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Encyclopedia > History of Hinduism

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Hinduism Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...

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History · Deities
Denominations
Literature Image File history File links Om. ... Within Hinduism a large number of personalities, or forms, are worshipped as murtis. ... Hinduism encompasses many movements and schools fairly organized within Hindu denominations. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ...

Beliefs and practices

Dharma · Artha · Kama
Moksha · Karma · Samsara
Yoga · Bhakti · Maya · Puja
Mandir Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... Artha is a Sanskrit term referring to the idea of material prosperity. ... Kāma (Skt. ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ... Karma is a concept in Hinduism, based on the Vedas and Upanishads, which explains causality through a system where beneficial events are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful events from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a persons reincarnated lives. ... For other uses, see Samsara (disambiguation). ... For other uses such as Yoga postures, see Yoga (disambiguation) Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Sanskrit: योग Yoga, IPA: ) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ... Bhakti (Devanāgarī: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ... Maya (illusion) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A puja as performed in Ujjain during the Monsoon on the banks of the overflowing river Shipra. ... The Gopuram of temples, in south India, are adorned with colourful icons depicting a particular story surrounding the temples deity. ...

Scriptures

Vedas · Upanishads
Ramayana · Mahabharata
Bhagavad Gita · Purana
others Template:Hindu scriptures - Vedic Scriptures Hindu scripture, which is known as Shastra is predominantly written in Sanskrit. ... Veda redirects here. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... The following is a bibliography of Hindu scriptures and texts. ...

Related topics

Hinduism by country
Gurus and saints
Reforms · Ayurveda
Calendar · Criticism
Festivals · Glossary
Jyotisha Hinduism - Percentage by country The percentage of Hindu population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004. ... These are some of the most noteworthy Gurus and Saints of Hinduism (in alphabetical order): A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada Adi Shankara Akhandanand Mata Amritanandamayi Sri Aurobindo Baba Lokenath Brahmachari Bhakti Tirtha Swami Bhakti Vaibhava Puri Maharaj Bhagawan Nityananda Bhagwan Swaminarayan Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Chinmayananda Sri Chinmoy Dharmsamrat Paramhans Swami Madhavananda... Hinduism is going through a phase of regeneration and reform through the vehicle of several contemporary movements, collectively termed as Hindu reform movements. ... Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Glossary of terms in Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Jyotisha (, in Hindi and English usage Jyotish; sometimes called Hindu astrology, Indian astrology, and/or Vedic astrology) is the Hindu system of astrology, one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, and regarded as one of the oldest schools of ancient astrology to have had an independent origin, affecting all other...

Hindu swastika Image File history File links HinduSwastika. ...

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Hinduism, includes survivals of traditions of the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilization and of Proto-Indo-Iranian traditions during the Iron Age Vedic religion and the historical Shramana traditions. Classical Hinduism emerges with the initial decline of Buddhism in India from the 2nd century BCE. Classical Hindu philosophy had six branches, evolving from about the 2nd century BCE to the 6th century CE, viz. Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa, and Vedanta. Shaivism and Vaishnavism developed during this same period; they were frequently antagonistic. By Adi Shankara's time around 700-800 CE, Smartism arose. Hinduism under the Islamic Rulers saw the increasing prominence of the Bhakti movement, which remains influential today. Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... The term Indo-Iranian includes all speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, i. ... The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent succeeds the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture, also known as the last phase of the Indus Valley Tradition. ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... A (Sanskrit) or (Pāli) is a wandering monk in certain ascetic traditions of ancient India, including: Jainism Buddhism Ājīvika religion (now extinct) Mahavira, the 24th Jina, and Gautama Buddha were leaders of their shramana orders. ... The Decline of Buddhism in India, in the land of its birth occurred for a variety of reasons, and happened even as it continued to flourish beyond the frontiers of India. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the six schools of classical Indian philosophy. ... Raja Yoga (lit. ... (Sanskrit ni-āyá, literally recursion, used in the sense of syllogism, inference)) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy—specifically the school of logic. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... This article is about the religion Shaivism. ... Vaishnavism is one of the principal traditions of Hinduism, and is distinguished from other schools by its primary worship of Vishnu (and his associated avatars) as the Supreme God. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, Devanāgarī: , , IPA: ); c. ... Smartism[1], (or Smarta Sampradaya, Smarta Tradition, as termed in Sanskrit), is a denomination of the Hindu religion. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ...


The colonial period saw the emergence of various Hindu reform movements partly inspired as reactions against western civilization, including spiritism (Theosophy) and the national mysticism of the time. The Partition of India in 1947 was along religious lines, with the Republic of India emerging as the successor state of British India with a strong Hindu majority (about 80%) and Pakistan with a Muslim majority. During the 20th century, due to the Indian diaspora, Hindu minorities have formed in all continents, with the largest communities in the United States and the United Kingdom. In the Republic of India, Hindu nationalism has emerged as a strong political force since the 1980s, the religious right Bharatiya Janata Party even forming the Government of India from 1999 to 2004. It has been suggested that European colonies in India be merged into this article or section. ... Hinduism is going through a phase of regeneration and reform through the vehicle of several contemporary movements, collectively termed as Hindu reform movements. ... Theosophy is a word and a concept known anciently, commonly understood in the modern era to describe the studies of religious philosophy and metaphysics originating with Helena Petrovna Blavatsky from the 1870s. ... This article is about National Mysticism of all cultures. ... This article is under construction. ... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ... A non-resident Indian (NRI) is an Indian citizen who has migrated to another country. ... Hindu nationalism is a nationalist ideology that sees the modern state of the Republic of India as a Hindu polity [1] (Hindu Rashtra), and seeks to preserve the Hindu heritage. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , translation: Indian Peoples Party), created in 1980, is a major right wing Indian political party. ... Judiciary Supreme Court of India Chief Justice of India High Courts District Courts Elections Political Parties Local & State Govt. ...

