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Encyclopedia > History
Historia (Allegory of History).
By Nikolaos Gysis (1892).
The Historian
By E. Irving Couse (1902).

History is the study of the past, with special attention to the written record of the activities of human beings over time. Scholars who write about history are called historians. It is a field of research which uses a narrative to examine and analyse the sequence of events, and it often attempts to investigate objectively the patterns of cause and effect that determine events.[1][2] Historians debate the nature of history and the lessons history teaches.[1][3][4] A famous quote by George Santayana has it that "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it."[5] The stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the legends surrounding King Arthur) are usually classified as cultural heritage rather than the "disinterested investigation" needed by the discipline of history.[6][7] For the history of Earth which includes the time before human existence, see History of the Earth. ... History is a term for information about the past. ... Nikolaos Gyzis Nicholaos Gysis (Greek: Νικόλαος Γύζης, (pronounced ; - ) is considered one of Greeces most important nineteenth century painters and is most famous for his work Eros and the Painter, his first genre painting which was auctioned in May 2006 at Bonhams in London, being last exhibited in Greece in 1928. ... Eanger Irving Couse (1866-1936) was an artist who was one of the founding members of the Taos Society of Artists and part of the Taos art colony in Taos, New Mexico. ... The past is the portion of the timeline that has already occurred; it is the opposite of the future. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... A narrative is a construct created in a suitable medium (speech, writing, images) that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. ... Objectivity has several meanings: Objectivity (philosophy) Objectivity (journalism) Categories: Disambiguation ... Causality or causation denotes the relationship between one event (called cause) and another event (called effect) which is the consequence (result) of the first. ... George Santayana George Santayana (December 16, 1863, Madrid – September 26, 1952, Rome), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... Cultural heritage (national heritage or just heritage) is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word history comes from Greek ἱστορία (historia), from the Proto-Indo-European *wid-tor-, from the root *weid-, "to know, to see".[8] This root is also present in the English words wit, wise, wisdom, vision, and idea, in the Sanskrit word veda,[9] and in the Slavic word videti and vedati, as well as others.[10] (The asterisk before a word indicates that it is a hypothetical construction, not an attested form.) The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) comprise the languages of the Slavic peoples. ...

History
Frederick Dielman (1896).

The Ancient Greek word ἱστορία, historía, means "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation". It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his Περί Τά Ζωα Ιστορία, Peri Ta Zoa Istória or, in Latinized form, Historia Animalium.[11] The term is derived from ἵστωρ, hístōr meaning wise man, witness, or judge. We can see early attestations of ἵστωρ in Homeric Hymns, Heraclitus, the Athenian ephebes' oath, and in Boiotic inscriptions (in a legal sense, either "judge" or "witness", or similar). The spirant is problematic, and not present in cognate Greek eídomai ("to appear"). The form historeîn, "to inquire", is an Ionic derivation, which spread first in Classical Greece and ultimately over all of Hellenistic civilization. History (1896). ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... History of Animals (or Historia Animalium, or On the History of Animals) is a text by Aristotle. ... Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: Ομηρικοί Ύμνοι The thirty-three anonymous Homeric Hymns celebrating individual gods are a collection of ancient Greek hymns, Homeric in the sense that they employ the same epic meter— dactylic hexameter— as the Iliad and Odyssey, use many similar formulas and are couched... For other persons of the same name, see Heracleitus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... EPHEBE is either the anglicisized form (via the French Éphèbe) of the Greek word Ephebos a location of Discworld ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... Distribution of Greek dialects, ca. ... Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ... The major Hellenistic realms included the Diadoch kingdoms:  Kingdom of Ptolemy I Soter  Kingdom of Cassander  Kingdom of Lysimachus  Kingdom of Seleucus I Nicator  Epirus Also shown on the map:  Greek colonies  Carthage (non-Greek)  Rome (non-Greek) The orange areas were often in dispute after 281 BC. The kingdom...


It was still in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about "Natural History". For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory (while science was provided by reason, and poetry was provided by fantasy). For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... This article is about the art form. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ...


The word entered the English language in 1390 with the meaning of "relation of incidents, story". In Middle English, the meaning was "story" in general. The restriction to the meaning "record of past events" arises in the late 15th century. In German, French, and most Germanic and Romance languages, the same word is still used to mean both "history" and "story". The adjective historical is attested from 1661, and historic from 1669.[12] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the...


Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" is attested from 1531. In all European languages, the substantive "history" is still used to mean both "what happened with men", and "the scholarly study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished with a capital letter, "History", or the word historiography.[11] European languages are the object of Eurolinguistics. ... Historiography is the aspect of history, and of semiotics, that is the study of how knowledge of the past, recent or distant, is obtained and transmitted; simply put, historiography is the history of history. ...


Description

Since historians are observers and participants, the works they produce are written from the perspective of their own time and sometimes with due concern for possible lessons for their own future. In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All history is contemporary history". History is facilitated by the formation of a 'true discourse of past' through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating to the human race.[12] The modern discipline of history is dedicated to the institutional production of this discourse. Title page. ... Benedetto Croce (February 25, 1866 - November 20, 1952) was an Italian critic, idealist philosopher, and politician. ...


All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record.[13] The task of historical discourse is to identify the sources which can most usefully contribute to the production of accurate accounts of past. Therefore, the constitution of the historian's archive is a result of circumscribing a more general archive by invalidating the usage of certain texts and documents (by falsifying their claims to represent the 'true past').


The study of history has sometimes been classified as part of the humanities and other times as part of the social sciences.[14] It can also be seen as a bridge between those two broad areas, incorporating methodologies from both. Some individual historians strongly support one or the other classification.[15] In modern academia, history is increasingly classified as a social science. In the 20th century, French historian Fernand Braudel revolutionized the study of history, by using such outside disciplines as economics, anthropology, and geography in the study of global history. For other uses, see Humanities (disambiguation). ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... This article is about the social science. ...


Traditionally, historians have recorded events of the past, either in writing or by passing on an oral tradition, and have attempted to answer historical questions through the study of written documents and oral accounts. For the beginning, historians have also used such sources as monuments, inscriptions, and pictures. In general, the sources of historical knowledge can be separated into three categories: what is written, what is said, and what is physically preserved, and historians often consult all three.[16] But writing is the marker that separates history from what comes before.


