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Encyclopedia > History of Bengal
History of South Asia

History of India
Stone Age 70,000–3300 BC
· Mehrgarh Culture · 7000–3300 BC
Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BC
Late Harappan Culture 1700–1300 BC
Vedic Period 1500–500 BC
· Iron Age Kingdoms · 1200–700 BC
Maha Janapadas 700–300 BC
Magadha Kingdom 1700 BC–550 AD
· Maurya Dynasty · 321–184 BC
Middle Kingdoms 230 BC–AD 1279
· Satavahana Empire · 230 BC–AD 199
· Kushan Empire · 60–240
· Gupta Empire · 240–550
· Pala Empire · 750–1174
· Chola Empire · 848–1279
Islamic Sultanates 1206–1596
· Delhi Sultanate · 1206–1526
· Deccan Sultanates · 1490–1596
Hoysala Empire 1040–1346
Kakatiya Empire 1083–1323
Vijayanagara Empire 1336–1565
Mughal Empire 1526–1707
Maratha Empire 1674–1818
Sikh Empire 1799–1849
Colonial Era 1757–1947
Modern States 1947 onwards
State histories
Bangladesh · Bhutan · Republic of India
Maldives · Nepal · Pakistan · Sri Lanka
Regional histories
Assam · Bengal · Pakistani Regions
Punjab · Sindh · South India · Tibet
Specialised histories
Dynasties · Economy · Indology · Language · Literature
Maritime · Military · Science and Technology · Timeline
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Further information: History of Bangladesh

The history of Bengal (including Bangladesh and West Bengal) dates back four millennia.[1] To some extent, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers separated it from the mainland of India, though at times, Bengal has played an important role in Indian history. This article is about the History of South Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Maldives. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pakistan. ... The archaeological record in India (that is Greater India or the Indian subcontinent, encompassing the territory of the modern nations of the Republic of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal) shows first traces of Homo sapiens from ca. ... The Palaeolithic and Mesolithic in South Asia. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... The time period in the history of India known as the Vedic period or Vedic age is the period of the composition of the sacred texts called Vedas and other such texts in Vedic Sanskrit. ... This article tries to compile and classify all the kingdoms of ancient India mentioned in the Sanskrit/Vedic literature. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... The Maurya Empire, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, was the largest and most powerful political and military empire of ancient India. ... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... The Chola dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: Chola pronounced Sola) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century CE. The dynasty originated in the fertile valley of the Kaveri River. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Deccan sultanates were five Muslim-ruled kingdoms–-Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Bidar, and Berar of south-central India. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Kakatiya Dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 to 1323. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... The Mughal Empire (Persian: ‎ , Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت), self-designation GurkānÄ«, گوركانى (which was also the self-designation of the Timurids in Central Asia and Khorasan) was an empire that at its greatest territorial extent ruled eastern parts of Khorasan (i. ... Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. ... The Sikh Empire (from 1801-1849) was formed on the foundations of the Sikh Confederacy by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. ... In 1498, the Portuguese set foot in Goa. ... Britains holdings on the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in 1947 and 1948, becoming four new independent states: India, Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and Pakistan (including East Pakistan, modern-day Bangladesh). ... The history of Assam is the history of a confluence of peoples from the east, west and the north; the confluence of the Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic and the Tibeto-Burman cultures. ... The historical regions of Pakistan are former states, provinces and territories which mainly existed between 1947 and 1975 when the current provinces and territories were finally established. ... The first known use of the word Punjab is in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah (1580), which mentions the construction of a fort by Sher Khan of Punjab. The name is mentioned again in Ain-e-Akbari (part 1), written by Abul Fazal, who also mentions that the territory... Sindh (Sind) (Sindhi: سنڌ ,Urdu: سندھ, Hindi: सिन्ध) is one of the provinces of Pakistan. ... The history of South India covers a span of over two thousand years during which the region saw the rise and fall of a number of dynasties and empires. ... Tibet is situated between the two ancient civilizations of China and India, but the tangled mountain ranges the Tibetan Plateau and the towering Himalayas serve to distance it from both. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents. ... Indology is a name given by indologists to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of South Asia. ... Indian literature is generally acknowledged, but not wholly established, as the oldest in the world. ... India has had a maritime history dating back around 5,000 years. ... Science and technology in ancient India covered all the major branches of human knowledge and activities, including mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, medical science and surgery, fine arts, mechanical and production technology, civil engineering and architecture, shipbuilding and navigation, sports and games. ... This is a timeline of Indian history. ... Buddha, Mahayana tradition, Pala Dynasty, 11th century. ... Buddha, Mahayana tradition, Pala Dynasty, 11th century. ... Media:Example. ... In Buddhist thought, a bodhisattva (Pali: bodhisatta; Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: púsà; Japanese: 菩薩 bosatsu; Korean: ë³´ì‚´ bosal ; Tibetan changchub sempa (byang-chub sems-dpa); Vietnamese: Bồ Tát; Thai: พระโพธิสัตว์) is a being who is dedicated to assisting all sentient beings in achieving complete Buddhahood. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... Bangladesh became one of the youngest major nation states following a pair of twentieth century secessions from India (1947) and Pakistan (1971). ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in the Bengali language, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... West Bengal   (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ, Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... This article is about the river. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Map of the major rivers, lakes and reervoirs in India This is a list of rivers in India. ...

