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Encyclopedia > History of Earth
Geological time put in a diagram called a geological clock, showing the relative lengths of the eons of the Earth's history.
Geological time put in a diagram called a geological clock, showing the relative lengths of the eons of the Earth's history.

The history of Earth covers approximately 4.6 billion years (4,567,000,000 years), from Earth’s formation out of the solar nebula to the present. This article presents a broad overview, summarizing the leading, most current scientific theories. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 606 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2016 × 1995 pixels, file size: 384 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 606 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2016 × 1995 pixels, file size: 384 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Look up eon, Eon, EON in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the history of Earth which includes the time before human existence, see History of Earth. ... Earth as seen from Apollo 17 Modern geologists consider the age of the Earth to be around 4. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Origin

An artist's impression of protoplanetary disk.
An artist's impression of protoplanetary disk.

The Earth formed as part of the birth of the Solar System: what eventually became the solar system initially existed as a large, rotating cloud of dust, rocks, and gas. It was composed of hydrogen and helium produced in the Big Bang, as well as heavier elements ejected by supernovas. Then, as one theory suggests, about 4.6 billion years ago a nearby star was destroyed in a supernova and the explosion sent a shock wave through the solar nebula, causing it to gain angular momentum. As the cloud began to accelerate its rotation, gravity and inertia flattened it into a protoplanetary disk oriented perpendicularly to its axis of rotation. Most of the mass concentrated in the middle and began to heat up, but small perturbations due to collisions and the angular momentum of other large debris created the means by which protoplanets began to form. The infall of material, increase in rotational speed and the crush of gravity created an enormous amount of kinetic heat at the center. Its inability to transfer that energy away through any other process at a rate capable of relieving the build-up resulted in the disk's center heating up. Ultimately, nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium began, and eventually, after contraction, a T Tauri star, ignited to create the Sun. Meanwhile, as gravity caused matter to condense around the previously perturbed objects outside of the new sun's gravity grasp, dust particles and the rest of the protoplanetary disk began separating into rings. Successively larger fragments collided with one another and became larger objects, ultimately destined to become protoplanets.[1] These included one collection approximately 150 million kilometers from the center: Earth. The solar wind of the newly formed T Tauri star cleared out most of the material in the disk that had not already condensed into larger bodies. Image File history File links Artists concept of a protoplanetary disk. ... Image File history File links Artists concept of a protoplanetary disk. ... A protoplanetary disc (also protoplanetary disk, proplyd) is an accretion disc surrounding a T Tauri star. ... The theories concerning the formation and evolution of the Solar System are complex and varied, interweaving various scientific disciplines, from astronomy and physics to geology and planetary science. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Look up dust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rock redirects here. ... Gas phase particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) move around freely Gas is one of the four major states of matter, consisting of freely moving atoms or molecules without a definite shape and without a definite volume. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... For other uses, see Supernova (disambiguation). ... This article is about the astronomical object. ... For other uses, see Supernova (disambiguation). ... Introduction The shock wave is one of several different ways in which a gas in a supersonic flow can be compressed. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This gyroscope remains upright while spinning due to its angular momentum. ... This article is about rotation as a movement of a physical body. ... Gravity redirects here. ... This article is about inertia as it applies to local motion. ... A protoplanetary disc (also protoplanetary disk, proplyd) is an accretion disc surrounding a T Tauri star. ... Perturbation is a term used in astronomy to describe alterations to an objects orbit caused by gravitational interactions with other bodies. ... Protoplanets are moon-sized planet embryos within protoplanetary discs. ... The cars of a roller coaster reach their maximum kinetic energy when at the bottom of their path. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... Drawing of a T-Tauri star with a circumstellar accretion disk T Tauri stars are a class of variable stars named after their prototype - T Tauri. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... A protoplanetary disc (also protoplanetary disk, proplyd) is an accretion disc surrounding a T Tauri star. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ...

Moon

Animation (not to scale) of Theia forming in Earth’s L5 point and then, perturbed by gravity, colliding to help form the moon. The animation progresses in one-year steps making Earth appear not to move. The view is of the south pole.
Animation (not to scale) of Theia forming in Earth’s L5 point and then, perturbed by gravity, colliding to help form the moon. The animation progresses in one-year steps making Earth appear not to move. The view is of the south pole.

The origin of the Moon is still uncertain, although much evidence exists for the giant impact hypothesis. Earth may not have been the only planet forming 150 million kilometers from the Sun. It is hypothesized that another collection occurred 150 million kilometers from both the Sun and the Earth, at their fourth or fifth Lagrangian point. This planet, named Theia, is thought to have been smaller than the current Earth, probably about the size and mass of Mars. Its orbit may at first have been stable, but destabilized as Earth increased its mass by the accretion of more and more material. Theia swung back and forth relative to Earth until, finally, an estimated 4.533 billion years ago,[2] it collided at a low, oblique angle. The low speed and angle were not enough to destroy Earth, but a large portion of its crust was ejected into space. Heavier elements from Theia sank to Earth’s core, while the remaining material and ejecta condensed into a single body within a couple of weeks. Under the influence of its own gravity, this became a more spherical body: the Moon.[3] The impact is also thought to have changed Earth’s axis to produce the large 23.5° axial tilt that is responsible for Earth’s seasons. (A simple, ideal model of the planets’ origins would have axial tilts of 0° with no recognizable seasons.) It may also have sped up Earth’s rotation and initiated the planet’s plate tectonics. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (620x620, 304 KB) Big Slash V1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (620x620, 304 KB) Big Slash V1. ... Theia (THAY-uh) is the hypothetical planet that, according to the giant impact theory of the Moons formation, collided with Earth over four billion years ago. ... A contour plot of the effective potential (the Hills Surfaces) of a two-body system (the Sun and Earth here), showing the five Lagrange points. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... The Big Splash redirects here. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... A contour plot of the effective potential (the Hills Surfaces) of a two-body system (the Sun and Earth here), showing the five Lagrange points. ... Theia (THAY-uh) is the hypothetical planet that, according to the giant impact theory of the Moons formation, collided with Earth over four billion years ago. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... In astronomy, axial tilt is the inclination angle of a planets rotational axis in relation to a perpendicular to its orbital plane. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...