Archaeology is a discipline that is especially helpful in dealing with buried sites and objects, which, once unearthed, contribute to the study of history. But archaeology rarely stands alone. It uses narrative sources to complement its discoveries. However, archaeology is constituted by a range of methodologies and approaches which are independent from history; that is to say, archaeology does not "fill the gaps" within textual sources. Indeed, Historical Archaeology is a specific branch of archaeology, often contrasting its conclusions against those of contemporary textual sources. Mark Leone, the excavator and interpreter of historical Annapolis in New Jersey (a town on east coast), has sought to understand the contradiction between textual documents and the material record, demonstrating the possession of slaves and the inequalities of wealth apparent via the study of the total historical environment, despite the ideology of "liberty" inherent in written documents at this time. The 2000-year-old remains of Ancient Rome, Italy, are being excavated and mapped by these archaeologists Roman theater, Alexandria, Egypt Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek: αρχαίος, archaios, combining form in Latin archae-, ancient; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the science that studies human cultures through the recovery, documentation, analysis...


There are varieties of ways in which history can be organized, including chronologically, culturally, territorially, and thematically. These divisions are not mutually exclusive, and significant overlaps are often present, as in "The International Women's Movement in an Age of Transition, 1830–1975." It is possible for historians to concern themselves with both the very specific and the very general, although the modern trend has been toward specialization. The area called Big History resists this specialization, and searches for universal patterns or trends. History has often been studied with some practical or theoretical aim, but also may be sang out of simple intellectual curiosity.[17] For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Big History is a discreet field of historical study that arose in the late 1980s. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ...


History and prehistory

Human history
before Homo (Pliocene)
Three-age system prehistory
>> Lower Paleolithic: Homo, Homo erectus,
>> Middle Paleolithic: early Homo sapiens
>> Upper Paleolithic: behavioral modernity
>> Neolithic: civilization
>> Near East | IndiaEuropeChinaKorea
>> Bronze Age collapseAncient Near EastIndiaEuropeChinaJapanKoreaNigeria
History
see also: Modernity, Futurology
Future

The history of the world is the memory of the past experience of Homo sapiens around the world, as that experience has been preserved, largely in written records. By "prehistory", historians mean the recovery of knowledge of the past in an area where no written records exist, or where the writing of a culture is not understood. Human history is marked both by a gradual accretion of discoveries and inventions, as well as by quantum leapsparadigm shifts, revolutions — that comprise epochs in the material and spiritual evolution of humankind. By studying painting, drawings, carvings, and other artifacts, some information can be recovered even in the absence of a written record. Since the 20th century, the study of prehistory is considered essential to avoid history's implicit exclusion of certain civilizations, such as those of Sub-Saharan Africa and pre-Columbian America. Historians in the West have been criticized for focusing disproportionately on the Western world.[18] In 1961, British historian E. H. Carr wrote: For the history of Earth which includes the time before human existence, see History of the Earth. ... Hominina is a subtribe that inludes Homo sapiens, Australopithecus, as well as prehistoric humans. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The three-age system is a system of classifying human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age The system is most apt in describing the progression of European society, although it has been used... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. ... For other uses, see Homo. ... For the 2007 comedy film, see Homo Erectus (film). ... The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... The term Archaic Homo sapiens refers generally to the earliest members of the species Homo sapiens, which consisted of the Neanderthals of Europe and the Middle East, the Neanderthal-like hominids of Africa and Asia, and the immediate ancestors of all these hominids. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... Behavioral modernity is a term used in anthropology and archeology to refer to an important milestone in the evolution of humans. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... This article is about society beginnings. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Overview map of the ancient Near East The terms ancient Near East or ancient Orient encompass the early civilizations predating classical antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria), during the time roughly spanning... A simplified map archaeological cultures of the late Bronze Age (c. ... For other uses, see Bronze Age (disambiguation). ... Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland In archaeology, the Iron Age is the stage in the development of any people where the use of iron implements as tools and weapons is preeminent. ... The Bronze Age collapse is the name of the Dark Age period of history of the Ancient Middle East extending between the collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, and the Egyptian Empire in Syria and Palestine between 1206 and 1150 BC, down to the... Overview map of the ancient Near East The terms ancient Near East or ancient Orient encompass the early civilizations predating classical antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria), during the time roughly spanning... In archaeology, the Iron Age was the stage in the development of any people in which tools and weapons whose main ingredient was iron were prominent. ... In archaeology, the Iron Age was the stage in the development of any people in which tools and weapons whose main ingredient was iron were prominent. ... This article is about the ancient Korean state. ... NOK redirects here. ... Writing systems evolved in the Early Bronze Age (late 4th millennium BC) out of neolithic proto-writing. ... Ancient redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the post Late Middle Ages period in Western Europe (Early modern Europe), its first colonies marked by the rise of strong centralized governments and the beginnings of recognizable nation states that are the direct antecedents... Modern history describes the history of the Modern Times, the era after the Middle Ages. ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ... Futurology is the detailed critical inspection and reasoning of the state in which things will develop in the future on the basis of existing circumstances in history. ... For other uses, see Future (disambiguation). ... Protohistory refers to a period between prehistory and history, during which a culture or civilization has not yet developed writing, but other cultures have already noted its existence in their own writings. ... For the history of Earth which includes the time before human existence, see History of the Earth. ... Homo sapiens redirects here. ... History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ... This article presents a list of discoveries and includes famous observations. ... The timeline of historic inventions is a chronological list of particularly important or significant technological inventions. ... Quantum Leap is a science fiction television series that ran for 97 episodes from March 1989 to May 1993 on NBC. It follows the adventures of Dr. Samuel Beckett (played by Scott Bakula), a brilliant scientist who after researching time-travel, and doing experiments in something he calls The Imaging... Paradigm shift is the term first used by Thomas Kuhn in his 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions to describe a change in basic assumptions within the ruling theory of science. ... -1... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... Occident redirects here. ... Edward Hallett Carr (28 June 1892 – 5 November 1982) was a British historian, journalist and international relations theorist, and fierce opponent of empiricism within historiography. ...

The line of demarcation between prehistoric and historical times is crossed when people cease to live only in the present, and become consciously interested both in their past and in their future. History begins with the handing down of tradition; and tradition means the carrying of the habits and lessons of the past into the future. Records of the past begin to be kept for the benefit of future generations.[19]

Such a definition would include within the scope of history peoples such as Australian Aboriginals and New Zealand Maori who, before contact with Europeans, already possessed a strong interest in the past and maintained oral records transmitted to succeeding generations. Aboriginal Flag Indigenous Australians are the people who lived in the Australia and its nearby islands before the arrival of European settlers in 1788, and who continue to live there as minority peoples. ... Te Puni, Māori Chief Māori is the name of the indigenous people of New Zealand, and their language. ...


