Saracens in order to repel the siege of Lombard troops coming from the neighbouring Duchy of Benevento. After Neapolitan dukes rose to prominence under the Duke-Bishop Athanasius and his successors (among these, Gregory IV and John II participated at the Battle of the Garigliano in 915) Naples declined in importance in the tenth century until it was captured by it traditional rival, Pandulf IV of Capua. Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... Constans and his son Constantine. ... Events Ciniod succeeds Bridei V as king of the Picts. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Events After the death of Louis the Pious, his sons Lothar, Charles the Bald and Louis the German fight over the division of the empire, with Lothar succeeding as Emperor. ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... Amalfi is a town and commune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno, 24 miles southeast of Naples. ... Gaeta (ancient Latin name Caieta) is a city in Province of Latina, in Lazio, Italy. ... The Battle of Ostia was a naval battle fought in 849 AD between the Muslims of souther Italy and a Christian League of Papal, Neapolitan and Gaetan ships. ... For the rugby club Saracens see Saracens (rugby club) The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi. ... Events Births Deaths August 18 - Walafrid Strabo, German monk and theologian Categories: 849 ... Events Abbasid caliph al-Mutasim establishes new capital at Samarra, Iraq. ... For the rugby club Saracens see Saracens (rugby club) The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... The Duchy of Benevento was the southernmost Lombard duchy in medieval Italy, centred on Benevento, a city central in the Mezzogiorno. ... Athanasius[1] (died 898) was the bishop (as Athanasius II) and duke of Naples[2] from 878 to his death. ... Gregory IV was the firstborn son of Duke Sergius II of Naples and successor of his paternal uncle, Bishop Athanasius, in 898, when he was elected dux, or magister militum, unanimously by the aristocracy. ... John II (died 919) was the duke of Naples from 915 to his death. ... Combatants Christian League Saracens Commanders Alberic I of Spoleto The Battle of Garigliano was fought in 915 between the forces of the Christian League and the Saracens. ... Events Fatimid armies invaded Egypt. ... Pandulf IV (also spelled Randulf, Bandulf, Pandulph, Pandolf, Paldolf, or Pandolfo) was the prince of Capua on three separate occasions. ...


In 1027, duke Sergius IV donated the county of Aversa to a band of Norman mercenaries led by Rainulf Drengot, whose support he had needed in the war with the principality of Capua. In that period he could not imagine the consequences, but this settlement began a process which eventually led to the end of the independence of Naples, itself. Events March 26 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II Holy Roman Emperor. ... Italy in the time of Sergius IV. Sergius IV (died after 1036) was Duke of Naples from 1002 to 1036. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Rainulf Drengot (also Ranulph, Ranulf, or Rannulf) was a Norman adventurer and the first count of Aversa (1030–1045). ... The Principality of Capua was a Lombard state in Southern Italy, usually de facto independent, but under the varying suzerainty of Western and Eastern Roman Empires. ...


Last of the rulers of such independent southern Italian states, Sergius VII was forced to surrender to Roger II of Sicily in 1137; Roger had had himself proclaimed king of Sicily seven years earlier. Under the new rulers, the city was administrated by a compalazzo (palatine count), with little independence left to the Neapolitan patriciate. In this period Naples had a population of 30,000 and was sustained by its holdings in the interior; commerce was mainly delegated to foreigners, mainly from Pisa and Genova. Sergius VII (died 30 October 1137) was the thirty-ninth and last duke (or magister militum) of Naples. ... Roger II, from Liber ad honorem Augusti of Petrus de Ebulo, 1196. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Flag The Kingdom of Sicily as it existed at the death of its founder, Roger II of Sicily, in 1154. ... Leaning Tower of Pisa. ... Alternate uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ...


Apart from the church of San Giovanni a Mare, Norman buildings in Naples were mainly lay ones, notably castles (Castel Capuano and Castel dell'Ovo), walls and fortified gates. Castel Capuano in Naples takes its name from the fact that it was at that point in the city walls where the road led out to the city of Capua. ... Castel dellOvo. ...

