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Encyclopedia > History of Islamic Republic of Iran
The eight-year Iran-Iraq war resulted in USD$350 billion in damage for Iran alone.
The eight-year Iran-Iraq war resulted in USD$350 billion in damage for Iran alone.
History of Greater Iran
Empires of Persia · Kings of Persia
Pre-modern
 
Zayandeh Rud civilization prehistoric–?
Sialk prehistoric civilization 7500–1000 BCE
Jiroft civilization (Aratta) 3000–? BCE
Proto-Elamite civilization 3200–2800 BCE
Elamite dynasties 2800–550 BCE
Kingdom of Mannai 10th–7th cent. BCE
Median Empire 728–550 BCE
Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BCE
Seleucid Empire 330–150 BCE
Parthian Empire 248 BCE– 224 CE
Sassanid Empire 224–651
Patriarchal Caliphate 637–651
Umayyad Caliphate 661–750
Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258
Tahirid dynasty 821–873
Alavid dynasty 864–928
Saffarid dynasty 861–1003
Samanid dynasty 875–999
Ziyarid dynasty 928–1043
Buwayhid dynasty 934–1055
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1187
Ghori dynasty 1149–1212
Seljukid Empire 1037–1194
Khwarezmid dynasty 1077–1231
Ilkhanate 1256–1353
Muzaffarid dynasty 1314–1393
Chupanid dyansty 1337–1357
Jalayerid dynasty 1339–1432
Timurid Empire 1370–1506
Qara Qoyunlu Turcomans 1407–1468
Aq Qoyunlu Turcomans 1378–1508
Safavid Empire 1501–1722 / 1736
Hotaki Ghilzai dynasty 1722–1729
Afsharid dynasty 1736–1802
 
Modern
Afghanistan
Durrani Empire 1748–1823
British and Russian influence 1826–1919
Independence and civil war 1919–1929
Barakzai rule 1929–1973
Republic of Afghanistan 1973–1978
Communist rule 1978–1992
Civil war, Taliban, US invasion 1992 to date
Azerbaijan
Independent Khanates 1722–1828
Russian Azerbaijan 1828–1917
Democratic Republic 1918–1920
Azerbaijan SSR 1920–1991
Republic of Azerbaijan 1991 to date
Bahrain
Portuguese rule 1521–1602
British Treaty 1820–1971
Kingdom of Bahrain 1971 to date
Iran
Zand dynasty 1750–1794
Qajar dynasty 1781–1925
Pahlavi dynasty 1925–1979
Iranian Revolution 1979
Provisional Government 1979
Islamic Republic of Iran 1979 to date
Iraq
Ottoman Empire 1632–1919
Hashimite monarchy 1920–1958
Coup and Republic 1958–2003
Republic of Iraq 2004 to date
Tajikistan
Emirate of Bukhara 1785–1920
Bukharan / Uzbek SSR 1920–1929
Tajik Autonomous SSR 1929
Tajik SSR 1929–1991
Republic of Tajikistan 1991 to date
Uzbekistan
Emirate of Bukhara 1785–1920
Uzbek SSR 1924–1991
Independence 1991
Republic of Uzbekistan 1991 to date


