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Encyclopedia > History of California 1900 to present
History of California
To 1899
Gold Rush (1848)
  American Civil War (1861-1865)  
1900 to present
Maritime
Railroad
Slavery
Los Angeles
San Diego
San Francisco
This article continues the history of California in the years 1900 and later;
for events through 1899, see History of California to 1899.

Contents

Download high resolution version (700x900, 118 KB)Image of a California Poppy flower. ... Californias Yosemite Valley. ... The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ... Among the states, remote California played the least role in the American Civil War. ... Map showing Island of California, circa 1650 Maritime history of California is a term used to describe significant past events relating to the U.S. State of California in areas concerning shipping, shipwrecks, and military installations and lighthouses constructed to protect or aid navigation and development of the state. ... The establishment of Americas transcontinental rail lines securely linked California to the rest of the country, and the far-reaching transportation systems that grew out of them during the century that followed contributed to the state’s social, political, and economic development. ... Slavery in California existed among the native peoples of that region long before the arrival of the first European colonists. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The recorded history of the San Diego , California region goes back to the Spanish penetration of California in the 16th century. ... The history of San Francisco, California has been greatly influenced by its coastal location, which has made it a natural center for maritime trade and military activity. ... Californias Yosemite Valley. ...

Organized Labor

The organized labor history of California remained centered in San Francisco for much of the state's early history. By the opening decades of the twentieth century, labor efforts had expanded to Los Angeles, Long Beach and the Central Valley. In 1901, the San Francisco based City Front Federation was reputed to be the strongest trade federation in the country. It grew out of intense organizational drives in every trade during the boom at the turn of the century. Employers organized as well during the building trades strike of 1900 and the (San Francisco) City Front Federation strike of 1901, which led to the founding of Building Trades Council. The open shop question was at stake. Out of the City Front strike came the Union Labor Party because workers were angry at the mayor for using the police to protect strikebreakers. Eugene Schmitz was elected mayor in 1902 on the party's ticket, making San Francisco the only town in the United States, for a time, to be run by labor. A combination of corruption and unscrupulous reformers culminated in graft prosecutions in 1907. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Nickname: Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles County Government  - Mayor Bob Foster Area  - City  65. ... This article is about Californias Central Valley. ... In terms of United States labor relations, an open shop is a place of employment at which one is not required to join a labor union as a condition of hiring or continued employment. ... Born 1864 in San Francisco, he was the mayor of his hometown when the famous 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and subsequant fire destroyed a prodigious amount of the city. ...


In 1910, Los Angeles was still an open shop and employers in the north threatened for a new push to open San Francisco shops. Responding, labor sent delegations south in June 1910. National organizers were sent in during a lockout of 1,200 idled metal-trades workers. Then occurred an incident that would set back Los Angeles organizing for years, On October 10, 1910, a bomb exploded at the Los Angeles Times newspaper plant that killed twenty-one workers. is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ...


In the decade following, the rapid growth of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW, or Wobblies) in ununionized trades, logging ,wheat farming, lumber camps began extending its efforts to mines, ports and agriculture. The IWW came to public notice after the Wheatland Hop Riot when a sheriff's posse broke up a protest meeting and four persons died. It led to the first legislation protecting field labor. The IWW was harmed by anti-union drives and prosecution of members under the state's new criminal syndacalism laws. The IWW was also involved in the 1923 seamen's strike at San Pedro, where Upton Sinclair was arrested for reciting the Declaration of Independence. However, the man who became the most prominent Wobbly of all, Thomas Mooney, soon became a cause-celebre of labor and the most important political prisoner in America. The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. ... The Wheatland Hop Riot was one of the most important and well-known events in California labor history. ... Upton Sinclair Jr. ... A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ... Thomas Joseph Mooney (December 8, 1882 - March 6, 1942) was a U.S. labor leader. ...


The Preparedness Day Bombing killed ten people and hurt labor for decades. During the 1920s, the open shop efforts succeeded through a coordinated strategy called the "American Plan". In one case, the Industrial Association of San Francisco raised over a million dollars to break the building trades strikes in 1921 that led to the collapse of the building trades unions. This employers association cut wages twice in one year, and the Metal Trades Council was defeated, losing an agreement that had been in effect since 1907. The Seamen's Union also suffered defeat in 1921. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The American Plan is the term that most U.S. employers in the 1920s used to describe their policy of refusing to negotiate with unions. ... An employers organization, employers association or employers federation is an association of employers. ...