Historiography

Historiography has a number of related meanings. Firstly, it can refer to how history has been produced: the story of the development of methodology and practices (for example, the move from short-term biographical narrative towards long-term thematic analysis). Secondly, it can refer to what has been produced: a specific body of historical writing (for example, "medieval historiography during the 1960s" means "Works of medieval history written during the 1960s"). Thirdly, it may refer to why history is produced: the Philosophy of history. As a meta-level analysis of descriptions of the past, this third conception can relate to the first two in that the analysis usually focuses on the narratives, interpretations, worldview, use of evidence, or method of presentation of other historians. Professional historians also debate the question of whether history can be taught as a single coherent narrative or a series of competing narratives. Historiography is the aspect of history, and of semiotics, that is the study of how knowledge of the past, recent or distant, is obtained and transmitted; simply put, historiography is the history of history. ... The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ... Philosophy of history or historiosophy is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... In epistemology the prefix meta- is used to mean about. ... A narrative is a construct created in a suitable medium (speech, writing, images) that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. ... Interpretation, or interpreting, is an activity that consists of establishing, either simultaneously or consecutively, oral or gestural communications between two or more speakers who are not speaking (or signing) the same language. ... This article is about the radio show. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ...


Philosophy of history

History's philosophical questions
  • What is the proper unit for the study of the human past — the individual? The polis? The civilization? The culture? Or the nation state?
  • Are there broad patterns and progress? Are there cycles? Is human history random and devoid of any meaning?

Philosophy of history is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. Furthermore, it speculates as to a possible teleological end to its development—that is, it asks if there is a design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in the processes of human history. Philosophy of history should not be confused with historiography, which is the study of history as an academic discipline, and thus concerns its methods and practices, and its development as a discipline over time. Nor should philosophy of history be confused with the history of philosophy, which is the study of the development of philosophical ideas through time. Philosophy of history or historiosophy is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... Philosophy of history or historiosophy is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ... Teleology (Greek: telos: end, purpose) is the philosophical study of design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in nature or human creations. ... The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. ...


Professional historians debate the question of whether history is a science or a liberal art. The distinction is artificial, as many view the field from more than one perspective.[20] Recent argument in support for the transformation of history into science have been made by Peter Turchin in an article titled "Arise Cliodynamics" in the journal "Nature".[21][22] Peter Turchin, is a world known specialist in population dynamics and mathematical modeling of historical dynamics. ... Cliodynamics (from Clio, the muse of history, and dynamics, the study of temporally varying processes) is a new multidisciplinary area of research focused at mathematical modeling of historical dynamics. ...


Historical methods

A depiction of the ancient Library of Alexandria
Historical method basics

The following questions are used by historians in modern work. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ... Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ...

  1. When was the source, written or unwritten, produced (date)?
  2. Where was it produced (localization)?
  3. By whom was it produced (authorship)?
  4. From what pre-existing material was it produced (analysis)?
  5. In what original form was it produced (integrity)?
  6. What is the evidential value of its contents (credibility)?

The first four are known as higher criticism; the fifth, lower criticism; and, together, external criticism. The sixth and final inquiry about a source is called internal criticism. A date in a calendar is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system. ... Internationalization redirects here. ... Authorship is the act of creating a work, idea or theory. ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ... This article is about the ethical concept. ... “Cred” redirects here. ... Historical criticism or higher criticism is a branch of literary analysis that investigates the origins of a text: as applied in biblical studies it investigates the books of the Bible and compares them to other texts written at the same time, before, or recently after the text in question. ... Lower Criticism is a method for studying ancient texts. ...

The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... In historical scholarship, a primary source is a document, or other source of information that was created at or near the time being studied, by an authoritative source, usually one with direct personal knowledge of the events being described. ... Historiography is the aspect of history, and of semiotics, that is the study of how knowledge of the past, recent or distant, is obtained and transmitted; simply put, historiography is the history of history. ...


Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484 BC – ca.425 BC)[23] has generally been acclaimed as the "father of history". However, his contemporary Thucydides (ca. 460 BC – ca. 400 BC) is credited with having first approached history with a well-developed historical method in his work the History of the Peloponnesian War. Thucydides, unlike Herodotus and other religious historians, regarded history as being the product of the choices and actions of human beings, and looked at cause and effect, rather than as the result of divine intervention.[23] In his historical method, Thucydides emphasized chronology, a neutral point of view, and that the human world was the result of the actions of human beings. Greek historians also viewed history as cyclical, with events regularly recurring.[24] Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Halicarnassus (Ancient Greek: ; Turkish: , modern Bodrum) was an ancient Greek city on the southwest coast of Caria, Anatolia (Asia Minor), on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf (Gulf of Kos, Gulf of Gökova). ... For other uses, see Thucydides (disambiguation). ... Tenth-century minuscule Manuscript of Thucydidess History The History of the Peloponnesian War is an account of the Peloponnesian War in Ancient Greece, fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens). ... A cycle is anything round, in the physical sense (e. ...


There were historical traditions and sophisticated use of historical method in ancient and medieval China. The groundwork for professional historiography in East Asia was established by the Han Dynasty court historian known as Sima Qian (145–90 BC), author of the Shiji (Records of the Grand Historian). For the quality of his timeless written work, Sima Qian is posthumously known as the Father of Chinese Historiography. Chinese historians of subsequent dynastic periods in China used his Shiji as the official format for historical texts, as well as for biographical literature. This article is about the geographical region. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China (Chinese: 史記; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shih-chi; literally Historical Records), written from 109 BCE to 91 BCE, was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical... Chinese historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. ... The Twenty-Four Histories is a collection of historical books covering a period of history from 3000 B.C. to the Ming Dynasty in the 17th century. ...


Saint Augustine was influential in Christian and Western thought at the beginning of the medieval period. Through the Medieval and Renaissance periods, history was often studied through a sacred or religious perspective. Around 1800, German philosopher and historian Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel brought philosophy and a more secular approach in historical study.[17] Augustinus redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... The term Western thought is usually associated with the cultural tradition that traces its origins to Greek thought and Jewish and Christian religion (See also Western culture). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... A sacred history is a retelling of history, in either a literary or oral format, with less emphasis on historical fact and more upon instilling faith, defining a group of believers, and/or explaining natural phenomenon. ... Hegel redirects here. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ...


