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Encyclopedia > History of Chinese art

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Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. Early so-called "stone age art" dates back to 10,000 BC, mostly consisting of simple pottery and sculptures. This early period was followed by a series of art dynasties, most of which lasted several hundred years. The Chinese art in the Republic of China (Taiwan) and that of overseas Chinese can also be considered part of Chinese art where it is based in or draws on Chinese heritage and Chinese culture. The culture of China is the result of over 5,000 years of artistic, philosophical, political, and scientific advancement. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Government of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about Communications in mainland China. ... Since the founding of the Peoples Republic of China, the goal of health programs has been to provide care to every member of the population and to make maximum use of limited health-care personnel, equipment, and financial resources. ... The situation of human rights in the Peoples Republic of China has been criticized by various sources, including other nations – particularly Western democracies – as well as international organizations, as being poor in many respects. ... Continuing to occupy more than half of Chinas population, Rural life in the Peoples Republic of China has a varied range in terms of standard of living and living style. ... Social issues in the Peoples Republic of China in the 21st century are varied. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Motto: Three Principles of the People (三民主義 San-min Chu-i) Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (de facto)  Nanking (de jure)1  Largest city Taipei Official languages Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang... Overseas Chinese are people of Chinese ancestry who live outside China. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ...

Contents

Historical development to 221 BC

Neolithic pottery

Early forms of art in China are found in the Neolithic Yangshao culture (Chinese: 仰韶文化; pinyin: Yǎngsháo Wénhuà), which dates back to the 6th millennium BC. Archeological findings such as those at the Banpo have revealed that the Yangshao made pottery; early ceramics were unpainted and most often cord-marked. The first decorations were fish and human faces, but these eventually evolved into symmetrical-geometric abstract designs, some painted. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Yangshao culture (仰韶文化) was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the central Yellow River in China. ... It has been suggested that Pinyin method be merged into this article or section. ... During the 6th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe and from Mesopotamia to Egypt. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Ancient Egyptian ceramic art: Louvre Museum. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Sphere symmetry group o. ... Table of Geometry, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ...


The most distinctive feature of Yangshao culture was the extensive use of painted pottery, especially human facial, animal, and geometric designs. Unlike the later Longshan culture, the Yangshao culture did not use pottery wheels in pottery making. According to archaeologists, Yangshao society was based around matriarchal clans. Excavations have found that children were buried in painted pottery jars. Longshan culture (龍山文化) was a late Neolithic culture centered around the central and lower Yellow River in China. ... The potters wheel is a horizontal wheel or turntable used in the making of many types of pottery. ...


Jade culture

Main article: Liangzhu culture The Liangzhu jade culture (3400-2250 BC) was the last Neolithic jade culture in the Yangtze River Delta of China and was spaced over a period of about 1300 years. ...


The Liangzhu culture was the last Neolithic Jade culture in the Yangtze River delta and was spaced over a period of about 1,300 years. The Jade from this culture is characterized by finely worked, large ritual jades such as Cong cylinders, Bi discs, Yue axes and also pendants and decorations in the form of chiseled open-work plaques, plates and representations of small birds, turtles and fish. The Liangzhu Jade has a white, milky bone-like aspect due to its Tremolite rock origin and influence of water-based fluids at the burial sites. Jade is a green stone that cannot be carved so it has to be grinded. Afternoon light on the jagged grey mountains rising from the Yangtze River gorge The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the longest river in Asia and the fourth longest in the world after the Nile in Africa, the Amazon in South America and the Mississippi... A cong ( Wade-Giles tsung) is a form of jade artifact from ancient China. ... A bi ( Wade-Giles pi) is a form of jade artifact from ancient China. ... A sample of tremolite Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. ...


Bronze casting

Shang Dynasty (Yin) bronze ritual wine vessel, dating to the 13th century BC.
Shang Dynasty (Yin) bronze ritual wine vessel, dating to the 13th century BC.

The Bronze Age in China began with the Xia Dynasty. Examples from this period have been recovered from ruins of the Erlitou culture, in Shanxi, and include complex but unadorned utilitarian objects. In the following Shang Dynasty more elaborate objects, including many ritual vessels, were crafted. The Shang are remembered for their bronze casting, noted for its clarity of detail. Shang bronzesmiths usually worked in foundries outside the cities to make ritual vessels, and sometimes weapons and chariot fittings as well. The bronze vessels were receptacles for storing or serving various solids and liquids used in the performance of sacred ceremonies. Some forms such as the ku and jue can be very graceful, but the most powerful pieces are the ding, sometimes described as having the an "air of ferocious majesty." Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1334x1838, 1624 KB) This bronze ritual wine vessel was made in the 13th century BC, in the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1334x1838, 1624 KB) This bronze ritual wine vessel was made in the 13th century BC, in the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Bronze vessel Beast Face Flat Feet Ding (兽面扁足鼎) dated early Shang Dynasty, 1600 - 1350BC. Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... This article is about the extremely ancient Chinese dynasty whose existence has yet to be thoroughly confirmed by archaeology. ... The Erlitou culture (二里頭文化) (1900 BC to 1500 BC) is a name given by archaeologists to an Early Bronze Age society that existed in China. ... Bronze vessel Beast Face Flat Feet Ding (兽面扁足鼎) dated early Shang Dynasty, 1600 - 1350BC. Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... A foundry is a factory which produces castings of metal, both ferrous and non-ferrous. ... A ding or ting (Chinese: 鼎; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is an ancient Chinese vessel with three legs; hence, it is also called a tripod. ...


It is typical of the developed Shang style that all available space is decorated, most often with stylized forms of real and imaginary animals. The most common motif is the taotie, which shows a mythological being presented frontally as though squashed onto a horizontal plane to form a symmetrical design. The early significance of taotie is not clear, but myths about it existed around the late Zhou Dynasty. It was considered to be variously a covetous man banished to guard a corner of heaven against evil monsters; or a monster equipped with only a head which tries to devour men but hurts only itself. The taotie (饕餮 Pinyin: Tāotiè, Wade-Giles: tao tieh), known as Totetsu in Japanese, is a motif commonly found on ritual bronze vessels from the Shang and Zhou Dynasty. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The function and appearance of bronzes changed gradually from the Shang to the Zhou. They shifted from been used in religious rites to more practical purposes. By the Warring States Period, bronze vessels had become objects of aesthetic enjoyment. Some were decorated with social scenes, such as from a banquet or hunt; whilst others displayed abstract patterns inlaid with gold, silver, or precious and semiprecious stones. Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (Traditional Chinese: 戰國時代; Simplified Chinese: 战国时代; Pinyin: Zhànguó Shídài) covers the period from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ...


Shang bronzes became appreciated as works of art from the Song Dynasty, when they were collected and prized not only for their shape and design but also for the various green, blue green, and even reddish patinas created by chemical action as they lay buried in the ground. The study of early Chinese bronze casting is a specialized field of art history. The Song Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ...


Early Chinese music

The origins of Chinese music and poetry can be found in the Book of Songs, containing poems composed between 1000 BC and 600 BC. The text, preserved among the canon of early Chinese literature, contains folk songs, religious hymns and stately songs. Originally intended to be sung, the accompanying music unfortunately has since been lost. They had a wide range of purposes, including for courtship, ceremonial greeting, warfare, feasting and lamentation. The love poems are among the most appealing in the freshness and innocence of their language. Music of China appears to date back to the dawn of Chinese civilization, and documents and artifacts provide evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC _ 256 BC). ... Shī Jīng (詩經), translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the first major collection of Chinese poems. ... (Redirected from 1000 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and Trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... // [edit] Classical texts Main article: Chinese classic texts China has a wealth of classical literature, both poetry and prose, dating from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BCE) and including the Classics attributed to Confucius. ...


Early Chinese music was based on percussion instruments such as the bronze bell. Chinese bells were sounded by being struck from the outside, usually with a piece of wood. Sets of bells were suspended on wooden racks. Inside excavated bells are groves and marks of scraping and scratching made as they were tuned to the right pitch. Percussion instruments gradually gave way to string and reed instruments toward the Warring States period. A percussion instrument can be any object which produces a sound by being struck with an implement, shaken, rubbed, scraped, or by any other action which sets the object into vibration. ...


Significantly, the character for writing the word music (yue) was the same as that for joy (le). For Confucius and his disciples, music was important because it had the power to make people harmonious and well balanced, or, conversely, caused them to be quarrelsome and depraved. According to Xun Zi, music was as important as the li ("rites"; "etiquette") stressed in Confucianism. Mozi, philosophically opposed to Confucianism, disagreed. He dismissed music as having only aesthetic uses, and thus useless and wasteful. Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu, lit. ... Xunzi Xún Zǐ (荀子, or Hsün Tzu c. ... Confucian temple in Jiading district, Shanghai. ... Mozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Mo Tzu, Lat. ...