The labor movement resurged in the 1930s, accompanied by the passage of the 1933 National Industrial Recovery Act and the emergence of a young Australian worker, Harry Bridges as a labor leader. Within a few weeks after a charter had been secured from International Longshoremen's Association in 1933, more than 90% of workers on the waterfront had joined. The dock workers took a strike vote on March 7, 1934. On May 15, 1934, the seamen's unions voted to join the strike, followed by ship's clerks and licensed officers' organizations. on July 5, 1934, San Francisco's "Big Strike" led to the killing of two workers and the clubbing and gassing of hundreds in what became known as "Bloody Thursday" and swept most of the California unions into the 1934 West Coast Waterfront Strike. The Maritime Federation of the Pacific was organized in 1935. The National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) or National Recovery Act (NRA) of June 16, 1933, was part of President Franklin Delano Roosevelts New Deal. ... Harry Bridges (July 28, 1901 – March 30, 1990) was an influential American labor leader in the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU), a union of longshore and warehouse workers on the West Coast, Hawaii and Alaska which he helped form and led for over forty years. ... The International Longshoremens Association is a labor union representing longshore workers along the East Coast of the United States and Canada, the Gulf Coast, the Great Lakes, Puerto Rico, and inland waterways. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Soldiers of the California National Guard patrolling the Embarcadero in July 1934. ...


San Francisco in the late 1930s had 120,000 union members. Longshoreman wore union buttons on their white union made caps, Teamsters drove trucks as unionists, fishermen, taxi drivers, streetcar conductors, motormen, newsboys, retail clerks, hotel employees, newspapermen and bootlacks all had representation. Against 30,000 trade union members in 1933-34, Los Angeles by the late thirties 200,000, even against a severe 1938 anti-picketing ordinance. But Los Angeles became unionized in the mass production industries of aircraft, auto, rubber, oil and at the yards of San Pedro. Later, drives for unionization spread through musicians, teamsters, building trades, movies, actors, writers and directors. San Pedro is connected to Los Angeles by a thin strip of land called the Harbor Gateway which roughly follows the 110 freeway. ...


Farm labor remained unorganized, the work brutal and underpaid. In the 1930s, 200,000 farm laborers traveled the state in tune with the seasons. Unions were accused of an "inland march" against landowners rights when they took up the early effort to organize farm labor. A number of valley towns endorsed anti-picketing ordinances to thwart organizing. In the 1933-1934 period, a wave of agricultural strikes flooded the central valley, including the Imperial Valley lettuce strike and San Joaquin Valley cotton strike. In the 1936 Salinas lettuce strike, vigilante violence shocked the nation. Again, in the spring of 1938, about three hundred men, women and children were driven by vigilantes from their homes in Grass Valley and Nevada City.


A 1938 ballot proposition against picketing, "Proposition #1," considered fascist by commentators for the state grange, became a huge political struggle. Proposition #1 failed at the polls. Soon, racist distinctions fell as California unions began to admit non-white members.


By the advent of World War II, California had an old-age assistance law, unemployment compensation, a 48 hour work week maximum for women, an apprentice law, and workplace safety rules. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Examples of engineering

A field of California golden poppies circa 1910.

Beginning at the turn of the twentieth century, there were several feats of engineering in Californian history. Among many, the first major engineering was in mining, building and railroads. Much later, the Los Angeles Aqueduct, which runs from the Owens Valley, through the Mojave Desert and its Antelope Valley, to dry Los Angeles far to the south. Finished in 1911, it was the brain-child of the self-taught William Mulholland and is still in use today. Creeks flowing from the eastern Sierra are diverted into the aqueduct. This attracted controversy in the 1960s, since this withholds water from Mono Lake — an especially otherworldly and beautiful ecosystem — and from farmers in the Owens Valley. See also California Water Wars. California poppies File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... California poppies File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Eschscholzia californica Cham. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... There are two Los Angeles Aqueducts--the original Los Angeles Aqueduct was designed by William Mulholland (an Irish immigrant who became a self-taught engineer and head of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power) and completed in 1913 to deliver water from the Owens River to the city... Owens Valley is the arid ranching valley of the Owens River in southeastern California in the United States. ... For the indigenous American tribe, see Mohave. ... A truck passes eastbound along the busy Highway 58 through the Antelope Valley. ... William Mulholland (1855–1935) was a prominent and influential water-services engineer in Southern California. ... Mono Lake is an alkaline and hypersaline lake in California, United States that is a critical nesting habitat for several bird species and is one of the most productive ecosystems in North America[citation needed]. // Satellite photo of Mono Lake Mono Craters to the right of the image are rhyolitic... Owens Valley is the arid ranching valley of the Owens River in southeastern California in the United States. ... The California Water Wars was a struggle between Los Angeles, California and people living elsewhere (including the Owens Valley) over water rights. ...


Other feats are the building of Hoover Dam (which is in Nevada, but provides power and water to Southern California), Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, Shasta Dam, and the California Aqueduct, taking water from northern California to dry and sprawling southern California. Another project was the draining of Lake Tulare, which, during high water was the largest fresh-water lake inside an American state. This created a large wet area amid the dry San Joaquin Valley and swamps abounded at its shores. By the 1970s, it was completely drained, but it attempts to resurrect itself during heavy rains. For the dam near Westerville, Ohio, see Hoover Dam (Ohio). ... Hetch Hetchy Valley is a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in California. ... Shasta dam with Shasta Lake behind it and Mt. ... The California Aqueduct is the concrete-lined aqueduct that transports water from Northern California to Southern California. ... Tulare Lake is an extinct fresh-water lake that was formerly the largest to be completely enclosed within the territories of the Unites States. ... The Central Valley of California The San Joaquin Valley (English pronunciation in IPA: [sæn wɑˈkin]) refers to the area of the Central Valley of California that lies south of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in Stockton. ...


