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Encyclopedia > History of Antarctica
December 1911: Roald Amundsen's Norwegian expedition becomes the first to reach the South Pole.

The history of Antarctica emerges from early Western theories of a vast continent, known as Terra Australis, believed to exist in the far south of the globe. The rounding of the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Horn in the 15th and 16th centuries proved that Terra Australis Incognita ("Unknown Southern Land"), if it existed, was a continent in its own right. In 1773 James Cook crossed the Antarctic Circle for the first time but although he discovered nearby islands, he did not catch sight of Antarctica itself. Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (July 16, 1872 – c. ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... Terra Australis is the large continent on the bottom of the map Terra Australis (also: Terra Australis Incognita, Latin for the unknown land of the South) was an imaginary continent, appearing on European maps from the 15th to the 18th century. ... For other uses, see Cape of Good Hope (disambiguation). ... Cape Horn from the South. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... Zoomable PDF of the map this is based on The Antarctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. ...


In 1820, several expeditions claimed to have been the first to have sighted Antarctica. The first landing was probably just over a year later when American Captain John Davis, a sealer, set foot on the ice. Once the North Pole had been reached in 1909, several expeditions attempted to reach the South Pole. Many resulted in injury and death. The Norwegian Roald Amundsen finally reached the Pole in December 1911, following a dramatic race with the Englishman Robert Falcon Scott. For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (July 16, 1872 – c. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Scott of the Antarctic redirects here. ...

Contents

South of the Antarctic Convergence

Better documented is the visit to South Georgia by Anthony de la Roché in 1675, the first ever discovery of land south of the Antarctic Convergence.[1][2] Soon after the voyage cartographers started to depict on their maps ‘Roché Island’, honouring the discoverer. James Cook was aware of la Roché's discovery when surveying and mapping the island in 1775. [3] Motto: Leo Terram Propriam Protegat(Latin) Let the Lion protect his own land or May the Lion protect his own land Anthem: God Save the Queen Capital King Edward Point (Grytviken) Official languages English Government British Overseas Territory  -  Head of State Queen Elizabeth II  -  Commissioner Alan Huckle Area  -  Total 3... The Antarctic Convergence (also known as the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone) is a line encircling Antarctica where the cold, northward-flowing Antarctic waters sink beneath the relatively warmer waters of the sub-Antarctic. ... This article is about the British explorer. ...


It may safely be said that all the navigators who fell in with the southern ice up to 1750 did so by being driven off their course and not of set purpose. An exception may perhaps be made in favor of Edmond Halley's voyage in HMS Paramour for magnetic investigations in the South Atlantic when he met the ice in 52° S in January 1700; but that latitude was his farthest south. A determined effort on the part of the French naval officer Pierre Bouvet to discover the South Land described by a half legendary sieur de Gonneyville resulted only in the discovery of Bouvet Island in 54°10′ S, and in the navigation of 48° of longitude of ice-cumbered sea nearly in 55° S in 1730 . Edmond Halley FRS (IPA: ) (November 8, 1656 – January 14, 1742) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist. ...


In 1771, Yves Joseph Kerguelen sailed from France with instructions to proceed south from Mauritius in search of "a very large continent." He lighted upon a land in 50° S which he called South France, and believed to be the central mass of the southern continent. He was sent out again to complete the exploration of the new land, and found it to be only an inhospitable island which he renamed in disgust the Isle of Desolation, but in which posterity has recognized his courageous efforts by naming it Kerguelen Land.[4] Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec (February 13, 1734 - March 3, 1797) was a French explorer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