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Islamic republic of Iran originated from Islamic revolution of Iran which resulted in transformed Iran from a monarchy under The Shah (king) Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution and founder of the Islamic Republic.[1] The demonstratins began in January 1978[2] and on January 16 1979 Mohammad Reza Pahlavi flees . On Febreury 1 Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Tehran to rapturous greeting by several million Iranians[3] and on February 11 Pahlavi dynasty has been collapsed. A revolutionary council and The Provisional Revolutionary Government had governed the country until new government stablished. Since then on April 1, after a landslide victory in a national referendum about 98 percent of Iranians chose Islamic republic as the form of new government. This new government is based upon the Constitution that was approved in a national referendum in December 1979.[4] This Manual of Style has the simple purpose of making things easy to read by following a consistent format — it is a style guide. ... Iran-Iraq war. ... Iran-Iraq war. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Abolhassan Banisadr Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Passdaran and Baseej militia 1,000 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 65 aircraft 720 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 4,500... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and at times extending into central and mid-east Asia. ... REDIRECT Template:History of ICC The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... Zayandeh Rud civilization (تمدن زاینده رود) is a pre-historic era culture that were settled around Zayandeh Rud, in Iran. ... The 5500 year old skeletons and other unearthed artifacts here are preserved and off access to visitors. ... // The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) was an ancient civilization that existed in what is now Iran from roughly 3000 BCE to? BCE. Research into this civilization is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archaeological project that aims to uncover an unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered sites... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Proto-Elamite inscription on it. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... Medea (Medea Proper), ca. ... The Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Hakhāmanishiya, هخامنشیان also frequently, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.) (559 BC–338 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: ‎ Sasanian) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... The Ghurids (or Ghoris) were rulers from Ghor in Central Afghanistan. ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... The Khwarezmid dynasty also known as the Shahs of Khwarezm (in Persian: Khwarezmshahian) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... The Chupanids, also known as the Chobanids, (سلسله امرای چوپانی, Amir Chupani), were descendants of a Mongol family that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. ... The Jalayirids were a Mongol dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... The Karakoyunlu or the Black Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: Qaraqoyunlular/Karakoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled what is today Azerbaijan, including present-day northwestern Iran and Iraq from 1375 to 1468. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1736) was founded by Afghans (Pashuns) from the Ghilzai clan. ... Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... The Durrani Empire was a state in present day Afghanistan. ... // The Rise of Dost Mohammad It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... Reign of King Amanullah, 1919-1929 Amanullah Khan reigned in Afghanistan from 1919, achieving full independence from the British Empire shortly afterwards. ... // Reign of Mohammed Nadir Shah, 1929-1933 Mohammed Nadir Shah quickly abolished most of Amanullah Khans reforms, but despite his efforts to rebuild an army that had just been engaged in suppressing a rebellion, the forces remained weak while the religious and tribal leaders grew strong. ... Sardar Mohammed Daoud Khan[1] (July 18, 1909 – April 28, 1978), son of Sardar Mohammed Aziz Khan and grandson of Sardar Mohammed Yusuf Khan was an Afghan statesman and President of the Republic of Afghanistan from 1973 until his assassination in 1978 as a result of a revolution led by... This article is about Communist rule in Afghanistan (1978-1992), which is separate, although slightly so, from the Soviet war in Afghanistan. ... // The Islamic State of Afghanistan After the Soviets withdrew completely from Afghanistan in February 1989, fighting between the communist backed government and mujahideen continued. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... // The Dilmun Era The history of Bahrain goes back more than five thousand years to its role as the centre of the ancient civilisation of Dilmun, which dominated the trade routes between Sumeria and the Indus Valley. ... // The Dilmun Era The history of Bahrain goes back more than five thousand years to its role as the centre of the ancient civilisation of Dilmun, which dominated the trade routes between Sumeria and the Indus Valley. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty(سلسله پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... Bukharan Peoples republic flag of 1921-1923 The Bukharan Peoples Soviet Republic (Russian: Бухарская Народная Советская Республика) was a short-lived Soviet state which governed the former Emirate of Bukhara during the period immediately following the Russian Revolution from 1920-1924. ... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of the Persian Empire to the establishment of modern day Iran. ... Shah is a Persian term for a monarch (king or emperor) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Look up king in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ‎ Moḥammad Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarchial ruler of Iran from September 16... An Islamic republic in its modern context has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... Ayatollah redirects here. ... Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( ) (Persian: روح الله موسوی خمینی Rūḥollāh MÅ«savÄ« KhomeynÄ« Arabic: روح الله الموسوي الخميني) (May 17, 1900[1] – June 3, 1989) was a Shi`i Muslim cleric and marja, and the political leader of the 1979 Islamic Revolution of Iran which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ‎ Moḥammad Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarchial ruler of Iran from September 16... The Pahlavi dynasty(سلسله پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... An Islamic republic in its modern context has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ...


Then Iranian students seized the U.S. embassy in Tehran on November 4, 1979, holding 52 embassy employees hostage for a 444 days (see Iran hostage crisis). The Carter administration severed diplomatic relations and imposed economic sanctions on April 7, 1980 and later that month attempted a rescue. A commando mission was aborted on April 25 after mechanical problems grounded rescue helicopters and eight American troops were killed in a mid-air collision. On May 24 the International Court of Justice called for the hostages' release. Finally the hostages were released Jan 20 1981, by Agreement of the Carter Administration, see Algiers Accords Jan 19,1981. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... For the Smashing Pumpkins song, see 1979 (song). ... The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic crisis lasting from November 4, 1979, until January 20, 1981. ... Order: 39th President Term of Office: January 20, 1977–January 20, 1981 Preceded by: Gerald Ford Succeeded by: Ronald Reagan Date of birth: October 1, 1924 Place of birth: Plains, Georgia Date of death: Place of death: First Lady: Rosalynn Carter Political party: Democratic Vice President: Walter Mondale James... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... A hostage is an entity which is held by a captor in order to compel another party to act or refrain from acting in a particular way. ... The Algiers Accords of January 19, 1981 were brokered by the Algerian government between the USA and Iran to resolve the situation that arose by the detention of American citizens in the American embassy in Tehran. ...