The Hadean eon

Main article: Hadean
Volcanic eruptions would have been common in Earth's early days.
Volcanic eruptions would have been common in Earth's early days.

The early Earth, during the very early Hadean eon, was very different from the world known today. There were no oceans and no oxygen in the atmosphere. It was bombarded by planetoids and other material left over from the formation of the solar system. This bombardment, combined with heat from radioactive breakdown, residual heat, and heat from the pressure of contraction, caused the planet at this stage to be fully molten. During the iron catastrophe heavier elements sank to the center while lighter ones rose to the surface producing the layered structure of the Earth and also setting up the formation of Earth's magnetic field. Earth's early atmosphere would have comprised surrounding material from the solar nebula, especially light gases such as hydrogen and helium, but the solar wind and Earth's own heat would have driven off this atmosphere. The name Hadean refers to the geologic period before 3800 million years ago (mya). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The name Hadean refers to the geologic period before 3800 million years ago (mya). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... The magnetosphere shields the surface of the Earth from the charged particles of the solar wind. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ...


This changed when Earth was about 40% its present radius, and gravitational attraction allowed the retention of an atmosphere which included water. Temperatures plummeted and the crust of the planet was accumulated on a solid surface, with areas melted by large impacts on the scale of decades to hundreds of years between impacts. Large impacts would have caused localized melting and partial differentiation, with some lighter elements on the surface or released to the moist atmosphere. [4]


The surface cooled quickly, forming the solid crust within 150 million years;[5] although new research[6] suggests that the actual number is 100 million years based on the level of hafnium found in the geology at Jack Hills in Western Australia. From 4 to 3.8 billion years ago, Earth underwent a period of heavy asteroidal bombardment.[7] Steam escaped from the crust while more gases were released by volcanoes, completing the second atmosphere. Additional water was imported by bolide collisions, probably from asteroids ejected from the outer asteroid belt under the influence of Jupiter's gravity. The planet cooled. Clouds formed. Rain gave rise to the oceans within 750 million years (3.8 billion years ago), but probably earlier. Recent evidence suggests the oceans may have begun forming by 4.2 billion years ago[8] [9]. The new atmosphere probably contained ammonia, methane, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen, as well as smaller amounts of other gases. Any free oxygen would have been bound by hydrogen or minerals on the surface. Volcanic activity was intense and, without an ozone layer to hinder its entry, ultraviolet radiation flooded the surface. Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... Location of the Jack Hills in Australia Jack Hills The Jack Hills are located in the Narryer Gneiss Terrane of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and comprise an 80 km long northeast-trending belt of folded and metamorphosed supracrustal rocks. ... The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) was a period approximately 3. ... Outgassing (sometimes called Offgassing, particularly when in reference to indoor air quality) is the slow release of a gas that was trapped, frozen, absorbed or adsorbed in some material. ... Air redirects here. ... “Meteor” redirects here. ... There are various popular theories as to how the worlds oceans were formed over the past 4. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Water vapor or water vapour (see spelling differences), also aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ...

Life

The replicator in virtually all known life is deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is far more complex than the original replicator and its replication systems are highly elaborate.
The replicator in virtually all known life is deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is far more complex than the original replicator and its replication systems are highly elaborate.
Main article: Origin of life

The details of the origin of life are unknown, though the broad principles have been established. Two schools of thought regarding the origin of life have been proposed. The first suggests that organic components may have arrived on Earth from space (see “Panspermia”), while the other argues for terrestrial origins. The mechanisms by which life would initially arise are nevertheless held to be similar.[10] If life arose on Earth, the timing of this event is highly speculative—perhaps it arose around 4 billion years ago.[11] In the energetic chemistry of early Earth, a molecule (or even something else) gained the ability to make copies of itself–the replicator. The nature of this molecule is unknown, its function having long since been superseded by life’s current replicator, DNA. In making copies of itself, the replicator did not always perform accurately: some copies contained an “error.” If the change destroyed the copying ability of the molecule, there could be no more copies, and the line would “die out.” On the other hand, a few rare changes might make the molecule replicate faster or better: those “strains” would become more numerous and “successful.” As choice raw materials (“food”) became depleted, strains which could exploit different materials, or perhaps halt the progress of other strains and steal their resources, became more numerous.[12] DNA replication. ... DNA replication. ... DNA replication Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid which carries genetic instructions for the biological development of all cellular forms of life and many viruses. ... For the definition, see Life. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Panspermia is a proven process (based on the principles of Biology, Microbiology, Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, and assumption that life existed already in the universe) that explains how all life in the universe and/or solar system comes from a seed of life. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


Several different models have been proposed explaining how a replicator might have developed. Different replicators have been posited, including organic chemicals such as modern proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids, crystals,[13] or even quantum systems.[14] There is currently no method of determining which of these models, if any, closely fits the origin of life on Earth. One of the older theories, and one which has been worked out in some detail, will serve as an example of how this might occur. The high energy from volcanoes, lightning, and ultraviolet radiation could help drive chemical reactions producing more complex molecules from simple compounds such as methane and ammonia.[15] Among these were many of the relatively simple organic compounds that are the building blocks of life. As the amount of this “organic soup” increased, different molecules reacted with one another. Sometimes more complex molecules would result—perhaps clay provided a framework to collect and concentrate organic material.[16] The presence of certain molecules could speed up a chemical reaction. All this continued for a very long time, with reactions occurring more or less at random, until by chance there arose a new molecule: the replicator. This had the bizarre property of promoting the chemical reactions which produced a copy of itself, and evolution began properly. Other theories posit a different replicator. In any case, DNA took over the function of the replicator at some point; all known life (with the exception of some viruses and prions) use DNA as their replicator, in an almost identical manner (see genetic code). Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the tv programme Life on Earth. ... Not to be confused with lighting. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... In a generic sense, a replicator can be anything capable of self-replication. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For the bird called a prion, see Prion (bird) Prions - short for proteinaceous infectious particle - are infectious self-reproducing protein structures. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ...