South of the Antarctic Circle

The obsession of the undiscovered continent culminated in the brain of Alexander Dalrymple, the brilliant and erratic hydrographer who was nominated by the Royal Society to command the Transit of Venus expedition to Tahiti in 1769. The command of the expedition was given by the admiralty to Captain James Cook. Sailing in 1772 with the Resolution, a vessel of 462 tons under his own command and the Adventure of 336 tons under Captain Tobias Furneaux, Cook first searched in vain for Bouvet Island, then sailed for 20 degrees of longitude to the westward in latitude 58° S, and then 30° eastward for the most part south of 60° S, a higher southern latitude than had ever been voluntarily entered before by any vessel. On 17 January 1773 the Antarctic Circle was crossed for the first time in history and the two ships reached 67° 15' S by 39° 35' E, where their course was stopped by ice. This article is about the British explorer. ... Alexander Dalrymple (July 24, 1737 - June 19, 1808 was a Scottish geographer. ... Hydrography is the measurement of physical characteristics of waters and marginal land. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... This article is about the astronomical phenomenon. ... Tahiti is the largest island in the Windward group of the French Polynesia, located in the archipelago of Society Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... Tobias Furneaux (August 21, 1735 - September 19, 1781) was an french star Gazer and Royal french Navy officer, who accompanied the ships Cook on his second voyage of exploration. ... Zoomable PDF of the map this is based on The Antarctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. ...


Cook then turned northward to look for French Southern and Antarctic Lands, of the discovery of which he had received news at Cape Town, but from the rough determination of his longitude by Kerguelen, Cook reached the assigned latitude 10° too far east and did not see it. He turned south again and was stopped by ice in 61° 52′ S by 95° E and continued eastward nearly on the parallel of 60° S to 147° E. On 16 March, the approaching winter drove him northward for rest to New Zealand and the tropical islands of the Pacific. In November 1773, Cook left New Zealand, having parted company with the Adventure, and reached 60° S by 177° W, whence he sailed eastward keeping as far south as the floating ice allowed. The Antarctic Circle was crossed on 20 December and Cook remained south of it for three days, being compelled after reaching 67° 31′ S to stand north again in 135° W. Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area [2]  - Total 2,454. ...


A long detour to 47° 50′ S served to show that there was no land connection between New Zealand and Tierra del Fuego. Turning south again, Cook crossed the Antarctic Circle for the third time at 109° 30′ W before his progress was once again blocked by ice four days later at 71° 10′ S by 106° 54′ W. This point, reached on 30 January 1774, was the farthest south attained in the 18th century. With a great detour to the east, almost to the coast of South America, the expedition regained Tahiti for refreshment. In November 1774, Cook started from New Zealand and crossed the South Pacific without sighting land between 53° and 57° S to Tierra del Fuego; then, passing Cape Horn on 29 December, he rediscovered Roché Island renaming it Isle of Georgia, and discovered the South Sandwich Islands (named Sandwich Land by him), the only ice-clad land he had seen, before crossing the South Atlantic to the Cape of Good Hope between 55° and 60°. He thereby laid open the way for future Antarctic exploration by exploding the myth of a habitable southern continent. Cook's most southerly discovery of land lay on the temperate side of the 60th parallel, and he convinced himself that if land lay farther south it was practically inaccessible and of no economic value.[4] Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ... Motto: Leo Terram Propriam Protegat(Latin) Let the Lion protect his own land or May the Lion protect his own land Anthem: God Save the Queen Capital King Edward Point (Grytviken) Official languages English Government British Overseas Territory  -  Head of State Queen Elizabeth II  -  Commissioner Alan Huckle Area  -  Total 3... Motto: Leo Terram Propriam Protegat(Latin) Let the Lion protect his own land or May the Lion protect his own land Anthem: God Save the Queen Capital King Edward Point (Grytviken) Official languages English Government British Overseas Territory  -  Head of State Queen Elizabeth II  -  Commissioner Alan Huckle Area  -  Total 3...


First sighting of land

1911 Map of early exploration routes.

The first land south of the parallel 60° south latitude was discovered by the Englishman William Smith, who sighted Livingston Island on 19 February 1819. A few months later Smith returned to explore the other islands of the South Shetlands archipelago, landed on King George Island, and claimed the new territories for Britain. William Smith (born c. ... Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (Беллинсгаузен, Фаддей Фаддеевич, Faddey Faddeyevich Bellinsgauzen in Russian) (September 20, 1778 - January 13, 1852) served as a naval officer of the Russian Empire and commanded the second expedition to circumnavigate Antarctica. ... William Smith (born c. ... Livingston Island (62°36′ S 060°30′ W) is 61 km (38 mi) long and from 3 to 32 km (2 to 20 mi) wide, lying between Greenwich and Snow Islands in the South Shetland Islands. ... Location of the South Shetlands The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands, lying about 120 kilometres north of the Antarctic Peninsula. ... Location of King George Island Map of King George Island King George Island (Argentina: Isla 25 de Mayo, Chile: Isla Rey Jorge, Russian historical name - Vaterlo (Waterloo)) is the largest of the South Shetland Islands, situated at , 120 kilometers off the coast of Antarctica in the Southern Ocean. ...