On September 22, 1980 Iraq invaded Iran. Official U.S. policy sought to isolate Iran, and the U.S. and its allies supplied Iraq with weapons and technology to maintain a balance in the war. Iraq obtained most of its weaponry from the Soviets, China, and France. Members of the Reagan Administration covertly sold anti-tank missles and spare parts to Iran in what became known as the Iran-Contra affair. Iran finally agreed to United Nations Security Council Resolution 598 in 1988 to end the bloody war. Nonetheless, severe fighting continued into the 1990s and even to the present on a smaller scale [2]) as Kurdish (nationalist and communist) forces fought the Iranian government. September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Abolhassan Banisadr Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Passdaran and Baseej militia 1,000 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 65 aircraft 720 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 4,500... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... President Reagan, with his Cabinet and staff, in the Oval Office (February 4, 1981) Headed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989, the Reagan Administration was conservative, steadfastly anti-Communist and in favor of tax cuts and smaller government. ... The Iran-Contra Affair (also called the Iran-Contra Matter and Iran-gate) was one of the largest political scandals in the United States during the 1980s. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization, based upon common ownershipmovement]]. Early forms of human social organization have been described as primitive communism by Marxists. ...


Iran 1989-Present

The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan had brought some 3 million Afghan refugees to Iran. In 1989 Khomeini died and was succeeded by Iran's president, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. The presidency was soon filled by Ali Akbar Rafsanjani, who sought improved relations and with Western nations while somewhat diminishing the influence of revolutionary factions and embarking on a military buildup. A major earthquake hit N Iran on June 21, 1990, killing nearly 40,000 people. When Iraq invaded Kuwait in Aug., 1990, Iran adhered to international sanctions against Iraq. However, Iran condemned the use of U.S.-led coalition forces against Iraq during the Persian Gulf War (1991). As a result of the war and its aftermath, more than one million Kurds crossed the Iraqi border into Iran as refugees. Soviet redirects here. ... Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی خامنه‌ای) (born July 15, 1939) is the Iran. ... President Rafsanjani Akbar Hashemi Bahramani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی بهرمانی), famously known as Hashemi Rafsanjani (هاشمی رفسنجانی) (born August 25, 1934) is one of the most influential... An earthquake is a phenomenon that results from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...


Rafsanjani was reelected president in 1993. The United States suspended all trade with Iran in 1995, accusing Iran of supporting terrorist groups and attempting to develop nuclear weapons. In 1997, Mohammad Khatami, a moderately liberal Muslim cleric, was elected president. Also in 1997,. Several European Union countries began renewing economic ties with Iran in the late 1990s; the United States, however, continued to block more normalized relations, arguing that the country had been implicated in international terrorism and was developing a nuclear weapons capacity. In 1999, as new curbs were put on a free press, prodemocracy student demonstrations erupted at Tehran University and other urban campuses. These were followed by a wave of counter demonstrations by conservative factions. Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States (1861-1865) The majority of this article is about heads of states. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Hujjatul Islam wal Muslimeen Sayyed Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... A cleric is a member of the clergy of a religion, especially one that has trained or ordained priests, preachers, or other religious professionals. ... Broadly, normalization (also spelled normalisation) is any process that makes something more normal, which typically means conforming to some regularity or rule, or returning from some state of abnormality. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Social conservatism is a belief in traditional or natural law-based morality and social mores and the desire to preserve these in present day society, often through civil law or regulation. ...