Automobile travel became important after 1910. A key route was the Lincoln Highway, which was America's first transcontinental road for motorized vehicles, connecting New York City to San Francisco. The creation of the Lincoln Highway in 1913 was a major stimulus on the development of both industry and tourism in the state. Similar effects occurred in 1926 with the creation of Route 66.u r gay For the Australian highway, see Lincoln Highway (Australia). ... U.S. Highway 66 or Route 66 was a highway in the U.S. Highway system. ...


Oil, movies, and the military

In the 1920s, oil was discovered, first near Newhall, in northern Los Angeles County. Soon, more oil was found all over the L.A. Basin and other parts of California. It soon became the most profitable industry in the southern part of the state. Location of Santa Clarita in California and Los Angeles County Coordinates: , Country United States State California County Los Angeles Incorporated December 15, 1987 Government  - Mayor Marsha McLean  - Mayor Pro-Tem Bob Kellar  - City Council Frank Ferry Laurene Weste TimBen Boydston  - City Manager Ken Pulskamp Area  - City  47. ... Map of California showing Los Angeles County. ...


The first decades of the twentieth century saw the rise of the studio system. MGM, Universal and Warner Brothers all acquired land in Hollywood, which was then a small subdivision known as "Hollywoodland" on the outskirts of Los Angeles. A movie studio is a controlled environment for the making of a film. ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... This article is about the American media conglomerate. ... Warner Bros. ... ...



Soon, Americans from all over the country, especially the Midwest, were attracted to the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap land, and a wide variety of geography within a short drive by truck. Many westerns of this era were shot in the Owens Valley, east of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, wherein rises Mount Whitney, the tallest mountain in the contiguous United States. Desert movies were shot in the Mojave or in Death Valley, the lowest point and hottest place in the western hemisphere. Pirate movies were shot in Carmel. Winter movies were shot in the San Bernardino Mountains. Movies set in the Mediterranean or the eastern U.S. were shot on location, or in outdoor sets on studio land, with simulated rain or snow as needed. The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... Owens Valley is the arid ranching valley of the Owens River in southeastern California in the United States. ... Mount Whitney is the highest point in the contiguous United States at elevation 14,505 feet (4,421 meters). ... For other uses, see Death Valley (disambiguation). ... Carmel may refer to: // Barri del Carmel, district in the city of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain Carmel, Indiana, city in Hamilton County, Indiana, United States Carmel, New York, town located in Putnam County, New York, USA Carmel, Western Australia, suburb of Perth, Western Australia Carmel Hamlet, New York, hamlet located in...


By the 1930s the show-biz population had extended its reach into radio, and by mid-century Southern California had also become a major center of television production, hosting studios for major networks such as NBC and CBS. In the 1934 Governor's election, novelist Upton Sinclair was the narrowly defeated Democratic nominee, running on the programme of the socialist EPIC Movement, a radical response to the Great Depression. Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... Upton Sinclair Jr. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Short for End Poverty in California, EPIC was an effort for then well-known muckraking writer and former Socialist Upton Sinclair to implement Socialist reforms through Californias Democratic Party during the Great Depression by recruiting supporters into the party and then securing that partys nomination for Governor of... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


During World War II, California's mild climate became a major resource for the war effort. Numerous air-training bases were established in Southern California, where most aircraft manufacturers, including Douglas Aircraft and Hughes Aircraft expanded or established factories. Major naval, shipyards were established or expanded in San Diego, Long Beach and San Francisco Bay. San Francisco was the home of the liberty ships. The Douglas Aircraft Company was founded by Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. ... Hughes logo adopted after his death Hughes developed the AIM-120 AMRAAM, one of the worlds most advanced air-to-air missiles Hughes Aircraft Company was a major defense/aerospace company founded by Howard Hughes. ... USN redirects here. ... Nickname: Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles County Government  - Mayor Bob Foster Area  - City  65. ... The Liberty ships were cargo ships built in the United States during World War II. They were cheap and quick to build, and came to symbolize U.S. wartime industrial output. ...