In the meantime, the Spanish Navy ship San Telmo sank in September 1819 when trying to cross Cape Horn. Parts of her wreckage were found months later by sealers on the north coast of Livingston Island (South Shetlands). It is unknown if some survivor managed to be the first setting foot on these Antarctic islands. Livingston Island (62°36′ S 060°30′ W) is 61 km (38 mi) long and from 3 to 32 km (2 to 20 mi) wide, lying between Greenwich and Snow Islands in the South Shetland Islands. ...


The first confirmed sighting of mainland Antarctica cannot be accurately attributed to one single person. It can, however, be narrowed down to three individuals. According to various sources,[5][6][7] three men all sighted Antarctica within days or months of each other: Fabian von Bellingshausen, a captain in the Russian Imperial Navy; Edward Bransfield, a captain in the British navy; and Nathaniel Palmer, an American sealer out of Stonington, Connecticut. It is certain that on 28 January 1820 (New Style), the expedition led by Fabian von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev on two ships reached a point within 20 miles (40 km) of the Antarctic mainland and saw ice-fields there. On 30 January 1820, Bransfield sighted Trinity Peninsula, the northernmost point of the Antarctic mainland, while Palmer sighted the mainland in the area south of Trinity Peninsula in November 1820. Bellingshausen's expedition also discovered Peter I Island and Alexander I Island, the first islands to be discovered south of the circle. Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (Беллинсгаузен, Фаддей Фаддеевич, Faddey Faddeyevich Bellinsgauzen in Russian) (September 20, 1778 - January 13, 1852) served as a naval officer of the Russian Empire and commanded the second expedition to circumnavigate Antarctica. ... Edward Bransfield (1785 – 1852) was a master in the Royal Navy and arguably the discoverer of the continent of Antarctica. ... Nathaniel Brown Palmer (1799 – 1877) was a seal hunter, explorer, sailing captain, and ship designer. ... Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (Беллинсгаузен, Фаддей Фаддеевич, Faddey Faddeyevich Bellinsgauzen in Russian) (September 20, 1778 - January 13, 1852) served as a naval officer of the Russian Empire and commanded the second expedition to circumnavigate Antarctica. ... Portrait of Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev (Лазарев, Михаил Петрович in Russian) (November 3, 1788 — April 11, 1851) was a Russian fleet commander and explorer, and Admiral (1843). ... Trinity Peninsula ( 63°37′ S 058°20′ W) is the extreme northeast portion of the Antarctic Peninsula, extending northeastward for about 130 km (80 mi) from a line connecting Cape Kater and Cape Longing. ... Fabian von Bellingshausen discovered Peter I Island (in Norwegian ) off West Antarctica on January 21, 1821. ...


Exploration

Only slightly more than a year later, the first landing on the Antarctic mainland was arguably by the American Captain John Davis, a sealer, who claimed to have set foot there on 7 February 1821, though this is not accepted by all historians.[8][not in citation given] John Davis an American and seal hunter who claimed to have set foot on Antarctica on February 7, 1821. ...

Painting of James Weddell's second expedition, depicting the brig Jane and the cutter Beaufroy.

In December 1821, Nathaniel Palmer, an American sealer looking for seal breeding grounds, sighted what is now known as the Antarctic Peninsula, located in the continent's northwestern quadrant. In 1823, James Weddell, a British sealer, sailed into what is now known as the Weddell Sea. James Weddell (August 24, 1787 - September 9, 1834) was an English navigator, sealer, and explorer of the antarctic. ... Antarctic Peninsula map Booth Island and Mount Scott flank the narrow Lemaire Channel on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula. ... James Weddell (August 24, 1787 - September 9, 1834) was an English navigator, sealer, and explorer of the antarctic. ... The Weddell Sea is part of the Southern Ocean. ...