Reformers won a substantial victory in the Feb., 2000, parliamentary elections, capturing about two thirds of the seats, but conservative elements in the government forced the closure of the reformist press. Attempts by parliament to repeal restrictive press laws were forbidden by Khamenei. Despite these conditions, President Khatami was overwhelming reelected in June, 2001. Tensions between reformers in parliament and conservatives in the judiciary and the Guardian Council, over both social and economic changes, increased after Khatami's reelection. The word Reformer, when used alone, has several possible meanings in the English language. ... A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. ... Social conservatism is a belief in traditional or natural law-based morality and social mores and the desire to preserve these in present day society, often through civil law or regulation. ... Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی خامنه‌ای) (born July 15, 1939) is the Supreme Leader of Iran. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In law, the judiciary or judicial is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution [1] (Persian: شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی) is an appointed[2]high chamber within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... // The Unobservable Although the term social is a crucial category in social science and often used in public discourse, its meaning is often vague, suggesting that it is a fuzzy concept. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ...

Image:Khatamimain.jpg
Mohammad Khatami 5th President of Iran
Year 2001 was name the year of dialogue amongst civilizations after Mohammad Khatami's proposal
Year 2001 was name the year of dialogue amongst civilizations after Mohammad Khatami's proposal

On January 29, 2002 in his State of the Union Address United States President George W. Bush labeled Iran, along with Iraq, and North Korea as an "Axis of evil" The speech sparked widespread demonstrations all across Iran. Hujjatul Islam wal Muslimeen Sayyed Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... 2003 State of the Union address given by U.S. President George W. Bush The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Bushs axis of evil includes Iran, Iraq, and North Korea (darker red). ... A demonstration is the public display of the common opinion of a activist group, often economically, political, or socially, by gathering in a crowd, usually at a symbolic place or date, associated with that opinion. ...


Tensions with the United States increased after the Anglo-American invasion of Iraq in March, 2003, as U.S. officials increasingly denounced Iran for pursuing the alleged development of nuclear weapons. In October, however, Iran agreed, in negotiations with several W European nations, to toughen international inspections of its nuclear installations. Concern over Iran's nuclear program nonetheless continued. Meanwhile, an earthquake, centered on Bam in SE Iran, killed more than 26,000 people in Dec 2003. See Anglo-America for the term denoting mixed English and American influence or heritage or those parts of (or groups within) America which have a tie to or which are influenced by England or simply English-speaking America. ... link titleThe word international can mean: Between nations or encompassing several nations. ... Bam or BAM may mean: Bam, Iran Bam Province, Burkina Faso ISO 639 code for Bambara language Bam Margera An onomatopoeia for a sound. ...


In the Feb., 2004, elections conservatives won control of parliament, securing some two thirds of the seats. Many Iranians, however, were unhappy with the failure of the current parliament to achieve any significant reforms or diminish the influence of the hardliners. In mid-2004 Iran began resuming the processing of nuclear fuel as part of its plan to achieve self-sufficiency in nuclear power production, stating the negotiations with European Union nations had failed to bring access to the advanced nuclear technology that was promised. The action was denounced by the United States as one which would give Iran the capability to develop nuclear weapons. The IAEA said that there was no evidence that Iran was seeking to develop such arms. however, the IAEA also called for Iran to abandon its plans to produce enriched uranium. In Nov., 2004, Iran agreed to suspend uranium enrichment, but also subsequently indicated that it would not be held to the suspension if the negotiations the EU nations failed. An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... Typically, processing describes the act of taking something through an established and usually routine set of procedures to convert it from one form to another, as a manufacturing procedure (processing milk into cheese) or administrative procedure (processing paperwork to grant a mortgage loan). ... Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Evidence has several meanings as indicated below. ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ...


The presidential elections in June, 2005, were won by the hardline conservative mayor of Tehran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who ran on a populist, anticorruption platform. Ahmadinejad and former president Rafsanjani were the leaders after the first round, but in the runoff Ahmadinejad's populist economic policies combined with Rafsanjani's inability to pick up sufficient reformist support assured the former's win. Ahmadinejad's victory, gave conservatives control of all branches of Iran's government. After Iran resumed (Aug., 2005) converting raw uranium into gas, a necessary step for enrichment, the IAEA passed a resolution that accused Iran of failing to comply with the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and called for the agency to report Iran to the UN Security Council. The timetable for the reporting, however, was left undetermined. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...   (Persian: ‎ ​, IPA: ), transcribed into English as Mahmud or Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad, Ahmady Nejad) (born October 28, 1956) is the current president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the... President Rafsanjani Akbar Hashemi Bahramani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی بهرمانی), famously known as Hashemi Rafsanjani (هاشمی رفسنجانی) (born August 25, 1934) is one of the most influential... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... A gas is one of the four major phases of matter (after solid and liquid, and followed by plasma, that subsequently appear as a solid material is subjected to increasingly higher temperatures. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a treaty, opened for signature on July 1, 1968, restricting the possession of nuclear weapons. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...

