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Encyclopedia > History of Maine

The history of the State of Maine spans many centuries, from the earliest human habitations there to European colonization and settlement to its present-day statehood as part of the United States of America. Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The origin of the name Maine is the subject of some controversy. Many historians believe that Maine is named after the French province of Maine. Others suggest that the name was coined by English settlers living on islands along the coast, who would speak of going to the mainland as "going over to the main." Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France. ...

Contents

Pre-European History

The earliest culture known to inhabit Maine was the Red Paint People, from roughly 3000 B.C. to 1000 B.C. They were a maritime culture known for their elaborate burials using red ochre. In Maine, they were followed by the Susquehana culture, a pottery using culture. The Red Paint People are a culture believed to be a Maritime Archaic, Pre-Columbian culture indigenous to the New England and Labrador regions of North America, existing between 6th millennium BC and 1st millennium AD. The Maritime Archaic Indians (MAI), were a group of American Indians who hunted and...


By the time of European arrival, the inhabitants of Maine were Algonquian-speaking peoples including the Wabanaki, Passamaquoddy, and Penobscots. The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... ... Passamaquoddy Territory The Passamaquoddy (Peskotomuhkati or Pestomuhkati in the Passamaquoddy language) are a Native American/First Nations people who live in northeastern North America, primarily in Maine and New Brunswick. ... The Penobscot are a sovereign people indigenous to what is now the northeastern U.S. and Maritime Canada, particularly Maine. ...


European colonization and political permutations

The first European settlement in Maine was made in 1604 by a French party that included Samuel de Champlain, the noted explorer. The French named the area that includes Maine as Acadia; later English colonization pushed Acadia north into what are today the Canadian Maritimes. Samuel de Champlain by Théophile Hamel (1870) Samuel de Champlain (c. ... The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ...


English colonists, sponsored by the Plymouth Company, first settled in 1607, though the attempt was unsuccessful. The territory between the Merrimack and Kennebec Rivers first became known as the Province of Maine in a 1622 land patent granted to Ferdinando Gorges and John Mason. The two split the territory along the Piscataqua River in a 1629 pact that resulted in the Province of New Hampshire being formed by Mason in the south and New Somersetshire being created by Gorges to the north, in what is now Maine. The failure to colonize New Somersetshire, however, resulted in a second patent, granted to Gorges by Charles I, for what became known once again as the Province of Maine. Gorges' second effort also ended unsuccessfully. The 1606 grants by James I to the London and Plymouth companies. ... The Merrimack River, formed by the confluence of the Pemigewasset River (left) and Winnipesaukee River (right) is shown on a map of the northeastern United States The Merrimack River (or Merrimac River, an earlier spelling that is sometimes still used) is a 110-mile-long (177-kilometer-long) river in... The course of the Kennebec River The Kennebec River is a river, 150 mi (240 km) long, in the state of Maine in the northeastern United States. ... The 1622 grant of the Province of Maine is shown outlined in blue. ... Sir Ferdinando Gorges (1565-1647) was an early English colonial entrepreneur in North America and founder of the Province of Maine in 1622. ... Captain John Mason (1586–1635) was born in Norfolk. ... The Piscataqua River seen from downtown Portsmouth, New Hampshire The Piscataqua River, in the northeastern United States, is a 12 mi (19 km) long tidal estuary formed by the confluence of the Salmon Falls and Cocheco rivers. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... A map of the Province of New Hampshire. ... New Somersetshire was a failed British colony in what is now the U.S. state of Maine. ... The name Charles I is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings: Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland Charles I of France (also known as Charles the Bald) Charles I of Spain (also known as Charles V of the German Empire) Charles I of Romania Charles I...