Cells

A small section of a cell membrane. This modern cell membrane is far more sophisticated than the original simple phospholipid bilayer (the small blue spheres with two tails). Proteins and carbohydrates serve various functions in regulating the passage of material through the membrane and in reacting to the environment.
A small section of a cell membrane. This modern cell membrane is far more sophisticated than the original simple phospholipid bilayer (the small blue spheres with two tails). Proteins and carbohydrates serve various functions in regulating the passage of material through the membrane and in reacting to the environment.

Modern life has its replicating material packaged neatly inside a cellular membrane. It is easier to understand the origin of the cell membrane than the origin of the replicator, since the phospholipid molecules that make up a cell membrane will often form a bilayer spontaneously when placed in water. Under certain conditions, many such spheres can be formed (see “The bubble theory”).[17] It is not known whether this process preceded or succeeded the origin of the replicator (or perhaps it was the replicator). The prevailing theory is that the replicator, perhaps RNA by this point (the RNA world hypothesis), along with its replicating apparatus and maybe other biomolecules, had already evolved. Initial protocells may have simply burst when they grew too large; the scattered contents may then have recolonized other “bubbles.” Proteins that stabilized the membrane, or that later assisted in an orderly division, would have promoted the proliferation of those cell lines. RNA is a likely candidate for an early replicator since it can both store genetic information and catalyze reactions. At some point DNA took over the genetic storage role from RNA, and proteins known as enzymes took over the catalysis role, leaving RNA to transfer information and modulate the process. There is increasing belief that these early cells may have evolved in association with underwater volcanic vents known as “black smokers”.[18] or even hot, deep rocks.[19] However, it is believed that out of this multiplicity of cells, or protocells, only one survived. Current evidence suggests that the last universal common ancestor lived during the early Archean eon, perhaps roughly 3.5 billion years ago or earlier.[20],[21] This “LUCA” cell is the ancestor of all cells and hence all life on Earth. It was probably a prokaryote, possessing a cell membrane and probably ribosomes, but lacking a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria or chloroplasts. Like all modern cells, it used DNA as its genetic code, RNA for information transfer and protein synthesis, and enzymes to catalyze reactions. Some scientists believe that instead of a single organism being the last universal common ancestor, there were populations of organisms exchanging genes in lateral gene transfer.[20] Image File history File links CellMembraneDrawing. ... Image File history File links CellMembraneDrawing. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Drawing of a cell membrane A component of every biological cell, the selectively permeable cell membrane (or plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a thin and structured bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that envelopes the cell. ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... A bilayer is a closely packed double layer of atoms or molecules. ... For the definition, see Life. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... The RNA world hypothesis proposes that RNA was, before the emergence of the first cell, the dominant, and probably the only, form of life. ... This article focuses on modern scientific research on the origin of life. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... In chemistry and biology, catalysis (in Greek meaning to annul) is the acceleration of the rate of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself unchanged chemically by the overall reaction. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... A black smoker in the Atlantic Ocean Black smokers are a type of hydrothermal vent found on the ocean floor. ... Last universal ancestor (LUA), the hypothetical latest living organism from which all currently living organisms descend. ... The Archean is a geologic eon; it is a somewhat antiquated term for the time span between 2500 million years before the present and 3800 million years before the present. ... Prokaryotic bacteria cell structure Prokaryotes (IPA: //) are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Horizontal gene transfer is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material (i. ...

Photosynthesis and oxygen

The harnessing of the sun’s energy led to several major changes in life on Earth.
The harnessing of the sun’s energy led to several major changes in life on Earth.

It is likely that the initial cells were all heterotrophs, using surrounding organic molecules (including those from other cells) as raw material and an energy source.[22] As the food supply diminished, a new strategy evolved in some cells. Instead of relying on the diminishing amounts of free-existing organic molecules, these cells adopted sunlight as an energy source. Estimates vary, but by about 3 billion years ago[23], something similar to modern photosynthesis had probably developed. This made the sun’s energy available not only to autotrophs but also to the heterotrophs that consumed them. Photosynthesis used the plentiful carbon dioxide and water as raw materials and, with the energy of sunlight, produced energy-rich organic molecules (carbohydrates). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (962x722, 471 KB) Crepuscular Rays File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (962x722, 471 KB) Crepuscular Rays File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sol redirects here. ... Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype A heterotroph (Greek heterone = (an)other and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... An autotroph (in Greek eauton = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces its own cell mass and organic compounds from carbon dioxide as sole carbon source, using either light or chemical compounds as a source of energy. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ...


Moreover, oxygen was produced as a waste product of photosynthesis. At first it became bound up with limestone, iron, and other minerals. There is substantial proof of this in iron-oxide rich layers in geological strata that correspond with this time period. The oceans would have turned to a green color while oxygen was reacting with minerals. When the reactions stopped, oxygen could finally enter the atmosphere. Though each cell only produced a minute amount of oxygen, the combined metabolism of many cells over a vast period of time transformed Earth’s atmosphere to its current state.[24] General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ...


This, then, is Earth’s third atmosphere. Some of the oxygen was stimulated by incoming ultraviolet radiation to form ozone, which collected in a layer near the upper part of the atmosphere. The ozone layer absorbed, and still absorbs, a significant amount of the ultraviolet radiation that once had passed through the atmosphere. It allowed cells to colonize the surface of the ocean and ultimately the land:[25] without the ozone layer, ultraviolet radiation bombarding the surface would have caused unsustainable levels of mutation in exposed cells. Besides making large amounts of energy available to life-forms and blocking ultraviolet radiation, the effects of photosynthesis had a third, major, and world-changing impact. Oxygen was toxic; probably much life on Earth died out as its levels rose (the “Oxygen Catastrophe”).[25] Resistant forms survived and thrived, and some developed the ability to use oxygen to enhance their metabolism and derive more energy from the same food. For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... The Oxygen Catastrophe was a massive environmental change believed to have happened during the Siderian period at the beginning of the Paleoproterozoic era. ...

Endosymbiosis and the three domains of life

Main article: Endosymbiotic theory
Some of the pathways by which the various endosymbionts might have arisen.
Some of the pathways by which the various endosymbionts might have arisen.