Contents

Ancient history

From the 6th century BC, most of Bengal was a part of the powerful kingdom of Magadha, which was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of ancient India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. It was also one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of Buddha, having risen to power during the reigns of Bimbisara (c. 544-491 BCE) and his son Ajatashatru (c. 491-460 BCE). Magadha spanned to include most of Bihar and Bengal. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in the Bengali language, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... The Indo-Aryans who make up around 74% of Indias population (Hindustani: इन्दो-आर्यन, اِندو آریایی) are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as the ethno-linguistic descendents of the Indic branch of the ancient Indo-Iranians (also known as Aryans). ... The archaeological record in India (that is Greater India or the Indian subcontinent, encompassing the territory of the modern nations of the Republic of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal) shows first traces of Homo sapiens from ca. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Mahabharat redirects here. ... Media:Example. ... Bimbisara (ruled 544-491 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC Events and trends 548 BC -- Croesus, Lydian king, defeated by Cyrus. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 496 BC 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC - 491 BC - 490 BC 489 BC... Ajātashatru (Sanskrit अजातशत्रु; ruled 491-461 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire that ruled north India. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 465 BC 464 BC 463 BC 462 BC 461 BC - 460 BC - 459 BC 458 BC... Bihar (Hindi: बिहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: ,  ) is a state of the Indian union situated in the eastern part of the country. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in the Bengali language, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ...


Magadha formed one of the sixteen Mahā Janapadas (Sanskrit, "great country"). The Magadha empire included republican communities such as Rajakumara. Villages had their own assemblies under their local chiefs called Gramakas. Their administrations were divided into executive, judicial, and military functions. Bimbisara was friendly to both Jainism and Buddhism and suspended tolls at the river ferries for all ascetics after the Buddha was once stopped at the Ganges River for lack of money. This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Jainism (pronounced in English as IPA ), traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म), is a religion and philosophy originating in Ancient India with the teachings of Mahavira (ca. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... Early morning on the Ganges The River Ganges (Ganga in Indian languages) (Devanagiri गंगा) is a major river in northern India. ...


In 326 BCE, the army of Alexander the Great approached the boundaries of Magadha. The army, exhausted and frightened by the prospect of facing another giant Indian army at the Ganges River, mutinied at the Hyphasis (modern Beas) and refused to march further East. Alexander, after the meeting with his officer, Coenus, was convinced that it was better to return. Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 331 BC 330 BC 329 BC 328 BC 327 BC - 326 BC - 325 BC 324 BC 323... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... The Beas River (Punjabi: ) runs through the Northwestern Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. ... The Beas River (Punjabi: ) runs through the Northwestern Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. ... Coenus (in Greek Koινoς; died 326 BC), a son of Polemocrates and son-in-law of Parmenion, was one of the ablest and most faithful generals of Alexander the Great in his eastern expedition. ...


Magadha was the seat of the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya, which extended over nearly all of South Asia and parts of Persia and Afghanistan under Ashoka the Great; and, later, of the powerful Gupta Empire, which extended over the northern Indian subcontinent and parts of Persia and Afghanistan. The Maurya Empire, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, was the largest and most powerful political and military empire of ancient India. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: India Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Greek: Sandrakottos) (born c. ... This article is about the geopolitical region in Asia. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... Satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...


One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is the mention of a land named Gangaridai by the Greeks around 100 BCE. The word is speculated to have come from Gangahrd (Land with the Ganges in its heart) and believed to be referring to an area in Bengal. For example, Diodorus Siculus (c. 90 BCE–30 BCE) states that, "...Gandaridai, a nation which possesses the greatest number of elephants and the largest in size." Gangaridai was the name of a country in the 300 BC in the Indian subcontinent. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 105 BC 104 BC 103 BC 102 BC 101 BC - 100 BC - 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC 95... Early morning on the Ganges The River Ganges (Ganga in Indian languages) (Devanagiri गंगा) is a major river in northern India. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ...