President Ahmadinejad speaking at "The World without Zionism" conference
President Ahmadinejad speaking at "The World without Zionism" conference

in October 2005, Ahmadinejad held a conference titled "The World without Zionism" In the speech, Ahmadinejad gave the examples of Iran under the Shah, the Soviet Union and Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq as examples of apparently invincible regimes that ceased to exist and that " he hoped the Zionist regime occupying Jerusalem, would collapse."[3] In Western Media this was later translated as Ahmadinejad calling for genocide and for "Israel to be wiped of the map." Iran’s foreign minister denied that Tehran wanted to see Israel "wiped off the map, "saying Ahmadinejad had been misunderstood. " Iran's stated policy on Israel is to urge a one-state solution through a countrywide referendum in which a government would be elected that all Palestinians and all Israelis would jointly vote for; which would normally be an end to the "Zionist state". Iran's supreme leader Ayatollah Khamenei, rejecting any attack on Israel, called for a referendum in Palestine. Ahmadinejad himself has also repeatedly called for such solution.[5][6][7][8] In an interview with Time magazine:[9] Image File history File links The_world_without_Zionism. ... Image File history File links The_world_without_Zionism. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Shah is a Persian term for a monarch (king or emperor) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein ʻAbd al-Majid al-Tikrītī (Often spelt Husayn or Hussain; Arabic صدام حسين عبدالمجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... Ballots of the Argentine plebiscite of 1984 on the border treaty with Chile A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi Lotter...

TIME: You have been quoted as saying Israel should be wiped off the map. Was that merely rhetoric, or do you mean it?
Ahmadinejad: Our suggestion is that the 5 million Palestinian refugees come back to their homes, and then the entire people on those lands hold a referendum and choose their own system of government. This is a democratic and popular way.

In a speech given on 14 December 2005 in the city of Zahedan, and carried live on Iranian television, Ahmadinejad reportedly made the following comments: December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Zahedan (Persian: زاهدان) is an Iranian city and the center of the province of Sistan and Baluchistan. ...

If the Europeans are telling the truth in their claim that they have killed six million Jews in the Holocaust during the World War II - which seems they are right in their claim because they insist on it and arrest and imprison those who oppose it, why should the Palestinian nation pay for the crime. Why have they come to the very heart of the Islamic world and are committing crimes against the dear Palestine using their bombs, rockets, missiles and sanctions. [...] The same European countries have imposed the illegally-established Zionist regime on the oppressed nation of Palestine. If you have committed the crimes so give a piece of your land somewhere in Europe or America and Canada or Alaska to them to set up their own state there. Then the Iranian nation will have no objections, will stage no rallies on the Qods Day and will support your decision.[10]

According to United States media:

They have invented a myth that Jews were massacred and place this above God, religions and the prophets. The West has given more significance to the myth of the genocide of the Jews, even more significant than God, religion, and the prophets, (it) deals very severely with those who deny this myth but does not do anything to those who deny God, religion, and the prophet. If you have burned the Jews, why don't you give a piece of Europe, the United States, Canada or Alaska to Israel? Our question is, if you have committed this huge crime, why should the innocent nation of Palestine pay for this crime? [11]

The latter translation came to be interpreted as if Ahmadinejad called the Holocaust a myth and in response to it, a variety of sources, including the U.S. Senate, [12] have accused Ahmadinejad of antisemitism. Ahmadinejad has recently insisted that he is not an antisemite, saying Some people think if they accuse me of being anti-Jew they can solve the problem. No, I am not Anti-Jew. I respect them very much. [13] Further Ahmadinejad states that "Myth of Holocaust" is interpreted by some to mean the myth that Israel can never be wrong, because of the Holocaust, and not a denial that the historical event occurred. That Ahmadinejad denied the Holocaust is disputed. Some say that he was only criticizing the use of the Holocaust in justifying the existence of the Israeli regime. According to Information Clearing House[14] Ahmadinejad was criticizing the exploitation of the Holocaust to promote the Israeli regime, and his words were taken out of context and made to look like he was denying the Holocaust. Iran's parliament speaker, Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel, said the Western media empire is trying to portray Iran as an anti-Semitic country. However, our support for Palestinians should not be interpreted as anti-Semitism. He added If our president questions Holocaust, It does not mean that Iran believes in anti-Semitism. In our history, there were no anti-Semitism or genocide.[15][16] The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling Hate speech · Hate crime Lynching · Gay bashing Genocide · Holocaust Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing Pogrom · Race war Religious persecution Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism White/Black supremacy Hate groups · Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism Womens/Universal suffrage Civil rights · Gay rights Childrens rights · Youth rights Policies Discriminatory... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Haddad-Adel Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel (غلامعلی حداد عادل in Persian) born in 1945 in Tehran, Iran, is the chairman of the Iranian Parliament. ...