Contents

Predecessors

Predecessors of Hinduism are some of the religious traditions of the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilization, showing the earliest evidence for elements of Hinduism present before and during the early Harappan period[1][2], and the late Bronze Age and Iron Age Vedic Religion. Consequently, Hinduism is regarded as one of the oldest surviving religions in the world.[3] Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The term Indus Valley Tradition is used to refer to the cultures of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra rivers, stretching from the Neolithic Mehrgarh period down to the Iron Age or Indo-Gangetic Tradition. ... The religion of the Vedic civilization is the predecessor of classical Hinduism, usually included in the term. ...


Archaeology

The excavations of the pre-Vedic Indus Valley Civilization, has not yielded much evidence of religious activity, for example communal temples. However, there is sufficient evidence that the civilization was not purely secular. Only one Indus civilization graveyard has been found and excavated. It has not yielded elaborate royal burials, but the personal possessions buried with the bodies may indicate that these people believed in an afterlife, in which they would need these things. The Hindu Shiva lingam has been found in the Harappan remains[4]. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... It has been suggested that Shiva lingham stones be merged into this article or section. ...


Many male and female figurines that some regard as gods have been discovered. Some may have signified creativity and the origin and continuity of life, and they may have been worshipped as symbolic embodiments of the female principle as "Mother Goddesses". Recently, scholars have begun to deny the divine character of these female figures [5] Some scholars have seen ancient Dravidian and Mathura feminine divinity sculptures in groups of seven that date back to the Harappan era which mirror the Hindu belief in seven Mother Goddess (Devi). The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River and the Vedic Sarasvati River in present-day Pakistan. ... A Cucuteni culture statuette, 4th millennium BC. A mother goddess is a goddess, often portrayed as the Earth Mother, who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ... It has been suggested that Shri Vidya be merged into this article or section. ...

An Indus Valley seal with the seated figure termed pashupati

Figures of what may be a male deity with elaborate horns (or horned headgear) have also been uncovered. He is typically seen surrounded by animals. A very similar figure has been found in Denmark; it represents the Celtic god Cernunnos "the horned one" (see Cernunnos Wikipedia entry). The Indus figure has, anachronistically, been called by the c. 1000 years later Vedic Sanskrit term Pashupati, (the Lord of Animals), as he is seen by some to be the prototype of Hinduism's Shiva Pashupati. In Shaivism, Shiva has absorbed the names, stories and attributes of the Vedic Pashupati, by which name he is still commonly known, and also the Vedic 'Rudra.' Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Pashupati(Sanskrit: lord of animals) is a god associated with animals and nature. ... Pashupati(Sanskrit: lord of animals) is a god associated with animals and nature. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... Pashupati(Sanskrit: lord of animals) is a god associated with animals and nature. ... This article is about the religion Shaivism. ... Rudra (Sanskrit: रुद्रः) (Howler) is a Rigvedic God of the storm, the hunt, death, Nature and the Wind. ...


Vedas

Main articles: Vedas and historical Vedic religion

The earliest literature of Hinduism is made up of the four Vedas: the Rig-Veda, Sama-Veda, Yajur-Veda and the Atharva-Veda. Of these, the Rig-Veda is the oldest surviving work. These texts were orally created in the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age, and transmitted through oral tradition. However, many Hindus believe that the Vedas were transmitted for perhaps 8000 years (Fisher)[citation needed] and that the eternal, non-human created Vedas were revealed to the Saptarshi, who 'heard' them: the designation Shruti for all Vedic texts is derived from this. Veda redirects here. ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... Veda redirects here. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛgveda from ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is a collection of hymns(each hymn is called a Rucha.) counted among the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas, and contains the oldest texts preserved in any Indo-Iranian language. ... The Samaveda (Sanskrit: सामवेद, sāmaveda, a tatpurusha compound ot ritual chant + knowledge ), is third in the usual order of enumeration of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. ... The Yajur Veda (Sanskrit from sacrifice + veda knowledge) यजुर्वेदः is one of the four Hindu Vedas; it contains religious texts focussing on liturgy and ritual. ... The Atharva Veda is a sacred text of Hinduism, part of the four books of the Vedas. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... Mary Pat Fisher is the director for international correspondence at the Gobind Sadan Institute of New Delhi. ... Saptaŗişhi or Saptarşi (सप्तर्षि, pronounced as səptərŞhi) in Sanskrit means the Seven Sages or rishis who are extolled at many places in the Vedas and other Hindu literature. ...


The earliest text of the Vedas is the Rig-Veda, a collection of poetic hymns used in the sacrificial rites of Vedic priesthood. Most of the Rig-Veda concerns the fire ritual and especially the offering of Soma to the gods. Soma is both an intoxicant and a god itself. The gods in the Rig-Veda are mostly personified concepts, who fall into two categories: the devas, who were gods of nature, such as the King of the gods, the weather deity Indra, Agni ("fire"), and Ushas ("dawn"), Surya "sun", Apas "waters", and on the other hand, the asuras, gods of moral concepts, such as Mitra ("contract"), Aryaman (guardian of guest friendship and marriage), Bhaga "share" or Varuna, the supreme Asura (or Aditya). Veda redirects here. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit á¹›gveda from á¹›c praise + veda knowledge) is a collection of hymns(each hymn is called a Rucha.) counted among the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas, and contains the oldest texts preserved in any Indo-Iranian language. ... The Vedic priesthood is the collective term for the priests of the Vedic religion(similar to witch doctors of tribal africa). ... This article is about the Vedic plant and ritual. ... For other uses, see Deva (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. ... Ushas (उषः úṣas-), Sanskrit for dawn, is the chief goddess (sometimes imagined as several goddesses, Dawns) exalted in the Rigveda. ... For the intercontinental ballistic missile, see Surya (missile). ... // In Hinduism In Hindu mythology, the Asura (Sanskrit: असुर) are a group of power-seeking deities, sometimes misleadingly referred to as demons. ... This article is about the Vedic deity Mitra. ... In Hinduism, Aryman is a solar deity and one of the Adityas. ... In Hinduism, Bhaga is an ancient god of wealth and marriage, and one of the Adityas. ... In Vedic religion, Varuna (Devanagari:वरुण, IAST:) is a god of the sky, of rain and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. ...