Early Chinese poetry

In addition to the Book of Songs (Shi Jing), a second early and influential poetic anthology was the Songs of Chu (Simplified Chinese: 楚辞; Traditional Chinese: 楚辭; pinyin: Chǔ Cí), made up primarily of poems ascribed to the semilegendary Qu Yuan (c. 340278 BC) and his follower Song Yu (fourth century BC). The songs in this collection are more lyrical and romantic and represent a different tradition from the earlier Classic of Poetry (Shi Jing). ShÄ« JÄ«ng (Chinese: 詩經), translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the first major collection of Chinese poems. ... Portrait of Qu Yuan, the central figure of Chu Ci, by Australian Chinese artist Zhang Cuiying Chu Ci (Traditional Chinese: 楚辭; Simplified Chinese: 楚辞; pinyin: chÇ” cí), also known as Songs of the South or Songs of Chu, is an anthology of Chinese poems by Qu Yuan and Song Yu from the... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiǎntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiǎnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... It has been suggested that Pinyin method be merged into this article or section. ... Qu Yuan Qu Yuan (Simplified Chinese: 屈原; Traditional Chinese: 屈原; Pinyin: qÅ« yúan) (c. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC Years: 345 BC 344 BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC - 340 BC - 339 BC 338 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC - 270s BC - 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279 BC - 278 BC - 277 BC 276 BC 275... Song Yu (Simplified Chinese: 宋玉) was a well-known Chinese poet in the State of Chu during the third century BCE. He is commonly said to be a nephew of Qu Yuan, but no reliable biographical information is available (He is also said to be a student of Qu Yuan). ... Shī Jīng (詩經), translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the first major collection of Chinese poems. ...


Chu and Southern culture

A rich source of art in early China was the state of Chu, which developed in the Yangtze River valley. Excavations of Chu tombs have found painted wooden sculptures, jade disks, glass beads, musical instruments, and an assortment of lacquerware. Many of the lacquer objects are finely painted, red on black or black on red. A site in Changsha, Hunan province, has revealed the world's oldest painting on silk discovered to date. It shows a woman accompanied by a phoenix and a dragon, two mythological animals to feature prominently in Chinese art. State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚) was a kingdom in what is now southern China during the Spring and Autumn period (722-481 BCE) and Warring States Period (481-212 BCE). ... In a general sense, lacquer is a paint or varnish that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... Changsha (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-sha) is the capital of Hunan, a province of Southcentral China, located on the lower reaches of Xiangjiang river, a branch of the Yangtze River. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: Húnán) is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning south of the lake). Hunan is sometimes called 湘 (pinyin: Xiāng) for short, after the Xiang River which runs through the... Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Chinese dragon, color engraving on wood, Chinese school, 19th Century The dragon is a mythical creature typically depicted as a large and powerful serpent or other reptile with magical or spiritual qualities. ...


An anthology of Chu poetry has also survived in the form of the Chu Ci, which has been translated into English by David Hawkes. Many of the works in the text are associated with Shamanism. There are also descriptions of fantastic landscapes, examples of China's first nature poetry. The longest poem, "Encountering Sorrow," is reputed to have been written by the tragic Qu Yuan as a political allegory. A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ... Qu Yuan Qu Yuan (Simplified Chinese: 屈原; Traditional Chinese: 屈原; Pinyin: qū yúan) (c. ...


Early Imperial China (221 BC–AD 220)

Qin sculpture

The Terracotta Army sculptures
The Terracotta Army sculptures

The Terracotta Army, inside the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor, consists of more than 7,000 life-size tomb terra-cotta figures of warriors and horses buried with the self-proclaimed first Emperor of Qin (Qin Shi Huang) in 210209 BC. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1944x2592, 2117 KB) // Made by Tang Zu-Ming, self-processed Original thing is in the museum, Xian, China. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1944x2592, 2117 KB) // Made by Tang Zu-Ming, self-processed Original thing is in the museum, Xian, China. ... The Terracotta Army (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) or Terracotta Warriors and Horses is a collection of 8,099 life-size terra cotta figures of warriors and horses located near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ). The figures were discovered in... The Terracotta Army (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) or Terracotta Warriors and Horses is a collection of 8,099 life-size terra cotta figures of warriors and horses located near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ). The figures were discovered in... Sculpture of Hanuman in terra cotta. ... The Emperor of China (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was the title given to the rulers of China from the founding of the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC until the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912. ... The Qin (Chin) Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the Zhou Dynasty and followed by the Han Dynasty in China. ... Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (November / December 260 BC – September 10, 210 BC), personal name Ying Zheng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BC to 221 BC (officially still the Zhou Dynasty), and then the first emperor of a unified... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 215 BC 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC 211 BC - 210 BC - 209 BC 208 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC 211 BC 210 BC - 209 BC - 208 BC 207 BC...


The figures were painted before being placed into the vault. The original colors were visible when the pieces were first unearthed. However, exposure to air caused the pigments to fade, so today the unearthed figures appear terra-cotta in color.


The figures are in several poses including standing infantry and kneeling archers, as well as charioteers with horses. Each figure's head appears to be unique, showing a variety of facial features and expressions as well as hair styles.


Pottery

Porcelain is made from a hard paste comprised of the clay kaolin and a feldspar called petuntse, which cements the vessel and seals any pores. China has become synonymous with high-quality porcelain. Most china comes from the city of Jingdezhen in China's Jiangxi province. This article is concerned with the porcelain wares of China, from early times until the present day. ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... Kaolin Kaolinite (Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide) Kaolinite is a mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ... Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... Petuntse (from 白墩子 in pinyin: bai2 dun1 zi0), also spelled petunse, also known as china stone, is a granite-derived feldspar. ... A pore, in general, is some form of opening, usually very small. ... Position of Jingdezhen in Jiangxi Jingdezhen (Simplified Chinese: 景德镇; Traditional Chinese: 景德鎮; Pinyin: ), or the Town of Jingde, is a prefecture-level city, previously a town, in Jiangxi Province, China, with a city population of 3,112,000 (estimate 2006) has been termed the Porcelain Capital (瓷都) because of its production of quality... Jiangxi (Chinese: 江西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south. ...


Jingdezhen, under a variety of names, has been central to porcelain production in China since at least the early Han Dynasty. The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Han Chau; 206 BC–AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ...


The most noticeable difference between porcelain and the other pottery clays is that it "wets" very quickly (that is, added water has a noticeably greater effect on the plasticity for porcelain than other clays), and that it tends to continue to "move" longer than other clays, requiring experience in handling to attain optimum results. Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ...


During medieval times in Europe, porcelain was very expensive and in high demand for its beauty.


TLV mirrors also date from the Han dynasty. A TLV mirror is a type of mirror artifact from Han Dynasty China. ...


Han poetry

During, the Han Dynasty (206 BC–AD 220), the Chu lyrics evolved into the fu (賦), a poem usually in rhymed verse except for introductory and concluding passages that are in prose, often in the form of questions and answers. The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Han Chau; 206 BC–AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... Second Punic War: Scipio Africanus Major destroyed the combined Carthaginian army of Mago Barca and Hasdrubal Gisco in the Battle of Ilipa, thus ending Carthaginian hold in Spain. ... Events Han Xiandi abdicates his throne to Cao Pi, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. ... Fu may refer to: Fu is a word meaning expertise Fu is a Chinese suffix (e. ...


From the Han Dynasty onwards, a process similar to the origins of the Shi Jing produced the yue fu poems. The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Han Chau; 206 BC–AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... ShÄ« JÄ«ng (Chinese: 詩經), translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the first major collection of Chinese poems. ... Yue fu (Chinese 乐府) are Chinese poems composed in a folk song style. ...


Han architecture

Other Han art

The Han Dynasty was also known for jade burial suits. A jade burial suit (Chinese: 金縷玉衣; pinyin: ; literally gold-threaded jade suit) is a ceremonial suit made of pieces of jade in which some nobles in Han Dynasty China were buried. ...


Period of division (220–581)

Influence of Buddhism

Main article: Buddhist art Footprint of the Buddha. ...


Buddhism arrived in China around the 1st century AD (although there are some traditions about a monk visiting China during Asoka's reign), and through to the 8th century it became very active and creative in the development of Buddhist art, particularly in the area of statuary. Receiving this distant religion, China soon incorporated strong Chinese traits in its artistic expression. Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ...


In the fifth to sixth century the Northern Dynasties, rather removed from the original sources of inspiration, tended to develop rather symbolic and abstract modes of representation, with schematic lines. Their style is also said to be solemn and majestic. The lack of corporeality of this art, and its distance from the original Buddhist objective of expressing the pure ideal of enlightenment in an accessible, realistic manner, progressively led to a research towards more naturalism and realism, leading to the expression of Tang Buddhist art. The Northern Dynasties (北朝 bei3 chao2) included Northern Wei Dynasty, Eastern Wei Dynasty, Western Wei Dynasty, Northern Qi Dynasty, Northern Zhou Dynasty. ...


Secular culture

Poetry

Historical records indicate Cao Cao was a brilliant ruler and poet. Cao Cao was also the father of the well-known poets Cao Pi and Cao Zhi. For other uses, see Cao Cao (disambiguation). ... Cáo Pī (曹丕, 187 - 226), born in Qiao County, Pei presently Bozhou city in An Hui Province. ... Cao Zhi (曹植 192 – 232) was a Chinese poet during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period. ...