The first person to realize that he had actually discovered a whole continent was Charles Wilkes, the commander of a United States Navy expedition.[9] His 1840 voyage discovered what is now known as Wilkes Land, on the southeast quadrant of the continent. Charles Wilkes Charles Wilkes (April 3, 1798 – February 8, 1877) was an American naval officer and explorer. ... USN redirects here. ... Map of Antarctica, with Wilkes Land slightly to the right Wilkes Land is a large district of land in eastern Antarctica, formally claimed by Australia as part of the Australian Antarctic Territory, though this claim is not legally recognised by the signatories of the Antarctic Treaty, which includes Australia itself. ...


After the North Magnetic Pole was located in 1831, explorers and scientists began looking for the South Magnetic Pole. One of the explorers, James Clark Ross, a British naval officer, identified its approximate location, but was unable to reach it on his trip in 1841. Commanding the British ships Erebus and Terror, he braved the pack ice and approached what is now known as the Ross Ice Shelf, a massive floating ice shelf over 100 feet (30 m) high. His expedition sailed eastward along the southern Antarctic coast discovering mountains which were since named after his ships: Mount Erebus, the most active volcano on Antarctica, and Mount Terror.[9] Part of the Carta Marina of 1539 by Olaus Magnus, depicting the location of magnetic north vaguely conceived as Insula Magnetu[m] (Latin for Magnetic Island) off modern day Murmansk. ... The Earths South Magnetic Pole is the wandering point on the Earths surface where the geomagnetic field lines are directed vertically upwards. ... Sir James Clark Ross (April 15, 1800 – April 3, 1862), was a British naval officer and explorer. ... Ross Ice Shelf in 1997. ... Ross Ice Shelf An ice shelf is a thick, floating platform of ice that forms where a glacier or ice sheet flows down to a coastline and onto the ocean surface. ... Mount Erebus in Antarctica is the southernmost active volcano on Earth. ... For mountains named Mount Terror, see Mount Terror. ...


The first documented landing on the mainland of East Antarctica was at Victoria Land by the American sealer Mercator Cooper on 26 January 1853.[10] Categories: Antarctica geography stubs | Geography of Antarctica | Ross Dependency ... Mercator Cooper (September 29, 1803 - Spring 1872) was a captain who is credited with the first formal American visit to Tokyo and the first formal landing on the mainland East Antarctica. ...


In 1897, an expedition led by Belgian Adrian de Gerlache left Antwerp, Belgium for Antarctica. The multi-national crew included a Romanian zoologist (Emil Racoviţă), a Polish geologist (Henryk Arctowski), a Belgian navigator/astronomer (George Lecointe), several Norwegians, including Roald Amundsen, and an American surgeon, Dr. Frederick Cook. In 1898, they became the first men to spend winter on Antarctica, when their ship Belgica became trapped in the ice. They became stuck on 28 February 1898, and only managed to get out of the ice on 14 March 1899. During their forced stay, several men lost their sanity, not only because of the Antarctic winter night and the endured hardship, but also because of the language problems between the different nationalities. A year later a British expedition commanded by Norwegian Carstens Borchgrevink became the first to intentionally spend winter on the continent itself.[9][11] Adrien Victor Joseph de Gerlache de Gomery (2 August 1866-4 December 1934) was an officer in the Belgian Royal Navy, who led the Belgian Antarctic Expedition of 1897-1899. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Emil Racovita (1868-1947) was a famous Romanian biologist and speleologist. ... Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (July 16, 1872 – c. ... Frederick Cook in arctic gear Frederick Cook on South Michigan Avenue in Chicago A photo from Cooks 1909 arctic expedition, which he alleged was taken at or near the North Pole Frederick Albert Cook (June 10, 1865 - August 5, 1940) was an American explorer and physician. ... Belgica was and is the name of two Belgian research vessels, with a name derived ultimately from the Latin Gallia Belgica. ... Carstens Egeberg Borchgrevink (December 1, 1864 in Kristiana, Norway-1934 in Slimdal,Antarctica, ever. ...