Modern taxonomy classifies life into three domains. The time of the origin of these domains are speculative. The Bacteria domain probably first split off from the other forms of life (sometimes called Neomura), but this supposition is controversial. Soon after this, by 2 billion years ago[26], the Neomura split into the Archaea and the Eukarya. Eukaryotic cells (Eukarya) are larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells (Bacteria and Archaea), and the origin of that complexity is only now coming to light. Around this time period a bacterial cell related to today’s Rickettsia[27] entered a larger prokaryotic cell. Perhaps the large cell attempted to ingest the smaller one but failed (maybe due to the evolution of prey defenses). Perhaps the smaller cell attempted to parasitize the larger one. In any case, the smaller cell survived inside the larger cell. Using oxygen, it was able to metabolize the larger cell’s waste products and derive more energy. Some of this surplus energy was returned to the host. The smaller cell replicated inside the larger one, and soon a stable symbiotic relationship developed. Over time the host cell acquired some of the genes of the smaller cells, and the two kinds became dependent on each other: the larger cell could not survive without the energy produced by the smaller ones, and these in turn could not survive without the raw materials provided by the larger cell. Symbiosis developed between the larger cell and the population of smaller cells inside it to the extent that they are considered to have become a single organism, the smaller cells being classified as organelles called mitochondria. A similar event took place with photosynthetic cyanobacteria[28] entering larger heterotrophic cells and becoming chloroplasts.[29],[30] Probably as a result of these changes, a line of cells capable of photosynthesis split off from the other eukaryotes some time before one billion years ago. There were probably several such inclusion events, as the figure at left suggests. Besides the well-established endosymbiotic theory of the cellular origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts, it has been suggested that cells gave rise to peroxisomes, spirochetes gave rise to cilia and flagella, and that perhaps a DNA virus gave rise to the cell nucleus,[31],[32] though none of these theories are generally accepted.[33] During this period, the supercontinent Columbia is believed to have existed, probably from around 1.8 to 1.5 billion years ago; it is the oldest hypothesized supercontinent.[34] It has been suggested that Proto-mitochondrion be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (690x768, 70 KB) Summary 見zh:内共生學說/see en:Endosymbiotic theory 作者/author: User:Polyhedron/zh:User:Polyhedron 黑:膜/black: membrane 粉:真核DNA/pink: eukaryotic DNA 綠:藍藻及葉綠體DNA/green: cyanobacterial and ct DNA 紅:變形菌及線粒體DNA/red: proteobacterial and mt DNA Licensing File links The following pages link to... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (690x768, 70 KB) Summary 見zh:内共生學說/see en:Endosymbiotic theory 作者/author: User:Polyhedron/zh:User:Polyhedron 黑:膜/black: membrane 粉:真核DNA/pink: eukaryotic DNA 綠:藍藻及葉綠體DNA/green: cyanobacterial and ct DNA 紅:變形菌及線粒體DNA/red: proteobacterial and mt DNA Licensing File links The following pages link to... An endosymbiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism, i. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese in 1990 that emphasizes his separation of prokaryotes into two groups, originally called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Domains Domain Archaea Domain Eukaryota Neomura is the hypothetical ancestor of the two domains of Archaea and Eukaryota. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (), or archaebacteria, are a major group of microorganisms. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Endosymbiotic theory. ... Species Rickettsia felis Rickettsia prowazekii Rickettsia rickettsii Rickettsia typhi Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia africae etc. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ... Life on Earth redirects here. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells. ... Leaf. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... A heterotroph (Greek heteron = (an)other and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles in eukaryotes. ... Families Brachyspiraceae Leptospiraceae Spirochaetaceae The spirochaetes are a phylum of distinctive bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ... cross-section of two cilia, showing 9+2 structure A cilium (plural cilia) is a fine projection from a eukaryotic cell that constantly beats in one direction. ... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ... A DNA virus is a virus belonging to either Group I or Group II of the Baltimore classification system for viruses. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. ...

Multicellularity

Volvox aureus is believed to be similar to the first multicellular plants.

Archaeans, bacteria, and eukaryotes continued to diversify and to become more sophisticated and better adapted to their environments. Each domain repeatedly split into multiple lineages, although little is known about the history of the archaea and bacteria. Around 1.1 billion years ago, the supercontinent Rodinia was assembling.[35] The plant, animal, and fungi lines had all split, though they still existed as solitary cells. Some of these lived in colonies, and gradually some division of labor began to take place; for instance, cells on the periphery might have started to assume different roles from those in the interior. Although the division between a colony with specialized cells and a multicellular organism is not always clear, around 1 billion years ago[36], the first multicellular plants emerged, probably green algae.[37] Possibly by around 900 million years ago,[38] true multicellularity had also evolved in animals. At first it probably somewhat resembled that of today’s sponges, where all cells were totipotent and a disrupted organism could reassemble itself.[39] As the division of labor became more complete in all lines of multicellular organisms, cells became more specialized and more dependent on each other; isolated cells would die. Many scientists believe that a very severe ice age began around 770 million years ago, so severe that the surface of all the oceans completely froze (Snowball Earth). Eventually, after 20 million years, enough carbon dioxide escaped through volcanic outgassing; the resulting greenhouse effect raised global temperatures.[40] By around the same time, 750 million years ago,[41] Rodinia began to break up. Image File history File links Volvox_aureus. ... Image File history File links Volvox_aureus. ... Species Volvox aureus Volvox carteri () Volvox globator Volvox dissipatrix Volvox tertius Volvox is one of the best-known chlorophytes and is the most developed in a series of genera that form spherical colonies. ... In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. ... In geology, Rodinia (from the Russian родина, or motherland) refers to one of the oldest known supercontinents, which contained most or all of Earths then-current landmass. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Division of labour is the breakdown of labour into specific, circumscribed tasks for maximum efficiency of output in the context of manufacturing. ... Multicellular organisms are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Green algae are microscopic protists; found in all aquatic environments, including marine, freshwater and brackish water. ... For other uses, see Sponge (disambiguation). ... Totipotency is the ability of a single cell, usually a stem cell, to divide and produce all the differentiated cells in an organism, including extraembrionic tissues. ... One computer simulation of conditions during the Snowball Earth period. ...