Cao Pi is known for writing the first Chinese poem using seven syllables per line (七言詩), the poem 燕歌行. Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong Hand-painted Chinese New Years poetry pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, Old Town, Lijiang, Yunnan, China. ...


Cao Zhi demonstrated his spontaneous wit at an early age and was a front-running candidate for the throne; however, such ability was devoted to Chinese literature and poetry, which was encouraged by his father's subordinate officials. Later he surrounded himself with a group of poets and officials with literary interests, including some who continually showed off their smartness at the expense of Cao Cao and Cao Pi's subordinates and even Cao Cao himself.


Tao Qian's poetry influenced the work of many subsequent poets. Approximately 120 of his poems survive, which depict an idyllic pastoral life of farming and drinking. Portrait of Tao Qian, by Chen Hongshou (1599-1652) Táo Qián (Chinese: 陶潛, Wade-Giles: Tao Chien) (365-427), also known as Táo Yuānmíng (陶淵明),born in Xunyang Chaishang (now Jiujiang in Jiangxi province ). Tao Yüan-ming , was one of the most influential... Titians The Pastoral Concert Pastoral refers to the lifestyle of shepherds and pastoralists, moving livestock around larger areas of land according to seasons and availability of water and feed. ...


Calligraphy

In ancient China, painting and calligraphy were the most highly appreciated arts in court circles and were produced almost exclusively by amateurs, aristocrats and scholar-officials who alone had the leisure to perfect the technique and sensibility necessary for great brushwork. Calligraphy was thought to be the highest and purest form of painting. The implements were the brush pen, made of animal hair, and black inks, made from pine soot and animal glue. Writing as well as painting was done on silk. But after the invention of paper in the 1st century, silk was gradually replaced by the new and cheaper material. Original writings by famous calligraphers have been greatly valued throughout China's history and are mounted on scrolls and hung on walls in the same way that paintings are. For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of AD 1407 on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). ... An ink is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for colouring a surface to render an image or text. ... Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ...


Wang Xizhi was a famous Chinese calligrapher who lived in the 4th century AD. His most famous work is the Lanting Xu, the preface of a collection of poems written by a number of poets when gathering at Lan Ting near the town of Shaoxing in Zhejiang province and engaging in a game called "qu shui liu shang". Wikisource has original text related to this article: Author:Wang Xizhi Wang Xizhi (王羲之) (303-361) was a famous Chinese calligrapher. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... mm. ...


Wei Shuo was a well-known calligrapher of Eastern Jin Dynasty who established consequential rules about the Regular Script. Her well-known works include Famous Concubine Inscription (名姬帖 Ming Ji Tie) and The Inscription of Wei-shi He'nan (衛氏和南帖 Wei-shi He'nan Tie). Lady Wèi Shuò (Traditional: 衛鑠, Simplified: 卫铄) (272-349), commonly addressed just as Lady Wei (衛夫人 Wei Furen), was a calligrapher of Eastern Jin Dynasty China who established consequential rules about the Regular Script. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... Sheng Jiao Xu by Chu Suiliang: calligraphy of the Kaishu style The Regular Script, or in Chinese Kaishu (楷書 Pinyin: kÇŽishÅ«) and Japanese Kaisho, also commonly known as Standard Regular (正楷), is the newest of the Chinese calligraphy styles (peaked at the 7th century), hence most common in modern writings and...


Painting

Gu Kaizhi is a celebrated painter of ancient China born in Wuxi. He wrote three books about painting theory: On Painting (画论), Introduction of Famous Paintings of Wei and Jin Dynasties (魏晋胜流画赞) and Painting Yuntai Mountain (画云台山记). He wrote, "In figure paintings the clothes and the appearances were not very important. The eyes were the spirit and the decisive factor." Gu Kaizhi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ku Kai-chih) (c. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Wuxi (Simplified Chinese: 无锡; Traditional Chinese: 無錫; Pinyin: WúxÄ«; former spellings: Wu-hsi, Wuhsi, or Wusih; lit. ...


Three of Gu's paintings still survive today. They are "Admonitions of the Instructress to the Court Ladies", "Nymph of the Luo River" (洛神赋), and "Wise and Benevolent Women".


The Sui and Tang dynasties (581–960)

Main article: Tang Dynasty art Night Shining White, a handscroll attributed to Han Gan (active 742–756). ...


Buddhist architecture and sculpture

A Chinese Tang Dynasty tri-color glazed porcelain horse (ca. 700 CE), using yellow, green and white colors.
A Chinese Tang Dynasty tri-color glazed porcelain horse (ca. 700 CE), using yellow, green and white colors.

Following a transition under the Sui Dynasty, Buddhist sculpture of the Tang evolved towards a markedly lifelike expression. As a consequence of the Dynasty's openness to foreign influences, and renewed exchanges with Indian culture due to the numerous travels of Chinese Buddhist monks to India from the 4th to the 11th century, Tang dynasty Buddhist sculpture assumed a rather classical form, inspired by the Indian art of the Gupta period. Tang horse at the Shanghai Museum by Andrew Lih File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tang horse at the Shanghai Museum by Andrew Lih File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (18 June 618 – 4 June 907), lasting about three centuries, preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Song Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ... Madonna with Child and Angels, ceramica glaze by Renaissance artist Andrea della Robbia. ... SUI can be the IOC country code or the FIFA country code for Switzerland SUI can be an acronym for sonic user interface (similar to GUI for graphical user interface). ... The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (18 June 618 – 4 June 907), lasting about three centuries, preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Song Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ...


However, foreign influences came to be negatively perceived towards the end of the Tang dynasty. In the year 845, the Tang emperor Wu-Tsung outlawed all "foreign" religions (including Christian Nestorianism, Zoroastrianism and Buddhism) in order to support the indigenous Taoism. He confiscated Buddhist possessions and forced the faith to go underground, therefore affecting the ulterior development of the religion and its arts in China. Events March 28 - Paris is sacked by Viking raiders, probably under Ragnar Lodbrok, who collect a huge ransom in exchange for leaving. ... Emperor Tang Wuzong (武宗 814-846), born Li Yan, was a later emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Zoroastrianism (Avestan Daênâ Vañuhi the good religion)[1][2] is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology. ... Taoism (pronounced and often written as Daoism (dow-ism) is the English name for a cluster of Chinese religious and philosophical traditions. ...


Most wooden Tang sculptures have not survived, though representations of the Tang international style can still be seen in Nara, Japan. The longevity of stone sculpture has proved much greater. Some of the finest examples can be seen at Longmen, near Luoyang, Yungang near Datong, and Bingling Temple, in Gansu. Nara ) is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan, near Kyoto. ... Longmen can refer to: Longmen Grottoes: a collection of Buddhist cave art in Luoyang, China. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Luòyáng) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Categories: Chinese Buddhist Grottoes | World Heritage Sites in China | Stub ... Alternative meaning: Datong (Taipei City), Datong (Company) Datong (Chinese: 大同, Hanyu Pinyin: Dàtóng, WG: Ta-tung) is a city in the northern Shanxi Province in China. ... Smaller relief images The Great Maitreya Buddha The Bingling Temple (Chinese: 炳灵寺; Pinyin: Bǐnglíng Sì) is a series of grottoes filled with Buddhist sculpture carved into natural caves and caverns in a canyon along the Yellow River. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Golden age of Chinese poetry

Yue fu are Chinese poems composed in a folk song style. The term literally means "music bureau", a reference to the government organization originally charged with collecting or writing the lyrics. Yue fu (Chinese 乐府) are Chinese poems composed in a folk song style. ... Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong Hand-painted Chinese New Years poetry pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, Old Town, Lijiang, Yunnan, China. ... Folk music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and of the people. ... Lyrics are the words in songs. ...


The lines are of uneven length, though five characters is the most common. Each poem follows one of a series of patterns defined by the song title. The term covers original folk songs, court imitations and versions by known poets. A title is a prefix or suffix added to a persons name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. ... A royal or noble court, as an instrument of government broader than a court of justice, comprises an extended household centered on a patron whose rule may govern law or be governed by it. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ...


From the 2nd century AD, the yue fu began to develop into shi—the form which was to dominate Chinese poetry until the modern era. The writers of these poems took the five-character line of the yue fu and used it to express more complex ideas. The shi poem was generally an expression of the poet's own persona rather than the adopted characters of the yue fu; many were romantic nature poems heavily influenced by Taoism. The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Shi (è©©) is the Chinese word for poem; it can also be used to mean Chinese poetry other than lyrics, or (most commonly) the classical form of poetry developed in the late Han dynasty and which reached its zenith in the Tang dynasty. ... Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong Hand-painted Chinese New Years poetry pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, Old Town, Lijiang, Yunnan, China. ... Taoism (pronounced and often written as Daoism (dow-ism) is the English name for a cluster of Chinese religious and philosophical traditions. ...


The term gushi ("old poems") can refer either to the first, mostly anonymous shi poems, or more generally to the poems written in the same form by later poets. Gushi in this latter sense are defined essentially by what they are not; that is, they are not jintishi (regulated verse). The writer of gushi was under no formal constraints other than line length and rhyme (in every second line). A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar terminal sounds in two or more different words and is most often used in poetry. ...