British National Antarctic Expedition (Discovery)

RRS Discovery

The British National Antarctic Expedition (1901–1904), led by Robert Falcon Scott, came to within 857 km (463 nautical miles) of the South Pole from its base at McMurdo Sound. The Discovery in the Antarctic ice The British National Antarctic Expedition, 1901–04, generally known as the Discovery Expedition, was the first official British exploration of the Antarctic regions since James Clark Rosss voyage sixty years earlier. ... The Discovery in the Antarctic ice The British National Antarctic Expedition, 1901–04, generally known as the Discovery Expedition, was the first official British exploration of the Antarctic regions since James Clark Rosss voyage sixty years earlier. ... Scott of the Antarctic redirects here. ... Categories: Antarctica geography stubs | Geography of Antarctica | Ross Dependency ...


Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (Scotia)

In 1903, the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition established Osmond House, a meteorological observatory on Laurie Island in the South Orkneys. A year later, ownership of the base was passed to Argentina and it was renamed to Orcadas Base. It is the continent's oldest permanent base,[12] and, until World War II, the only one present. // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Laurie Island (Spanish:Isla Lauría) is the second largest of the South Orkney Islands. ... The South Orkney Islands (Spanish: Islas Orcadas) are a group of sub-antarctic islands situated at latitudes 60°50 to 60°83 S, and longitudes 44°25 to 46°25 W in the Southern Ocean. ... Orcadas Base is the first permanently inhabited base Antarctica. ...


British Imperial Antarctic Expedition (Nimrod)

Nimrod trapped in ice.

Ernest Shackleton, who had been a member of Scott's expedition, organized and led the British Imperial Antarctic Expedition (1907-09), again with the primary objective of reaching the South Pole. It came within 180 km (97 nautical miles) before having to turn back. during the expedition, Shackleton discovered the Beardmore Glacier and was the first to reach the polar plateau. Parties led by T. W. Edgeworth David also became the first to climb Mount Erebus and to reach the South Magnetic Pole. darn ... Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton, CVO, OBE (15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was an Anglo-Irish explorer. ... darn ... The Beardmore Glacier (83º45´S 171º00´E) in Antarctica is the largest glacier in the world, with a length exceeding 160 km (100 mi). ... Sir Tannatt William Edgeworth David (January 28, 1858 - August 28, 1934) was an Australian geologist and explorer. ... Mount Erebus in Antarctica is the southernmost active volcano on Earth. ... The Earths South Magnetic Pole is the wandering point on the Earths surface where the geomagnetic field lines are directed vertically upwards. ...


Race to the Pole (Fram and Terra Nova)

On 14 December 1911, a party led by Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen from the ship Fram became the first to reach the South Pole, using a route from the Bay of Whales (his camp Polheim and up the Axel Heiberg Glacier. Amundsen was followed by Robert Falcon Scott from the Terra Nova over a month later, using the route pioneered by Shackleton. Scott's party later died on the return journey after being delayed by a series of accidents, bad weather, and the declining physical condition of the men. The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station was later named after these two men. The Terra Nova Expedition (1910–1913) was a British expedition led by Robert Falcon Scott with the purpose of undertaking scientific research and exploration along the coast and interior of Antarctica. ... Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (July 16, 1872 – c. ... Fram (Forward) was a ship used in expeditions in the Arctic and Antarctic regions by the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen, Otto Sverdrup, Oscar Wisting, and Roald Amundsen between 1893 and 1912. ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... Ice breaker research vessel using the Whales Bay ice harbor. ... Polheim, Home of the Pole, was Roald Amundsens name for his camp (the first ever) at the South Pole. ... The Axel Heiberg Glacier is a valley glacier, 48 km (30 mi) long, descending from the polar plateau to the Ross Ice Shelf between the Herbert Range and Mount Don Pedro Christophersen, in the Queen Maud Mountains. ... Scott of the Antarctic redirects here. ... The Terra Nova (Latin for Newfoundland) was built in 1884 for the Dundee whaling and sealing fleet. ... The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is a U.S. research station at the South Pole, in Antarctica. ...


Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (Endurance)

Frank Hurley, As time wore on it became more and more evident that the ship was doomed (The Endurance trapped in pack ice), National Library of Australia.