The Castel Nuovo ("New Castle") was renovated and chosen as his palace by Charles I of Anjou. The entrance is decorated by a Renaissance Arch of Triumph celebrating the entrance in the city of the Aragonese king Alfonso I (15th century)
The Castel Nuovo ("New Castle") was renovated and chosen as his palace by Charles I of Anjou. The entrance is decorated by a Renaissance Arch of Triumph celebrating the entrance in the city of the Aragonese king Alfonso I (15th century)

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 835 KB) photo by Radomil 01. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 835 KB) photo by Radomil 01. ...

Normans, Hohenstaufen, and Anjou

Frederick II Hohenstaufen founded the university in 1224, considering Naples as his intellectual capital while Palermo retained its political role. The university remained unique in southern Italy for seven centuries. After the defeat of Frederick's son, Manfred, in 1266 Naples and the kingdom of Sicily were assigned by Pope Clement IV to Charles of Anjou, who moved the capital from Palermo to Naples. He settled in his new residence in the Castel Nuovo, around which a new district grew up, marked by palaces and residences of the nobility. During Charles' reign new Gothic churches were also built, including Santa Chiara, San Lorenzo Maggiore, Santa Maria Donna Regina and the Cathedral of Naples. Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... // Foundation of the University of Naples Livonian Brothers of the Sword conquers Latgallians and the stronghold of Tartu from Ugaunian and Russian troops. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... Manfred (c. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Clement IV, né Gui Faucoi le Gros ( Guy Foulques the Fat or Guido le Gros) (Saint-Gilles-du-Gard, November 23, year uncertain – Viterbo, November 29, 1268), was elected Pope February 5, 1265, in a conclave held at Perugia that took four months, while cardinals argued over whether to call... Charles I (March 1227 - January 7, 1285) was the posthumous son of King Louis VIII of France, created Count of Anjou by his elder brother King Louis IX in 1246, thus founding the second Angevin dynasty. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... Castel Nuovo. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... (see also Gesù_Nuovo) The Church of Santa Chiara Santa Chiara is a religious complex in Naples, southern Italy, that includes the Church of Santa Chiara, a monastery, tombs and an archeological museum. ... Courtyard of the monastery of San Lorenzo in Naples. ... The 17th century apse. ...


After the Sicilian Vespers, (1284) the kingdom was split in two parts, with an Aragonese king ruling the island of Sicily and the Angevin king ruling the mainland portion; while both kingdoms officially called themselves the Kingdom of Sicily, the mainland portion was commonly referred to as the Kingdom of Naples. The kingdowm had divided in two, but Naples grew in importance: Pisane and Genoese merchants were joined by Tuscan bankers, and with them came outstanding artists such as Boccaccio, Petrarca, and Giotto. Sicilian Vespers (1846), by Francesco Hayez The Sicilian Vespers is the name given to a rebellion in Sicily in 1282 against the rule of the Angevin king Charles I, who had taken control of the island with Papal support in 1266. ... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... The Kingdom of Naples was born out of the division of the Kingdom of Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. ... Tuscany (Italian Toscana) is a region in central Italy, bordering on Latium to the south, Umbria to the east, Emilia-Romagna and Liguria to the north, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ... Giovanni Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... From the c. ... There are several things that have been named Giotto: Giotto di Bondone an Italian painter. ...


See also Kingdom of Naples The Kingdom of Naples was born out of the division of the Kingdom of Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. ...