What is present-day Maine north and east of the Kennebec River was more sparsely settled and was known in the 17th century as the Territory of Sagadahock. In 1669 this land, along with what had been the Province of Maine, was incorporated into another patent, this time by Charles II, to James, Duke of York. Under the terms of this grant, all the territory from the St. Lawrence River to the Atlantic Ocean was constituted as Cornwall County, now part of a vastly expanded Province of New York. With the incorporation of Sagadahock, the territory that would become Maine extended along the coast from the Piscataqua to the St. Croix River for the first time, incorporating the entire coastline of the future state. The course of the Kennebec River The Kennebec River is a river, 150 mi (240 km) long, in the state of Maine in the northeastern United States. ... The Territory of Sagahadock included the eastern part of Maine, which was more sparsely settled than the west; the area included was the area east of the Kennebec River. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... The name Charles II is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings Charles the Fat (also known as Charles II of France and Charles III of the Holy Roman Empire) Charles II of England Charles II of Naples Charles II of Navarre Charles II of Romania Charles II... James VII and II King of England, Scotland and Ireland James II of England and VII of Scotland (14 October 1633–16 September 1701) became King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 6 February 1685. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Cornwall County was a county of the former Province of New York, established in 1683 as one of the original twelve counties in the British Colony of New York. ... The Province of New York (Dutch: Provincie Nieuw-Nederland or Provincie New York) was a British colony that existed roughly where the U.S. state of New York does now. ... The St. ...


In 1673, part of this territory was partitioned to create Devonshire, Massachusetts. The remainder was lost to the Abnaki in a war in 1675. In 1683 Cornwall County was reconstituted as part of New York, which itself was absorbed into the Dominion of New England in 1687. In 1692 the entirety of the former Province of Maine, from the Piscataqua to the St. Croix, was absorbed into the Province of Massachusetts Bay as Yorkshire, a name which survives in present day York County. 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Abenaki wigwam with birch bark covering The Abenaki (also Wabanaki) are a tribe of Native Americans belonging to the Algonquian peoples of the Northeast portion of North America. ... Events January 5 - The Battle of Turckeim June 18 - Battle of Fehrbellin August 10 - King Charles II of England places the foundation stone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London - construction begins November 11 - Guru Gobind Singh becomes the Tenth Guru of the Sikhs. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... The Dominion of New England was the name of a short-lived administrative union of English colonies in the New England region of North America. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ... A map of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. ... Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... York County is a county located in the state of Maine. ...


Maine was much fought over by the French and English during the 17th and early 18th centuries. After the defeat of the French colony of Acadia during the French and Indian War (part of the global struggle between France and Britain that is known overall as the Seven Years War), the territory from the Penobscot River east fell under the nominal authority of the Province of Nova Scotia, and together with present day New Brunswick formed the Nova Scotia County of Sunbury, with its court of general sessions at Campobello. The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... Combatants France and its native allies, mostly Algonquin and Huron Great Britain and its native allies, mostly Iroquois Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) The French and Indian War was the nine years North American chapter of the Seven... This article is about the 1756–1763 war. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Official languages none (English, French, Gaelic) Flower Mayflower Tree Red Spruce Bird Osprey Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 11 10 Area Total... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Official languages English, French Flower Purple Violet Tree Balsam Fir Bird Black-capped Chickadee Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 10 10 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked... Sunbury County was a county in the crown colony of Nova Scotia from 1765 to 1784. ... Campobello Island is a Canadian island located in the Bay of Fundy near the entrances to Passamaquoddy Bay and Cobscook Bay. ...


Independence and border disputes

American and British forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. The treaty concluding revolution was ambiguous about Maine's boundary with British North America. The territory of Maine was confirmed as part of Massachusetts when the United States was formed, although the final border with British territory was not established until the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842. (Indeed, in 1839 Governor Fairfield declared war on Britain over a boundary dispute between New Brunswick and northern Maine. Known as the Aroostook War, this is the only time a U.S. state has declared war on a foreign power. The dispute was settled, however, before any blood was shed.) John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution was a political movement during the last half of the 18th century that resulted in the creation of... Combatants United States Native Americans Great Britain, Canadian provincial forces Native Americans First Nations Peoples Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn George Prevost Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other vessels: 14 •Indigenous... British North America was an informal term first used in 1783, but uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... The Webster-Ashburton Treaty, signed August 9, 1842, settled the dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border between the United States and Great Britain and the shared use of the Great Lakes. ... Combatants United States of America British Empire/Canada Strength 3,000–10,000 3,000–10,000 Casualties 38 incidental deaths The Aroostook War, also called the Pork and Beans War, the Lumberjacks War or the Northeastern Boundary Dispute, was an undeclared, bloodless North American war that occurred in...