The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914, led by Ernest Shackleton, set out to cross the continent via the pole, but their ship, the Endurance, was trapped and crushed by pack ice before they even landed. The expedition members survived after an epic journey on sledges over pack ice to Elephant Island. Then Shackleton and five others crossed the Southern Ocean, in an open boat called James Caird, and then trekked over South Georgia to raise the alarm at the whaling station Grytviken. The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition was the fourth British Antarctic exploration of the 20th century, and aimed, but ultimately failed, to be the first to cross the Antarctic continent from one side to the other. ... National Library of Australia National Library of Australia as viewed from Lake Burley Griffin The National Library of Australia is located in Canberra, Australia. ... The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition was the fourth British Antarctic exploration of the 20th century, and aimed, but ultimately failed, to be the first to cross the Antarctic continent from one side to the other. ... The Endurance was the three-masted barquentine in which Sir Ernest Shackleton sailed for the Antarctic on the 1914 Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition. ... A NASA satellite photograph of Elephant Island Elephant Island is an ice-covered, mountainous island off the coast of Antarctica in the outer reaches of the South Shetland Islands in the Southern Ocean. ... Rendition of the James Caird nearing South Georgia The James Caird is a 30-foot (7 m) whaleboat in which Sir Ernest Shackleton and five companions made the epic open boat voyage of 800 miles (1,480 km) from Elephant Island, 500 miles (800 km) south of Cape Horn, to... South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. ... Cumberland Bay and Thatcher Peninsula with King Edward Cove (Grytviken) Grytviken (Swedish for Pot Cove; Grytvika/Grytviken in Norwegian) is the principal settlement in the United Kingdom territory of South Georgia in the South Atlantic. ...


Exploration by air: 1930s to 1950s

US Navy Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd led five expeditions to Antarctica during the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s. He overflew the South Pole with pilot Bernt Balchen on November 28 and 29, 1929, to match his overflight of the North Pole in 1926. Byrd's explorations had science as a major objective and pioneered the use of aircraft on the continent. Byrd is credited with doing more for Antarctic exploration than any other explorer. His expeditions set the scene for modern Antarctic exploration and research. Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd, USN (October 25, 1888 – March 11, 1957) was a pioneering American polar explorer and famous aviator. ... Bernt Balchen (1899-1973) Bernt Balchen, D.F.C., (23 October 1899 – 17 October 1973), was a Norwegian-American polar (and general) aviation pioneer. ...


In 1946, Admiral Byrd and more than 4,700 military personnel returned to Antarctica in an expedition called Operation High Jump. Reported to the public as a scientific mission, the details were kept secret and it may have actually been a training or testing mission for the military. The expedition was, in both military or scientific planning terms, put together very quickly. The group contained an unusually high amount of military equipment, including an aircraft carrier, submarines, military support ships, assault troops and military vehicles. The expedition was planned to last for eight months but was unexpectedly terminated after only two months. With the exception of some eccentric entries in Admiral Byrd's diaries, no real explanation for the early termination has ever been officially given.


Captain Finn Ronne, Byrd's executive officer, returned to Antarctica with his own expedition in 1947-1948, with Navy support, three planes, and dogs. Ronne disproved the notion that the continent was divided in two and established that East and West Antarctica was one single continent, i.e. that the Weddell Sea and the Ross Sea are not connected.[13] The expedition explored and mapped large parts of Palmer Land and the Weddell Sea coastline, and identified the Ronne Ice Shelf, named by Ronne after his wife Edith Ronne.[14] Ronne covered 3,600 miles by ski and dog sled—more than any other explorer in history.[15] The Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition discovered and mapped the last unknown coastline in the world and was the first Antarctic expedition to ever include women.[16] The Norwegian-American Finn Ronne (in Norwegian: Finn Rønne) (20 December 1899, Horten, Norway – 12 January 1980, Bethesda, Maryland) was a U.S. antarctic explorer. ... The calving of A-38 off Ronne ice shelf The Filchner-Ronne ice shelf is in Antarctica bordering the Weddell Sea. ... Edith Jackie Ronne (b. ... The Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition (RARE) was an expedition from 1947-1948 which researched the area surrounding the head of the Weddell Sea in Antarctica. ...


It was not until 31 October 1956 that anyone reached the South Pole again; on that day US Navy Rear Admiral George J. Dufek [1] and others successfully landed a R4D Skytrain (Douglas DC-3) aircraft. The Douglas DC-3 is an American fixed-wing, propeller-driven aircraft whose speed and range revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s. ...