In the preface to his book, the Muqaddimah (1377), the Arab historian and early sociologist, Ibn Khaldun, warned of seven mistakes that he thought that historians regularly committed. In this criticism, he approached the past as strange and in need of interpretation. The originality of Ibn Khaldun was to claim that the cultural difference of another age must govern the evaluation of relevant historical material, to distinguish the principles according to which it might be possible to attempt the evaluation, and lastly, to feel the need for experience, in addition to rational principles, in order to assess a culture of the past. Ibn Khaldun often criticized "idle superstition and uncritical acceptance of historical data." As a result, he introduced a scientific method to the study of history, and he often referred to it as his "new science".[25] His historical method included role of state, communication, propaganda and systematic bias in history,[26] However Ibn Khaldun had no followers and established no school; his work was unknown in the west until the 19th century and had no influence there.[27][28][29] The Muqaddimah, or the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (Arabic: مقدّمة ابن خلدون), records an early Muslim view of universal history. Many modern thinkers view it as one of the first works of sociology. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Medieval Islamic sociology refers to the study of sociology and the social sciences in the medieval Islamic world. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ... For other uses, see Superstition (disambiguation). ... -1... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... For other uses, see Communication (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... A systemic bias is a bias which is endemic in a system – especially a human system – making it tend to err consistently in a certain direction. ...


In the West historians developed modern methods of historiography in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially in France and Germany. The 19th century historian with greatest influence on methods was Leopold von Ranke in Germany. Leopold Von Ranke in 1877. ...


In the 20th century, academic historians focused less on epic nationalistic narratives, which often tended to glorify the nation or individuals, to more objective and complex analyses of social and intellectual forces. A major trend of historical methodology in the 20th century was a tendency to treat history more as a social science rather than as an art, which traditionally had been the case. Some of the leading advocates of history as a social science were a diverse collection of scholars which included Fernand Braudel, E. H. Carr, Fritz Fischer, Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Hans-Ulrich Wehler, Bruce Trigger, Marc Bloch, Karl Dietrich Bracher, Peter Gay, Robert Fogel, Lucien Febvre and Lawrence Stone. Many of the advocates of history as a social science were or are noted for their multi-disciplinary approach. Braudel combined history with geography, Bracher history with political science, Fogel history with economics, Gay history with psychology, Trigger history with archeology while Wehler, Bloch, Fischer, Stone, Febvre and Le Roy Ladurie have in varying and differing ways amalgamated history with sociology, geography, anthropology, and economics. More recently, the field of digital history has begun to address ways of using computer technology to pose new questions to historical data and generate digital scholarship. The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ... Edward Hallett Carr (28 June 1892 – 5 November 1982) was a British historian, journalist and international relations theorist, and fierce opponent of empiricism within historiography. ... This article is about the German historian. ... Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie (born 1929) is a noted French historian whose work is mainly focused upon Languedoc in the ancien regime, focusing on the history of the peasantry. ... Hans-Ulrich Wehler (September 11, 1931-) is a well-known left-wing German historian. ... Bruce Graham Trigger (June 18, 1937–December 1, 2006) was a Canadian archaeologist. ... Marc Léopold Benjamin Bloch (July 6, 1886 – June 16, 1944) was a French historian of medieval France in the period between the First and Second World Wars, and a founder of the Annales School. ... Karl Dietrich Bracher (born 13 March 1922) is a German political scientist and historian of the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. ... Peter Gay (June 20, 1923-), a Jewish American historian of the social history of ideas, born in Berlin as Peter Joachim Fröhlich . ... Robert William Fogel (born July 1, 1926) is an American economic historian and scientist, and winner (with Douglass North) of the 1993 Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. ... Lucien Febvre (July 22, 1878, Nancy - Saint-Amour, Jura, September 11, 1956) was a French historian best known for the role he played in establishing the Annales School of history. ... Lawrence Stone (December 4, 1919-June 16, 1999) was an English historian of early modern Britain. ... Digital history is the use of digital media and tools for historical practice, presentation, analysis, and research. ...


In opposition to the claims of history as a social science, historians such as Hugh Trevor-Roper, John Lukacs, Donald Creighton, Gertrude Himmelfarb and Gerhard Ritter argued that the key to the historians' work was the power of the imagination, and hence contended that history should be understood as an art. French historians associated with the Annales School introduced quantitative history, using raw data to track the lives of typical individuals, and were prominent in the establishment of cultural history (cf. histoire des mentalités). Intellectual historians such as Herbert Butterfield, Ernst Nolte and George Mosse have argued for the significance of ideas in history. American historians, motivated by the civil rights era, focused on formerly overlooked ethnic, racial, and socio-economic groups. Another genre of social history to emerge in the post-WWII era was Alltagsgeschichte (History of Everyday Life). Scholars such as Martin Broszat, Ian Kershaw and Detlev Peukert sought to examine what everyday life was like for ordinary people in 20th century Germany, especially in the Nazi period. Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton (January 15, 1914 – January 26, 2003) was a notable historian of Early Modern Britain and Nazi Germany. ... John Lukacs (born 31 January 1924 in Budapest his name spelled Lukács) is a Hungarian-born historian who has written more than twenty-five books, including Five Days in London, May 1940 and The New Republic. ... Donald Grant Creighton, CC, MA, BA (July 15, 1902 – December 19, 1979) was a noted Canadian historian. ... Gertrude Himmelfarb (born August 8, 1922) is an American historian known for her studies of the intellectual history of the Victorian era, particularly of Social Darwinism; and as a conservative cultural critic. ... Gerhard Albert Ritter (April 6, 1888-July 1, 1967) was a well-known German conservative historian. ... For other uses, see Imagination (disambiguation). ... The Annales School (Annales is pronounced // in French) is a school of historical writing named after the French scholarly journal Annales dhistoire économique et sociale (later called , then renamed in 1994 as ) where it was first expounded. ... Cultural history (from the German term Kulturgeschichte), at least in its common definition since the 1970s, often combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience. ... The term history of mentalities is a calque on the French histoire des mentalités (which might also be translated as history of attitudes, history of world-views), a historical movement whose origins are associated with the Annales School. ... Herbert Butterfield (October 7, 1900-July 20, 1979) was a British historian and philosopher of history (see philosophy of history) who is remembered chiefly for a slim volume entitled The Whig Interpretation of History 1931. ... Ernst Nolte (born 11 January 1923, Witten, Germany) is a nationalistic German historian and philosopher, often described as one of the most brooding, German thinkers about history[1]. Nolte’s major interest is the comparative studies of fascism and Communism. ... George Lachmann Mosse (September 20, 1918, Berlin, Germany-January 22, 1999, Madison, United States) was a German-born American left-wing Jewish gay historian of fascism in general and Nazi Germany in particular. ... Å…Social history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing social trends. ... Alltagsgeschichte is a form of Microhistory practised in particular by German historians during the 1980s. ... Martin Broszat (August 14, 1926 – October 14, 1989) was a left-wing West German historian. ... Professor Sir Ian Kershaw (born April 29, 1943 in Oldham, Lancashire, England) is a British historian, noted for his biographies of Adolf Hitler. ... Detlev Peukert (1950-1990) was a communist German historian, noted for his studies of the relationship between what he called the spirit of science and the Holocaust and in social history. ... National Socialism redirects here. ...