Jintishi, or regulated verse, developed from the 5th century onwards. By the Tang dynasty, a series of set tonal patterns had been developed, which were intended to ensure a balance between the four tones of classical Chinese in each couplet: the level tone, and the three deflected tones (rising, falling and entering). The Tang dynasty was the high point of the jintishi. Constrained writing is a literary technique in which the writer is bound by some condition that forbids certain things or imposes a pattern. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Tone (linguistics). ... A couplet is a pair of lines of verse that form a unit. ...


Notable poets from this era include Bai Juyi, Du Mu, Han Yu, Jia Dao, Li Qiao, Liu Zongyuan, Luo Binwang, Meng Haoran, Wang Wei, and Zhang Jiuling. This is a Chinese name; the family name is Bai. ... Du Mu (杜牧, pinyin: Dù Mù, 803 - 852) was a leading realistic Chinese poet of the late Tang dynasty. ... Hán Yù (韓愈) (768 - 824), was a precursor of Neo-Confucianism as well as an essayist and poet. ... Jia Dao (779 - 843) was a Chinese poet born in Hebei. ... Li Qiao (李峤, 644-713) was a Chinese poet and official born in Shanxi. ... Liu Zongyuan (柳宗元) (773 - 819) was a Chinese writer who lived in Changan in the Tang dynasty. ... Luo Binwang (骆宾王) (around 640 - 684) of the Tang Dynasty, was a Chinese poet born at Yiwu, Wuzhou, Zhejiang, but raised in Shandong. ... Meng Haoran (孟浩然) (pinyin: Mèng Hàorán; Wade-Giles: Meng Hao-jan) (689 or 691 - 740) was a Chinese poet during the Tang dynasty. ... Wang Wei (王維) (701 - 761), sometimes titled the Poet Buddha, was a Tang Dynasty Chinese poet, musician, painter and statesman. ... Zhang Jiuling (张九龄, styled Zishou 子寿) (678 - 740) was a prominent minister, noted poet and scholar of the Tang Dynasty. ...


Li Po and Du Fu

Li Po and Du Fu both lived during the Tang Dynasty. They are regarded by many as the greatest of the Chinese poets. Li Po (701-762) was a Chinese poet, considered the greatest romantic poet of the Tang dynasty. ... Du Fu or Tu Fu (February 12, 712–770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty. ...


Over a thousand poems are attributed to Li Po, but the authenticity of many of these is uncertain. He is best known for his yue fu poems, which are intense and often fantastic. He is often associated with Taoism: there is a strong element of this in his works, both in the sentiments they express and in their spontaneous tone. Nevertheless, his gufeng ("ancient airs") often adopt the perspective of the Confucian moralist, and many of his occasional verses are fairly conventional. Yue fu (Chinese 乐府) are Chinese poems composed in a folk song style. ... The Fantastic is a literary genre of writing or art which intrudes fantasy elements into a story (or picture) that is basically representational or real-feeling. ... Taoism (pronounced and often written as Daoism (dow-ism) is the English name for a cluster of Chinese religious and philosophical traditions. ...


Much like Mozart, many legends exist on how Li Po effortlessly composed his poetry, even (or some say, especially) when drunk; his favorite form is the jueju (five- or seven-character quatrain), of which he composed some 160 pieces. Using striking, unconventional imagery, Li Po is able to create exquisite pieces to utilize fully the elements of the language. His use of language is not as erudite as Du Fu's but equally effective, impressing through an extravagance of imagination and a direct connection of a free-spirited persona with the reader. Li Po's interactions with nature, friendship, and his acute observations of life inform his best poems. Some of the rest, like Changgan xing (translated by Ezra Pound as A River Merchant's Wife: A Letter), records the hardships or emotions of common people. Like the best Chinese poets, Li Po often evades translation. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ...


Since the Song dynasty, critics have called Du Fu the "poet historian". The most directly historical of his poems are those commenting on military tactics or the successes and failures of the government, or the poems of advice which he wrote to the emperor. The Song Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... An historian is someone who writes history, a written accounting of the past. ... Military tactics is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ...


One of the Du Fu's earliest surviving works, The Song of the Wagons (c. 750), gives voice to the sufferings of a conscript soldier in the imperial army, even before the beginning of the rebellion; this poem brings out the tension between the need of acceptance and fulfillment of one's duties, and a clear-sighted consciousness of the suffering which this can involve. Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM... Duty is a term loosely appliedDuty to any action (or course of action) whichDutyDuty is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ...


Du Fu's work is notable above all for its range. He mastered all the forms of Chinese poetry: Chou says that in every form he "either made outstanding advances or contributed outstanding examples" (p. 56). Furthermore, his poems use a wide range of registers, from the direct and colloquial to the allusive and self-consciously literary. The tenor of his work changed as he developed his style and adapted to his surroundings ("chameleonlike" according to Watson): his earliest works are in a relatively derivative, courtly style, but he came into his own in the years of the rebellion. Owen comments on the "grim simplicity" of the Qinzhou poems, which mirrors the desert landscape (p. 425); the works from his Chengdu period are "light, often finely observed" (p. 427); while the poems from the late Kuizhou period have a "density and power of vision" (p. 433). Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong Hand-painted Chinese New Years poetry pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, Old Town, Lijiang, Yunnan, China. ... In linguistics, a register is a subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. ... A colloquialism is an informal expression, that is, an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ... Allusion is a stylistic device or trope, in which one refers covertly or indirectly to an object or circumstance that has occurred or existed in an external context. ... Genera Bradypodion Calumma Chamaeleo Furcifer Brookesia Rhampholeon Chameleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are squamates that belong to one of the best-known lizard families. ... This article is about arid terrain. ...


Late Tang poetry

Li Shangyin was a Chinese poet of the late Tang dynasty. He was a typical Late Tang poet: his works are sensuous, dense and allusive. The latter quality makes adequate translation extremely difficult. Many of his poems have political, romantic or philosophical implications, but it is often unclear which of these should be read into each work. Li Shangyin (李商隱 Lǐ Shāngyǐn, also known as 李義山, Li Yishan) (between 810 and 813- 858), was a Chinese poet of the late Tang dynasty, born in Henei (now Qinyang, Henan Province). ...


Li Yu was a Chinese poet and the last ruler of the Southern Tang Kingdom. His best-known poems were composed during the years after the Song formerly ended his reign in 975 and brought him back as a captive to the Song capital, Bianjing (now Kaifeng). Li's works from this period dwell on his regret for the lost kingdom and the pleasures it had brought him. He was finally poisoned by the Song emperor in 978. Li Houzhu (李後主; pinyin: lǐ hòu zhÇ”) (936 or 937 - 978) was a Chinese poet and the last ruler of the Southern Tang Kingdom from 961 to 975 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period; he has been called the first true master of the ci form (Indiana Companion... Events Coronation of King Edward the Martyr Births Deaths July 8 Edgar of England Categories: 975 ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: KāifÄ“ng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Events Badìa Fiorentina, an abbey in Italy, is founded by Willa, Margravine of Tuscany. ...


Li Yu developed the ci by broadening its scope from love to history and philosophy, particularly in his later works. He also introduced the two-stanza form, and made great use of contrasts between longer lines of nine characters and shorter ones of three and five. Love is any of a number of emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong affection or profound oneness. ... History studies the past in human terms. ... This article is 58 kilobytes or more in size. ... In poetry, a stanza is a unit within a larger poem. ...


Painting

Painting by Dong Yuan
Painting by Dong Yuan

Beginning in the Tang dynasty (618907), the primary subject matter of painting was the landscape, known as shanshui (mountain water) painting. In these landscapes, usually monochromatic and sparse, the purpose was not to reproduce exactly the appearance of nature but rather to grasp an emotion or atmosphere so as to catch the "rhythm" of nature. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x1068, 323 KB) From zh wiki Source from [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Chinese art ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x1068, 323 KB) From zh wiki Source from [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Chinese art ... Dŏng Yuán (董源) (c. ... The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (18 June 618 – 4 June 907), lasting about three centuries, preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Song Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ... Events End of the Sui Dynasty and beginning of the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Events Oleg leads Kievan Rus in a campaign against Constantinople Yelü Abaoji establishes Liao (Khitan) dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 907 ... Shanshui (Chinese: 山水, lit. ...


Painting in the traditional style involved essentially the same techniques as calligraphy and is done with a brush dipped in black or colored ink; oils were not used. As with calligraphy, the most popular materials on which paintings are made are paper and silk. The finished work is then mounted on scrolls, which can be hung or rolled up. Traditional painting also is done in albums and on walls, lacquerwork, and other media. In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ...


Dong Yuan was an active painter in the Southern Tang Kingdom. He was known for both figure and landscape paintings, and exemplified the elegant style which would become the standard for brush painting in China over the next 900 years. As with many artists in China, his profession was as an official where he studied the existing styles of Li Sixun and Wang Wei. However, he added to the number of techniques, including more sophisticated perspective, use of pointillism and crosshatching to build up vivid effect. Dŏng Yuán (董源) (c. ...