The Aragonese Period

In 1442 Alfonso I conquered Naples after his victory against the last Angevin king, Rene, and made his triumphal entry into the city in February of 1443. The new dynasty enhanced commerce by connecting Naples to the Iberian peninsula and made Naples a centre of the Italian Renaissance: artists who worked in Naples in this period include Francesco Laurana, Antonello da Messina, Jacopo Sannazzaro and Angelo Poliziano. The court also granted land holdings in the provinces to the nobility; this, however, had the effect of fragmenting the kingdom. Events The community of Rauma, Finland was granted its town rights. ... Alfonso V of Aragon (also Alfonso I of Naples) (1396 – June 27, 1458), surnamed the Magnanimous, was the King of Aragon and Naples and count of Barcelona from 1416 to 1458. ... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... René I of Naples (René I the Good, French Le bon roi René) (January 16, 1409&#8211;July 10, 1480), was duke of Anjou, count of Provence (1434&#8211;1480), duke of Bar (1430&#8211;1480), duke of Lorraine (1431&#8211;1453), king of Naples (1438-1442), king of Sicily... Events Albanians, under Skanderbeg, defeat the Turks John Hunyadi defeats Turks at the Battle of Nis Vlad II Dracul begins his second term as ruler of Wallachia, succeeding Basarab II. Births January 27 - Albert, Duke of Saxony (died 1500) February 23 - Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (died 1490) May 17 - Edmund... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Francesco Laurana [de la Vrana], (born in Vrana, near Zara [now Zadar, Croatia]; died Marseille, before 12 March 1502), was an Italian sculptor and medallist. ... Portrait, called the Condottiero, dated 1475 (Louvre). ... Jacopo Sannazaro (1458 - April 27, 1530), the Neapolitan poet, humanist and epigrammist, wrote easily in Latin, in Italian and Napuletano, but is best remembered for his humanist classic Arcadia a masterwork that illustrated the possibilities of poetical prose in Italian and instituted the themes of Arcadia in European literature: see... Politian (also known as Angelo Poliziano or Angelo Ambrogini) (1454 - 1494) was an Italian classical scholar and poet. ...


After the brief conquest by Charles VIII of France in 1495, the two kingdoms were united under Spanish rule in 1501. In 1502 Spanish general Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba entered in the city, starting the two centuries of rule of the almost omnipotent viceré ("viceroys") in Naples. Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... 1495 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1501 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba. ...

Palazzo Reale (Royal Palace) was the seat of Spanish and Austrian viceroys.
Palazzo Reale (Royal Palace) was the seat of Spanish and Austrian viceroys.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 536 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: History of Naples Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 536 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: History of Naples Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ...

Spanish and Bourbon rule

Under the viceroys Naples grew from 100,000 to 300,000 inhabitants, second only to Paris in Europe. The most important of them was don Pedro Álvarez de Toledo: he introduced heavy taxation and favoured the Inquisition, but at the same time improved the conditions of Naples. He opened the main street, which still today bears his name; he paved other roads, strengthened and expanded the walls, restored old buildings, and erected new buildings and fortresses, essentially turning the city of Naples by 1560 into the largest and best fortified city in the Spanish empire. In the 16th and 17th century Naples was home to great artists such as Caravaggio, Salvator Rosa and Bernini, philosophers such as Bernardino Telesio, Giordano Bruno, Tommaso Campanella and Giambattista Vico, and writers such as Gian Battista Marino, thus confirming itself among the most important capitals of Europe. City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, Spanish Viceroy of Naples Don Pedro Álvarez de Toledo (1484-1553) was a Spanish viceroy of Naples. ... Inquisition (capitalized I) is broadly used, to refer to things related to judgment of heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (29 September 1571 – 18 July 1610) was an Italian artist active in Rome, Naples, Malta and Sicily between 1593 and 1610. ... Salvator Rosa (1615 - March 15, 1673) was an Italian painter and poet of the Neapolitan school. ... Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini; December 7, 1598 – November 28, 1680) was a pre-eminent Baroque sculptor and architect of 17th century Rome. ... Bernardino Telesio (1509 - 1588) was an Italian philosopher and natural scientist. ... Giordano Bruno. ... Tommaso Campanella (September 5, 1568–May 21, 1639), baptized Giovanni Domenico Campanella, was an Italian philosopher, theologian and poet. ... Giambattista Vico or Giovanni Battista Vico (June 23, 1668 – January 23, 1744) was a Neapolitan philosopher, historian, and jurist. ...