Marxist historians such as Eric Hobsbawm, E. P. Thompson, Rodney Hilton, Georges Lefebvre, Eugene D. Genovese, Isaac Deutscher, C. L. R. James, Timothy Mason, Herbert Aptheker, Arno J. Mayer and Christopher Hill have sought to validate Karl Marx's theories by analyzing history from a Marxist perspective. In response to the Marxist interpretation of history, historians such as François Furet, Richard Pipes, J. C. D. Clark, Roland Mousnier, Henry Ashby Turner and Robert Conquest have offered anti-Marxist interpretations of history. Feminist historians such as Joan Wallach Scott, Claudia Koonz, Natalie Zemon Davis, Sheila Rowbotham, Gisela Bock, Gerda Lerner, Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, and Lynn Hunt have argued for the importance of studying the experience of women in the past. In recent years, postmodernists have challenged the validity and need for the study of history on the basis that all history is based on the personal interpretation of sources. In his 1997 book In Defence of History, Richard J. Evans, a professor of modern history at Cambridge University, defended the worth of history. Another defence of history from post-modernist criticism was the Australian historian Keith Windschuttle's 1994 book, The Killing of History. Marxist or historical materialist historiography is an influential school of historiography. ... Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm CH (born June 9, 1917) is a British Marxist historian and author. ... Edward Palmer Thompson (February 3, 1924 - August 28, 1993), was an English historian, socialist and peace campaigner. ... Rodney Hilton was an English Marxist historian of the late medieval period. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Eugene Dominic Genovese (born May 19, 1930) was formerly a Marxist historian of the American South. ... Isaac Deutscher (3 April 1907 – 19 August 1967), British journalist, historian and political activist of Polish-Jewish birth, became well-known as the biographer of Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin and as a commentator on Soviet affairs. ... Cyril Lionel Robert James (4 January 1901–19 May 1989) was an Anglo-Trinidadian journalist, socialist theorist and writer. ... Timothy Wright Mason (March 2, 1940–March 5, 1990) was a British Marxist historian of Nazi Germany. ... Herbert Aptheker (, 1915 – , 2003) was an internationally known American Marxist historian and political activist. ... Arno Joseph Mayer (June 19, 1926 -) is Luxembourg-born American historian of modern Europe, diplomatic history, and the Holocaust. ... John Edward Christopher Hill (February 6, 1912 - February 23, 2003) was an English Marxist historian and the author of many history textbooks. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... François Furet (27 March 1927 – 12 July 1997) was an influential French historian. ... Richard Pipes, Warsaw (Poland), October 20, 2004 Richard Edgar Pipes (b. ... Jonathan Charles Douglas Clark (born 28 February, 1951) is a British historian of British history and American history. ... Roland Émile Mousnier (September 7, 1907–February 9, 1993) was a French historian of the early modern period in France and of the comparative studies of different civilizations. ... Henry Ashby Turner, Jr. ... Dr. George Robert Ackworth Conquest (born July 15, 1917), British historian, became one of the best-known writers on the Soviet Union with the publication, in 1968, of his account of Stalins purges of the 1930s, The Great Terror. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Joan Wallach Scott is an American historian, with contributions in gender history and intellectual history. ... Claudia Ann Koonz is a American feminist historian of Nazi Germany. ... Natalie Zemon Davis (born November 8, 1928) is an Canadian and American historian of early modern Europe. ... Sheila Rowbotham (born in 1943 in Leeds, West Yorkshire) is an British socialist feminist theorist and writer. ... Gisela Bock (February 8, 1942-) is a German feminist historian. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Elizabeth Fox-Genovese (*1941) is a feminist american historian. ... Lynn Hunt is a renowned American historian and is the Eugen Weber Professor of Modern European History at the University of California, Los Angeles. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Po-mo[1]) is a term originating in architecture, literally after the modern, denoting a style that is more ornamental than modernism, and which borrows from previous architectural styles, often in a playful or ironic fashion. ... Professor Richard Evans (born 1947) is a British historian of Germany. ... Athletics: The Sporting Blue Affiliations: Russell Group Coimbra Group EUA LERU IARU Website: http://www. ... Keith Windschuttle (born 1942) is an Australian writer who is the author of several books, including Unemployment (1979) which analyses the economic causes and social consequences of unemployment in Australia, The Media: a New Analysis of the Press, Television, Radio and Advertising in Australia (1984) on the political economy and...


Areas of study

Particular studies and fields

These are approaches to history; not listed are histories of other fields, such as history of science, history of mathematics and history of philosophy. Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of scientific methods, which emphasize the observation, explanation, and adequate prediction of real world phenomena by experiment. ... Page from The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing by Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (c. ... The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. ...

  • Ancient history : the study from the beginning of human history until the Early Middle Ages.
  • Atlantic history: the study of the history of people living on or near the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Art History: the study of changes in and social context of art.
  • Big History: study of history on a large scale across long time frames and epochs through a multi-disciplinary approach.
  • Chronology: science of localizing historical events in time.
  • Comparative history: historical analysis of social and cultural entities not confined to national boundaries.
  • Contemporary history: the study of historical events that are immediately relevant to the present time.
  • Counterfactual history: the study of historical events as they might have happened in different causal circumstances.
  • Cultural history: the study of culture in the past.
  • Digital History: the use of computing technologies to produce digital scholarship.
  • Economic History: the study of economies in the past.
  • Futurology: study of the future: researches the medium to long-term future of societies and of the physical world.
  • Intellectual history: the study of ideas in the context of the cultures that produced them and their development over time.
  • Maritime history: the study of maritime transport and all the connected subjects.
  • Modern history : the study of the Modern Times, the era after the Middle Ages.
  • Military History: the study of warfare and wars in history and what is sometimes considered to be a sub-branch of military history, Naval History.
  • Natural history: the study of the development of the cosmos, the Earth, biology and interactions thereof.
  • Paleography: study of ancient texts.
  • People's history: historical work from the perspective of common people.
  • Political history: the study of politics in the past.
  • Psychohistory: study of the psychological motivations of historical events.
  • Pseudohistory: study about the past that falls outside the domain of mainstream history (sometimes it is an equivalent of pseudoscience).
  • Social History: the study of the process of social change throughout history.
  • Universal history: basic to the Western tradition of historiography.
  • Women's history: the history of female human beings. Gender history is related and covers the perspective of gender.
  • World History: the study of history from a global perspective.