Baby boomers and free spirits

After the war, hundreds of land developers bought land cheap, subdivided it, built on it, and got rich. Real-estate development replaced oil and agriculture as Southern California's principal industry. In 1955, Disneyland opened in Anaheim. In 1958, Major League Baseball's Dodgers and Giants left New York City and came to Los Angeles and San Francisco, respectively. The population of California expanded dramatically, to nearly 20 million by 1970. This was the coming-of-age of the baby boom. Disneyland is a theme park that is located at 1313 South Harbor Boulevard in Anaheim, California, USA. It opened on July 17, 1955. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... Major league affiliations National League (1890–present) West Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 2, 4, 19, 20, 24, 32, 39, 42, 53 Name Los Angeles Dodgers (1958–present) Brooklyn Dodgers (1932-1957) Brooklyn Robins (1914-1931) Brooklyn Dodgers (1913) Brooklyn Trolley Dodgers (1911-1912) Brooklyn Superbas (1899... Major league affiliations National League (1883–present) West Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers NY, NY, 3, 4, 11, 24, 27, 30, 36, 42, 44 Name San Francisco Giants (1958–present) New York Giants (1885–1957) New York Gothams (1883–1885) Other nicknames Jints, Gigantes, G-Men Ballpark AT... A baby boom is any period of greatly increased birth rate during a certain period, and usually within certain geographical bounds. ...


In the late 1960s the baby-boom generation reached draft age, and many risked arrest to oppose the war in Vietnam. There were numerous demonstrations and strikes, most famously on the prestigious Berkeley campus of the University of California, across the bay from San Francisco. In 1965, race riots erupted in Watts, in the South-Central area of Los Angeles. The hippie riots on the Sunset Strip in Los Angeles were also immortalized by the Buffalo Springfield in "For What It's Worth." (1966). Some commentators predicted revolution. Then the federal government promised to withdraw from the Vietnam War, which at last happened in 1974. The radical political movements, having achieved a large part of their aim, lost members and funding. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced Riverside San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... The Watts Riots was a large-scale civil disorder lasting six days in Los Angeles, California in 1965. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


California still was a land of free spirits, open hearts, easy-going living. Popular music of the period bore titles such as "California Girls", "California Dreamin'", "San Francisco", "Do You Know the Way to San Jose?" and "Hotel California". These reflected the Californian promise of easy living in a paradisiacal climate. The surfing culture burgeoned. Many took low-paying jobs and joined the surfers living in trailers at the beach and many others forsook ambition and joined the hippies free living in cities. California Dreamin is a song by The Mamas & the Papas, first released in 1965. ... Do You Know the Way to San José is a popular song by Burt Bacharach and Hal David. ... Hotel California is the title song from the Eagles album of the same name, and was released as a single in early 1977 in Todos Santos, Baja California Sur. ... See World Wide Web for surfing the web; see also Wind surfing Surfing at Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. ...


The most famous hippie hangout was the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco. The state's cities, especially San Francisco, became famous for their gentility and tolerance. A distinctive and idyllic Californian culture emerged for a time. The peak of this culture, in 1967, was known as the Summer of Love. California became known elsewhere in the U.S. often derogatorily, and with envy as the "land of fruits and nuts," but Californians themselves knew this as a pleasant life. Categories: US geography stubs | San Francisco neighborhoods ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The Summer of Love was the summer of 1967, particularly in the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco, where thousands of young people loosely and freely united for a new social experience. ...


Economic power house

Conversely, during the same period, the Golden State also attracted commercial and industrial expansion of astronomical rates. The adoption of a Master Plan for Higher Education in 1960 allowed the development of a highly efficient system of public education in the Community Colleges and the University of California and California State University systems; by creating an educated workforce, it attracted investment, particularly in areas related to high technology. By 1980, California became recognized as the world's eighth-largest economy. Millions of workers were needed to fuel the expansion. The high population of the time caused tremendous problems with urban sprawl, traffic, pollution, and, to a lesser extent, crime. The California Master Plan for Higher Education of 1960 was developed by Clark Kerr, during the administration of Gov. ... Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced Riverside San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... The California State University (CSU) is one of three public higher education systems in the state of California, the other two being the University of California system and the California Community College System. ...


Urban sprawl created a backlash in many urban areas, with the local governments limiting growth beyond certain boundaries, reducing lot sizes for building homes, and so on. Open Space Districts were created in several parts of the state specifically to obtain, manage, and preserve undeveloped land. For example, in the San Francisco Bay Area, the open space districts have created a nearly contiguous range of permanently undeveloped land running through the coastal range and hills surrounding the Bay's urban valleys, enabling the creation of huge natural parks and envisioning a hiking trail that will eventually circumnavigate the Bay in an unbroken loop. Bay Area redirects here. ...


The immense problem with air pollution (smog) that had developed by the early 1970s also caused a backlash. With schools being closed routinely in urban areas for "smog days" when the ozone levels became too unhealthy and the hills surrounding urban areas seldom visible even within a mile, Californians were ready for changes. Over the next three decades, California enacted some of the strictest anti-smog regulations in the United States and has been a leader in encouraging nonpolluting strategies for various industries, including automobiles. For example, carpool lanes normally allow only vehicles with two/three or more occupants (whether the base number is two or three depends on what freeway you are on), but electric cars can use the lanes with only a single occupant. As a result, smog is significantly reduced from its peak, although local Air Quality Management Districts still monitor the air and generally encourage people to avoid polluting activities on hot days when smog is expected to be at its worst. Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... It has been suggested that Haze be merged into this article or section. ... A permanent, separated high-occupancy vehicle lane on I-91 in Connecticut A high occupancy vehicle (or HOV) is any vehicle with a driver and one or more (or sometimes two or more, or three or more) passengers. ... An electric vehicle is a vehicle that is propelled by electric motors. ... Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. ...