Zhan Ziqian was a painter during the Sui Dynasty. His only painting in existence is Strolling About In Spring arranged mountains perspectively. Because the first pure scenery paintings of Europe emerged after the 17th century, Strolling About In Spring may well be the first scenery painting of the world. Zhan Ziqian (展子虔) was a great painter of ancient China, and from Yangxin county (阳信县), Shandong province. ...


The Song and Yuan dynasties (960–1368)

Song poetry

Ci is a kind of lyric Chinese poetry. Beginning in the Liang Dynasty, the ci followed the tradition of the Shi Jing and the yue fu: they were lyrics which developed from anonymous popular songs (some of Central Asian origin) into a sophisticated literary genre. The form was further developed in the Tang Dynasty, and was most popular in the Song Dynasty. Ci poetry (è©ž, interchangeable with è¾­ pinyin cí) is a kind of lyric Chinese poetry. ... // Lyric poetry is a form of poetry that does not attempt to tell a story, as do epic poetry and dramatic poetry, but is of a more personal nature instead. ... Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong Hand-painted Chinese New Years poetry pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, Old Town, Lijiang, Yunnan, China. ... Liang Dynasty (梁朝 (Pinyin: Liáng cháo)) (502-557), also known as Southern Liang Dynasty (南梁), was the third of Southern dynasties in China, followed by the Chen Dynasty. ... ShÄ« JÄ«ng (Chinese: 詩經), translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the first major collection of Chinese poems. ... Yue fu (Chinese 乐府) are Chinese poems composed in a folk song style. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (18 June 618 – 4 June 907), lasting about three centuries, preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Song Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ... The Song Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ...


Ci most often expressed feelings of desire, often in an adopted persona, but the greatest exponents of the form (such as Li Houzhu and Su Shi) used it to address a wide range of topics. Persona literally means mask , although it does not usually refer to a literal mask but to the social masks all humans supposedly wear. ... Li Houzhu (李後主; pinyin: lǐ hòu zhǔ) (936 or 937 - 978) was a Chinese poet and the last ruler of the Southern Tang Kingdom from 961 to 975 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period; he has been called the first true master of the ci form (Indiana Companion... Su Shi (蘇軾) (1037-1101) was a writer, poet, artist, calligrapher and statesman of the Song Dynasty, one of the major poets of the Song era. ...


Well-known poets of the Song Dynasty include Zeng Gong, Li Qingzhao, Lu You, Mei Yaochen, Ouyang Xiu, Su Dongpo, Wang Anshi, and Xin Qiji. Zeng Gong (曾鞏; style name: Zigu 子固; 1019-1083) was a scholar and historian of the Song Dynasty in China. ... Li Qingzhao (Traditional Chinese: 李清照; Simplified Chinese: 李清照, pinyin: Lǐ QÄ«ngzhào; Wade-Giles: Li Ching-chao) (1084 - ca. ... Lu You (陆游 or 陸遊)(1125- 1210) was a Chinese poet of the southern Song dynasty. ... Mei Yaochen (梅尧臣) (1002 - 1060) was a poet of the Song dynasty. ... Ouyang Xiu (Ou-Yang Hsiu) (歐陽修; 欧阳修 style name: Yongshu 永叔; also known as Zuiweng 醉翁 and Liuyi Jushi 六一居士) (Wade-Giles: Ouyang Hsiu) (1007 - 1072) was a Chinese statesman, historian, essayist and poet of the Song Dynasty. ... Su Shi (蘇軾) (1037-1101) was a writer, poet, artist, calligrapher and statesman of the Song Dynasty. ... Wáng Ānshí (王安石) (1021 - 1086) was a Chinese economist, statesman and poet of the Song Dynasty who attempted some controversial, major socio-economic reforms. ... Xin Qiji (辛棄疾, Xīn Qìjí) (1140 - 1207) was a Chinese poet during the Southern Song dynasty. ...


Song painting

Chinese painting from c.1250
Chinese painting from c.1250

During the Song dynasty (9601279), landscapes of more subtle expression appeared; immeasurable distances were conveyed through the use of blurred outlines, mountain contours disappearing into the mist, and impressionistic treatment of natural phenomena. Emphasis was placed on the spiritual qualities of the painting and on the ability of the artist to reveal the inner harmony of man and nature, as perceived according to Taoist and Buddhist concepts. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1950, 302 KB) Description: Title: de: Erwartung der Gäste bei Laternenlicht Technique: de: Tusche und Farben auf Seide Dimensions: de: 24,8 × 25,2 cm Country of origin: de: China Current location (city): de: Formosa Current location (gallery): de: Palastsammlung... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1950, 302 KB) Description: Title: de: Erwartung der Gäste bei Laternenlicht Technique: de: Tusche und Farben auf Seide Dimensions: de: 24,8 × 25,2 cm Country of origin: de: China Current location (city): de: Formosa Current location (gallery): de: Palastsammlung... The Song Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Events Edgar the Peaceable crowned King of England. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


Liang Kai was a Chinese painter who lived in the 13th century (Song Dynasty). He called himself "Madman Liang," and he spent his life drinking and painting. Eventually, he retired and became a Zen monk. Liang is credited with inventing the Zen school of Chinese art. Liáng Kǎi (梁楷) (fl. ... The Song Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Zen is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that places great importance on moment-by-moment awareness and seeing deeply into the nature of things by direct experience. ...


Wen Tong was a painter who lived in the 11th century. He was famous for ink paintings of bamboo. He could hold two brushes in one hand and paint two different distanced bamboos simultaneously. He did not need to see the bamboo while he painted them because he had seen a lot of them. Categories: Artist stubs | Chinese painters | 1018 births | 1079 deaths ... Diversity Around 91 genera and 1,000 species Subtribes Arthrostylidiinae Arundinariinae Bambusinae Chusqueinae Guaduinae Melocanninae Nastinae Racemobambodinae Shibataeinae See the full Taxonomy of the Bambuseae. ...


Yuan drama

Chinese opera is a popular form of drama in China. In general, it dates back to the Tang dynasty with Emperor Xuanzong (712755), who founded the "Pear Garden" (梨园), the first known opera troupe in China. The troupe mostly performed for the emperors' personal pleasure. To this day operatic professionals are still referred to as "Disciples of the Pear Garden" (梨园子弟). In the Yuan dynasty (12791368), forms like the Zaju (杂剧, variety plays), which acts based on rhyming schemes plus the innovation of having specialized roles like "Dan" (旦, female), "Sheng" (生, male) and "Chou" (丑, Clown), were introduced into the opera. Emperor Xuan-Zong of Tang (left) and his Consort Yang Yuhuan (right) portrayed in a Chinese Opera 19th century Chinese opera Chinese opera costumes Some athletic jump Chinese opera is a popular form of drama in China. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (18 June 618 – 4 June 907), lasting about three centuries, preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Song Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ... Emperor Tang Xuanzong (唐玄宗) (685 - 762), born Li Longji (李隆基), was the sixth emperor of the Tang dynasty of China reigining from 712 to 756. ... Events Ansprand succeeds Aripert as king of the Lombards. ... Events Abd-ar-rahman I lands in Spain, where the next year he will establish a new Umayyad dynasty. ... The Pear Garden (梨园), the first known opera troupe in China. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus), lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... Dan(æ—¦) is the general name for the female roles in Chinese opera. ... Zhou refers to Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC - 256 BC) Zhou Dynasty (690 AD - 705 AD) Zhou (political division) — Zhou is the name of a type of political division of China. ...


Yuan dynasty opera continues today as Cantonese opera. It is universally accepted that Cantonese opera was imported from the northern part of China and slowly migrated to the southern province of Guangdong in late 13th century, during the late Southern Song Dynasty. In the 12th century, there was a theatrical form called Narm hei (南戲), or the Nanxi (Southern opera), which was performed in public theaters of Hangzhou, then capital of the Southern Song Dynasty. With the invasion of the Mongol army, Emperor Gong (Gong Di (恭帝 Gōngdì)), Zhao Xian (趙顯 Zhào Xiǎn) fled with hundreds of thousands of Song people into the province of Guangdong in 1276. Among these people were some Narm hei artists from the north. Thus narm hei was brought into Guangdong by these artists and developed into the earliest kind of Cantonese opera. Cantonese opera is one of the major categories in Chinese opera, originating in southern Chinas Cantonese culture. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city in the Peoples Republic of China and the capital of Zhejiang province. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Emperor Gongdi 宋恭帝(1271-1323) was the 16th Emperor of Song China. ...


Many well-known operas performed today, such as The Purple Hairpin and Rejuvenation of the Red Plum Flower, originated in the Yuan Dynasty, with the lyrics and scripts in Cantonese. Until the 20th century all the female roles were performed by males. The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus), lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming... Cantonese is a major dialect group or language of the Chinese language, a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Yuan painting

Wang Meng was a Chinese painter during the Yuan dynasty. One of his well-known works is the Forest Grotto. Detail from Forest Grotto Wáng Méng (王蒙) (c. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus), lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming...