Statehood

Maine gained its statehood in 1820 as the result of the Missouri Compromise, a move which paved the way for slavery-free northern states to approve the statehood of Missouri. Maine, which was under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, was free of slavery, and its admission to the union would allow for northern congressional representation which would balance Missouri's pro-southern and pro-slavery influence. 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The United States in 1820. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Industrialization and discrimination against French Canadians

In the late 19th century, many French Canadians began migrating to Maine and other New England states from the Quebec and New Brunswick provinces of Canada to work in the newly established mills, which took advantage of the state's many rushing rivers. These new arrivals were often forcibly assimilated into Anglo-American culture; notably, children were subjected to corporal punishment for speaking French in schools. In response the French Canadian community in New England was determined to preserve some of its cultural norms; this doctrine, like efforts to preserve francophone culture in Quebec, became known as la Survivance. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The states marked in red show New England. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Flower Blue Flag Iris (Iris versicolor Linné) Tree Yellow Birch Bird Snowy Owl Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Official languages English, French Flower Purple Violet Tree Balsam Fir Bird Black-capped Chickadee Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 10 10 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked... La Survivance is an expression used by French Canadians denoting the passive survival of francophone culture, typically in the face of Canadian anglophone or Anglo-American hegemony. ...

See also: Quebec diaspora

The Quebec diaspora consists of hundreds of thousands of people who left the Province of Quebec in Canada for the United States, Ontario and the Canadian prairies between 1840 and through the Great Depression of the 1930s. ...

20th and 21st centuries

By the 20th century, the textile industry which had driven the growth of mills was establishing itself more profitably in other parts of the United States closer to raw materials. The focus of the economy shifted primarily back to logging and shipbuilding; the Bath Iron Works was a notable producer of naval vessels during the Second World War. In recent years, however, even Maine's traditional industries have been threatened; forest conservation efforts have cut down on logging; shipbuilding competition with other parts of the country has been stiff, and restrictions on world fisheries have exerted considerable pressure on each of these key fields. In response the state has attempted to diversify its economic activities, attracting telemarketing call centers to rural towns and villages. Tax incentives allowed outlet shopping centers began to establish themselves in the southern part of the state. Bath Iron Works from NAS Brunswick photo gallery Bath Iron Works (BIW) is located on the Kennebec River in Bath, Maine. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Telemarket Office // Early History Telemarketing is a registered trademark owned by Nadji Tehrani who founded TeleMarketing Magazine in 1982. ... A call centre (Commonwealth English) or call center (AmE) is a centralized office of a company that answers incoming telephone calls from customers(often for the purposes of product support) , or that makes outgoing telephone calls to customers (telemarketing). ...


Over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, tourism also became a major activity in Maine, which adopted the slogan "Vacationland" for its licence plates. Many began to visit Maine to enjoy is vast acreage of relatively unspoiled wilderness, its ski-friendly mountains, and its hundreds of miles of coastline. "Cottage people" from New York City and Boston summered in many of the state's seaside towns. The Bush family compound in Kennebunkport is a notable example of this trend. State and national parks in Maine also became loci of tourism, especially Acadia National Park on Mount Desert Island. Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Barbara Bush, Jeb Bush, George H.W. Bush, Laura Bush, and George W. Bush watch tee ball on the White House lawn. ... Boats on the Kennebunk River between Kennebunk and Kennebunkport Kennebunkport is a town located in York County, Maine. ... Acadia National Park preserves much of Mount Desert Island, and associated smaller islands, off the Atlantic coast of Maine. ... Mount Desert Island, in Hancock County, Maine, is one of the larger islands in the United States, being the third largest in the East after Long Island and Marthas Vineyard. ...