All the strains of an increasingly over-populated city exploded in July 1647, when the legendary Masaniello led the populace in violent rebellion against the foreign, oppressive rule of the Spanish. Neapolitans declared a Republic and asked France for support, but the Spaniards suppressed the insurrection in April of the following year and defeated two attempts by the French fleet to land troops. In 1656 the plague killed almost half of the inhabitants of the city; this led to the beginning of a period of decline. 1647 (MDCXLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Masaniello, an abbreviation of Tommaso Aniello (1622 - July 16, 1647), was an Amalfi fisherman, who became leader of the revolt against Spanish rule in Naples in 1647. ... The Neapolitan Republic of years 1647-1648 was a Republic created in Naples, which lasted for some months and began after the revolt led by Masaniello and Giulio Genoino against the Spanish viceroys. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Italian Plague of 1629-1631 was a series of outbreaks of bubonic plague from 1629 through 1631 in northern Italy. ...


Neapolitan Republic (1647)

The Spanish Habsburgs were replaced by Viennese ones, and in 1734 the two kingdom were united under a single independent crown (Utriusque Siciliarum), that of Charles of Bourbon. Charles renovated the city with the Villa di Capodimonte and the Teatro di San Carlo, and welcomed the philosophers Giovan Battista Vico and Antonio Genovesi, the jurists Pietro Giannone and Gaetano Filangieri, and the composers Alessandro and Domenico Scarlatti. This first king of the House of Bourbon tried to introduce legislative and administrative reforms, but they were stopped as the first news of the French Revolution reached the city. By that time, Charles' son, Ferdinand IV was king, and he entered an anti-French Coalition with Great Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia, Spain, and Portugal. The Neapolitan Republic of years 1647-1648 was a Republic created in Naples, which lasted for some months and began after the revolt led by Masaniello and Giulio Genoino against the Spanish viceroys. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Façade of Teatro San Carlo. ... Giambattista Vico or Giovanni Battista Vico (June 23, 1668 – January 23, 1744) was a Neapolitan philosopher, historian, and jurist. ... Antonio Genovesi (November 1, 1712 - September 22, 1769) was an Italian writer on philosophy and political economy. ... Pietro Giannone (7 May 1676 – 17 March 1748) was an Italian historian born in Ischitella, in the province of Capitanata. ... Gaetano Filangieri (August 18, 1752 - July 21, 1788), Italian publicist, was born at Naples. ... Alessandro Scarlatti Alessandro Scarlatti (May 2, 1660 – October 24, 1725) was a Baroque composer especially famous for his operas and chamber cantatas. ... Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (October 26, 1685 – July 23, 1757) was an Italian composer who spent much of his life in Spain and Portugal. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (January 12, 1751 – January 4, 1825). ... The name First Coalition (1793–1797) designates the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim...


The population of Naples at the beginning of 19th century was mostly made up of a mass of people, who were called the lazzarone and lived in extremely poor conditions. As well, there was a strong royal bureaucracy and an élite of landowners. When in January 1799 French revolutionary troops entered the city they were hailed by an enlightened minor part of the middle class, but had to face strong resistance by the royalist lazzari, who were fervidly religious and did not understand the new ideas. The short-lived Neapolitan Republic tried to gain popular support by abolishing feudal privileges, but the mass of the people rebelled and in June 1799 the republicans surrendered. Upon the order of the restored monarchy, Admiral Horatio Nelson ordered the execution of their leaders Francesco Caracciolo, Mario Pagano, Ettore Carafa, and Eleonora Fonseca Pimentel. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Look up Royalist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Parthenopaean Republic formed a brief interlude in the history of the Kingdom of Naples, the result of activities of France in the aftermath of Jacobinism to export revolution . Origins of the Republic On the outbreak of the French Revolution King Ferdinand IV of Naples and Queen Maria Carolina did... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Lord Nelson Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson (September 29, 1758 &#8211; October 21, 1805) was a British admiral who won fame as a leading naval commander. ... Prince Francesco Caracciolo (born January 18, 1732; died June 30, 1799) was a Neapolitan admiral and revolutionist. ... Mario Pagano was an Italian controversial author, jurisconsult and man of letters. ... Eleonora Anna Naria Felice de Fonseca Pimentel (Leonor da Fonseca Pimentel Chaves, Rome, 13th January 1751 - Naples, 20th August 1799) was an Italian poet and revolutionary connected with the Neapolitan revolution and subsequent short-lived Neapolitan Republic (alternately known as the Parthenopean Republic) of 1799, a sister republic of the...