The Rigveda verses have been composed by well over 12 main rishis. It has 10 Mandalas ('books'). There is significant variation in the language and style between the first nine and the later book 10. The text assigns functions or roles to each Deva or Devi. For example, Varuna is connected with Water, Vayu with wind. Others like Agni, Soma, Mitra, Yama, Ushas or Aditi have their assigned roles.


While Rigvedic deva is variously applied to most gods, including many of the Asuras, the Devas are characterized as Younger Gods while Asuras are the Older Gods (pūrve devāḥ). In subsequent Vedic texts, the Asuras have become demons.


Evolution of Hindu Philosophy

From prehistoric times of Vedic civilization up to the Gupta Empire era, Hindu philosophy, theology and mythology were constantly evolving. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Hinduism and Jainism

Main article: Hinduism and Jainism

As opposed to Vedic tradition of Hinduism, Jainism follows shamanic tradition and is heavily influenced by Hinduism. The main disagreement today remains over the rejection of the Vedas, although Hindu society has to a large extent embraced ahimsa and vegetarianism. Jain scriptures are many and varied. Jain scripture rejects both the Hindu Vedas and non-Jain writings as sources of religious authority and practice. The Hindu Vedic (and generally theistic) concepts of divine creation, preservation and destruction are criticised in Jain scriptures such as the Mahavira Charitam[citation needed]. Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products[1] [2]. The reasons for choosing vegetarianism may be related to morality, religion, culture, ethics, aesthetics, environment, society, economy, politics, taste, or health. ...


It is notable however that many, if not most in the Jain community practice Hinduism such as worship of Hindu gods as in Jain temples.


Hinduism and Buddhism

Main article: Hinduism and Buddhism

When Mauryan Emperor Ashoka converted to Buddhism with the guide of his mentor Radhaswami and Manjushri, he sponsored the growth of schools and monasteries, and sent missions to West Asia He is also believed to have sent missions to Sri Lanka and the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. During this and the following periods, Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism grew side by side influencing each other. There was a substantial Buddhist community living in the Indus basin until the Islamic conquest. Later Hindu scriptures, such as the Bhagavata purana, describe the Buddha as an incarnation of Vishnu.[6][7] Buddhism and Hinduism are two closely related religions that are in some ways parallel to each other and in other ways divergent in theory and practice. ... Buddha giving the Sermon in the Deer Park, depicted at Wat Chedi Liem-KayEss Gautama Buddha is mentioned as an Avatar of Vishnu in the Puranic texts of Hinduism. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the 7th to the 12th centuries. ... The Bhagavata Purana (sometimes rendered as Bhagavatha Purana), also known as the Srimad Bhagavatam, written c. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ...


There arose several kingdoms of Hindu monarchs that worshiped Buddha. For example Harsha worshiped Buddha on one day, Shiva on one and Surya on the other. The Pala Dynasty of eastern India created Vaishnavite temples of all king including of Varaha and Buddha. The Satavahana Dynasty was another dynasty that followed this tratition in southern India. Varaha is the third avatar of Vishnu, a boar sent to defeat Hiranyaksha, a demon who had taken the Earth (prthivi) and carried it to the bottom of what is described as the cosmic ocean in the story. ... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted...


The Golden Age

Main article: Gupta Empire

The Gupta dynasty ruled northern India (the north of the Vindhyas), between fourth and sixth centuries of the common era. Though not as vast as Mauryan empire, Gupta rule has left a deep and wide cultural impact not only in the subcontinent but on the adjacent Asian countries as well. The practice of dedicating temples to different deities came into vogue followed by fine artistic temple architecture and sculpture. Books on medicine, veterinary science, mathematics, astronomy and astrophysics were written. The famous Aryabhata and Varahamihira belong to this age. The Gupta established a strong central government which also allowed a degree of local control. Gupta society was ordered in accordance with Hindu beliefs. This included a strict caste system, or class system. The peace and prosperity created under Gupta leadership enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors. The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ...


Adi Shankara and the establishment of Vedanta

Main article: Adi Shankara

At the time of Adi Shankara's life (c. 788 – 820 CE), Hinduism had began to decline because of the influence of Buddhism and Jainism. Hinduism had become divided into innumerable sects, each quarrelling with the others. The followers of Mimamsa and Sankhya philosophy had become atheists, in so much that they did not believe in God as a unified being. Besides these atheists, there were numerous theistic sects also. Also there were those who rejected the Vedas, like the Charvakas. Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, DevanāgarÄ«: , , IPA: ); c. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य) is a school of Indian philosophy, and is one of the six astika or Hindu philosophical schools of India. ... Ishvara (Sanskrit lord, master, from an adjective capable) is a philosophical concept in Hinduism, similar to the Abrahamic concept of God. ... Carvaka, also frequently transliterated as Charvaka, and also known as Lokayata, is a thoroughly materialist and atheist school of thought with ancient roots in India. ...


Adi Shankara held debates with the leading scholars of all these sects and schools of philosophy to controvert their doctrines. He unified the theistic sects into a common framework of Shanmata system. In his works, Adi Shankara stressed the importance of the Vedas, and his efforts helped Hinduism regain strength and popularity. He travelled on foot to various parts of India to restore the study of the Vedas. Shanmata (IAST ) is the system of worship founded by Adi Shankara, the 8th century CE Hindu philosopher. ...