Early Middle Ages

The first recorded independent king of Bengal was Shashanka - reigning from 606. Shashanka (Bangla: শশাঙ্ক) is often attributed with creating the first unified political entity in Bengal. ... Events Shashanka is the first recorded independent king of Bengal (approximate date). ...


More concrete evidence of Bengal becoming an independent political entity is found in the 6th century, with the first recorded independent king of Bengal - Shashanka - reigning around 606. This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Shashanka (Bangla: শশাঙ্ক) is often attributed with creating the first unified political entity in Bengal. ... Events Shashanka is the first recorded independent king of Bengal (approximate date). ...


The first Buddhist Pala king of Bengal, Gopala I came to power in 750 in Gaur by election. This event is recognized as one of the first democratic elections in South Asia since the time of the Mahā Janapadas. The dynasty's most powerful kings, Dharampala (reigned 775-810) and Devapala (reigned 810-850) united Bengal and made the Pala family one of the most important dynasties in ninth-century India. Internecine strife during the reign of Narayanpala (reigned 854-908) and administrative excesses led to the decline of the dynasty. Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... Gopala redirects here. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM... Binomial name Bos gaurus H. Smith, 1827 The Gaur (IPA gauɹ) (Bos gaurus, previously Bibos gauris) is a large, dark-coated ox of the hilly areas of South Asia and Southeast Asia, which may be found wild or domesticated. ... An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... This article is about the geopolitical region in Asia. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Estimation: Baghdad, capital of the Abbasid Empire, becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Changan, capital of China. ... 8-10 is also going to be the Toronto Raptors record as of Dec. ... 8-10 is also going to be the Toronto Raptors record as of Dec. ... Events April 20 - Guntherus becomes Bishop of Cologne. ... Events Charles the Bald, Louis the German and Lothar meet at Attigny. ... Events Battle of Belach Mugna Births Deaths Categories: 908 ...


A brief revival of the kingdom under Mahipala I (reigned 977-1027) ended in battle against the powerful, South Indian Chola kingdom. The rise of the Chandra dynasty in southern Bengal expedited the decline of the Palas, and the last Pala king, Madanpala, died in 1161. Events Births Deaths Hunain ibn Ishaq, Egyptian physician Categories: 977 ... Events March 26 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II Holy Roman Emperor. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... This article is about the Hindu moon deity. ... Events Bartholomew Iscanus becomes Bishop of Exeter. ...


The Malla dynasty emerged in Bengal in the seventh century, although they only rose to prominence in the 10th century under Jagat Malla who moved his capital to Vishnupur. Unlike the Buddhist Palas and Chandras, the Hindu Mallas worshipped first the Hindu god Shiva, then the Hindu god Vishnu. The Mallas built temples and spectacular religious monuments during their rule in Bengal. Malla was a tribe of eastern ancient India. ... Vishnupur (the distance from Kolkata is 132 kms), now the headquarters of the subdivision of the same name in Bankura district, is a seat of crafts and culture. ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... “Nilakantha” redirects here. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ...


Under the Sena dynasty, which lasted from 1095 to 1260, Bengali emerged as a distinct and important language in northern India, and Hinduism began to displace older Buddhism. The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ... Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit. ...


Muslim rule

The Turkic invasion of India (including Bengal) came in the early 13th century. The invaders under the leadership of Ikhtiar Uddin Muhammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, defeated the Sena king Laxmansena at his capital, Nabadwip in 1203 (1204?) The Deva family — the last Hindu dynasty to rule in Bengal — ruled briefly in eastern Bengal, although they were suppressed by the mid-fourteenth century. The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... Ikhtiar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiar Khilji (Persian اختيار الدين محمد بن بختيار الخلجي), also known as Malik Ghazi Ikhtiyaru l-Din Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji, was a Khilji, a Muslim Turk, who was head of the armies that conquered much of northeastern India. ... Nadia is a district of the state of West Bengal, in the north east of the Republic of India. ... Events April 16 - Philip II of France enters Rouen, leading to the eventual unification of Normandy and France. ... // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ...


During the early Muslim period, the former kingdom became known as the Sultanate of Bangala, ruled intermittently from the Sultanate of Delhi. The chaotic shifts in power between the Afghan and Turkish rulers of that sultanate came to an end when Moghul rule became established in Bengal during the sixteenth century. Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... The Delhi Sultanate, or Sulthanath-e-Hind/Sulthanath-e-Dilli refers to the various dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ...