Ancient redirects here. ... Atlantic history is a specialty field in history that studies of the Atlantic World in the early modern period. ... This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ... Big History is a discreet field of historical study that arose in the late 1980s. ... In chronology, an epoch (or epochal date, or epochal event) means an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular era. ... For the novel by Michael Crichton, see Timeline (novel). ... The chronological comparison or commentory between different societies at a given time is called comparative history. ... Contemporary history describes the term of historical events, that are immediately relevant to the present time. ... Counterfactual history, also sometimes referred to as virtual history, is a recent form of history which attempts to answer what if questions known as counterfactuals. ... Cultural history (from the German term Kulturgeschichte), at least in its common definition since the 1970s, often combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience. ... Digital history is the use of digital media and tools for historical practice, presentation, analysis, and research. ... Economic history is the study of how economic phenomena evolved in the past. ... Futurology is the detailed critical inspection and reasoning of the state in which things will develop in the future on the basis of existing circumstances in history. ... Intellectual history means either: the history of intellectuals, or: the history of the people who create, discuss, write about and in other ways propagate ideas. ... // Maritime history is a broad thematic element of history that often uses a global approach, although national and regional histories remain predominant. ... Modern history describes the history of the Modern Times, the era after the Middle Ages. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... This box:      A graphical timeline is available here: Graphical timeline of the Big Bang This timeline of the Big Bang describes the events according to the scientific theory of the Big Bang, using the cosmological time parameter of comoving coordinates. ... Geological time put in a diagram called a geological clock, showing the relative lengths of the eons of the Earths history. ... Life on Earth  â€¢  â€¢  | Axis scale: millions of years ago. ... Palaeography, literally old writing, (from the Greek words paleos = old and grapho = write) is the study of script. ... A peoples history is a type of historical work which tries to look at historical events from the perspective of the common people: the disenfranchized, oppressed, poor, non-conformist, or otherwise forgotten, as opposed to that of the power structure. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political history is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, and leaders. ... Psychohistory is the study of the psychological motivations of historical events. ... Pseudohistory is a pejorative term applied to texts which purport to be historical in nature but which depart from standard historiographical conventions in a way which undermines their conclusions. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... Å…Social history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing social trends. ... Universal history is basic to the Western tradition of historiography, especially the Judeo-Christian wellspring of that tradition. ... Womens history is a term that refers to information about the past in regard to the female human being. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... World History is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s. ...

Periods

Historical study often focuses on events and developments that occur in particular blocks of time. Historians give these periods of time names in order to allow "organising ideas and classificatory generalisations" to be used by historians.[30] The names given to a period can vary with geographical location, as can the dates of the start and end of a particular period. Centuries and decades are commonly used periods and the time they represent depends on the dating system used. Most periods are constructed retrospectively and so reflect value judgments made about the past. The way periods are constructed and the names given to them can affect the way they are viewed and studied.[31] Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide time into discrete named blocks. ... Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide time into discrete named blocks. ... These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. ... For other senses of this word, see decade (disambiguation). ... A calendar era is the year numbering system used by a calendar. ...


Geographical locations

Particular geographical locations can form the basis of historical study, for example, continents, countries and cities. Understanding why historic events took place is important. To do this, historians often turn to geography. Weather patterns, the water supply, and the landscape of a place all affect the lives of the people who live there. For example, to explain why the ancient Egyptians developed a successful civilization, you must look at the geography of Egypt. Egyptian civilization was built on the banks of the Nile River, which flooded each year, depositing soil on its banks. The rich soil could help farmers grow enough crops to feed the people in the cities. That meant everyone did not have to farm, so some people could perform other jobs that helped develop the civilization. Physical map of the Earth (Medium) (Large 2 MB) Geography is the scientific study of the locational and spatial variation in both physical and human phenomena on Earth. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... This article describes a type of political entity. ... A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ...


World

World history is the study of major civilizations over the last 3000 years or so. It has led to highly controversial interpretations by Oswald Spengler and Arnold J. Toynbee, among others. World history is especially important as a teaching field. It has increasingly entered the university curriculum in the U.S., in many cases replacing courses in Western Civilization, that had a focus on Europe and the U.S. World history adds extensive new material on Asia, Africa and Latin America. For the history of Earth which includes the time before human existence, see History of the Earth. ... Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (Blankenburg am Harz May 29, 1880 – May 8, 1936, Munich) was a German historian and philosopher, although his studies ranged throughout mathematics, science, philosophy, history, and art. ... This page is about the universal historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee; for the economic historian Arnold Toynbee see this article. ...


Regions

  • History of Africa begins with the first emergence of modern human beings on the continent, continuing into its modern present as a patchwork of diverse and politically developing nation states.
  • History of the Americas is the collective history of North and South America, including Central America and the Caribbean.
    • History of North America is the study of the past passed down from generation to generation on the continent in the Earth's northern and western hemisphere.
    • History of Central America is the study of the past passed down from generation to generation on the continent in the Earth's western hemisphere.
    • History of the Caribbean begins with the oldest evidence where 7,000-year-old remains have been found.
    • History of South America is the study of the past passed down from generation to generation on the continent in the Earth's southern and western hemisphere.
  • History of Antarctica emerges from early Western theories of a vast continent, known as Terra Australis, believed to exist in the far south of the globe.
  • History of Australia start with the documentation of the Makassar trading with Indigenous Australians on Australia's north coast.
  • History of New Zealand dates back at least 700 years to when it was discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed a distinct Māori culture centred on kinship links and land.
  • History of the Pacific Islands covers the history of the islands in the Pacific Ocean.
  • History of Eurasia is the collective history of several distinct peripheral coastal regions: the Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Europe, linked by the interior mass of the Eurasian steppe of Central Asia and Eastern Europe.
    • History of Europe describes the passage of time from humans inhabiting the European continent to the present day.
      • History of Frisia is the study of the rich history and folklore of the Frisians and their languages, battles, culture, cuisine, and so forth.
    • History of Asia can be seen as the collective history of several distinct peripheral coastal regions, East Asia, South Asia, and the Middle East linked by the interior mass of the Eurasian steppe.
      • History of East Asia is the study of the past passed down from generation to generation in East Asia.
      • History of the Middle East begins with the earliest civilizations in the region now known as the Middle East that were established around 3000 BC, in Mesopotamia (Iraq).
      • History of South Asia is the study of the past passed down from generation to generation in the Sub-Himalayan region.
      • History of Southeast Asia has been characterized as interaction between regional players and foreign powers.