Even though he lived for only thirty-two years, his impact on India and on Hinduism cannot be stressed enough. He reintroduced a purer form of Vedic thought. His teachings and tradition form the basis of Smartism and have influenced Sant Mat lineages.[8] He is the main figure in the tradition of Advaita Vedanta. He is the founder of the Dashanami Sampradaya of Hindu monasticism and Shanmata tradition of worship. He travelled all over India (Kerala to Kashmir and Nepal) three times over and was a major cause in the revival and integration of Sanatana Dharma. The mathas he founded are very much active today and form a major guiding force for Hinduism. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Hinduism, a Sampradaya is a tradition of disciplic succession serving as a spiritual channel and encompassing a common philosophy embraced by many schools, groups, or guru lineages (called parampara). ... Smartism[1], (or Smarta Sampradaya, Smarta Tradition, as termed in Sanskrit), is a denomination of the Hindu religion. ... Sant Mat translates from Hindi into English as The Religion of the Saints. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Sanskrit ; IPA ) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... Dasanami Sampradaya (IAST ), literally Tradition of Ten Names, is a Hindu monastic tradition established by Adi Shankara in the 8th century CE in India. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Shanmata (IAST ) is the system of worship founded by Adi Shankara, the 8th century CE Hindu philosopher. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... A maţha (also written math, matha or mutt) is a term for monastic and similar religious establishments of the Hindu and Jain traditions. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


Adi Shankara, along with Madhva and Ramanuja, was instrumental in the revival of Hinduism. These three teachers formed the doctrines that are followed by their respective sects even today. They have been the most important figures in the recent history of Hindu philosophy. In their writings and debates, they provided polemics against the non-Vedantic schools of Sankhya, Vaisheshika etc. Thus they paved the way for Vedanta to be the dominant and most widely followed tradition among the schools of Hindu philosophy. The Vedanta school stresses most on the Upanishads (which are themselves called Vedanta, End or culmination of the Vedas), unlike the other schools that gave importance to texts authored by their founders. The Vedanta schools have the belief that the Vedas, which include the Upanishads, are unauthored, forming a continuous tradition of wisdom transmitted orally. Thus the concept of apaurusheyatva (being unauthored) came to be the guiding force behind the Vedanta schools. However, along with stressing the importance of Vedic tradition, Adi Shankara gave equal importance to the personal experience of the student also. Logic, grammar, Mimamsa and allied subjects also form main areas of study in all the Vedanta schools. For Madhavacharya the Advaita saint, see Madhava Vidyaranya. ... Ramanuja Tamil: ,  [?] (traditionally 1017–1137) was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... For the pen name of D. Murdock, see Acharya S. An acharya is an important religious teacher. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य) is a school of Indian philosophy, and is one of the six astika or Hindu philosophical schools of India. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... Veda redirects here. ... In Hinduism, a Sampradaya is a tradition of disciplic succession serving as a spiritual channel and encompassing a common philosophy embraced by many schools, groups, or guru lineages (called parampara). ... The development of logic in India dates back to the analysis of inference by Aksapada Gautama, founder of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy, probably in the first or second centuries BCE, and so stands as one of the three original traditions of logic, alongside the Greek and Chinese traditions. ... The Sanskrit grammatical tradition of , is one of the six Vedanga disciplines. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ...


Cultural expansion in South-East Asia

Expansion of Hinduism in Southeast Asia.
Expansion of Hinduism in Southeast Asia.

During the 1st century, the trade on the overland Silk Road tended to be restricted by the rise in the Middle-East of the Parthian empire, an unvanquished enemy of Rome, just as Romans were becoming extremely wealthy and their demand for Asian luxury was rising. This demand revived the sea connections between the Mediterranean and China, with India as the intermediary of choice. From that time, through trade connection, commercial settlements, and even political interventions, India started to strongly influence Southeast Asian countries. Trade routes linked India with southern Burma, central and southern Siam, lower Cambodia and southern Vietnam, and numerous urbanized coastal settlements were established there. Image File history File links Cultural_expansion_of_Hinduism_in_Southeast_Asia. ... Image File history File links Cultural_expansion_of_Hinduism_in_Southeast_Asia. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... The traditional Middle East and the G8s Greater Middle East Political & transportation map of the traditional Middle East today The Middle East is a historical and political region of Africa-Eurasia with no clear definition. ... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ...


For more than a thousand years, Indian influence was therefore the major factor that brought a certain level of cultural unity to the various countries of the region. The Pali and Sanskrit languages and the Indian script, together with Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism, Brahmanism, and Hinduism, were transmitted from direct contact and through sacred texts and Indian literature such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda (cf Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda); literally, the Teaching of the Elders, or the Ancient Teaching) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Brahmanism, also Brahminism, is the name given to Hinduism by some authors in the 19th century CE.[1] The term is considered derogatory by many Hindus. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


From the 5th to the 13th century, South-East Asia had very powerful empires and became extremely active in Buddhist architectural and artistic creation. The Sri Vijaya Empire to the south and the Khmer Empire to the north competed for influence. Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Srivijaya (-jaya meaning success or excellence) was an ancient kingdom on the island of Sumatra which was to influence much of the Malay Archipelago. ... Map of Asia and Europe c. ...


Southeast Asian Hindu kingdoms

Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for "resplendent land" -sukkha of "bliss") was an ancient Hindu kingdom located in the Malay Peninsula. The kingdom along with Old Kedah are probably the earliest kingdom founded on the Malay Peninsula. According to tradition the founding of the kingdom happened in the 2nd century. Malay legends claim that Langkasuka was founded at Kedah, and later moved to Pattani. Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... State anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Capital Alor Star Royal capital Anak Bukit Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim  - Menteri Besar Mahdzir Khalid History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 9,426 km² Population  - 2003 estimate 1,778,188  - Density... This article is about southern province of Thailand. ...


Pan Pan is a lost Hindu Kingdom believed to be exist around 3rd-5th Century CE. somewhere in Kelantan or Terengganu, Malaysia. A call of pan-pan is a very urgent message concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or persons on board who require immediate assistance. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... State motto: Berserah kepada Tuhan Kerajaan Kelantan State anthem: Selamat Sultan Capital (and royal capital) Kota Bharu Ruling party PAS  - Sultan Tuanku Ismail Petra  - Menteri Besar Nik Aziz Nik Mat History    - Siamese control 1603   - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942-1946   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 14... State motto: Islam Hadhari Terengganu Bestari State anthem: Terengganu State Anthem Capital (and royal capital) Kuala Terengganu Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin1  - Menteri Besar Idris Jusoh History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 12,955 km² Population  - 2005...