Traffic and transportation remain a problem in urban areas. Solutions are implemented, but inevitably the implementation expense and the time required to plan, approve, and build infrastructure can't keep pace with the population growth. There have been some improvements. Carpool lanes have become common in urban areas, which are intended to encourage people to drive together rather than in individual automobiles. San Jose is gradually building a light rail system (ironically, often over routes of an original turn-of-the-century electric railroad line that was torn out and paved over to encourage the advent of the automobile age). None of the implemented solutions are without their critics. The sprawling nature of the Bay Area and of the Los Angeles Basin makes it difficult to build mass transit that can reach and serve a significant portion of the population. A permanent, separated high-occupancy vehicle lane on I-91 in Connecticut A high occupancy vehicle (or HOV) is any vehicle with a driver and one or more (or sometimes two or more, or three or more) passengers. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... In the United States of America, transit describes local area common carrier passenger transportation configured to provide scheduled service on fixed routes on a non-reservation basis. ...


In the 1970s, the end of the wars in southeast Asia inspired a new wave of newcomers from those countries, especially Viet Nam, many of whom settled in California. Most worked hard and lived under difficult circumstances. Little Saigons were established in Westminster and Garden Grove in Orange County. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... // Little Saigon is a name given to any of several overseas Vietnamese immigrant and descendant communities outside Vietnam, usually in the United States. ... Location of Westminster within Orange County, California. ... Crystal Cathedral in Garden Grove Garden Grove is a city centrally located in northern Orange County, California, United States. ...


The California legal revolution

During the 1960s, under the aegis of Chief Justice Roger J. Traynor, California became liberal and progressive, emphasizing the rights of defendants even as the crime rate soared. Traynor's term as Chief Justice (from 1964 to 1970) was marked by a number of firsts: California was the first state to create true strict liability in product liability cases, the first to allow the action of negligent infliction of emotional distress (NIED) even in the absence of physical injury to the plaintiff, and the first to allow bystanders to sue for NIED where the only physical injury was to a relative. Roger John Traynor (February 12, 1900 – May 14, 1983) served as the 23rd Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of California from 1964 to 1970, and as an Associate Justice from 1940 to 1964. ... Strict liability is a legal doctrine in tort law that makes a person responsible for the damages caused by their actions regardless of culpability (fault) or mens rea. ... Products liability is the area of law in which manufacturers, distributors, suppliers, retailers, and others who make products available to the public are held responsible for the injuries those products cause. ... The tort of negligent infliction of emotional distress (NIED) is a controversial legal theory and is not accepted in many United States jurisdictions. ...


Starting in the 1960s, California became a leader in family law. California was the first state to allow true no-fault divorce, with the passage of the Family Law Act of 1969. In 1994, the Legislature took family law out of the Civil Code and created a new Family Code. In 2002, the Legislature granted registered domestic partners the same rights under state law as married spouses (although domestic partners are still treated as unmarried cohabitants for many purposes by federal law). Family Law was a television drama starring Kathleen Quinlan as a divorced lawyer who attempted to start her own law firm after her lawyer husband took all their old clients. ... No-fault divorce is the dissolution of a marriage, upon petition to the court by either party, without the requirement that the petitioner show fault on the part of the other party. ...


Since the mid-1980s, the California Supreme Court has become more conservative, particularly with regard to the rights of criminal defendants. This is commonly seen as a reaction against the strict anti-death penalty stance of Chief Justice Rose Bird in the early 1980s, which she maintained even as violent crime soared to record heights statewide. The state's outraged electorate responded by removing her (and two of her anti-death penalty allies) from the court in November of 1986. Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Rose Elizabeth Bird (November 2, 1936–December 4, 1999) served for 10 years as the 25th Chief Justice (and first female Chief Justice)of the California Supreme Court until removed from that office by the voters. ... A violent crime or crime of violence is a crime in which the offender uses or threatens violent force upon the victim. ...