Colonization of land

For most of Earth’s history, there were no multicellular organisms on land. Parts of the surface may have vaguely resembled this view of Mars, one of Earth’s neighboring planets.[citation needed]

Oxygen accumulation from photosynthesis resulted in the formation of an ozone layer that absorbed much of Sun’s ultraviolet radiation, meaning unicellular organisms that reached land were less likely to die, and prokaryotes began to multiply and become better adapted to survival out of the water. Prokaryotes had likely colonized the land as early as 2.6 billion years ago[42] even before the origin of the eukaryotes. For a long time, the land remained barren of multicellular organisms. The supercontinent Pannotia formed around 600 million years ago and then broke apart a short 50 million years later[43]. Fish, the earliest vertebrates, evolved in the oceans around 530 million years ago[44]. A major extinction event occurred near the end of the Cambrian period,[45] which ended 488 million years ago[46]. Download high resolution version (1024x443, 144 KB)The Ares Vallis area, which is among the rockiest parts of Mars, as photographed by the Mars Pathfinder lander in its 1997 mission. ... Download high resolution version (1024x443, 144 KB)The Ares Vallis area, which is among the rockiest parts of Mars, as photographed by the Mars Pathfinder lander in its 1997 mission. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... Pannotia is the name given to a hypothetical supercontinent that existed from about 600 to about 540 mya. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Prehistoric fish are various groups of fishes that lived before recorded history. ... Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... The Cambrian-Ordovician extinction event occured approximately 488 million years ago, an extinction event that eliminated many brachiopods and conodonts and severely reduced the number of trilobite species. ...


Several hundred million years ago, plants (probably resembling algae) and fungi started growing at the edges of the water, and then out of it.[47] The oldest fossils of land fungi and plants date to 480–460 million years ago, though molecular evidence suggests the fungi may have colonized the land as early as 1000 million years ago and the plants 700 million years ago.[48] Initially remaining close to the water’s edge, mutations and variations resulted in further colonization of this new environment. The timing of the first animals to leave the oceans is not precisely known: the oldest clear evidence is of arthropods on land around 450 million years ago[49], perhaps thriving and becoming better adapted due to the vast food source provided by the terrestrial plants. There is also some unconfirmed evidence that arthropods may have appeared on land as early as 530 million years ago[50]. At the end of the Ordovician period, 440 million years ago, additional extinction events occurred, perhaps due to a concurrent ice age.[51] Around 380 to 375 million years ago, the first tetrapods evolved from fish.[52] It is thought that perhaps fins evolved to become limbs which allowed the first tetrapods to lift their heads out of the water to breathe air. This would let them survive in oxygen-poor water or pursue small prey in shallow water.[52] They may have later ventured on land for brief periods. Eventually, some of them became so well adapted to terrestrial life that they spent their adult lives on land, although they hatched in the water and returned to lay their eggs. This was the origin of the amphibians. About 365 million years ago, another period of extinction occurred, perhaps as a result of global cooling.[53] Plants evolved seeds, which dramatically accelerated their spread on land, around this time (by approximately 360 million years ago).[54], [55] Osborne (talk) 20:17, 5 December 2007 (UTC):For the programming language, see algae (programming language) Laurencia, a marine red alga from Hawaii. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... The Ordovician-Silurian extinction event, labeled End O here. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Groups See text. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Comparison of the three episodes of extinction in the Late Devonian (Late D) to other mass extinction events in Earths history. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...

Pangaea, the most recent supercontinent, existed from 300 to 180 million years ago. The outlines of the modern continents and other land masses are indicated on this map.
Pangaea, the most recent supercontinent, existed from 300 to 180 million years ago. The outlines of the modern continents and other land masses are indicated on this map.