Gangga Negara was believed to be a lost Hindu kingdom somewhere in the state of Perak, Malaysia, ruled by Raja Gangga Shah Johan. Researchers believed that the kingdom collapsed after an attack by King Rajendra Chola I of Coromandel, South India, between 1025 and 1026. Gangga Negara was believed to be a lost Hindu kingdom somewhere in the state of Perak, Malaysia. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Perak (disambiguation). ... Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. ... Coromandel can refer to several places: For the town and peninsula in New Zealand, see Coromandel, New Zealand and Coromandel Peninsula For the southeastern Indian coastline, see Coromandel Coast For the city in Minas Gerais, Brazil, see Coromandel (Minas Gerais) Coromandel, Mauritius is a community in Mauritius This is a... Events Archbishop Ariberto crowns Conrad II King of Italy in Milan. ...


From the 5th-15th centuries Sri Vijayan empire, a maritime empire centered on the island of Sumatra in Indonesia, had adopted Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism under a line of rulers named the Sailendras. The Empire of Sri Vijaya declined due to conflicts with the Chola rulers of India, before being destabilized by the Islamic invasion of India from the 13th century. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Srivijaya (-jaya meaning success or excellence) was an ancient kingdom on the island of Sumatra which was to influence much of the Malay Archipelago. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Srivijaya (-jaya meaning success or excellence) was an ancient kingdom on the island of Sumatra which was to influence much of the Malay Archipelago. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the 7th to the 12th centuries. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


The Majapahit Empire succeeded the Singhasari empire. It was one of the last and greatest Hindu empires in the Malay Archipelago. The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. ... Singhasari was a kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292. ... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ...


Funan was a pre-Angkor Cambodian kingdom located around the Mekong delta, probably established by Mon-Khmer settlers speaking an Austro-Asiatic language. According to reports by two Chinese envoys, K'ang T'ai and Chu Ying, the state was established by an Indian Brahmin named Kaundinya, who in the first century C. E. was given instruction in a dream to take a magic bow from a temple and defeat a Khmer queen, Soma. Soma, the daughter of the king of the Nagas, married Kaundinya and their lineage became the royal dynasty of Funan. The myth had the advantage of providing the legitimacy of both an Indian Brahmin and the divinity of the cobras, who at that time were held in religious regard by the inhabitants of the region. Funan (Old Khmer Bnam, Modern Khmer Phnom (i. ... Map of the Angkor region in Cambodia. ... The Mekong is one of the world’s major rivers. ... The Mon-Khmer languages are the autochthonous languages of Indo-China. ... The Austroasiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia and India. ... The Sanskrit word denotes the scholar/teacher, priest, caste, class (), or tribe, that has been traditionally enjoined to live a life of learning, teaching and non-possessivenes . ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ...


The kingdom of Champa (or Lin-yi in Chinese records) controlled what is now south and central Vietnam from approximately 192 through 1697. The dominant religion of the Cham people was Hinduism and the culture was heavily influenced by India. Many Cham towers still stand in central Vietnam. The most significant example of Cham architecture is My Son near the Vietnamese city of Hoi An. South East Asia circa 1100 C.E. Champa territory in green. ... Commodus assassinated by a wrestler named Narcissus at the behest of Commodus concubine, chamberlain and Praetorian prefect. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... This article is about the Chav people of Asia. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... My son temple Mỹ Sơn is a temple complex, located in Quang Nam province in Vietnam, 69km south-west of Danang, was an imperial city during the Champa dynasty. ... Há»™i An   (Hui An: 會安) is a small city on the coast of the South China Sea in central Vietnam. ...


Later, from the 9th to the 13th century, the Mahayana Buddhist and Hindu Khmer Empire dominated much of the South-East Asian peninsula. Under the Khmer, more than 900 temples were built in Cambodia and in neighboring Thailand. Angkor was at the center of this development, with a temple complex and urban organization able to support around one million urban dwellers. This is the largest temple complex of the world , Angkor Wat , which stands here, built by the king Vishnuvardhan , a king of the dynasty that believed themselves to be incarnations of Vishnu. As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Map of Asia and Europe c. ... Map of the Angkor region in Cambodia. ...


Hinduism in the Medieval Ages

Muslim Invasion

Muslim rulers began to extend their rule across Hindu populated lands in the 8th century CE and Islam began to spread across the Indian-subcontinent over several centuries. Most converts were from Hinduism or Buddhism; the two dominant local religions. The prime drivers attributed to the conversions are: duress by the invaders, political expediency, oppressive legal/ legislative climate against Hindus and Buddhists, oppressive caste structure in Hindu society at the time, jizya, Sufi missionaries, inter-marriage and immigration from other Islamic lands. Many of the new Muslim rulers looked down upon Hindu Iconodulistic religious practices. and were to various degrees iconoclastic. In times of conflict they also took the liberty to sack Hindu temples, which were repositories of significant wealth. In addition, Hindus who were converted to Islam were called "Ajlaf" (the low-born) over the so-called "Arab-descended Ashraf" and subjected to the Caste system among South Asian Muslims. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Iconodules (or Iconophile) is someone who supports or is in favour of religious images, or icons, also known as Iconography, and is in opposition to an Iconoclast (someone against Iconography). ... Literally, iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other sacred images or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ... Caste system among South Asian Muslims refers to units of social stratification that have developed among Muslims in South Asia(largely the region that comprises India and Pakistan), despite Islams egalitarian tenets[1][2]. // Sources indicate that the castes among Muslims developed as the result of close contact with...


Goa Inquisition

Main article: Goa Inquisition

The Goa Inquisition was the office of the Inquisition acting in the Indian city of Goa and the rest of the Portuguese empire in Asia. Established in 1560, it was aimed primarily at Hindus and wayward new converts and by the time it was suppressed in 1774, the inquisition has had thousands of people converted, mostly by force and through torture. St. Francis Xavier, in a 1545 letter to John III, requested for an Inquisition to be installed in Goa. It was installed eight years after the death of Francis Xavier in 1552. St. ... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... This article is about the person. ... John III, King of Portugal KGF (Portuguese: João III pron. ... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ...