High-tech expansion

Starting in the 1950s, high technology companies in Northern California began a spectacular growth that continued through the end of the century. The major products included personal computers, video games, and networking systems. The majority of these companies settled along a highway stretching from Palo Alto to San Jose, notably including Santa Clara and Sunnyvale, California, all in the Santa Clara Valley, the so-called "Silicon Valley," named after the material used to produce the integrated circuits of the era. This era peaked in 2000, by which time demand for skilled technical professionals had become so high that the high-tech industry had trouble filling all of its positions and therefore pushed for increased visa quotas so that they could recruit from overseas. When the "Dot-Com bubble" burst in 2001, jobs evaporated overnight and, for the first time over the next two years, more people moved out of the area than moved in. This somewhat mirrored the collapse of the aerospace industry in southern California some twenty years earlier. Northern California, sometimes referred to as NorCal, is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... Namcos Pac-Man is one of the most popular video games ever made. ... A computer network is an interconnection of a group of computers. ... Location in Santa Clara County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Government  - Mayor Yoriko Kishimoto[1] Area  - City 25. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... Location of Santa Clara within Santa Clara County, California. ... Location in Santa Clara County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Government  - Mayor Otto Lee Area  - Total 22. ... The Santa Clara Valley is a valley just south of the San Francisco Bay in northern California in the United States. ... For the Nintendo 64 game, see Space Station Silicon Valley. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Dot-com (also dotcom or redundantly dot. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering concerning aircraft, spacecraft and related topics. ...


By 2004, it seemed that many of the coveted high-tech jobs were either "off-shored" to India at ten percent of the labor costs in the U.S., or "on-shored" by recruiting newcomers from among the billions in India and China. New laws have removed caps to visas, especially since the adoption of NAFTA. Tens of millions of people from the third world have entered the U.S. since 1960, settling at first mainly in California and the Southwest, but now throughout the continent. In 1960 (when the birth rate nearly equaled the replacement rate) the population of the U.S. was 180 million; in 2000, it was 280 million. By 2010, Hispanics might well be the majority of the population residing in California alone. Nafta or NAFTA may refer to: an acronym for the North American Free Trade Agreement an acronym for the New Zealand Australia Free Trade Agreement the town/Tokyo of Nafta, Tunisia This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Hispanic Americans (Spanish: Hispano Americano) are Americans of Hispanic ethnicity who largely identify with the Hispanic cultural heritage. ...


A victim of its own success?

Although the air and pollution problems have become less visible because of new laws, health problems associated with pollution have continued to rise. The brown haze associated with nitrogen oxide from automobiles may have abated somewhat, but amounts of deadly ozone have grown. Respiratory allergies are near universal, and asthma is widespread. The crystal clear blue skies — trademarks of California 100 years ago — are long gone. Pollution from storm water drains began to kill organisms near the inhabited seacoast, inspiring numerous conservation organizations. The former paradisiacal lagoons at creek mouths along the coast have disappeared under urban building projects. Look up nox, Nox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the 1980s, power problems were again predicted, since nuclear power plants that had been projected were not built. Although California still had more power than it needed, executives of utility companies which were owned by or which associated with Enron allegedly conspired to artificially limit electricity supply in the state. The result in the spring and summer of 2000 was chaotic real-time manipulation of electricity distribution by commercial power utilities, manifested primarily in the rolling blackouts used by electricity providers such as Southern California Edison and Pacific Gas and Electric Company to prevent demand from exceeding supply. The issue has not been resolved as of 2007. Enron Creditors Recovery Corporation (formerly Enron Corporation) (former NYSE ticker symbol: ENE) was an American energy company based in Houston, Texas. ... Rolling blackout refers to an intentionally-engineered electrical power outage, caused by insufficient available resources to meet prevailing demand for electricity. ... Southern California Edison, the largest subsidiary of Edison International (NYSE: EIX), is the primary electricity supply company for much of Southern California. ... The Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) , (NYSE: PCG), is the utility that provides natural gas and electricity to most of Northern California. ...


In the 1990s, a deadly (to grapevines, at least) phylloxera epidemic swept through California vineyards, devastating wine grapes, and causing billions of dollars of damage. This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, family Phylloxeridae, superfamily Aphidoidea) is a serious pest of commercial grapevines worldwide, originally native to eastern North America. ...


Still, the ongoing demand for skilled workers over the decades continues in the new millennium. Housing prices in urban areas have continued to increase at a pace faster than almost anywhere in the country, with occasional slow-downs or brief reversals during times of economic slow-down (Silicon Valley in the early 2000s seems to be an exception, with housing prices continuing to rise although unemployment is over 8%). An average home that, in the 1960s, cost $25,000, now costs half a million dollars or more in urban areas, such as in the San Francisco Bay Area and parts of the Los Angeles and San Diego regions. More people commute longer hours to afford a home in more rural areas while earning larger salaries in the urban areas.


Third millennium politics

In the 2002 gubernatorial campaign, Democratic incumbent Gray Davis defeated Republican challenger Bill Simon. A governor is an official who heads the government of a colony, state or other sub-national state unit. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Joseph Graham Davis Jr. ... Bill Simon, in mid-2005 William E. Simon, Jr. ...


On October 7, 2003, Davis was successfully recalled, with 55.4% of the voters supporting the recall (see results of the 2003 California recall). With a plurality of 48.6% of the vote, Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger was chosen as the new governor. Lieutenant Governor Cruz Bustamante received 31.5% of the vote, and Republican State Senator Tom McClintock received 13.5% of the vote. is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The following are the results of the 2003 California recall election held on October 7, 2003 which unseated Gray Davis and propelled actor Arnold Schwarzenegger to the governorship. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German pronunciation IPA: ) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-born American bodybuilder, actor, and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... Cruz Miguel Bustamante (born January 4, 1953) is an American politician. ... Tom McClintock Thomas Miller Tom McClintock (born July 10, 1956) is an outgoing California state senator who was the unsuccessful 2006 Republican nominee for Lieutenant Governor of California. ...