The history of Africa begins with the first emergence of Homo sapiens in East Africa, continuing into its modern present as a patchwork of diverse and politically developing nation states. ... Non-Native American nations claims over North America, 1750-2008. ... The history of North America is the study of the past, particularly the written record, oral histories, and traditions, passed down from generation to generation on the continent in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Political Evolution of Central America and the Caribbean from 1700 to present The history of Central America is the study of the past of the region known as Central America. ... Political Evolution of Central America and the Caribbean from 1700 to present The history of the Caribbean reveals the significant role the region played in the colonial struggles of the European powers since the fifteenth century. ... European nations’ control over South America, 1700 to present The history of South America is the study of the past, particularly the written record, oral histories, and traditions, passed down from generation to generation on the continent in the Earths southern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... December 1911: Roald Amundsens Norwegian expedition becomes the first to reach the South Pole. ... The written history of Australia began when Dutch explorers first sighted the landmass in the 17th century. ... // The history of New Zealand dates back at least 700 years to when it was discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed a distinct Māori culture centred on kinship links and land. ... History of the Pacific Islands covers the history of the islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... By the time of the Roman Empire, the Silk Road was firmly established. ... The history of Europe describes the passage of time from humans inhabiting the European continent to the present day. ... Statue of Pier Gerlofs Donia, the Frisian folk hero and freedom fighter Frisia has changed dramatically over time, both through floods and through a change in identity. ... The Frisians are an ethnic group of northwestern Europe, inhabiting an area known as Frisia. ... The Silk Road connected many civilisations across Asia. ... // In East Asia, the Neolithic period may have begun as early as 7500 BC. The earliest evidence suggests the existence of the Pengtoushan culture in northern Hunan province from about 7500 BC to 6100 BC and of the Peiligang culture in Henan province around from about The Jeulmun pottery period... Further information: Timeline of Middle Eastern history Map of the Middle East. ... The term South Asia refers to the political entities of the Indian subcontinent and associated islands, that is the states of Pakistan, Republic of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and the island nations of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. ... Location of Southeast Asia. ...

Military history

Military history conflicts within human society usually concentrating on historical wars and warfare, including battles, military strategies and weaponry.[32] However, the subject may range from a melee between two tribes to conflicts between proper militaries to a world war affecting the majority of the human population. Military historians record the events of military history. Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... For other uses, see Conflict (disambiguation). ... For the Brian Yuzna film, see Society (film). ... -1... Look up warfare in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Battles is an American instrumental rock band. ... This article is about real and historical warfare. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... http://www. ... A world war is a war affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ... The current estimated world human population is 6,427,631,117. ...


Social history

Social history is the study of how societies adapt and change over periods of time. Social history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing social trends. In this view, it may include areas of economic history, legal history and the analysis of other aspects of civil society that show the evolution of social norms, behaviors and more. Å…Social history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing social trends. ... For a medical patients social history as recorded by a hospital admission note, see Social history (medicine). ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Economic history is the study of how economic phenomena evolved in the past. ... Legal history is a term that has at least two meanings. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ...


Cultural History

Cultural history replaced social history as the dominant form in the 1980s and 1990s. It typically combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at language, popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience. It examines the records and narrative descriptions of past knowledge, customs, and arts of a group of people. How peoples constructed their memory of the past is a major topic. Cultural history (from the German term Kulturgeschichte), at least in its common definition since the 1970s, often combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience. ... Å…Social history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing social trends. ...


Diplomatic history

Diplomatic history, sometimes referred to as "Rankian History"[33] in honor of Leopold von Ranke, focuses on politics, politicians and other high rulers and views them as being the driving force of continuity and change in history. This type of political history is the study of the conduct of international relations between states or across state boundaries over time. This is the most common form of history and is often the classical and popular belief of what history should be. Sometimes referred to as Rankian History, diplomatic history focuses on politics, politicians and other high rulers and views them as being the driving force of continuity and change in history. ... Sometimes referred to as Rankian History, diplomatic history focuses on politics, politicians and other high rulers and views them as being the driving force of continuity and change in history. ... Leopold Von Ranke in 1877. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ...


People's history

A people's history is a type of historical work which attempts to account for historical events from the perspective of common people. A people's history is the history of the world that is the story of mass movements and of the outsiders. Individuals not included in the past in other type of writing about history are part of this theory's primary focus, which includes the disenfranchised, the oppressed, the poor, the nonconformists, and the otherwise forgotten people. This theory also usually focuses on events occurring in the fullness of time, or when an overwhelming wave of smaller events cause certain developments to occur. A peoples history is a type of historical work which tries to look at historical events from the perspective of the common people: the disenfranchized, oppressed, poor, non-conformist, or otherwise forgotten, as opposed to that of the power structure. ... A peoples history is a type of historical work which tries to look at historical events from the perspective of the common people: the disenfranchized, oppressed, poor, non-conformist, or otherwise forgotten, as opposed to that of the power structure. ... Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Disfranchisement or disenfranchisement is the revocation of, or failure to grant, the right of suffrage (the right to vote) to a person or group of people. ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ... A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... Non conformism is the term of KKK ...


Gender history

Gender history is a sub-field of History and Gender studies, which looks at the past from the perspective of gender. It is in many ways, an outgrowth of women's history. Despite its relatively short life, Gender History (and its forerunner Women's History) has had a rather significant effect on the general study of history. Since the 1960s, when the initially small field first achieved a measure of acceptance, it has gone through a number of different phases, each with its own challenges and outcomes. Although some of the changes to the study of history have been quite obvious, such as increased numbers of books on famous women or simply the admission of greater numbers of women into the historical profession, other influences are more subtle. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gender studies is a field of interdisciplinary study which analyzes the phenomenon of gender. ... Gender symbols: female (left), male (right). ... Womens history is a term that refers to information about the past in regard to the female human being. ...