Bhakti Movement

Main article: Bhakti movement

Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. They are monotheistic movements generally devoted to worship of Shiva or Vishnu or Shakti. Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Bhakti (Devanāgarī: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... Lakshmi is a common aspect of Shakti Shakti meaning force, power or energy is the Hindu concept or personification of Gods female aspect, sometimes referred to as The Divine Mother. Shakti represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power. ...


The first documented bhakti movement was founded by Karaikkal-ammaiyar. She wrote poems in Tamil about her love for Shiva and probably lived around the 6th century CE. 1, 2, 3 The twelve Alvars who were Vaishnavite devotees and the sixty-three Nayanars who were Shaivite devotees nurtured the incipient bhakti movement in Tamil Nadu. They constitute South India's 75 Apostles of Bhakti. Karaikkal Ammaiyar is one of the 63 nayanmars. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Alvars are Hindu saints, followers of Lord Vishnu. ... The Nayanars were the sincere and ardent devotees of Lord Siva. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... South Indias 75 Apostles of Bhakti are the twelve Alvars (also, Aazhvaars, Aazhwaars) and sixty-three Nayanmars (also Nayanars, Naayanars, Naayanmaars). ...


During the 12th century CE, the bhakti movement took the form of the Virashaiva movement from Karnataka state inspired by Basavanna, a great Hindu reformer who created the sect of Lingayats or Shiva bhaktas. During this time, a unique and native form of Kannada literature-poetry called Vachanas was born. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Lingayatism is a religious movement in India. ... Basaveshvara Shree Basava (also known as Basaveshwara or Basavanna) is known as the reviver of the Veerashaiva (Lingayats) religion in India. ... Virasaivism is a religious movement of Hinduism in India. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Vachanas are a form of Kannada poetry and, according to the 20th century scholars, closely linked to the social revolution lead by Basaveshvara, Allama Prabhu and Akka Mahadevi. ...

The last Hindu empire of India - The Maratha Empire in 1760.

During the 14th - 17th century, the Bhakti movement called the haridasa movement was propagated in Kannada language by great saints of Karnataka like Purandaradasa, Kanakadasa, Vyasatirtha, guru Raghavendra Swami of Mantralaya, Gopaladasa, Vijaya Dasa, Jagannathadasa, Narahari tirtha, Sri Kamalesha Vitthala and others. During this time, the teachings of Madhvacharya were propagated through out south India, sowing the seeds of carnatic music and instilling a strong Hindu sentiment at a time when north India was ruled by Muslim empires. Image File history File links Marathas. ... Image File history File links Marathas. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... Sri Purandara Dasa (1494-1564) (the follower (dasa) of Lord Purandara Vittala [Lord Vishnu in one of his many avatars. ... Kanakadasa (c 1509-1609 A.D.) belongs to the tradition of Haridasa literary movement which ushered in an era of devotional literature in Karnataka. ... Vyasatirtha (1460-1539) (also known as Vyasaraja, Vyasaraayaru) was one of the foremost dialecticians in the history of Indian philosophy. ... Raghavendra Swami (1595-1671), one of the influential saints in Hinduism, lived in the 16th century. ... Vijaya Dasa (1682-1755) or Sri Vijaya Dasa was a prominant saint from the Haridasa tradition of Karnataka, India in the 18th century. ... For Madhavacharya the Advaita saint, see Madhava Vidyaranya. ... Carnatic music, also known as is one of the two styles of Indian classical music, the other being Hindustani music. ...

See also: Tulsidas, Kabir, Mirabai, and Chaitanya

Gosvāmī Tulsīdās (1532-1623; Devanāgarī: तुलसीदास) was an Awadhi poet and philosopher. ... A painting of Kabir Kabīr (also Kabīra) (Hindi: कबीर, Gurmukhī: ਕਬੀਰ, Urdu: ) (1440—1518[1]) (born in 1398 according to some accounts[1][2]) was a mystic poet or poet sants of India, whose literature has greatly influenced the Bhakti as well as Sufi movements of India. ... Mirabai (मीराबाई) (1498-1547) (sometimes also spelled Meera) was a female Hindu mystical poet whose compositions are popular throughout India. ... Deities of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu (right) and Sri Nityananda (left) at Radha-Krishna temple in Radhadesh, Belgium Caitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Chaitanya) (1486 - 1534), was an ascetic Hindu monk and social reformer in 16th century Bengal, India (present-day West Bengal and Bangladesh). ...

The Reign of Shivaji

Main article: Maratha Empire

The Hindu Marathas long had lived in the Desh region around Satara, in the western portion of the Deccan plateau, where the plateau meets the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats mountains. They had resisted incursions into the region by the Muslim Mughal rulers of northern India. Under their leader Shivaji, the Maratha freed themselves from the Muslim sultans of Bijapur to the southeast, and became much more aggressive and began to frequently raid Mughal territory, sacking the Mughal port of Surat in 1664. Shivaji was proclaimed Emperor in 1674. The Maratha had spread and conquered much of central India by Shivaji's death in 1680. Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... desh is a gay baller ... For the moth genus, see Satara (moth). ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजीराजे भोसले) (Born:February 19, 1627, Died: March 4, 1680) was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Bijapur is a district in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... For other uses, see Surat (disambiguation). ...