In recent years the state has sought to address its legacy of intolerance against French Canadians, embracing such symbols as bilingual signs and actively promoting French Canadian culture in schools and local festivities.

Flag of Maine State of Maine
Topics

Culture | Geography | Government | History | Images Image File history File links Flag_of_Maine. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A state of the United States is any one of the fifty subnational entities referred to... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Capital Augusta
Regions

Acadia | Down East | Maine Atlantic Coast | Maine Highlands | Maine Lake Country | North Woods | Penobscot Bay | Southern Coast | Western Maine Mountains Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, site of first U.S. capital. ... Nickname: Motto: Official website: www. ... This list of regions of the United States includes official (governmental) and non-official areas within the borders of the United States, not including U.S. states, the federal district of Washington, D.C. or standard subentities such as cities or counties. ... The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... Down East is a New England geographical term that is applied in at least a couple of different ways. ... State nickname: The Pine Tree State Other U.S. States Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Governor John Baldacci Official languages None Area 86,542 km² (39th)  - Land 80,005 km²  - Water 11,724 km² (13. ... The Maine Highlands is a centrally located region that constitutes a large portion of the state of Maine. ... The Maine Lake Country is a region of the U.S. state of Maine commonly including Oxford County, Franklin County, Somerset County, Piscataquis County, Penobscot County, and Aroostook County. ... The Maine North Woods is the northern geographic area of the state of Maine. ... Penobscot Bay originates from the delta of Maines Penobscot River. ... The Southern Maine Coast is a region of the U.S. state of Maine. ... The Western Maine Mountains region spans along most of the Maines western border with New Hampshire. ...

 Counties 

Androscoggin | Aroostook | Cumberland | Franklin | Hancock | Kennebec | Knox | Lincoln | Oxford | Penobscot | Piscataquis | Sagadahoc | Somerset | Waldo | Washington | York List of Maine counties: Maine counties Androscoggin County: formed in 1854 from parts of Cumberland County, Kennebec County, Lincoln County, and Oxford County. ... Androscoggin County is a county located in the state of Maine. ... Aroostook County is a county located in the U.S. state of Maine. ... Cumberland County is a county located in the state of Maine. ... Franklin County is a county located in the state of Maine. ... Hancock County is a county located in the state of Maine. ... Kennebec County is a county located in the state of Maine. ... Knox County is a county located in the state of Maine. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the state of Maine. ... Location in the state of Maine Formed 1805 Seat South Paris Area  - Total  - Water 5,634 km² (2,175 mi²) 252 km² (97 mi²) 4. ... Penobscot County is a county located in the state of Maine. ... Piscataquis County is a county located in the U.S. state of Maine. ... Sagadahoc County is a county located in the state of Maine. ... Somerset County is a county located in the U.S. state of Maine. ... Waldo County is a county located in the state of Maine. ... Washington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Maine. ... York County is a county located in the state of Maine. ...