Some 20 million years later (340 million years ago[56]), the amniotic egg evolved, which could be laid on land, giving a survival advantage to tetrapod embryos. This resulted in the divergence of amniotes from amphibians. Another 30 million years (310 million years ago[57]) saw the divergence of the synapsids (including mammals) from the sauropsids (including birds and non-avian, non-mammalian reptiles). Other groups of organisms continued to evolve and lines diverged—in fish, insects, bacteria, and so on—but less is known of the details. 300 million years ago, the most recent hypothesized supercontinent formed, called Pangaea. The most severe extinction event to date took place 250 million years ago, at the boundary of the Permian and Triassic periods; 95% of life on Earth died out,[58] possibly due to the Siberian Traps volcanic event. The discovery of the Wilkes Land crater in Antarctica may suggest a connection with the Permian-Triassic extinction, but the age of that crater is not known.[59] But life persevered, and around 230 million years ago [60], dinosaurs split off from their reptilian ancestors. An extinction event between the Triassic and Jurassic periods 200 million years ago spared many of the dinosaurs,[61] and they soon became dominant among the vertebrates. Though some of the mammalian lines began to separate during this period, existing mammals were probably all small animals resembling shrews.[62] By 180 million years ago, Pangaea broke up into Laurasia and Gondwana. The boundary between avian and non-avian dinosaurs is not clear, but Archaeopteryx, traditionally considered one of the first birds, lived around 150 million years ago.[63] The earliest evidence for the angiosperms evolving flowers is during the Cretaceous period, some 20 million years later (132 million years ago)[64] Competition with birds drove many pterosaurs to extinction, and the dinosaurs were probably already in decline for various reasons[65] when, 65 million years ago, a 10-kilometer meteorite likely struck Earth just off the Yucatán Peninsula, ejecting vast quantities of particulate matter and vapor into the air that occluded sunlight, inhibiting photosynthesis. Most large animals, including the non-avian dinosaurs, became extinct.[66], marking the end of the Cretaceous period and Mesozoic era. Thereafter, in the Paleocene epoch, mammals rapidly diversified, grew larger, and became the dominant vertebrates. Perhaps a couple of million years later (around 63 million years ago), the last common ancestor of primates lived.[67] By the late Eocene epoch, 34 million years ago, some terrestrial mammals had returned to the oceans to become animals such as Basilosaurus which later gave rise to dolphins and whales.[68] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (758x853, 43 KB)Image of the pangaea made by User:Kieff. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (758x853, 43 KB)Image of the pangaea made by User:Kieff. ... For other uses, see Pangaea (disambiguation). ... Extant subgroups Synapsida     Mammalia (mammals) Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards and snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles and alligators)           Aves (birds) The amniotes are a group of vertebrates, comprising the mammals, birds, and various other groups collectively referred to as reptiles. ... Groups See text. ... Living subgroups Class Synapsida    Class Mammalia (mammals) Class Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards & snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles)           Class Aves (birds) The amniotes are a taxon of tetrapod vertebrates that include the Synapsida (mammals) and Sauropsida (reptiles and dinosaurs, including birds). ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Orders & Suborders Order Pelycosauria * Suborder Caseasauria Suborder Eupelycosauria * Order Therapsida * Suborder Biarmosuchia Suborder Dinocephalia Suborder Anomodontia Suborder Gorgonopsia Suborder Therocephalia Suborder Cynodontia * For complete phylogeny, see text. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Clades Subclass Anapsida Subclass Diapsida Infraclass Lepidosauromorpha Infraclass Archosauromorpha Sauropsids are a diverse group of mostly egg-laying vertebrate animals. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Reptilia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Pangaea (disambiguation). ... The Permian-Triassic (P-T or PT) extinction event, sometimes informally called the Great Dying, was an extinction event that occurred approximately 251 million years ago (mya), forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... The Siberian Traps (Russian: ) form a large igneous province in Siberia. ... Map of Antarctica, with Wilkes Land slightly to the right The Wilkes Land crater is a proposed name for a 300 mile (500 km) -wide geological feature, located in Wilkes Land, Antarctica, and centered at , that has been explained as an impact crater. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... Comparison of the intensity of the T-J extinction event, labeled here End Tr to other extinction events in the last 500 million years. ... It has been suggested that Echolocating shrew be merged into this article or section. ... Laurasia was a supercontinent that most recently existed as a part of the split of the Pangaean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic era. ... For other uses of Gondwana and Gondwanaland, see Gondwana (disambiguation). ... Species A. lithographica Meyer, 1861 (type) Synonyms See below Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek archaios meaning ancient and pteryx meaning feather or wing; pronounced Ar-kay-op-ter-iks ) is the earliest and most primitive known bird to date. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Suborders Pterodactyloidea Rhamphorhynchoidea * Pterosaurs (, from the Greek πτερόσαυρος, pterosauros, meaning winged lizard, often referred to as pterodactyls, from the Greek πτεροδάκτυλος, pterodaktulos, meaning winged finger ) were flying reptiles of the clade Pterosauria. ... Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... The Yucatán peninsula as seen from space The Yucatán Peninsula, in Southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... Badlands near Drumheller, Alberta where erosion has exposed the KT boundary. ... The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Paleocene, early dawn of the recent, is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... Species Basilosaurus (King Lizard) was a genus of cetacean that lived from 39 to 34 million years ago in the Eocene. ... For other uses, see Dolphin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the animal. ...


Humanity

Australopithecus africanus, an early hominid.
Australopithecus africanus, an early hominid.
Main article: Human evolution

A small African ape living around six million years ago was the last animal whose descendants would include both modern humans and their closest relatives, the bonobos, and chimpanzees.[69] Only two branches of its family tree have surviving descendants. Very soon after the split, for reasons that are still debated, apes in one branch developed the ability to walk upright.[70] Brain size increased rapidly, and by 2 million years ago, the very first animals classified in the genus Homo had appeared.[71] Of course, the line between different species or even genera is rather arbitrary as organisms continuously change over generations. Around the same time, the other branch split into the ancestors of the common chimpanzee and the ancestors of the bonobo as evolution continued simultaneously in all life forms.[69] The ability to control fire likely began in Homo erectus (or Homo ergaster), probably at least 790,000 years ago[72] but perhaps as early as 1.5 million years ago.[73] It is more difficult to establish the origin of language; it is unclear whether Homo erectus could speak or if that capability had not begun until Homo sapiens.[74] As brain size increased, babies were born sooner, before their heads grew too large to pass through the pelvis. As a result, they exhibited more plasticity, and thus possessed an increased capacity to learn and required a longer period of dependence. Social skills became more complex, language became more advanced, and tools became more elaborate. This contributed to further cooperation and brain development.[75] Anatomically modern humans — Homo sapiens — are believed to have originated somewhere around 200,000 years ago or earlier in Africa; the oldest fossils date back to around 160,000 years ago.[76] The first humans to show evidence of spirituality are the Neanderthals (usually classified as a separate species with no surviving descendants); they buried their dead, often apparently with food or tools.[77] However, evidence of more sophisticated beliefs, such as the early Cro-Magnon cave paintings (probably with magical or religious significance)[78] did not appear until some 32,000 years ago.[79] Cro-Magnons also left behind stone figurines such as Venus of Willendorf, probably also signifying religious belief.[78] By 11,000 years ago, Homo sapiens had reached the southern tip of South America, the last of the uninhabited continents.[80] Tool use and language continued to improve; interpersonal relationships became more complex. Image File history File links Austrolopithecus_africanus. ... Image File history File links Austrolopithecus_africanus. ... For the song by Modest Mouse, see Sad Sappy Sucker. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... A biped is an animal that travels across surfaces supported by two legs. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo. ... Binomial name †Homo ergaster Groves & Mazak, 1975 Homo ergaster (working man) is an extinct hominid species (or subspecies, according to some authorities) which lived throughout eastern and southern Africa between 1. ... The origin of language (glottogony) is a topic that has attracted considerable speculation throughout human history. ... The pelvis (pl. ... Neuroplasticity challenges the idea that brain functions are fixed in certain locations. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... In paleoanthropology, the single-origin hypothesis (or Out-of-Africa model) is one of two accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ... For the avant garde collective, see Cromagnon (band). ... Cave or Rock Paintings are paintings on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to prehistoric times. ... Venus of Willendorf Venus of Willendorf, also known as the Woman of Willendorf, is an 11. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...