Modern Hinduism

Modern Hinduism is the reflection of continuity and progressive changes that occurred in various traditions and institutions of hinduism during the 19th and 20th centuries. This continuity and adaptation to modern ideas is still a continuing process. Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Modern Hinduism has as its values rational thought, modern education and the ideals of humanism, rationalism and religious universalism. This has meant combating the conservative and obscurantist elements, imbibing modernity, modern education compared to classical Sanskritic education system, and countering Christian missionary criticism. For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Universalism refers to concepts and issues which are said to be universal in appeal —i. ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


Reform Movements

Brahmo Samaj is a social and religious movement founded in Kolkata, India in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. He was influenced by western thought and was one of the first Indians to visit Europe. He died in Bristol, England. The Brahmo Samaj movement thereafter resulted in the Brahmo religion in 1850 founded by Debendranath Tagore — better known as the father of Rabindranath Tagore. Brahmo Samaj is a social and religious movement founded in Kolkata, India in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. ... Arya Samaj (Aryan Society or Society of Nobles) is a Hindu reform movement in India that was founded by Swami Dayananda in 1875. ... Monastic Order for Men Ramakrishna Math consists of monks (Sannyasins and Brahmacharins) belonging to a monastic order for men. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... Raja Ram Mohan Roy is regarded as the Father of the Bengal Renaissance Ram Mohan Roy, also written as Rammohun Roy, or Raja Ram Mohun Roy (Bangla: রাজা রামমোহন রায়, Raja Rammohon Rae), (May 22, 1772 – September 27, 1833) was the founder of the Brahmo Samaj, one of the first Indian socio-religious... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the English city. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Debendranath Tagore (Bangla: দেবেন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর Debendronath Å¢hakur)(May 15, 1817 - January 19, 1905) was an Indian Bengali philosopher from current-day West Bengal, in India. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ...


Arya Samaj (Aryan Society or Society of Nobles) is a Hindu reform movement in India that was founded by Swami Dayananda in 1875. He was a sannyasin (renouncer) who believed in the infallible authority of the Vedas. Dayananda advocated the doctrine of karma and reincarnation, and emphasised the ideals of brahmacharya (chastity) and sanyasa (renunciation). This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Swami Dayananda Saraswati (स्‍वामी दयानन्‍द सरस्‍वती) (1824 - 1883) is an important Hindu religious scholar born in Gujarat, India. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sanyasa (pronounced sanyaas) symbolises the conception of the mystic life in Hinduism where a person is now integrated into the spiritual world after wholly giving up material life. ... Infallibility is the ability to be free from error (obtain certainty). ... Moral absolutism is the belief that there are absolute standards against which moral questions can be judged, and that certain actions are right or wrong, devoid of the context of the act. ... Veda redirects here. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological concept. ... Brahmacharya (pronounced /brʌmatʃərɪə/) is a Sanskrit word. ... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ... Sanyasa symbolizes the conception of the mystic life in Hinduism where a person is now integrated into the spiritual world after wholly giving up material life. ... Nekkhamma (Renunciation) is one of the ten paramis or perfections that a bodhisattva must develop in order to become a Buddha. ...


Sri Ramakrishna and his pupil Swami Vivekananda led a reform in Hinduism in late 19th century. Their ideals and sayings have inspired numerous Indians as well as non-Indians, Hindus as well as non-Hindus. Among the prominent figures whose ideals were very much influenced by them were Rabindranath Tagore, Gandhi, Subhas Bose, Satyendranath Bose, Megh Nad Saha, and Sister Nivedita. Sri Thakur Gadadhar Chattopadhyaya Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (February 18, 1836 - August 16, 1886) was a Bengali saint. ... Swami Vivekananda (Sanskrit: , Svāmi Vivekānanda) (January 12, 1863 – July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta (Bengali: , Nôrendrônath Dôt-tô), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ... ... Satyendra Nath Bose /sɐθ. ... Megh Nad Saha (Bangla:মেঘনাদ সাহা) (Devanagari: मेघनाद साहा) (October 6, 1893 – February 16, 1956) was a Bengali Indian astrophysicist. ... Margaret Elizabeth Noble (1867-1911), better known as Sister Nivedita, was a social worker, author, teacher and disciple of Swami Vivekananda. ...


Converts

Modernity has led to an infusion of newer ideas into the Hindu religion, thereby making it more open, so that we find many non-Asians taking on Hinduism. This is particularly interesting because there is no large-scale proselytising effort in Hinduism. Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


An important aspect of 20th-century Hinduism has been its spread among non-Indians, who have accepted the religion voluntarily. This perhaps began with the sojourn of Vivekananda to the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago in 1893, where he made a huge impact on the people. He founded the Ramakrishna Mission, which today operates temples, ashrams, charitable hospitals, and schools worldwide. In our times, Transcendental Meditation has become popular. And the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, inspired by the Vaishnavite strand of Bhakti, has established centers around the world. Introduction Swami Vivekananda (Narendranath Dutta) (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902) is considered one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the Hindu religion. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Parliament of the World’s Religions. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Ramakrishna Mission Emblem The Ramakrishna Mission (Bengali: ) is an association founded by Sri Ramakrishnas chief disciple and religious leader, Swami Vivekananda on May 1, 1897. ... An Ashram (Pronounced aashram) in ancient India was a Hindu hermitage where sages (See Rishi) lived in peace and tranquility amidst nature. ... // Transcendental Meditation, or TM, is the trademarked name of a meditation technique introduced in 1958 by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (1917?-2008). ... Founder of ISKCON: A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), also known as the Hare Krishna movement, was founded in 1966 in New York City by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. ... Vaishnavites are followers of Vaishnavism in which Vishnu or His avatars are worshipped as the supreme God. ... Bhakti (Devanāgarī: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ...


Of late, Pandurang Shastri Athavale a social reformer, philosopher, and spiritual teacher from the Western Indian state of Maharashtra, Guru of Swadhyay Movement, is also a modern spiritual teacher of Hinduism. Pandurang Shastri Vaijnath Athavale (Gujarati: , Marathi: ) (October 19, 1920 – October 25, 2003), known as dada (Gujarati: , Marathi: ), meaning elder brother in marathi) A philosopher and social reformer who gave discourses upon Srimad Bhagawad Geeta and Upnishads. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Continuity of cultural realignment has been endemic to India’s civilisational impulses. ...


The resurgence of Hinduism in Indonesia is occurring in all parts of the country. In the early seventies, the Toraja people of Sulawesi were the first to be identified under the umbrella of 'Hinduism', followed by the Karo Batak of Sumatra in 1977 and the Ngaju Dayak of Kalimantan in 1980. Hinduism in Indonesia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Toraja are an ethnic group indigenous to a mountainous region of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ...