Zhao Mengfu was a Chinese scholar, painter and calligrapher during the Yuan Dynasty. His rejection of the refined, gentle brushwork of his era in favor of the cruder style of the eighth century is considered to have brought about a revolution that created the modern Chinese landscape painting. Categories: Artist stubs | Calligraphers | Chinese painters ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Calligraphy (from Greek καλλι calli beauty + γραφος graphos writing) is the art of decorative writing. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus), lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ...


Late imperial China (1368–1895)

Detail of Dragon Throne used by the Qianlong Emperor of China, Forbidden City, Qing Dynasty. Artifact circulating in U.S. museums on loan from Beijing
Detail of Dragon Throne used by the Qianlong Emperor of China, Forbidden City, Qing Dynasty. Artifact circulating in U.S. museums on loan from Beijing

Image File history File links Detail of Dragon Throne, Qing dynasty, from Splendors of Chinas Forbidden City: The Glorious Reign of Emperor Qianlong exhibition on loan from Beijing. ... Image File history File links Detail of Dragon Throne, Qing dynasty, from Splendors of Chinas Forbidden City: The Glorious Reign of Emperor Qianlong exhibition on loan from Beijing. ... The Qianlong Emperor (September 25, 1711–February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... This article is about the Chinese imperial palace in Beijing. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: QÄ«ng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China and the surrounding territories, establishing the Empire...

Ming Poetry

Gao Qi is acknowledged by many as the greatest poet of the Ming Dynasty. His poems are departure of those of earlier dynasties and formed a new style of poetry in the Ming dynasty Gao Qi (1336-1374)is generally acknowledged as the greatest poet of the Ming dynasty in China. ... For other uses, see Ming. ...


Ming prose

  • Zhang Dai is acknowledged as the greatest essayist of the Ming dynasty.
  • Wen Zhenheng, the great grandson of Wen Zhengming, wrote a classic on garden architecture and interior design, Zhang Wu Zhi (On Superfluous Things).

Zhang Dai (å¼ å²±; pinyin: Zhāng Dài, courtesy name: Zhongzhi (宗子), pseudonym: Taoan (陶庵)) (1597 - 1689) was a Ming Dynasty writer. ... Wen Zhenheng (Chinese: 文震亨 ) (1585-1645 AD) was a Ming dynasty scholar, painter, landscape garden designer, and great grandson of Wen Zhengming, a famous Ming dynasty painter. ... Wen Zhengming (Wade Giles: Wen Cheng-ming)(文徵明, 1470–1559), leading Ming dynasty painter, calligrapher, and scholar. ...

Ming painting

Chinese painting from 1664
Main article: Ming Dynasty painting

Under the Ming dynasty, Chinese culture bloomed. Narrative painting, with a wider color range and a much busier composition than the Song paintings, was immensely popular during the time. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2176, 479 KB) Description: Title: de: Der Pao-en-Tempel Technique: de: Tusche und Farben auf Papier Dimensions: Country of origin: de: China Current location (city): de: Oiso (Japan) Current location (gallery): de: Sammlung K. Sumitomo Other notes: de: Detail einer... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2176, 479 KB) Description: Title: de: Der Pao-en-Tempel Technique: de: Tusche und Farben auf Papier Dimensions: Country of origin: de: China Current location (city): de: Oiso (Japan) Current location (gallery): de: Sammlung K. Sumitomo Other notes: de: Detail einer... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


As the techniques of color printing were perfected, illustrated manuals on the art of painting began to be published. Jieziyuan Huazhuan (Manual of the Mustard Seed Garden), a five-volume work first published in 1679, has been in use as a technical textbook for artists and students ever since. Matteo Ricci, Wen Zhengming, Xu Wei Events January 24 - King Charles II of England disbands Parliament August 7 - The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes. ... Matteo Ricci Matteo Ricci (Macerata, October 6, 1552 - Peking, May 11, 1610) (Chinese: 利瑪竇; pinyin: Lì MÇŽdòu) was an Italian Jesuit priest whose missionary activity in China during the Ming Dynasty marked the beginning of modern Chinese Christianity. ... Wen Zhengming (Wade Giles: Wen Cheng-ming)(文徵明, 1470–1559), leading Ming dynasty painter, calligrapher, and scholar. ... Xú Wèi (徐渭) (1521 - 1593) was a Ming Chinese painter famed for his rapid and expressive strokes. ...


Qing drama

The best-known form of Chinese opera is Beijing opera, which assumed its present form in the mid-19th century and was extremely popular in the Qing dynasty (1644–1911). In Beijing Opera, traditional Chinese string and percussion instruments provide a strong rhythmic accompaniment to the acting. The acting is based on allusion: gestures, footwork, and other body movements express such actions as riding a horse, rowing a boat, or opening a door. Emperor Xuan-Zong of Tang (left) and his Consort Yang Yuhuan (right) portrayed in a Chinese Opera 19th century Chinese opera Chinese opera costumes Some athletic jump Chinese opera is a popular form of drama in China. ... Beijing opera or Peking opera (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a kind of Chinese opera which arose in the mid-19th century and was extremely popular in the Qing Dynasty court. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: QÄ«ng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China and the surrounding territories, establishing the Empire...


Although it is called Beijing opera, its origins are not in Beijing but in the Chinese provinces of Anhui and Hubei. Beijing opera got its two main melodies, Xipi and Erhuang, from Anhui and Hubei operas. Much dialogue is also carried out in an archaic dialect originating partially from those regions. It also absorbed music and arias from other operas and musical arts such as the historic Qinqiang. It is regarded that Beijing Opera was born when the Four Great Anhui Troupes came to Beijing in 1790. Beijing opera was originally staged for the court and came into the public later. In 1828, some famous Hubei troupes came to Beijing. They often jointly performed in the stage with Anhui troupes. The combination gradually formed Beijing opera's main melodies. Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Four Great Characteristic Melodies (四大声腔 pinyin: Sìdà Shēngqiāng) in Chinese opera are Bangziqiang, Huangpiqiang, Kunqiang and Gaoqiang. ... Qinqiang (秦腔, pinyin: Qínqiāng) or Luantan (乱弹, pinyin: Luàntán) is the representative folk opera of the northwest Province of Shaanxi, China, where it was called Qin thousands of years ago. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Qing poetry

Yuan Mei was a well-known poet who lived during the Qing Dynasty. In the decades before his death, Yuan Mei produced a large body of poetry, essays and paintings. His works reflected his interest in Chan Buddhism and the supernatural, at the expense of Daoism and institutional Buddhism—both of which he rejected. Yuan is most famous for his poetry, which has been described as "unusually clear and elegant language". His views on poetry as expressed in the Suiyuan shihua (隨園詩話) stressed the importance of personal feeling and technical perfection. Yuan Mei (袁枚, 1716 - 1797) was a well-known poet, scholar and artist of the Qing Dynasty. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: QÄ«ng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China and the surrounding territories, establishing the Empire... Chan can be variation of 陳 (Chen), a Chinese family name. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology. ...


Early Qing painting

Giuseppe Castiglione, Bada Shanren, Jiang Tingxi, Shitao Giuseppe Castiglione (郎世宁 1688-1766) was a Jesuit missionary to China. ... Categories: Artist stubs | 1626 births | 1705 deaths | Chinese painters | Calligraphers ... Eleven Pigeons painting by Jiang Tingxi Jiang Tingxi (蔣廷錫) (1669-1732) was a chinese painter, and an editor of the encyclopedia Gujin tushu jicheng (Complete Collection of Ancient and Modern Writings and Charts). ... Life Wilderness Colors (Bird Watching) by Shitao Yuanji Shitao (1642-1707), a Chinese artist, was born Zhu Ruoji. ...


Shanghai School

The Shanghai School (海上画派 Haishang Huapai or 海派 Haipai) is a very important Chinese school of traditional arts during the Qing Dynasty and the whole of the 20th century. Under efforts of masters from this school, traditional Chinese art reached another climax and continued to the present in forms of "Chinese painting" (中国画), or guohua (国画) for short. The Shanghai School challenged and broke the literati tradition of Chinese art, while also paying technical homage to the ancient masters and improving on existing traditional techniques. Members of this school were themselves educated literati who had come to question their very status and the purpose of art, and had anticipated the impending modernization of Chinese society. In an era of rapid social change, works from the Shanghai School were widely innovative and diverse, and often contained thoughtful yet subtle social commentary. The most well-known figures from this school are Ren Xiong (任熊), Ren Yi (任伯年, also known as Ren Bonian), Zhao Zhiqian (赵之谦), Wu Changshuo (吴昌硕), Sha Menghai (沙孟海, calligraphist), Pan Tianshou (潘天寿), Fu Baoshi (傅抱石). Other well-known painters are: Wang Zhen, XuGu, Zhang Xiong, Hu Yuan, and Yang Borun. The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: QÄ«ng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China and the surrounding territories, establishing the Empire... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... It has been suggested that Chinese Painting Arts be merged into this article or section. ... Self portrait by Ren Xiong Ren Xiong (任熊, 1823-57) China painter from Xiaoshan, active during during the late Qing dynasty. ... Rèn Yí (1840-1896) was a painter and son of a rice merchant who supplemented his income by doing portraits. ... Wú Chāngshuò(1844-1927) is the name for which Wu Junqing is best known. ... Sha Menghai (11th Jun. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Flowers 1931, Private Collection Japan Tang Poem Calligraphy, Private Collection Japan Wang Zhen (王震) was a celebrated modern Chinese artist of the Shanghai School. ... Yang Borun (1837-1911) was a well-known Chinese poet, calligrapher, and painter of the Shanghai school. ...