Neapolitan Republic (1799) and the unification of Italy

The Theatre of San Carlo was built during the reign of Charles I of Bourbon
The Theatre of San Carlo was built during the reign of Charles I of Bourbon

In early 1806 Napoleon conquered the Kingdom of Naples. The Emperor Napoleon first named his brother Joseph Bonaparte to be King and then his brother-in-law and Marshal Joachim Murat in 1808, when Joseph was given the Spanish crown. The latter created a communal administration led by a mayor, which was left almost intact by Ferdinand in 1815 as he regained his kingdom after the 1815 Neapolitan War in which the Austrians defeated Murat. In 1839 Naples was the first city in Italy to have a railway, with the Napoli-Portici line. The flag of the Parthenopaen Republic was the French tricolor, with the a yellow stripe in the place of the white one The Parthenopaean Republic (Italian: Repubblica Napolitana) formed a brief interlude in the history of the Kingdom of Naples, the result of activities of France in the aftermath of... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 548 KB) photo by Radomil 01. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 548 KB) photo by Radomil 01. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Naples, King of Spain (January 7, 1768 – July 28, 1844) was the older brother of French Emperor Napoleon I, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808) and later King of Spain. ... Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. ... Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... The Neapolitan War in 1815 was a short war between Kingdom of Naples and Austrian Empire in the aftermath of Napoleonic Wars in Europe. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Portici is a city of Campania, Italy, in the Province of Naples, 5 miles southeast of Naples by railway, on the shores of the bay, and at the foot of Vesuvius. ...


In spite of a little cultural revival and the proclamation of a Constitution on June 25, 1860, in the last years of the kingdom the gap between the court and the intellectual class continued to grow. is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ...


On September 6, 1861, the kingdom was conquered by the Garibaldines and was handed over to the King of Sardinia: Garibaldi entered the city by train, descending in the square that today still bears his name. In October 1860 a plebiscite sanctioned the end of the Kingdom of Sicily and the birth of new Italian state, the United Kingdom of Italy. Sicily and Naples contributed 443 million lire to the new treasury compared to the 224 million from all the other states of the new nation. is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... Garibaldi in 1866. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or Sardinnya) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ...


Contemporary Naples

The opening of the funicular railway to Mount Vesuvius was occasion for the writing of the famous song "Funiculì Funiculà", one more song in the centuries long tradition of Neapolitan song. Many Neapolitan songs are also famous outside of Italy, as for example "O Sole Mio", "Santa Lucia" and "Torna a Surriento". On April 7, 1906 nearby Mount Vesuvius erupted, devastating Boscotrecase and seriously damaging Ottaviano. Mount Vesuvius (Italian: Monte Vesuvio, Latin: Mons Vesuvius) is a volcano east of Naples, Italy. ... Ciao, Raggazi Music of Naples is very cool ... O sole mio is a universally famous Italian romantic folk song. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Mount Vesuvius (Italian: Monte Vesuvio, Latin: Mons Vesuvius) is a volcano east of Naples, Italy. ... Country Italy Region Campania Province Province of Naples (NA) Mayor Elevation 86 m Area 7. ... Ottaviano is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Naples in the Italian region Campania, located about 20 km east of Naples. ...