The growth of Hinduism has been driven also by the famous Javanese prophesies of Sabdapalon and Jayabaya. Many recent converts to Hinduism had been members of the families of Sukarno's PNI, and now support Megawati Sukarnoputri. This return to the 'religion of Majapahit' (Hinduism) is a matter of nationalist pride. This name is not exist in the Indonesian history. ... Sri Mapanji Jayabaya reigned over the kingdom of Kediri in East Java from 1135 to 1157 AD. He reunified Java after a split that occurred with the death of his predecessor Airlangga. ... Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... Diah Permata Megawati Setiawati Soekarnoputri (born January 23, 1947), was President of Indonesia from July 2001 to October 20, 2004. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ...


The new Hindu communities in Java tend to be concentrated around recently built temples (pura) or around archaeological temple sites (candi) which are being reclaimed as places of Hindu worship. An important new Hindu temple in eastern Java is Pura Mandaragiri Sumeru Agung, located on the slope of Mt. Semeru, Java's highest mountain. Mass conversions have also occurred in the region around Pura Agung Blambangan, another new temple, built on a site with minor archaeological remnants attributed to the kingdom of Blambangan, the last Hindu polity on Java, and Pura Loka Moksa Jayabaya (in the village of Menang near Kediri), where the Hindu king and prophet Jayabaya is said to have achieved spiritual liberation (moksa). Another site is the new Pura Pucak Raung in East Java, which is mentioned in Balinese literature as the place from where Maharishi Markandeya took Hinduism to Bali in the fifth century CE. Semeru volcano Semeru is the tallest volcano on the island of Java and is also one of its most active. ... The Regency of Banyuwangi is located at the easternmost end of the Indonesian island of Java, and it is a very strategic area for one who wants to go to Bali. ... Sri Mapanji Jayabaya reigned over the kingdom of Kediri in East Java from 1135 to 1157 AD. He reunified Java after a split that occurred with the death of his predecessor Airlangga. ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ... Markandeya is an ancient rishi (sage) from the Hindu tradition. ...


Hinduism in general does not encourage converting. This largely explains why there has never been any missionary activities in Hinduism. It is the belief of Hinduism that each person chooses their own path to reach God. You are never encouraged to stray from the path that you have chosen. Each religion is just a path to God. Converting to another religion takes you to an entirely new path, which in Hinduism is seen as unnecessary.


Shuddhi Movement

Started by Arya Samaj in early 20th century to bring back to Hinduism people converted to Islam and Christianity. Dayananda claimed to be rejecting all non-Vedic beliefs altogether. Hence the Arya Samaj unequivocally condemned idolatry, animal sacrifices, ancestor worship, pilgrimages, priestcraft, offerings made in temples, the caste system, untouchability and child marriages, on the grounds that all these lacked Vedic sanction. It aimed to be a universal church based on the authority of the Vedas. Dayananda stated that he wanted 'to make the whole world Aryan'. That is, he wanted to develop missionary Hinduism based on the universality of the Vedas. Arya Samaj (Aryan Society or Society of Nobles) is a Hindu reform movement in India that was founded by Swami Dayananda in 1875. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Swami Dayananda Saraswati Swami Dayananda Saraswati (1930 - )is a distinguished Hindu teacher of Vedanta and Sanskrit in the tradition of Adi Shankara. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... A sheep is led to the altar, 6th century BC Corinthian fresco. ... Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... This article is about religious workers. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... Dalit is a demeaning term referred to the so-called outcast people of India in a hindu religion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The phrase universal church can refer to: the Church Universal: A translation of catholic as in catholic church. The idea that all Christian churches and sects share certain things in common The idea that all Christians form part of a single body. ... Veda redirects here. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ...


To this end the Arya Samaj set up schools and missionary organisations, extending its activities outside India. It now has branches around the world. It has a disproportional amount of adherents among people of Indian ancestry in Suriname and the Netherlands, in comparison with India.

See also: Contemporary Hindu movements

Hinduism is going through a phase of regeneration and reform through the vehicle of several contemporary movements. ...

References

  1. ^ Rigveda. The Hindu Universe. HinduNet Inc. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  2. ^ Hindu History. The BBC names a bath and phallic symbols of the Harappan civilization as features of the "Prehistoric religion (3000-1000BCE)".
  3. ^ OLDEST religion in the world is
  4. ^ (Basham 1967)
  5. ^ Clark, Sharri R. The social lives of figurines: recontextualizing the third millennium BC terracotta figurines from Harappa, Pakistan. Harvard PhD 2007
  6. ^ "Srimad-Bhagavatam" by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust.
  7. ^ sanatansociety.org
  8. ^ Ron Geaves (March 2002). "From Totapuri to Maharaji: Reflections on a Lineage (Parampara)". 27th Spalding Symposium on Indian Religions, Oxford.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River and the Vedic Sarasvati River in present-day Pakistan. ...

See also

The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... Hindu scriptures Hindu scripture is overwhelmingly written in Sanskrit. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Population growth, from 443 million in 1960 to 1,004 million in 2000 Map showing the population density of each district in India Map showing the population growth over the past ten years of each district in India Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India Chart showing... The following is a list of articles on Hindu subjects. ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ...

Notes

References

  1. Majumdar, R. C.; H. C. Raychauduri, Kaukinkar Datta (1960). An Advanced History of India. Great Britain: Macmillan and Company Limited. ISBN 0-333-90298-X. 
  2. Benjamin Walker Hindu World: An Encyclopedic Survey of Hinduism, (Two Volumes), Allen & Unwin, London, 1968; Praeger, New York, 1968; Munshiram Manohar Lal, New Delhi, 1983; Harper Collins, New Delhi, 1985; Rupa, New Delhi, 2005, ISBN 81-291-0670-1.

R.C. Majumdar (1888-1980) was an Indian historian and Vice-Chancellor of Dacca University. ... Benjamin Walker (November 25, 1913) is the truncated pen name of George Benjamin Walker, who also writes under the pseudonym Jivan Bhakar. ...

External links


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