Decorative arts

Qing fiction

Many great works of art and literature originated during the period, and the Qianlong emperor in particular undertook huge projects to preserve important cultural texts. The novel form became widely read and perhaps China's most famous novel, Dream of the Red Chamber, was written in the mid-eighteenth century.


Cao Xueqin is the author of the famous Chinese work Dream of the Red Chamber. Extant handwritten copies of this work—some 80 chapters—had been in circulation in Beijing shortly after Cao's death, before Gao Ê, who claimed to have access to the former's working papers, published a complete 120-chapter version in 1792. Cao Xueqin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Cáo XuÄ›qín) (? 1715 - c. ... Dream of the Red Chamber (Traditional Chinese: 紅樓夢; Simplified Chinese: 红楼梦; pinyin: hóng lóu mèng), also known as A Dream of Red Mansions, The Story of the Stone, or Chronicles of the Stone (Traditional Chinese: 石頭記; Simplified Chinese: 石头记; pinyin: shí tóu jì) is one of the masterpieces of Chinese... Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Pu Songling was a famous writer of Liaozhai Zhiyi 《聊齋志異》during the Qing dynasty. He opened a tea house and invited his guests to tell stories, and then he would compile the tales and write them. Many of his tales have been made into films. One of these films is called The Chinese Ghost Story by Tsui Hark, a Hong Kong director. Pu Songling (Chinese: 蒲松齡; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pu Sung-ling) (5 June 1640 - 25 February 1715) was an ethnic Mongol Chinese writer. ... Liaozhai Zhiyi (聊斋志异, Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio) is a conflation of 431 supernatural tales written by Pu Songling (1640 - 1715) during the early Qing Dynasty (1644 - 1911). ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: QÄ«ng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China and the surrounding territories, establishing the Empire... Yugao-tei, Kanazawa Tea houses are quite simply, houses or parlours centred around drinking tea, though their function varies widely depending on the culture, and some cultures have a variety of distinct tea-centred houses or parlours that all qualify under the English language term tea house. ... Tsui Hark (Chinese: 徐克; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsü Ko) (born Tsui Man-kong (徐文光) on February 15, 1950) is a New Wave film director in Hong Kong who is also a highly influential producer, often likened to Steven Spielberg for a similar galvanizing effect on his countrys cinematic scene. ...


[[Kouji] was a Beatboxing-like art. Beatboxing is the vocal percussion of hip hop culture and music. ...


Modern Chinese art

Painting

Beginning with the New Culture Movement, Chinese artists started to adopt Western techniques. It also was during this time that oil painting was introduced to China. Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement. ...


In the early years of the People's Republic of China, artists were encouraged to employ socialist realism. Some Soviet Union socialist realism was imported without modification, and painters were assigned subjects and expected to mass-produce paintings. This regimen was considerably relaxed in 1953, and after the Hundred Flowers Campaign of 195657, traditional Chinese painting experienced a significant revival. Along with these developments in professional art circles, there was a proliferation of peasant art depicting everyday life in the rural areas on wall murals and in open-air painting exhibitions. Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Hundred Flowers Campaign, also termed the Hundred Flowers Movement, (Chinese: 百花运动, bǎihuā yùndòng) is the period referring to a brief interlude in the Peoples Republic of China from 1958 to 1966 during which the Communist Party authorities permitted or encouraged a variety of views and solutions... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Notable modern Chinese painters include Huang Binhong, Qi Baishi, Xu Beihong, Chang Ta Chien, Pan Tianshou, Wu Changshi, Fu Baoshi, Wang Kangle and Zhang Chongren. Huáng Bīnhóng (黃賓虹) (1865-1955) was an art historian and literati painter born in either Anhui or Zhejiang(sources conflict on this). ... Qi Baishi portrait on a USSR stamp Qí Báishí (齊白石, also Chi Pai-shih) (January 1, 1864 - September 16, 1957) was a Chinese painter. ... Xu Beihong (Simplified Chinese: 徐悲鸿; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Traditional Chinese: 徐悲鴻) (July 19, 1895 - September 26, 1953) (born in Wuxi, Jiangsu) is a Chinese painter. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wang Kang Le (1907-2006) was a Chinese painter born in Fenghua, Zhejiang Province. ... Zhang Chongren Zhang Chongren or Chang Chung-jen (张充仁, 1907 - 1998), was a Chinese artist and sculptor best remembered in Europe as the friend of Hergé, the Belgian comics writer and artist. ...


Poetry

Modern Chinese poems (新詩 vers libre) usually do not follow any prescribed pattern.


Bei Dao is the most notable representative of the Misty Poets, a group of Chinese poets who reacted against the restrictions of the Cultural Revolution. The work of the Misty Poets and Bei Dao in particular were an inspiration to pro-democracy movements in China. Most notable was his poem "Huida" ("The Answer"), which was written during the 1976 Tiananmen demonstrations in which he participated. The poem was taken up as a defiant anthem of the pro-appeared on posters during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. Bei Dao (Northern Island) is another name for Zhifu Island. ... The Misty Poets are a group of Chinese poets who reacted against the restrictions of the Cultural Revolution. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the... The Tiananmen incident took place in the Peoples Republic of China immediately following the April Fifth Movement. ... The Unknown Rebel - This famous photo was taken on 5 June 1989 by photographer Jeff Widener, depicts a lone protester whose tried to stop four advancing tanks until he was pulled into the crowd by a few other onlookers. ...


Xu Zhimo is a romantic poet who loved the poetry of the English Romantics like Keats and Shelley. He was one of the first Chinese writers to successfully naturalize Western romantic forms into modern Chinese poetry. Hsu Chih-mo (徐志摩, pinyin: Xú Zhìmó) (January 15, 1897-November 19, 1931) was a twentieth-century Chinese poet. ... Romanticism is an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... John Keats John Andrew Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was one of the principal poets of the English Romantic movement. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Influence of the West

"People's arts"

Ch'eng Mao-yün Cheng Mao-yün (程懋筠 pinyin: Chéng Màoyún) (1900 - 1957), Chinese composer, was a professor at National Central University and Hangzhou Societal University (杭州社會大學). He composed the National Anthem of the Republic of China. ...


Contemporary art since 1979

Performing arts

The Chinese government, to some extent, subsidizes the training of artists, performers and athletes, which helps China to be prominent in many of the following fields:

  • Chinese folk arts - Chinese folk arts include puppetry and quyi, which consists of various kinds of storytelling and comic monologues and dialogues, often to the accompaniment of clappers, drums, or stringed instruments.
  • China is a world leader in the field of toss juggling and related skills such as devilstick manipulation, the diabolo or Chinese yo-yo, rola-bola or "teeterboard" and balancing on the giant ball.
  • Chinese rock - This style of music combines Chinese musical instruments with techniques of Western-style rock and roll. It began in Mainland China during the mid-1980s and rose in popularity by the 1990s
  • Cantopop - Cantopop, a variety of cpop, is a multimillion-dollar popular music industry in Asia centered around Hong Kong.
  • Taiwanese hip hop - Hip hop music emerged from the "underground" scene in Taiwan to become more mainstream during the 1990s and 2000s.

The history of Chinese-language cinema has three separate threads of development: Cinema of Hong Kong, Cinema of China, and Cinema of Taiwan. ... The film industry consists of the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking: i. ... Wǔxiá (Traditional Chinese: 武俠, Simplified Chinese: 武侠) literally meaning martial arts chivalry, is a distinct genre in Chinese literature and cinema. ... It has been suggested that Kung fu film be merged into this article or section. ... Folk arts have a long history in China. ... A puppeteer is a person who manipulates a puppet or marionette, either by the use of strings, wires or their hands, for a stage production or film. ... Variety arts in China, including tightrope walking, acrobatics, animal acts, and sleight of hand date back at least as far as the Han dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 220) and were very popular in the imperial court. ... High wire act Acrobatics (from Greek Akros, high and bat, walking) is one of the performing arts, and is also practiced as a sport. ... Sleight-of-hand, also known as legerdemain, is a technique of close-up magic in which small items are concealed in and around the performers hands, sometimes by the use of misdirection, to enhance the illusion being performed. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Learning the pendulum is easy for most children. ... The diabolo (commonly misspelled as diablo, formerly also known as the devil on two sticks) is a juggling prop consisting of a spool which is whirled and tossed on a string tied to two sticks held one in each hand. ... The Chinese yo-yo is a toy from China consisting of two equally-sized discs connected with a long axle. ... Chinese rock (中国摇滚, pinyin: Zhōngguó yáogÇ”n; also 中国摇滚音乐, Zhōngguó yáogÇ”n yÄ«nyuè, lit. ... The 1980s refers to the years of 1980 to 1989. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Cpop is an abbreviation for Chinese Pop, which refers mostly to Chinese popular music and made-in-China Cantopop in particular. ... Taiwanese hip hop music started in the early 1990s, popularized by early hip hop trio L.A. Boyz. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... This article is becoming very long. ...