Schwarzenegger began his shortened term with a soaring approval rating and soon after began implementing a conservative agenda. This initially resulted in sparring with the heavily Democratic Assembly and Senate over the state budget, battles which provided his infamous "girly men" comment but also began taking their toll on his approval rating. Schwarzenegger then embarked on a campaign to enact several ballot propositions in a 2005 Special Election touted as reforming California's budget system, redistricting powers, and union political fundraising. The union-led campaign spearheaded by the California Nurses Association contributed heavily to the defeat of every proposition in the Special Election. Since this conspicuous failure, Schwarzenegger has made a turn back to the left, criticizing the Bush Administration at many junctures, reviving his environmental agenda, and compromising with the legislature on the traditionally Democratic issue of education spending. His approval rating has also been revived, and he was re-elected in 2006.


See also

  • History of the west coast of North America

The west coast of North America consists of the modern American states of California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and arguably Alaska and parts of the Yukon. ...

References

Scholarly Surveys

  • Bakken, Gordon Morris. California History: A Topical Approach (2003)
  • Robert W. Cherny, Richard Griswold del Castillo, and Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo. Competing Visions: A History Of California (2005)
  • Merchant, Carolyn ed. Green Versus Gold: Sources In California's Environmental History (1998) readings in primary and secondary sources
  • Pitt, Leonard, and Dale Pitt. Los Angeles A to Z: An Encyclopedia of the City and County (2000)
  • Rawls, James J. ed. New Directions In California History: A Book of Readings (1988)
  • Rawls, James and Walton Bean (2003). California: An Interpretive History. ISBN 0-07-052411-4.  8th edition
  • Rice, Richard B., William A. Bullough, and Richard J. Orsi. Elusive Eden: A New History of California 3rd ed (2001)
  • Rolle, Andrew F. California: A History 6th ed. (2003)
  • Starr, Kevin and Richard J. Orsi eds. Rooted in Barbarous Soil: People, Culture, and Community in Gold Rush California (2001)
  • Starr, Kevin. (Note that there are numerous editions of this monumental state history, with slight title changes)
  • Sucheng, Chan , and Spencer C. Olin, eds. Major Problems in California History (1996)

Scholarly specialty studies

  • Abelmann, Nancy, and John Lie. Blue Dreams: Korean Americans and the Los Angeles Riots (1995)
  • Fogelson, Robert M. The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles, 1850-1930 (1993)
  • Miller, Sally M., and Daniel A. Cornford eds. American Labor in the Era of World War II (1995) essays by scholars, mostly on California
  • Roger W. Lotchin. Fortress California, 1910-1961 (2002)
  • George E. Mowry. The California Progressives (1963)
  • Sackman. Douglas Cazaux. Orange Empire: California and the Fruits of Eden. (2005) comprehensive, multidimensional history of citrus industry
  • Stephanie S. Pincetl. Transforming California: A Political History of Land Use and Development (2003)
  • Sitton, Tom and William F, Deverell, eds. Metropolis in the Making: Los Angeles in the 1920s (2001)
  • Danielle Jean Swiontek. With Ballots and Pocketbooks: Women, Labor, and Reform in Progressive California (2006)