In 1534, the Afghan Sher Shah Suri, or Farid Khan — a man of incredible military and political skill — succeeded in defeating the superior forces of the Mughals under Humayun at Chausa (1539) and Kannauj (1540). Sher Shah fought back and captured both Delhi and Agra as he established the most powerful Bengali kingdom that would ever exist, stretching far into Punjab. Sher Shah's administrative skill showed in his public works, including the Grand Trunk Road connecting Sonargaon in Bengal with Peshawar in the Hindu Kush. Sher Shah's rule ended with his death in 1545, although even in those five years his reign would have a powerful influence on Indian society, politics, and economics. 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... Sher Shah Suri Sher Shah Suri (1486 – 1545) (Pashto/Persian: ‎ - Å Ä«r-Šāh ṢūrÄ«) also known as Sher Khan and as The Lion King, was founder of the Sur Dynasty of northern Indian rulers. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Nasiruddin Humayun (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), second Mughal Emperor, ruled in India from 1530–1540 and 1555–1556. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... Kannauj (Hindi कन्नौज), sometimes improperly spelt Kanauj, is an ancient city lying in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Agra   (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎), (IPA: ) is a medevial city on the banks of the Yamuna River in India. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... The Grand Trunk Road (abbreviated to GT Road in common usage) is one of South Asias oldest and longest major roads. ... Sonargaon is the ancient capital of Isa Khans kingdom in Bengal. ... Peshāwar (Pashto: پښور; Urdu:پشاور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pakhawar in Pashto. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ...


Shah Suri's successors lacked his administrative skill, and quarrelled over the domains of his empire. Humayun, who then ruled a rump Mughal state, saw an opportunity and in 1554 seized Lahore and Delhi. Humayun's death in 1556 led to the accession of Akbar, the greatest of the Mughal emperors, who defeated the Karani rulers of Bengal in 1576 and ruled through governors. Akbar exercised progressive rule and oversaw a period of prosperity (through trade and development) in Bengal and northern India. Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... Lahore (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور) is the capital of the province of Punjab, and the second most populated city in Pakistan, also known as the Gardens of the Mughals or City of Gardens, after the significant rich heritage of the Mughal Empire. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... For other uses, see Akbar (disambiguation). ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ... For other uses, see Akbar (disambiguation). ...


Bengal's trade and wealth so impressed the Moghuls that they called the region the "Paradise of the Nations". Administration by governors appointed by the court of the Mughal Empire court (1575-1717) gave way to four decades of semi-independence under the Nawabs of Murshidabad, who respected the nominal sovereignty of the Mughals in Delhi. The Nawabs granted permission to the French East India Company to establish a trading post at Chandernagore in 1673, and the British East India Company at Calcutta in 1690. The Mughal Empire (Persian: ‎ , Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت), self-designation Gurkānī, گوركانى (which was also the self-designation of the Timurids in Central Asia and Khorasan) was an empire that at its greatest territorial extent ruled eastern parts of Khorasan (i. ... Events February 13 - Henry III of France is crowned at Reims February 14 - Henry III of France marries Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont June 28 - Oda Nobunaga defeats Takeda Katsuyori in the battle of Nagashino, which has been called Japans first modern battle. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ... Murshidabad is a city in West Bengal, India as well as a district in the state. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... French and other European settlements in India. ... Chandannagar, formerly known as Chandernagore or Chandernagar, is a city in India. ... 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was one of the first joint-stock companies. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ...


When the British East India Company began strengthening the defences at Fort William (Calcutta), the Nawab, Siraj Ud Daulah, at the encouragement of the French, attacked. Under the leadership of Robert Clive, British troops and their local allies captured Chandernagore in March 1757 and seriously defeated the Nawab on June 23, 1757 at the Battle of Plassey, when the Nawab's soldiers betrayed him. The Nawab was assassinated in Murshidabad, and the British installed their own Nawab for Bengal and extended their direct control in the south. Chandernagore was restored to the French in 1763. The Bengalis attempted to regain their territories in 1765 in alliance with the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, but were defeated again at the Battle of Buxar (1765). Mîrzâ Mah. ... Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey (September 29, 1725 - November 22, 1774) was the statesman and general who established the empire of British India. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants British East India Company Siraj Ud Daulah, Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, La Compagnie des Indes Orientales Commanders Colonel Robert Clive (later Governor of Bengal and Baron of Plassey) Mir Jafar Ali Khan, Commander-in-chief of the Nawab, M. Sinfray, French Secretary to the Council Strength 2... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Shah Alam II (1728–1806) was a Mughal emperor of India. ... Combatants Bengal, British East India Company Commanders Mir Kasim, Hector Munro Strength 40,000 infantry, 18,000 infantry, Casualties high low Battle of Buxar (October 1764) was a significant battle fought between the forces under the command of the British East India Company on the one side, and the combined...