In Feb., 2006, the IAEA voted to report Iran to the UN Security Council. In response Iran resumed uranium enrichment and ended surprise IAEA inspections and surveillance of its nuclear facilties. The Security Council called (March) for Iran to suspend its nuclear research program in 30 days, but the statement left unclear what if any response there would be if Iran refused. On April 11, 2006, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announced that Iran had successfully enriched uranium. President Ahmadinejad made the announcement in a televised address from the northeastern city of Mashhad, where he said "I am officially announcing that Iran joined the group of those countries which have nuclear technology." The uranium was enriched to 3.5% using over a hundred centrifuges. At this level, it could be used in a nuclear reactor. A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ... Mashhad (also spelt Mashad, Persian: ‎ ) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shia world. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A laboratory centrifuge A centrifuge is used for centrifugation. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ...

 Dr.Mahmoud Ahmadinejad 6th President of Iran
Dr.Mahmoud Ahmadinejad 6th President of Iran

The enrichment program caused the nations involved China, France, Germany, Russia, the United States, and the EU to refer the issue back to the Security Council in July, 2006. The Council set an Aug. 31 deadline for Iran to stop enrichment, but Iran insisted it would continue its program and ignored the deadline. The Council's veto-holding nations were divided over the subsequent U.S. call for sanctions, and the situation remained unresolved; in October Iran announced it had expanded its enrichment facilities. Image File history File linksMetadata Ahmadinejad_New_York_2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ahmadinejad_New_York_2005. ...   (Persian: ‎ ​, IPA: ), transcribed into English as Mahmud or Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad, Ahmady Nejad) (born October 28, 1956) is the current president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... Deadline can refer to several things: A deadline is a point in time at which something must be completed. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sanctions is the plural of sanction (see also penalty). ... Enrichment may mean: Education. ...


On May 8, 2006, Ahmadinejad sent a personal letter to United States President George Bush to propose "new ways" to end Iran's nuclear dispute. In the letter, Ahmadinejad also questions 911. Could it be planned and executed without coordination with intelligence and security services – or their extensive infiltration? Of course this is just an educated guess. Why have the various aspects of the attacks been kept secret? Why are we not told who botched their responsibilities? And, why aren’t those responsible and the guilty parties identified and put on trial? It was the first direct contact between the American and Iranian heads of state since April 9, 1980. U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and National Security Adviser Stephen Hadley both reviewed the letter and dismissed it as a negotiating ploy and publicity stunt and considered it to be a broad, historic look at the United States-Iran relations. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Mahmoud Ahmadinejads letter to George W. Bush (8 May 2006) On May 8, 2006, Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad sent a letter directly to United States President George W. Bush that proposed new ways to end the dispute over Irans development... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, a variety of conspiracy theories have emerged about the attacks which contradict the mainstream account of events that day. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Stephen J. Hadley, Assistant to the President For National Security Affairs in George W. Bushs second term administration. ... The media itself often stages stunts for movies and television shows. ... History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ... Political relations between Iran (Persia) and the United States began when the Shah of Persia, Nassereddin Shah Qajar, officially dispatched Persias first ambassador, Mirza Abolhasan Shirazi (ميرزا ابولحسن شيرازی), to Washington D.C. in the mid to late 1800s. ...


On December 11, 2006 the "International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust" opened, to widespread condemnation. The conference, called for by and held at the behest of Ahmadinejad, was in the media widely described as a "Holocaust denial conference" or a "meeting of Holocaust deniers", though Iran insists it is not a Holocaust denial conference but to provide a scientific atmosphere for scholars to offer their opinions in freedom about a historical issue."[17] Participants on the first day of the conference. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... View of Jupiters active atmosphere, including the Great Red Spot. ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline. ... Look up freedom in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ...