Civilization

Main article: History of the world
Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci epitomizes the advances in art and science seen during the Renaissance.
Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci epitomizes the advances in art and science seen during the Renaissance.

Throughout more than 90% of its history, Homo sapiens lived in small bands as nomadic hunter-gatherers.[81] As language became more complex, the ability to remember and transmit information resulted in a new sort of replicator: the meme.[82] Ideas could be rapidly exchanged and passed down the generations. Cultural evolution quickly outpaced biological evolution, and history properly began. Somewhere between 8500 and 7000 BC, humans in the Fertile Crescent in Middle East began the systematic husbandry of plants and animals: agriculture.[83] This spread to neighboring regions, and also developed independently elsewhere, until most Homo sapiens lived sedentary lives in permanent settlements as farmers. Not all societies abandoned nomadism, especially those in isolated areas of the globe poor in domesticable plant species, such as Australia.[84] However, among those civilizations that did adopt agriculture, the relative security and increased productivity provided by farming allowed the population to expand. Agriculture had a major impact; humans began to affect the environment as never before. Surplus food allowed a priestly or governing class to arise, followed by increasing division of labor. This led to Earth’s first civilization at Sumer in the Middle East, between 4000 and 3000 BC.[85] Additional civilizations quickly arose in ancient Egypt and the Indus River valley. For the history of Earth which includes the time before human existence, see History of Earth. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 441 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2258 × 3070 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 441 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2258 × 3070 pixel, file size: 5. ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man (1492). ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... For other uses, see Meme (disambiguation). ... Cultural evolution is the structural change of a society and its values over time. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... Division of labour is the specialisation of cooperative labour in specific, circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase efficiency of output. ... Central New York City. ... Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ...


Starting around 3000 BC, Hinduism, one of the oldest religions still practiced today, began to take form.[86] Others soon followed. The invention of writing enabled complex societies to arise: record-keeping and libraries served as a storehouse of knowledge and increased the cultural transmission of information. Humans no longer had to spend all their time working for survival—curiosity and education drove the pursuit of knowledge and wisdom. Various disciplines, including science (in a primitive form), arose. New civilizations sprang up, traded with one another, and engaged in war for territory and resources: empires began to form. By around 500 BC, there were empires in the Middle East, Iran, India, China, and Greece, approximately on equal footing; at times one empire expanded, only to decline or be driven back later.[87] Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Write redirects here. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the political and historical term. ...


In the fourteenth century, the Renaissance began in Italy with advances in religion, art, and science.[88] Starting around 1500, European civilization began to undergo changes leading to the scientific and industrial revolutions: that continent began to exert political and cultural dominance over human societies around the planet.[89] From 1914 to 1918 and 1939 to 1945, nations around the world were embroiled in world wars. Established following World War I, the League of Nations was a first step toward a world government; after World War II it was replaced by the United Nations. In 1992, several European nations joined together in the European Union. As transportation and communication improved, the economies and political affairs of nations around the world have become increasingly intertwined. This globalization has often produced discord, although increased collaboration has resulted as well. (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... This article is about the period or event in history. ... Hegemony (pronounced [])[1] (Greek: ) is a concept that has been used to describe the existence of dominance of one social group over another, such that the ruling group -- referred to as a hegemon -- acquires some degree of consent from the subordinate, as opposed to dominance purely by force. ... A world war is a war affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920. ... It has been suggested that World Federation be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ...

Recent events

Four and a half billion years after the planet's formation, one of Earth’s life forms broke free of the biosphere. For the first time in history, Earth was viewed first hand from the vantage of space.
Four and a half billion years after the planet's formation, one of Earth’s life forms broke free of the biosphere. For the first time in history, Earth was viewed first hand from the vantage of space.

Change has continued at a rapid pace from the mid-1940s to today. Technological developments include nuclear weapons, computers, genetic engineering, and nanotechnology. Economic globalization spurred by advances in communication and transportation technology has influenced everyday life in many parts of the world. Cultural and institutional forms such as democracy, capitalism, and environmentalism have increased influence. Major concerns and problems such as disease, war, poverty, violent radicalism, and more recently, global warming have risen as the world population increases. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3072x3072, 7575 KB) matthew is aaqwz NASA Photo ID: S84-27017 Program: Shuttle Mission: STS-41-B Date Taken: February 11, 1984 Film Type: 70mm Title: Views of the extravehicular activity during STS 41-B Description: Astronaut Bruce McCandless, mission specialist... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3072x3072, 7575 KB) matthew is aaqwz NASA Photo ID: S84-27017 Program: Shuttle Mission: STS-41-B Date Taken: February 11, 1984 Film Type: 70mm Title: Views of the extravehicular activity during STS 41-B Description: Astronaut Bruce McCandless, mission specialist... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The tower of a personal computer. ... Kenyans examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn. ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... This article is about the medical term. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) has been used since the late 18th century as a label in political science for those favoring or trying to produce thoroughgoing or extreme political reforms which can include changes to the social order to a greater or lesser extent. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite into orbit and, soon afterward, Yuri Gagarin became the first human in space. Neil Armstrong, an American, was the first to set foot on another astronomical object, the Earth's Moon. Unmanned probes have been sent to all the major planets in the solar system, with some (such as Voyager) in the process of leaving the solar system. The Soviet Union and the United States of America were the primary early leaders in space exploration in the 20th Century. Five space agencies, representing over fifteen countries,[90] have worked together to build the International Space Station. Aboard it, there has been a continuous human presence in space since 2000.[91] Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ... This article is about the former American astronaut. ... Look up voyager in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... ISS redirects here. ...

See also

A graphical timeline is available here: Graphical timeline of the Big Bang This box:      This timeline of the Big Bang describes the events that have occurred and will occur according to the scientific theory of the Big Bang, using the cosmological time parameter of comoving coordinates. ... // For other uses, see time scale. ... Life on Earth  â€¢  â€¢  | Axis scale: millions of years ago. ... In this table each row is defined in years ago, that is, years before the present date, with the earliest times at the top of the chart. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... For the history of Earth which includes the time before human existence, see History of Earth. ... Risks to civilization, humans and planet Earth are existential risks that would imperil mankind as a whole and/or have major adverse consequences for the course of human civilization, human extinction or even the end of planet Earth. ... // This is a timeline of geological and relevant astronomical events on Earth before the Cambrian period started. ... Geological time scale. ...