The center of Indian culture and trade shifted from Delhi to Calcutta when the Mughal Empire fell. This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... The Mughal Empire (Persian: ‎ , Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت), self-designation Gurkānī, گوركانى (which was also the self-designation of the Timurids in Central Asia and Khorasan) was an empire that at its greatest territorial extent ruled eastern parts of Khorasan (i. ...


Dutch colonies

Main article: Dutch Bengal

Dutch India refers to the Dutch colonial possessions on the Indian subcontinent, while Dutch Indies refers to the far wider notions of the Dutch West Indies (in the Americas) and especially the Dutch East Indies (mainly present Indonesia, the colonial jewel in the Dutch crown, confusingly often informally called Indi...

British rule

See also: Bengal Renaissance and Bengal Presidency
Map of the Bengal province, 1893
Map of the Bengal province, 1893

During British rule, two devastating famines were instigated costing millions of lives in 1770 and 1943. Scarcely five years into the British East India Company's rule, the catastrophic Bengal famine of 1770, one of the greatest famines of history occurred. Up to a third of the population died in 1770 and subsequent years. The Bengal Renaissance refers to a social reform movement during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the region of Bengal in undivided India during the period of British rule. ... Bengal, known as Bango ( Bengali:বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bangodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bengali, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1063x1327, 396 KB) map from [1] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bengal History of Bengal Maps of India Maps of Bangladesh ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1063x1327, 396 KB) map from [1] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bengal History of Bengal Maps of India Maps of Bangladesh ... A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was one of the first joint-stock companies. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ...


The Indian Mutiny of 1857 replaced rule by the Company with the direct control of Bengal by the British crown. An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from the British perspective. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


A centre of rice cultivation as well as fine cotton called muslin and the world's main source of jute fibre, Bengal, from the 1850s became one of India's principal centres of industry, concentrated in the capital Kolkata (known as Calcutta under the British, always called 'Kolkata' in the native tongue of Bengali) and its emerging cluster of suburbs. Most of the population nevertheless remained dependent on agriculture, and despite its leading role in Indian political and intellectual activity, the province included some very undeveloped districts, especially in the east. In 1877, when Victoria took the title of "Empress of India", the British declared Calcutta the capital of the British Raj. Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice is two species of grass (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) native to tropical and subtropical southern & southeastern Asia and in Africa. ... Muslin is a type of finely-woven cotton fabric, introduced to Europe from the Middle East in the 17th century. ... The word Jute is also used in reference to the Germanic people, the Jutes. ... // Production of steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Railroads begin to supplant canals in the United States as a primary means of transporting goods. ...   (IPA: [] Bengali: কলকাতা) (formerly  ) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. ... Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... The flag of British India British India, circa 1860 The British Raj (Raj in Hindi meaning Rule from Sanskrit Rajya) was the British rule between 1858 and 1947 of the Indian Subcontinent, or present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Myanmar, during the period whereby these lands were under the colonial...


India's most populous province (and one of the most active provinces in freedom fighting), in 1905 Bengal was divided by the British rulers for administrative purposes into an overwhelmingly Hindu west (including present-day Bihar and Orissa) and a predominantly Muslim east (including Assam) (1905 Partition of Bengal). Hindu - Muslim conflict became stronger through this partition. While Hindu Indians disagreed with the partition saying it was a way of dividing a Bengal which is united by language and history, Muslims supported it by saying it was a big step forward for Muslim society where Muslims will be majority and they can freely practice their religion as well as their culture. But owing to strong Hindu agitation, the British reunited East and West Bengal in 1912, and made Bihar and Orissa a separate province. 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Bihar (Hindi: बिहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: ,  ) is a state of the Indian union situated in the eastern part of the country. ... Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated in the east coast of India. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... Partition of Bengal, 1905 was made on 16 October 1905 by then Indian vice roy Lord Curzon. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Bihar (Hindi: बिहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: ,  ) is a state of the Indian union situated in the eastern part of the country. ... Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated in the east coast of India. ...


Another major famine occurred during the second world war, the Bengal famine of 1943, in which an estimated 3 million people died. The Bengal famine of 1943 occurred in undivided Bengal (now independent Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal) in 1943. ...


Bengal Renaissance

Main article: Bengal Renaissance

An important aspect in Bengal's history is the Bengal Renaissance. The Bengal Renaissance refers to a social reform movement during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the region of Bengal in undivided India during the period of British rule. ... The Bengal Renaissance refers to a social reform movement during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the region of Bengal in undivided India during the period of British rule. ...