On 23 December 2006, the United Nations Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 1737, Ahmadinejad said that sanctions cannot dissuade Iranians from their decision to make progress. "On the contrary, many of our successes, including access to the nuclear fuel cycle and producing of heavy water, have been achieved under sanctions. The US have sought to impose sanctions on Iran for its non-compliance. banning the supply of specific nuclear materials and technology to Iran, and freezing the assets of individuals and companies linked to Iran's nuclear program. The resolution also specifies that if Iran fails to suspend nuclear enrichment, further sanctions may follow. The Iranian Ambassador, M. Javad Zarif, also replied to the resolution, A nation is being punished for exercising its inalienable rights, accusing the council of acting at the “behest of a dangerous regime with aggression and war crimes as its signature brand of behavior,” referring to Israel, whose Prime Minister, Ehud Olmert, allegedly took steps towards the disambiguation of Israel's suspected nuclear arsenal.[18] , sometimes also transcribed into English as Mahmud, Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad (Persian: ; born October 28, 1956), is the sixth president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Progress can refer to: The idea of a process in which societies or individuals become better or more modern (technologically and/or socially). ... In business and accounting an asset is anything owned, whether in possession or by right to take possession, by a person or a group acting together, e. ... Ambassador Mohammad Javad Zarif His Excellency Dr. Mohammad Javad Zarif (Persian: محمد جواد ظریف), born January 8, 1960, is the current Permanent Representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations. ... The term inalienable rights (or unalienable rights) refers to a set of human rights that are absolute, not awarded by human power, not transferable to another power, and incapable of repudiation. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... Ehud Olmert (IPA ; Hebrew: אהוד אולמרט; born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ... Israel is widely believed to possess a substantial arsenal of nuclear weapons and intermediate-range ballistic missiles to deliver them. ...


Iran says that nuclear power is necessary for a booming population and rapidly industrializing. It points to the fact that Iran's population has more than doubled in 20 years, the country regularly imports gasoline and electricity, and that burning fossil fuel in large amounts severely harms Iran's environment. Additionally, Iran wishes to diversify its sources of energy. Iran also faces financial constraints, and claims that developing the excess capacity in its oil industry would cost it $40 billion, let alone pay for the power plants. Roger Stern from Johns Hopkins University partially concurred with this view, projecting that due to "energy subsidies", disencouragement to foreign investment, and inefficiencies of its Iranian state-planned economy, Iranian oil exports would vanish by 2014–2015. Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... Three small ammonite fossils, each approximately 1. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Natural olive oil Synthetic motor oil Oil, in a general sense, is a chemical compound that is not miscible with water, and is in a liquid state at ambient temperatures. ... The Hobgoblin character co-created by Stern. ... Johns Hopkins Johns Hopkins (May 19, 1795 – December 24, 1873) was a Baltimore businessman, a Quaker, an abolitionist, and a philanthropist. ... The Iranian constitution prohibits the granting of petroleum rights on a concessionary basis or direct equity stake. ... According to the Article 44 of Constitution, the economy of Iran is to consist of three sectors: state, cooperative, and private; and is to be based on systematic and sound planning. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...


See also

Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... This article is about Irans civilian nuclear program. ... This article is about the current international crisis related to Islamic Republic of Iran. ...

References

  1. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica.
  2. ^ The Iranian Revolution.
  3. ^ Ruhollah Khomeini, Encyclopedia Britannica.
  4. ^ Iran Islamic Republic, Encyclopedia Britannica.
  5. ^ http://www.president.ir/eng/ahmadinejad/cronicnews/1385/05/12/#b2
  6. ^ http://www.president.ir/eng/ahmadinejad/cronicnews/1385/04/12/index-e.htm#b1
  7. ^ http://www.president.ir/eng/ahmadinejad/cronicnews/1385/03/22/#b1
  8. ^ http://www.president.ir/eng/ahmadinejad/cronicnews/1385/03/12/#b1
  9. ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1535777-2,00.html
  10. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/iran/2005/iran-051214-irna02.htm
  11. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/meast/12/14/iran.israel/index.html
  12. ^ Condemning antisemitic Statements of the President of Iran
  13. ^ BBC News, Iranian leader 'not anti-Semite'
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ isna.ir
  16. ^ [http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-16/0603047961155741.htm
  17. ^
  18. ^ "Iran rejects U.N. resolution and accuses Security Council of hypocrisy", San Diego Union Tribune, 2006-12-23. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.

 
 

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