During World War II, Naples was the first Italian city to rise up against the Nazi military occupation; between September 28 and October 1, 1943 the people of the city rose up and pushed the Germans out. By the time the Anglo-American forces arrived downtown, they found Naples already free, and continued on instead towards Rome.[1] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... National Socialism redirects here. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


In 1944 another devastating eruption from Vesuvius occurred; images from this eruption were used in the film The War of the Worlds. 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The War of the Worlds DVD The War of the Worlds (1953), was directed by Byron Haskin and produced by George Pál (the second of three H.G. Wells science fiction stories to be filmed by Pál), and starred Gene Barry, Les Tremayne and Ann Robinson. ...


Napoli has turned into the most important transportation hub of southern Italy. The airport of Capodichino has connections with several airports in Europe. The city also has also important port that connects to many Tyrrhenian Sea destinations, including Cagliari, Genoa and Palermo, often with fast ferries. Naples also has ferry connections to nearby islands and Sorrento, and fast rail connections to Rome and the south. It is famous for the light railway Circumvesuviana. Capodichino is a north-eastern suburb of Naples, southern Italy. ... Cagliari City Hall Cagliari (Greek: ; Latin: Carales and Caralis[1]; Catalan: Càller; Sardinian: Casteddu) is the capital of the island of Sardinia, a region of Italy. ... Genoa (Genova [] in Italian - Zena [] in Genoese) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... Vesuvius overlooking Sorrento and the Bay of Naples. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Circumvesuviana is a narrow-gauge railway connecting cities near Naples, Italy. ...


Organised crime is deeply rooted in Naples. The Camorra, the feuding Neapolitan gangs and families, have a long history and are now more of a threat in Italy than the Sicilian-based Mafia. During 2004 over 120 people died in Naples in Camorra killings; many of the deaths were related to the drug trade. The camorra is a mafia-like criminal organization, or secret society, in the region of Campania and the city of Naples in Italy. ... The term Mafia (sometimes referred to as Cosa Nostra, Mafioso, or Black Hand, there are differences), refers to Italian criminal secret societies which developed in Sicily most notably developed in the mid-19th century. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Unemployment remains very high in Naples, with some estimates running above 20% among working-age males. The industrial base is still small and a number of earlier and ambitious enterprises such as automobile manufacturing plants on the outskirts have closed and gone elsewhere. There is a large "submerged economy" --meaning the black market-- and it is difficult to have reliable statistics on the amount of wealth generated by such activity. Social servies in the city have come under recent strain in attempting to deal with the increase in immigation of considerable numbers of persons from outside the European community, largely from North Africa.


In 1927 Naples absorbed some nearby communities; the 1860 population of 450,000 increased to 1,250,000 in 1971. Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ...


Cosmetically, at least, Naples today has improved over the last 15 years: Piazza del Plebiscito, for example, has returned to its historic role as the largest open square in the city instead of being the squalid parking lot that it was between the end of WWII and 1990; city landmarks such as the San Carlo theater and the Galleria Umberto have been restored; a major ring-road highway called the tangenziale has alleviated traffic through and around the city; and major construction continues on the new underground railway system, the metropolitana, which, even its current unfinished state now provides easy transportation for the first time in the history of the city from the upper reaches of the Vomero hill section of the city into the downtown area. As a result of at least some of these improved conditions in the city, tourism has increased. Piazza del Plebiscito is one of the principal public squares in the historic center of Naples, Italy. ... Tiananmen Square, Beijing The Macroplaza, Monterrey Prato della Valle, Padova Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan Place de la Concorde, Paris Palace Square, St. ... Façade of Teatro San Carlo. ... The Galleria Umberto in Naples. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Naples (3450 words)
Naples was founded by Greeks from Cumæ, and Cumæ, according to Mommsen, is the Palæopolis to which Livy refers as existing not far from Naples and as being allied with the latter city against the Samnites.
Naples, also, was obliged to receive the Samnites within its walls and to give to them participation in the government of the city, which explains her ambiguous conduct towards Rome during the Samnite War (325 B. In its alliance with Rome, Naples furnished only ships.
Naples then became the capital of the kingdom, to which, however, Peter III of Aragon laid claim on account of his marriage to a daughter of Manfred.
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