Largest cities

Auburn | Augusta | Bangor | Bath | Belfast | Biddeford | Brewer | Caribou | Ellsworth | Houlton | Kittery | Lewiston | Millinocket | Old Orchard Beach | Old Town | Orono | Portland | Presque Isle | Rockland | Rumford | Saco | Sanford | South Portland | Topsham | Waterville | Westbrook List of cities in Maine, arranged in alphabetical order. ... Location in Androscoggin County, Maine Coordinates: Counties Androscoggin County Area    - City {{{area_total}}} km²  - Land 59. ... Nickname: Motto: Official website: www. ... This article is about the Maine, USA city of Bangor. ... View uphill towards City Hall in Bath Bath is a city located in Sagadahoc County, Maine. ... Seal of Belfast, ME Belfast is a city located in Waldo County, Maine. ... City Hall in 2005 Biddeford is a city in York County, Maine, United States. ... Brewer is a city located in Penobscot County, Maine. ... Trucks outside a starch factory in Caribou, Aroostook County, Maine, October 1940 Location of city of Caribou in state of Maine Caribou is a city in Aroostook County, Maine, United States. ... Ellsworth is a city located in Hancock County, Maine, United States. ... Location of town of Houlton in state of Maine Houlton is a town in Aroostook County, Maine, on the United States-Canada border, located at . ... Location of town of Kittery in state of Maine Kittery is a town located in York County, Maine. ... Main Street, also U.S. Route 202 in downtown Lewiston Coordinates: Counties Androscoggin County Area    - City 35. ... Millinocket is a mill town in Penobscot County, Maine, USA. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 5,203. ... Pier at Old Orchard Beach Old Orchard Beach is a census-designated place (CDP) in York County, Maine, United States. ... Main Street in Old Town Old Town is a city located in Penobscot County, Maine. ... Orono is a town located in Penobscot County, Maine. ... Nickname: The Forest City Country United States State Maine County Cumberland Settled 1632 Incorporated 1786 Mayor Nicholas Mavodones, Jr Area    - City 136. ... Presque Isle is a city in Aroostook County, Maine, United States. ... Seal of Rockland, ME Rockland is a city located in Knox County, Maine. ... Paper mill along the river in Rumford Rumford is a town located in Oxford County, Maine. ... Location of city of Saco in Maine Saco is a city in York County, Maine, United States. ... Sanford is a census-designated place located in York County, Maine. ... Seal of South Portland South Portland is a city in Cumberland County, Maine, United States. ... Topsham is a town located in Sagadahoc County, Maine. ... Waterville is a city in Kennebec County, Maine on the Kennebec River. ... Location of city of Westbrook in map of Maine Westbrook is a city in Cumberland County, Maine, United States. ...

History of the United States by political division
States Alabama | Alaska | Arizona | Arkansas | California | Colorado | Connecticut | Delaware | Florida | Georgia | Hawai'i | Idaho | Illinois | Indiana | Iowa | Kansas | Kentucky | Louisiana | Maine | Maryland | Massachusetts | Michigan | Minnesota | Mississippi | Missouri | Montana | Nebraska | Nevada | New Hampshire | New Jersey | New Mexico | New York | North Carolina | North Dakota | Ohio | Oklahoma | Oregon | Pennsylvania | Rhode Island | South Carolina | South Dakota | Tennessee | Texas | Utah | Vermont | Virginia | Washington | West Virginia | Wisconsin | Wyoming
Federal district District of Columbia
Insular areas American Samoa | Guam | Northern Mariana Islands | Puerto Rico | Virgin Islands
Minor outlying islands Baker Island | Howland Island | Jarvis Island | Johnston Atoll | Kingman Reef | Midway Atoll | Navassa Island | Palmyra Atoll | Wake Island

  Results from FactBites:
 
Maine State History - SHG Resources (2728 words)
Of Maine's two earliest Indian nations, the Micmacs of eastern Maine and New Brunswick were largely a warlike people, while the more numerous Abnakis (or Wabanakis) were a peaceful nation, given to farming and fishing as a way of life.
The question of Maine's ownership was a matter of continuing dispute between England and France throughout the first half of the 18th century.
Thus, Maine's commitment to the Union cause during the war was considerable, both philosophically and materially.
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Maine's two great parks are Acadia National Park on and around Mt. Desert Island; and Baxter State Park, which includes the northern end of the Appalachian Trail at Mt. Katahdin in the N Maine wilderness.
Maine is represented in the U.S. Senate by Olympia Snowe and Susan Collins and in the U.S. House of Representatives by Tom Allen and Michael Michaud.
Maine is both the largest and the northernmost state in the New England region, bordered on the west by New Hampshire.
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