Partitions of Bengal

Main article: Partition of Bengal

In the 20th century, the partitions of Bengal, occurring twice, has left indelible marks on the history and psyche of the people of Bengal. The first partition occurred in 1905 and the second partition was in 1947. East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The Partition of Bengal in 1905, was made on 16 October by then Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon. ... The Partition of Bengal in 1947 divided Bengal into the two separate entities of West Bengal belonging to India, and East Bengal belonging to Pakistan. ...


As partition of British India into Hindu and Muslim dominions approached in 1947, Bengal again split into the state of West Bengal of secular India and a Muslim region of East Bengal under Pakistan, renamed East Pakistan in 1958. East Pakistan (East Bengal) later rebelled against Pakistani military rule to become independent republic of Bangladesh, literally "Land of Bengal", after a war of independence against the Pakistani army in 1971. West Bengal remains a part of India. However, culturally and sociologically, the two segments of Bengal share considerably more than just a single language. This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... West Bengal   (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ, Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Aided By  Soviet Union Pakistan Aided By United States People’s Republic of China Commanders • General M A G Osmani • General Jagjit Singh Aurora • General Sam Manekshaw • General A. A. K. Niazi • General Tikka Khan Strength India: 500,000+ Mukti Bahini: 100,000[1][2] Pakistan... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ...


Bengal (both West Bengal and Bangladesh) is now one of the most densely populated regions of the world.

See East Bengal for information on East Bengal (now Bangladesh) after the first partition of Bengal.
See East Pakistan for information on East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) after the second partition of Bengal.

East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ...

Ruling houses of Bengal

Pala Dynasty

Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM... Emperor Kōnin ascends to the throne of Japan, succeeding Empress Shōtoku. ... Emperor Kōnin ascends to the throne of Japan, succeeding Empress Shōtoku. ... 8-10 is also going to be the Toronto Raptors record as of Dec. ... 8-10 is also going to be the Toronto Raptors record as of Dec. ... Events April 20 - Guntherus becomes Bishop of Cologne. ... Events April 20 - Guntherus becomes Bishop of Cologne. ... Events December 29 - Charles the Bald, king of west Danes capture Lindisfarne and arrive in Cambridge. ... Events December 29 - Charles the Bald, king of west Danes capture Lindisfarne and arrive in Cambridge. ... Events Battle of Belach Mugna Births Deaths Categories: 908 ... Events Battle of Belach Mugna Births Deaths Categories: 908 ... Events Václav (Saint Wenceslas), Duke of the Bohemians, murdered by his brother, Boleslav I, who succeeds him Gyeonhwon, the king of Hubaekje, is overthrown by his eldest son Singeom. ... Events Václav (Saint Wenceslas), Duke of the Bohemians, murdered by his brother, Boleslav I, who succeeds him Gyeonhwon, the king of Hubaekje, is overthrown by his eldest son Singeom. ... Events Hugh Capet marries Adelaide of Aquitaine Deaths Emperor Suzaku of Japan Hugh, Duke of Burgundy Categories: 952 ... Events Hugh Capet marries Adelaide of Aquitaine Deaths Emperor Suzaku of Japan Hugh, Duke of Burgundy Categories: 952 ... Events Vladimir I, Prince of Kiev marries Anna, sister of Byzantine emperor Basil II and converts to Christianity. ... Events Vladimir I, Prince of Kiev marries Anna, sister of Byzantine emperor Basil II and converts to Christianity. ... Events Independent declaration of Western Xia. ... Events Independent declaration of Western Xia. ... Events January 11 - Theodora becomes Reigning Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Events January 11 - Theodora becomes Reigning Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Events Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England. ... Events Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England. ... Events Revolt of the Earls. ... Events Revolt of the Earls. ... Events January 26 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor visits Pope Gregory VII as a penitent, asking him remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of... Events January 26 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor visits Pope Gregory VII as a penitent, asking him remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of... Events Welcher of Malvern creates a system of measurement for the earth using degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude and longitude. ... Events Welcher of Malvern creates a system of measurement for the earth using degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude and longitude. ... Events May 23 - Lothair of Saxony becomes Holy Roman Emperor on the death of Henry V. War ends between Toulouse and Provence. ... Events May 23 - Lothair of Saxony becomes Holy Roman Emperor on the death of Henry V. War ends between Toulouse and Provence. ... Events Louis VII capitulates to Pope Celestine II and so earns the popes absolution Pope Celestine II is succeeded by Pope Lucius II December 24 - Edessa falls to Zengi Montauban, France, is founded First recorded example of an anti-Semitic blood libel in England Normandy comes under Angevin control... Events Louis VII capitulates to Pope Celestine II and so earns the popes absolution Pope Celestine II is succeeded by Pope Lucius II December 24 - Edessa falls to Zengi Montauban, France, is founded First recorded example of an anti-Semitic blood libel in England Normandy comes under Angevin control... Events Bartholomew Iscanus becomes Bishop of Exeter. ...