During the International Geophysical Year of 1957, a large number of expeditions to the Antarctic were mounted. The International Geophysical Year or IGY was an international scientific effort that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958. ...


Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition

Sir Edmund Hillary in 1958 after accompanying the first plane to land at the Marble Point ground air-strip.

In 1956, a United States Navy expedition set up the first permanent based at the South Pole, Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, by airlift, to support the International Geophysical Year. In 1958, Edmund Hillary's party in the New Zealand party of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition became the third group in history to reach the South Pole by land, and the first group of motor vehicles to reach the pole. The British team led by Vivian Fuchs, met them at the pole shortly afterwards. The expedition completed the first overland crossing of the continent by land via the South Pole.[9] New Zealand mountaineer Sir Edmund Hillary reached the Pole in early January 1958 using farm tractors equipped for polar travel, the first party since Scott's to reach the South Pole overland. Hillary was laying supply depots as part of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition and in typical Hillary style "detoured" to the pole because the trip had gone well. British explorer Sir Vivian Fuchs then arrived at the Pole from the opposite direction later in January, meeting Hillary. Fuchs continued on, making use of the provisions that Hillary had stored, and on 2 March succeeded in reaching Scott Base, completing the overland transpolar crossing that Shackleton had envisaged. The 1957–58 Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition (CTAE) was an expedition funded by the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australian and South African governments, as well as private and corporate donations, under the patronage of Queen Elizabeth II. Its primary objective was to complete the first overland crossing of Antarctica, via... USN redirects here. ... The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is a U.S. research station at the South Pole, in Antarctica. ... The International Geophysical Year or IGY was an international scientific effort that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958. ... Sir Edmund Percival Hillary, KG, ONZ, KBE (20 July 1919 â€“ 11 January 2008) was a New Zealand mountaineer and explorer. ... The 1957–58 Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition (CTAE) was an expedition funded by the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australian and South African governments, as well as private and corporate donations, under the patronage of Queen Elizabeth II. Its primary objective was to complete the first overland crossing of Antarctica, via... Sir Vivian Ernest Fuchs (February 11, 1908 – November 11, 1999) was a British explorer. ... Sir Edmund Percival Hillary, KG, ONZ, KBE (20 July 1919 â€“ 11 January 2008) was a New Zealand mountaineer and explorer. ... The 1957–58 Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition (CTAE) was an expedition funded by the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australian and South African governments, as well as private and corporate donations, under the patronage of Queen Elizabeth II. Its primary objective was to complete the first overland crossing of Antarctica, via... Sir Vivian Ernest Fuchs (February 11, 1908 – November 11, 1999) was a British explorer. ... Aerial photograph of Scott Base, Ross Island, Antarctica. ...


Recent history

MS Explorer in Antarctica in January, 1999. She sank on 23 November 2007 after hitting an iceberg.

The Antarctic Treaty was signed on 1 December 1959 and came into force on 23 June 1961. Among other provisions, this treaty limits military activity in the Antarctic to the support of scientific research. For other uses, see Iceberg (disambiguation). ... For the Antarctic Treaty from the Gundam anime, see Antarctic Treaty (Gundam) The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate the international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only uninhabited continent. ... A United States Navy LC-130 Hercules near the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in 1996 An Indian Navy team after sky-diving in Antartica. ...


A baby, named Emilio Marcos de Palma, was born near Hope Bay on 7 January 1978, becoming the first baby born on the continent. He also was born farther south than anyone in history. [17] Emilio Marcos Palma (born January 7, 1978) is the first person known to have been born on the continent of Antarctica. ... Hope Bay (63º23´S 057º00´W) is 5 km (3 mi) long and 3 km (2 mi) wide, indenting the tip of Antarctic Peninsula and opening on Antarctic Sound. ...