External links

  • History of the Earth from EvoWiki
  • Cosmic Evolution — a detailed look at events from the origin of the universe to the present
  • Valley, John W. “A Cool Early Earth?” Scientific American. 2005 Oct:58–65. – discusses the timing of the formation of the oceans and other major events in Earth’s early history.
  • Davies, Paul. “Quantum leap of life”. The Guardian. 2005 Dec 20. – discusses speculation into the role of quantum systems in the origin of life
  • Evolution timeline (uses Shockwave). Animated story of life since about 13,700,000,000 shows everything from the big bang to the formation of the earth and the development of bacteria and other organisms to the ascent of man.
  • Scientific American Magazine (October 2005 Issue) A Cool Early Earth?
  • Artist's Conception of Cold Early Earth

Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... For the member of the National Assembly for Wales, see Paul Davies (Welsh politician). ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Adobe Shockwave (formerly Macromedia Shockwave) was Macromedias first and most successful multimedia player prior to the introduction of Macromedia Flash (now Adobe Flash). ...

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Professor Richard A. Fortey FRS (born 1946 in London) is a British paleontologist and writer, formerly a Merit Researcher at the Natural History Museum in London. ... Professor Richard A. Fortey FRS (born 1946 in London) is a British paleontologist and writer, formerly a Merit Researcher at the Natural History Museum in London. ... Professor Richard A. Fortey FRS (born 1946 in London) is a British paleontologist and writer, formerly a Merit Researcher at the Natural History Museum in London. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ... The University of Münster (German Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, WWU) is a public university located in the city of Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... Professor Richard A. Fortey FRS (born 1946 in London) is a British paleontologist and writer, formerly a Merit Researcher at the Natural History Museum in London. ... Tufts University is a private research university in Medford/Somerville, Massachusetts, suburbs of Boston. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Carl Richard Woese (born July 15, 1928, Syracuse, New York) is an American microbiologist famous for defining the Archaea (a new domain or kingdom of life) in 1977 by phylogenetic taxonomy of 16S ribosomal RNA, a technique pioneered by Woese and which is now standard practice. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ... Professor Richard A. Fortey FRS (born 1946 in London) is a British paleontologist and writer, formerly a Merit Researcher at the Natural History Museum in London. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Tufts University is a private research university in Medford/Somerville, Massachusetts, suburbs of Boston. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Professor Richard A. Fortey FRS (born 1946 in London) is a British paleontologist and writer, formerly a Merit Researcher at the Natural History Museum in London. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Professor Richard A. Fortey FRS (born 1946 in London) is a British paleontologist and writer, formerly a Merit Researcher at the Natural History Museum in London. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Waikato is located in Hamilton and Tauranga, New Zealand, and was established in 1964. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Walking with Dinosaurs was a six-part television series produced by the BBC, narrated by Kenneth Branagh, and first aired in the UK in 1999. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Walking with Dinosaurs was a six-part television series produced by the BBC, narrated by Kenneth Branagh, and first aired in the UK in 1999. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Walking with Dinosaurs was a six-part television series produced by the BBC, narrated by Kenneth Branagh, and first aired in the UK in 1999. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Walking with Dinosaurs was a six-part television series produced by the BBC, narrated by Kenneth Branagh, and first aired in the UK in 1999. ... This article is about the year. ... Tufts University is a private research university in Medford/Somerville, Massachusetts, suburbs of Boston. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ... // Walking with Beasts is a 2001 six-part television documentary produced by the BBC in the United Kingdom, narrated by Kenneth Branagh. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... // Walking with Beasts is a 2001 six-part television documentary produced by the BBC in the United Kingdom, narrated by Kenneth Branagh. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ... Professor Richard A. Fortey FRS (born 1946 in London) is a British paleontologist and writer, formerly a Merit Researcher at the Natural History Museum in London. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ... William H. McNeill (born 1917, Vancouver, British Columbia) is a Canadian historian. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... William H. McNeill (born 1917, Vancouver, British Columbia) is a Canadian historian. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... Colin Tudge (born 22 April 1943) is a biologist by training and a British science writer who is the author of numerous works on food, agriculture, genetics, and species diversity. ... Neanderthals, Bandits and Farmers: How Agriculture Really Began (ISBN 0297842587) is a book by the British science writer Colin Tudge. ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies is a 1997 book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at UCLA. In 1998 it won a Pulitzer Prize and the Aventis Prize for Best Science Book. ... William H. McNeill (born 1917, Vancouver, British Columbia) is a Canadian historian. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William H. McNeill (born 1917, Vancouver, British Columbia) is a Canadian historian. ... William H. McNeill (born 1917, Vancouver, British Columbia) is a Canadian historian. ... William H. McNeill (born 1917, Vancouver, British Columbia) is a Canadian historian. ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsə]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Geological time scale. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... Air redirects here. ... This article is about life in general. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... For the definition, see Life. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... The evolutionary history of life and the origin of life are fields of ongoing geological and biological research. ... For other uses, see Wilderness (disambiguation). ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ...


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History of Earth Sciences Society - Paleontology, Geology and Mineralogy (344 words)
History of Earth Sciences Society - Paleontology, Geology and Mineralogy
the gap between the humanities and the sciences is bridged by some historians interested in the history of earth science, and by some geoscientists interested in the history of their fields.
Second, because the history of earth science is a global topic, a national group or a commission with limited membership may not be suitably flexible.
History of Earth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6218 words)
The history of Earth covers approximately 4.567 billion years (4,567,000,000 years), from Earth’s formation out of the solar nebula to the present.
Earth formed as part of the birth of the solar system: what eventually became the solar system initially existed as a large, rotating cloud of dust and gas.
Earth's early atmosphere would have comprised surrounding material from the solar nebula, especially light gases such as hydrogen and helium, but the solar wind and Earth's own heat would have driven off this atmosphere.
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