Sena Dynasty

Ballal Sen or Ballal Sena (Bangla: বল্লাল সেন) was the third ruler of the Sena dynasty of Bengal. ... Events Bartholomew Iscanus becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Events June 18 - Five Canterbury monks see what was possibly the Giordano Bruno crater being formed The Sung Document written detailing the discovery of Mu-Lan-Pi (suggested by some to be California) by Muslim sailors The Chronicle of Gervase of Canterbury written The Leaning Tower of Pisa begins to... Lakshman Sen or Lakshman Sena (1179 - 1206 CE) was the fourth ruler of the Sena dynasty of Bengal. ... Events June 18 - Five Canterbury monks see what was possibly the Giordano Bruno crater being formed The Sung Document written detailing the discovery of Mu-Lan-Pi (suggested by some to be California) by Muslim sailors The Chronicle of Gervase of Canterbury written The Leaning Tower of Pisa begins to... Events January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople (1205) between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire Births Walter IV of Brienne Wenceslaus I, King of... Events January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople (1205) between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire Births Walter IV of Brienne Wenceslaus I, King of... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... // April 30 - King Louis IX of France released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta. ...

Ilyas Dynasty (1st period)

For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Events July 2 - The Battle of Göllheim is fought between Albert I of Habsburg and Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg. ... Events July 2 - The Battle of Göllheim is fought between Albert I of Habsburg and Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg. ... Events 1 April: Berwick-upon-Tweed is captured by the Scottish from the English Emperor Go-Daigo ascends to the throne of Japan End of the reign of Emperor Hanazono, emperor of Japan Pope John XXII declares the doctrines of the Franciscans advocating ecclesiastical poverty erroneous Qalaun Mosque, Cairo... Events 1 April: Berwick-upon-Tweed is captured by the Scottish from the English Emperor Go-Daigo ascends to the throne of Japan End of the reign of Emperor Hanazono, emperor of Japan Pope John XXII declares the doctrines of the Franciscans advocating ecclesiastical poverty erroneous Qalaun Mosque, Cairo... Events Magnus VII ascends the throne of Norway and unites the country with Sweden. ... Events 1 April: Berwick-upon-Tweed is captured by the Scottish from the English Emperor Go-Daigo ascends to the throne of Japan End of the reign of Emperor Hanazono, emperor of Japan Pope John XXII declares the doctrines of the Franciscans advocating ecclesiastical poverty erroneous Qalaun Mosque, Cairo... Events The Bulgars under Michael III are beaten by the Serbs at Velbuzhd, and large parts of Bulgaria fall to Serbia. ... Events Magnus VII ascends the throne of Norway and unites the country with Sweden. ... Events Canonization of Saint Thomas Aquinas Lithuania: Vilnius becomes capital August 12 - The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Pharos of Alexandira Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the world) is destroyed by a series of earthquakes... Events Canonization of Saint Thomas Aquinas Lithuania: Vilnius becomes capital August 12 - The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Pharos of Alexandira Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the world) is destroyed by a series of earthquakes... Events January 7:Alfonso IV becomes the King of Portugal. ... Events Canonization of Saint Thomas Aquinas Lithuania: Vilnius becomes capital August 12 - The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Pharos of Alexandira Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the world) is destroyed by a series of earthquakes... Events Emperor Go-Murakami ascends to the throne of Japan Kashmir is conquered by the muslims Births July 23 - King Louis I of Naples (d. ... Events Publication of Defensor pacis by Marsilius of Padua Mansa Kankan Musa I, ruler of the Mali Empire arrives in Cairo on his hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca. ... Events End of the Kemmu restoration and beginning of the Muromachi period in Japan. ... Events January 7:Alfonso IV becomes the King of Portugal. ... Events Emperor Go-Murakami ascends to the throne of Japan Kashmir is conquered by the muslims Births July 23 - King Louis I of Naples (d. ... Events End of the Kemmu restoration and beginning of the Muromachi period in Japan. ... // Events January 9 - The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland is rounded up and incinerated, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing bubonic plague. ... Events Emperor Go-Murakami ascends to the throne of Japan Kashmir is conquered by the muslims Births July 23 - King Louis I of Naples (d. ... Events Miracle of the Host Births October 31 - King Fernando I of Portugal (died 1383) Agnès of Valois, daughter of John II of France (died 1349) Eleanor Maltravers, English noblewoman (died 1405) Deaths April 14 - Richard Aungerville, English writer and bishop (born 1287) September 16 - John IV, Duke of... Events Miracle of the Host Births October 31 - King Fernando I of Portugal (died 1383) Agnès of Valois, daughter of John II of France (died 1349) Eleanor Maltravers, English noblewoman (died 1405) Deaths April 14 - Richard Aungerville, English writer and bishop (born 1287) September 16 - John IV, Duke of... [[ == == ===Events= July 9 - Charles Bridge in Prague was founded == == ==]] Births Vincent Ferrer April 11 - King John I of Portugal Deaths May 28 - King Afonso IV of Portugal Categories: 1357 ... Events June 4 - Glarus joins the Swiss Confederation. ... // Events January 9 - The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland is rounded up and incinerated, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing bubonic plague. ... Events June 4 - Glarus joins the Swiss Confederation. ... [[ == == ===Events= July 9 - Charles Bridge in Prague was founded == == ==]] Births Vincent Ferrer April 11 - King John I of Portugal Deaths May 28 - King Afonso IV of Portugal Categories: 1357 ... Events Births December 27 - Anne de Mortimer, claimant to the English throne (died 1411) Domenico da Piacenza, Italian dancemaster (died 1470) John Dunstable, English composer (died 1453) Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, Swedish statesman and rebel leader (died 1436) Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (died 1447) John VIII Palaeologus Byzantine Emperor (died 1448) Deaths... Events King Charles V of France renounces the treaty of Brétigny and war is declared between France and England. ... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Komatsu of Japan. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Komatsu of Japan. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ...