On 28 November 1979, an Air New Zealand DC-10 on a sightseeing trip crashed into Mount Erebus on Ross Island, killing all 257 people on board. Boeing 747-400 Boeing 747-400 Boeing 767-300 landing Air New Zealand Limited (ASX:, NZX: AIR, Air New Zealand) is a scheduled passenger airline based in Auckland, New Zealand, and the national flag carrier. ... Biman Bangladesh Airlines McDonnell Douglas DC-10 The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engined long-range airliner, with two engines mounted on underwing pylons and a third engine at the base of the vertical stabilizer. ... Air New Zealand Flight 901 (TE901) was a scheduled Antarctic sightseeing flight from Auckland International Airport in New Zealand. ... Mount Erebus in Antarctica is the southernmost active volcano on Earth. ... Map of Ross Island orthographic projection centred over Ross Island Ross Island is an island formed by three volcanoes in the Ross Sea by Antarctica, off the coast of Victoria Land in McMurdo Sound at . ...


Børge Ousland, a Norwegian explorer, finished the first unassisted Antarctic solo crossing on January 18, 1997. Hailing from Norway, Børge Ousland made the first unassisted Antarctic solo crossing, finishing on January 18, 1997. ...


On 23 November 2007, the MS Explorer struck an iceberg and sunk, but all on board were rescued by nearby ships (including a passing Norwegian cruise ship, the MS Nordnorge. A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. ...


See also

Livingston Island (62°36′ S 060°30′ W) is 61 km (38 mi) long and from 3 to 32 km (2 to 20 mi) wide, lying between Greenwich and Snow Islands in the South Shetland Islands. ... Nations with bases in Antarctica as of October 2006 A number of governments maintain permanent research stations throughout Antarctica. ... The Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration (1895-1922) is the period of time at the beginning of the 20th century when brave men set out to face the frozen Antarctic wilderness in search of fame and glory for their achievements and discoveries. ... XVII-XIX Century The South Atlantic island of South Georgia, situated south of the Antarctic Convergence, was the first Antarctic territory ever discovered. ...

References

  1. ^ Dalrymple, Alexander. (1771). A Collection of Voyages Made to the Ocean Between Cape Horn and Cape of Good Hope. Two volumes. London.
  2. ^ Headland, Robert K. (1984). The Island of South Georgia, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 25274 1
  3. ^ Cook, James. (1777). A Voyage Towards the South Pole, and Round the World. Performed in His Majesty's Ships the Resolution and Adventure, In the Years 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775. In which is included, Captain Furneaux's Narrative of his Proceedings in the Adventure during the Separation of the Ships. Volume II. London: Printed for W. Strahan and T. Cadell. (Relevant fragment)
  4. ^ a b This article incorporates text from the article "Polar Regions" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  5. ^ U.S. Antarctic Program External Panel. "Antarctica —past and present". NSF. http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1997/antpanel/antpan05.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-11-14. 
  6. ^ Guy G. Guthridge. "Nathaniel Brown Palmer". NASA. http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/antarctica/background/NSF/palmer.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-14. 
  7. ^ http://arcane.ucsd.edu/pstat.html
  8. ^ R.K. Headland. "Summary of the Peri-Antarctic Islands". Scott Polar Research Institute. http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/resources/infosheets/19.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-14. 
  9. ^ a b c d "ANTARCTIC EXPLORATION—CHRONOLOGY". Quark Expeditions. 2004. http://www.quarkexpeditions.com/antarctica/exploration.shtml. Retrieved on 2006-10-20. 
  10. ^ Antarctic Circle—Antarctic First
  11. ^ "Carsten Borchgrevink:1864-1934". http://www.south-pole.com/p0000087.htm. Retrieved on 2006-10-20. 
  12. ^ "William S. Bruce". South-Pole.com. http://www.south-pole.com/p0000093.htm. Retrieved on 2007-11-14. 
  13. ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,923941,00.html
  14. ^ http://traverse.npolar.no/historical-traverses/historic-names
  15. ^ Navy Military History
  16. ^ http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Ronne-Fi.html
  17. ^ antarctica.org—Science: in force...

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... NSF is an abbreviation. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ...

Further reading

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...

External links

Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
ANTARCTICA, (3131 words)
The two areas of Antarctica are separated by the Transantarctic Mts., an uplift zone of mountains that extends across the entire continent, although portions are buried under the ice cover.
Antarctica can be classified as a true desert; in the interior the average annual precipitation (in water) is only about 50 mm (about 2 in).
Antarctica was not discovered until the early 19th century, largely because of its remoteness from the other continents.
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