American history redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Alabama State Flag This is the history of the State of Alabama, in the United States of America. ... Alaska in 1895 (Rand McNally). ... The first Native Americans arrived in Arizona between 16,000 BC and 10,000 BCE, while the history of Arizona as recorded by Europeans began when Marcos de Niza, a Franciscan, explored the area in 1539. ... Arkansas was the 25th state admitted to the United States. ... A field of California golden poppies circa 1910. ... In the history of Colorado, the first inhabitants of what was to become the State of Colorado were the American Indians. ... The History of Connecticut begins as a number of unrelated colonial villages. ... The History of Delaware is the story of a small American state, in the middle of heart of the nation, and yet until recently often isolated and even invisible to outsiders. ... Five flags of Florida (not including the current State Flag of Florida). ... The history of Hawaii includes phases of early Polynesian settlement, British discovery, Euro-American and Asian immigration, the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, a brief period of existing as a Republic, and admission to the United States as a territory and then a state. ... The History of Idaho is an examination of the human history and social activity within the state of Idaho, a geographical area in the Pacific Northwest (PNW, or PacNW) area on or near the west coast of United States and Canada. ... // Pre-Columbian Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. ... This article should appear in one or more categories. ... This is the history of the U.S. state of Iowa. ... The history of Kansas is rich with the lore of the American West. ... The history of Kentucky spans hundreds of years, and has been influenced by the states diverse geography and central location. ... The history of Louisiana is long and rich. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Great Seal of Maryland. ... This is the History of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, a state in the United States. ... The following is a timeline of the history of Michigan, USA. // Early European 1620 Étienne Brûlé and his fellow explorers from Grenoble, France, were probably the first white men to see Lake Superior. ... The history of Minnesota concerns the state of Minnesota that forms part of the United States of America. ... // Native Americans Mississippi was part of the Mississippian culture in the early part of the second millennium AD; descendant Native American tribes include the Chickasaw and Choctaw. ... This article is about the history of the U.S. state of Missouri. ... Native Americans were the first inhabitants of modern-day Montana. ... The history of the U.S. state of Nebraska dates back to its formation as a territory by the Kansas-Nebraska Act, passed by the United States Congress on May 30, 1854. ... New Hampshire is a state of the United States of America located in the countrys Northeastern region. ... The written history of New Jersey began with the exploration of the Jersey Coast by Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524, though the region had been settled for millennia by Native Americans. ... The History of New Mexico was first recorded by the Spanish who encountered Native American Pueblos when they explored the area in the 1500s. ... New York, the Empire State has been at the center of American politics, finance, industry, transportation and culture since it was created by the Dutch in the 17th century. ... History of North Carolina For the state today see North Carolina // Bibliography Surveys James Clay and Douglas Orr, eds. ... First Nations in the region 1789: Louisiana and Ruperts Land 1803: US buys Louisiana 1812: Louisiana Territory renamed Missouri Territory 1861: Dakota Territory formed 1889: North Dakota statehood North Dakota was first settled by Native Americans several thousand years ago. ... Serpent Mound, Ohio, USA Hopewell Mound, Ohio, USA 1775 Ohio is not part of the original 13 colonies, but is part of British territories 1789 U.S. constitution, present day is part of an unorganized territory. ... This article is about the History of Oklahoma. ... Official language(s) None Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... The History of Pennsylvania is as varied as any in the American experience and reflects the melting pot vision of the United States. ... The history of Rhode Island includes the history of Rhode Island from pre-colonial times (1636) to modern day. ... South Carolina is one of the original states of the United States of America, and its history has been remarkable for an extraordinary commitment to political independence, whether from overseas or federal control. ... The Tennessee State Capitol in Nashville has been the sight of much of the States history. ... The history of Texas (as part of the United States) began in 1845, but settlement of the region dates back to the end of the Upper Paleolithic Period, around 10,000 BC. Its history has been shaped by being part of six independent countries: Spain, France, Mexico, the Republic of... The History of Utah (IPA: ) is an examination of the human history and social activity within the state of Utah located in the western United States. ... Mount Mansfield, at 4,393 feet, is the highest elevation point in Vermont. ... // [edit] Native Americans Virginia Indian chief in engraving after John White watercolor The portion of the New World designated Virginia in honor of the Virgin Queen (Elizabeth I) in the late 16th century had been inhabited by many groups of Native Americans for at least 3,000 years, based upon... Washingtons current flag. ... West Virginia is the only American state formed as a direct result of the American Civil War. ... Wisconsin became a state on May 29, 1848, but the land that makes up the state has been occupied by humans for thousands of years. ... Federal districts are subdivisions of a federal system of government. ... Aerial photo of Washington, D.C. The history of Washington, D.C. is tied intrinsically to its role as the capital of the United States. ... An insular area is United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nations federal district. ... American Samoa is the result of the Second Samoan Civil War and an agreement made between Germany, the United States, and the United Kingdom in 1899. ... The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) is a commonwealth in political union with the United States of America at a strategic location in the West Pacific Ocean. ... Puerto Rico The history of Puerto Rico began with the settlement of the archipelago of Puerto Rico by the Ortoiroid people between 3000 and 2000 BC. Other tribes, such as the Saladoid and Arawak Indians, populated the island between 430 BC and 1000 AD. At the time of Christopher Columbus... The United States Virgin Islands, often abbreviated USVI, is a group of islands and cays in the Caribbean to the east of Puerto Rico. ... The flag of the United States is used for all of the United States Minor Outlying Islands The United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by ISO 3166-1, consists of nine insular United States possessions: All of these islands are in the Pacific Ocean except Navassa Island... Baker Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°13′ N, 176°31′ W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Orthographic projection centered over Howland Island. ... Jarvis Island (formerly also known as Bunker Island[1]) is an uninhabited 4. ... Johnston Atoll is a 2. ... Kingman Reef is a one-square-kilometer tropical coral reef located in the North Pacific Ocean, roughly half way between Hawaiian Islands and American Samoa at 6°24 N, 162°24 W. It is the northernmost of the Northern Line Islands and an unincorporated territory of the United States administered... Navassa Island map from The World Factbook Navassa Island - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Navassa Island (La Navase in French, Lanavaz in Haitian Kreyòl) is a small, uninhabited island in the Caribbean Sea. ... Wake Island is an atoll (having a coastline of 19. ...


 
 

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