Ganesa Dynasty

Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Events May 19 - Capture of Paris by John, Duke of Burgundy September - Beginning of English Siege of Rouen Mircea the Old, ruler of Wallachia dies and is succeeded by Vlad I Uzurpatorul. ... Events May 19 - Capture of Paris by John, Duke of Burgundy September - Beginning of English Siege of Rouen Mircea the Old, ruler of Wallachia dies and is succeeded by Vlad I Uzurpatorul. ... Events February 21 - The trial of Joan of Arc March 3 - Eugenius IV becomes Pope May 30 - In Rouen, France, 19-year old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake. ... Events February 21 - The trial of Joan of Arc March 3 - Eugenius IV becomes Pope May 30 - In Rouen, France, 19-year old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake. ... Events April - Paris is recaptured by the French End of the Hussite Wars in Bohemia. ...

Ilyas Dynasty (restored)

Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah (1435-1459), sultan of Bengal, was a descendant of Sultan Shamsuddin Iliyas Shah and ascended the throne of Bengal under the title of Nasiruddin Abul Muzaffar Mahmud Shah in 1435 (839 AH). ... // Events foundation of All Souls College, University of Oxford. ... Events September 23 - Battle of Blore Heath. ... Events September 23 - Battle of Blore Heath. ... Events December 12 - Upon the death of Henry IV of Castile a civil war ensues between his designated successor Isabella I of Castile and her sister Juana who was supported by her husband, Alfonso V of Portugal. ... Events December 12 - Upon the death of Henry IV of Castile a civil war ensues between his designated successor Isabella I of Castile and her sister Juana who was supported by her husband, Alfonso V of Portugal. ... Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... Events Tízoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan dies. ...

Habshis Dynasty

Events Tízoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan dies. ... Events Richard Fox becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Events Richard Fox becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Events March 14 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. ... Events March 14 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. ... Events Tirant Lo Blanc by Joanot Martorell, Martí Joan De Galba is published. ... Events Tirant Lo Blanc by Joanot Martorell, Martí Joan De Galba is published. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Husaini Dynasty

1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola. ... Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Events Treaty of Nagyvarad. ...

Suri Dynasty

Sher Shah Suri Sher Shah Suri (1486 – 1545) (Pashto/Persian: ‎ - Šīr-Šāh Ṣūrī) also known as Sher Khan and as The Lion King, was founder of the Sur Dynasty of northern Indian rulers. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... // Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ... // Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony...

Karani (Kararani) Dynasty

Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ...

Nawabs of Bengal

Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... Ali Vardi Khan was the independent nawab or ruler of Bengal between 1740 and 1756. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Mîrzâ Mah. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Mir Jafar Ali Khan (born 1691 – died February 5, 1765). ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ...

Further reading

R.C. Majumdar (1888-1980) was an Indian historian. ...

External links


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