Visual arts

  • Contemporary Chinese art (ch: Zhongguo Dangdai Yishu 中国当代艺术), often referred to as Chinese avant-garde art, has continued to develop since the 1980's as an outgrowth of modern art developments post-Cultural Revolution. It incorporates painting, film, video, photography and performance. Until recently, art exhibitions deemed controversial have been routinely shut down by police, and performance artists faced the threat of arrest in the early 90's. More recently there has been greater tolerance by the Chinese government, though many internationally acclaimed artists are still restricted from media exposure at home.
  • Beginning in the late 1980s there was increased exposure for younger Chinese visual artists in the west to some degree through the agency of curators based outside the country such as Hou Hanru. Also curators within the country such as Gao Minglu and critics such as Li Xianting (ch: 栗宪庭) spread the idea of art as a strong social force within Chinese culture. There was some controversy to this as critics claimed a situation was being created where more radical Chinese art would only be shown abroad with official support but not at home.
  • In 2000 a number of Chinese artists were included in Documenta and a large number of Chinese artists were included in the Venice Biennale of 2003. China now has its own major contemporary art showcase with the Shanghai Biennale.
  • Fuck Off was a notorious art exhibition which ran alongside the Shanghai Biennial Festival in 2000 and was curated by independant curator Feng Boyi and the artist Ai Weiwei.

This article is on the politics of Mainland China. ... from documenta 6 documenta is one of the world‘s most important exhibitions of modern and contemporary art which now takes place every five years in Kassel, Germany. ... View of Pump Room, a work by the Hungarian artist Balázs Kicsiny at the Venice Biennale in 2005. ... Fuck Off was a notorious art exhibition which ran alongside the Shanghai Biennial Festival in 2000. ... Feng Boyi (fl. ... Ai Weiwei (艾未未), born in 1957 in Beijing, is one of the leading artists as well as independent curators and architectural designers in China. ... Fang Lijun (born 1963, Handan, Hebei province, China) is an artist based in Beijing. ... Huang Yan, born 1966 in Jilin Province, is a eminent Chinese painter, sculpture, photographer and performance artists based in Beijing. ... Huang Yong Ping 100 Arms of Guan-yin Huang Yong Ping (born 1954) is contemporary French visual artist of Chinese origin. ... Lǐ Wèi (李未) (born June 8, 1943) is president of Beihang University. ... Wang Guangyi (1956/7 – ), is a Chinese artist known for being the leader of the New Art Movement circles that erupted out of China after 1989 and most famous for his Great Criticism series of paintings. ... Xu Bing (b. ... Yang Zhichao, Born in 1963 in Gansu province China, is a Chinese painter and extreme performance artist living and working in Beijing. ... Zhang Dali is a graffiti artist living in China today. ... Zhang Xiaogang (born 1958) is a contemporary Chinese symbolist/surrealist painter, well known for his Bloodline series of paintings, which are haunting, often monochromatic, slightly stylized portraits of Chinese people, usually with large, dark-pupiled eyes, posed in a stiff manner deliberately reminiscent of family portraits from the 1950s and... Zhang Huan is an artist from China specializing in photography and performance art. ... Zhu Yu is a performance artist. ... Chinese photography is photography from the nation of China. ... Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that creates images in order to tell a news story. ... Fine art photography, sometimes simply called art photography, refers to high-quality archival photographic prints of pictures that are created to fulfill the creative vision of an individual professional. ...

Other

Performing arts

Emperor Xuan-Zong of Tang (left) and his Consort Yang Yuhuan (right) portrayed in a Chinese Opera 19th century Chinese opera Chinese opera costumes Some athletic jump Chinese opera is a popular form of drama in China. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus), lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming... Beijing opera or Peking opera (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a kind of Chinese opera which arose in the mid-19th century and was extremely popular in the Qing Dynasty court. ... Kunqu (崑曲; pinyin: Kūnqǔ; Wade-Giles: kun-chü), also known as Kunju, Kun opera or Kunqu Opera, is the oldest extant form of Chinese opera. ... Music of China appears to date back to the dawn of Chinese civilization, and documents and artifacts provide evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC _ 256 BC). ... The Chinese yo-yo is a toy from China consisting of two equally-sized discs connected with a long axle. ... Head of dragon dance costume Double dragon dance at Chongqing, China, September 28, 2002, during a weeklong celebration of modern Chinas National Day (October 1st) Dragon dance (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: wǔ lóng) is a form of traditional dance in Chinese culture. ... Costumed Chinese lion dancer in action at a Chinese New Year celebration Lion dance (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a form of traditional dance in Chinese culture, in which performers mimic the lions movements in a lion costume. ...

Visual arts

It has been suggested that Chinese Painting Arts be merged into this article or section. ... Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of AD 1407 on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... This page is about the development of animation and comic industry in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. ... Chinese paper art In a culture that invented paper back in the 1st century AD (Cai Lun, during the Han Dynasty), Chinese paper arts have existed for thousands of years, spanning from painted or pattern cut paper fans, lanterns, to decorative designs and structures accomplished by folding and/or cutting. ... Paper folding is an art known, in some form, in most societies that use paper. ... Bronze is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures; a cast-metal sculpture of bronze is often called a bronze. ... A ding or ting (Chinese: 鼎; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is an ancient Chinese vessel with three legs; hence, it is also called a tripod. ... Zhong can refer to A Chinese musical instrument similiar to the bell: see Bianzhong. ... Bronzeware script (金文 pinyin jin wen or 鐘鼎文 pinyin zhong1 ding3 wen2) is a family of scripts found on Chinese bronzes such as zhong (bells) and ding (tripods), since bronze artifacts with Chinese characters span many centuries and they have been found in many areas of China. ... The decorative arts are traditionally defined as ornamental and functional works in ceramic, wood, glass, metal, or textile. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... This article is concerned with the porcelain wares of China, from early times until the present day. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Longquan celadon (龙泉青瓷) is a variety of celadon pottery produced in Longquan city, Zhejiang province, China. ... Reflecting pool at Epcot Centers China Pavilion. ... Manhua (Traditional Chinese: 漫畫; Simplified Chinese: 漫画; Pinyin: ) is a general term for comics produced in China, often including Chinese translations of Japanese manga. ...

See also

Footprint of the Buddha. ... Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... Music of China appears to date back to the dawn of Chinese civilization, and documents and artifacts provide evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC - 256 BC). ... Overview of the National Palace Museum. ... The Hall of Supreme Harmony (太和殿) at the centre of the Forbidden City The Forbidddden City (紫禁城, pinyin: Zǐjìn Chéng, literal meaning: Purple Forbidden City), located at the exact center of the ancient City of Beijing, was the imperial palace during the... Since the 1970s performance art in china has been growing in spite of the fact that it is currently outlawed. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

References

  • Chinese Paintings
  • The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia
  • SHiNE Art Space Gallery

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Art of China
  • Barnhart, Richard M., et al. Three Thousand Years of Chinese Painting. Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art: 2002. ISBN 0-300-09447-7.
  • Chi, Lillian, et al. A Dictionary of Chinese Ceramics. Sun Tree Publishing: 2003. ISBN 981-04-6023-6.
  • Clunas, Craig. Art in China. Oxford University Press: 1997. ISBN 0-19-284207-2.
  • Gowers, David, et al. Chinese Jade from the Neolithic to the Qing. Art Media Resources: 2002. ISBN 1-58886-033-7.
  • Ebrey, Patrici, et al. Taoism and the Arts of China. University of California Press: 2000. ISBN 0-520-22784-0.
  • Harper, Prudence Oliver. China: Dawn Of A Golden Age (200-750 AD). Yale University Press: 2004. ISBN 0-300-10487-1.
  • Mascarelli, Gloria, and Robert Mascarelli. The Ceramics of China: 5000 BC to 1900 AD. Schiffer Publishing: 2003. ISBN 0-7643-1843-8.
  • Sturman, Peter Charles. Mi Fu: Style and the Art of Calligraphy in Northern Song China. Yale University Press: 2004. ISBN 0-300-10487-1.
  • Sullivan, Michael. The Arts of China. Fourth edition. University of California Press: 2000. ISBN 0-520-21877-9.
  • Tregear, Mary. Chinese Art. Thames & Hudson: 1997. ISBN 0-500-20299-0.
  • Watson, William. The Arts of China to AD 900. Yale University Press: 1995. ISBN 0-300-05989-2.
  • S. Diglio, Urban Development and Historic Heritage Protection in Shanghai, in Fabio Maniscalco ed., "Web Journal on Cultural Patrimony", 1, 2006

haha Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...


 
 

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