Pseudohistory

Pseudohistory is a term applied to texts which purport to be historical in nature but which depart from standard historiographical conventions in a way which undermines their conclusions. Works which draw controversial conclusions from new, speculative or disputed historical evidence, particularly in the fields of national, political, military and religious affairs, are often rejected as pseudohistory. Pseudohistory is a pejorative term applied to texts which purport to be historical in nature but which depart from standard historiographical conventions in a way which undermines their conclusions. ... Pseudohistory is a pejorative term applied to texts which purport to be historical in nature but which depart from standard historiographical conventions in a way which undermines their conclusions. ... The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ...


In many countries, such as Japan, Russia, and the United States, the subject taught in the primary and secondary schools under the name "history" has at times been censored for political reasons. To give just a few of many examples: in Japan, mention of the Nanking Massacre has been removed from textbooks; in Russia under Stalin, history was rewritten to conform with communist party doctrine; and in the United States the history of the American Civil War had been censored to avoid giving offense to white Southerners.[34][35][36] This practice goes back to the earliest recorded times. In Book Three of The Republic, Plato recommends that citizens be taught lies in order to instill patriotism.[37] A primary school in ÄŒeský Těšín, Czech Republic. ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... Rape of Nanking redirects here. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Plato. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ...

Historical revisionism is either the legitimate scholastic correction of existing knowledge about an historical event, or the illegitimate distortion of the historical record such that certain events appear in a more or less favourable light. ...

See also

History portal

Annals (Latin Annales, from annus, a year) are a concise form of historical writing which record events chronologically, year by year. ... Generally a chronicle (Latin chronica, from Greek Χρόνος) is historical account of facts and events in chronological order. ... Look up Experience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This article discusses the general concept of experience. ... This is a list of topics relating to history. ... A narrative is a construct created in a suitable medium (speech, writing, images) that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b Profesor Richard J. Evans (2001). "The Two Faces of E.H. Carr". History in Focus, Issue 2: What is History?. University of London. http://www.history.ac.uk/ihr/Focus/Whatishistory/evans10.html. Retrieved on 10 November 2008. 
  2. ^ Professor Alun Munslow (2001). "What History Is". History in Focus, Issue 2: What is History?. University of London. http://www.history.ac.uk/ihr/Focus/Whatishistory/munslow6.html. Retrieved on 10 November 2008. 
  3. ^ Peter N. Stearns, Peters Seixas, Sam Wineburg (eds.), ed (2000). "Introduction". Knowing Teaching and Learning History, National and International Perspectives. New York & London: New York University Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-8147-8141-1. 
  4. ^ Nash l, Gary B. (2000). "The "Convergence" Paradigm in Studying Early American History in Schools". in Peter N. Stearns, Peters Seixas, Sam Wineburg (eds.). Knowing Teaching and Learning History, National and International Perspectives. New York & London: New York University Press. pp. 102–115. ISBN 0-8147-8141-1. 
  5. ^ George Santayana, "The Life of Reason", Volume One, p. 82, BiblioLife, ISBN 978-0559478062
  6. ^ Seixas, Peter (2000). "Schweigen! die Kinder!". in Peter N. Stearns, Peters Seixas, Sam Wineburg (eds.). Knowing Teaching and Learning History, National and International Perspectives. New York & London: New York University Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-8147-8141-1. 
  7. ^ Lowenthal, David (2000). "Dilemmas and Delights of Learning History". in Peter N. Stearns, Peters Seixas, Sam Wineburg (eds.). Knowing Teaching and Learning History, National and International Perspectives. New York & London: New York University Press. p. 63. ISBN 0-8147-8141-1. 
  8. ^ Joseph, Brian (Ed.); Janda, Richard (Ed.) (2008), The Handbook of Historical Linguistics, Blackwell Publishing (published 30 December 2004), p. 163, ISBN 978-1405127479 
  9. ^ Mahony, William K. (28 Feb 1998), The Artful Universe: An Introduction to the Vedic Religious Imagination, Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, p. 235, ISBN 0791435806 
  10. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary, http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=history&searchmode=none
  11. ^ a b Ferrater-Mora, José. Diccionario de Filosofia. Barcelona: Editorial Ariel, 1994.
  12. ^ a b Whitney, W. D. The Century dictionary; an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language. New York: The Century Co, 1889.
  13. ^ WordNet Search – 3.0, "History".
  14. ^ Scott Gordon and James Gordon Irving, The History and Philosophy of Social Science. Routledge 1991. Page 1. ISBN 0415056829
  15. ^ Ritter, H. (1986). Dictionary of concepts in history. Reference sources for the social sciences and humanities, no. 3. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. Page 416.
  16. ^ Michael C. Lemon (1995).The Discipline of History and the History of Thought. Routledge. Page 201. ISBN 0415123461
  17. ^ a b Graham, Gordon (1997). "Chapter 1". The Shape of the Past. Oxford University. 
  18. ^ Jack Goody (2007) The Theft of History (from Google Books)
  19. ^ Carr, Edward H. (1961). What is History?, p.108, ISBN 0140206523
  20. ^ Elizabeth Harris, In Defense of the Liberal-Arts Approach to Technical Writing. College English, Vol. 44, No. 6 (Oct., 1982), pp. 628-636
  21. ^ Arise Cliodynamics. Nature 454, 34-35 (3 July 2008) doi:10.1038/454034a; Published online 2 July 2008
  22. ^ Arise Cliodynamics. sott.net/articles
  23. ^ a b Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C. and Jeremy A. Sabloff (1979). Ancient Civilizations: The Near East and Mesoamerica. Benjamin-Cummings Publishing. pp. p. 5. 
  24. ^ Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C. and Jeremy A. Sabloff (1979). Ancient Civilizations: The Near East and Mesoamerica. Benjamin-Cummings Publishing. pp. p. 6. 
  25. ^ Ibn Khaldun, Franz Rosenthal, N. J. Dawood (1967), The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History, p. x, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691017549.
  26. ^ H. Mowlana (2001). "Information in the Arab World", Cooperation South Journal 1.
  27. ^ Salahuddin Ahmed (1999). A Dictionary of Muslim Names. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 1850653569.
  28. ^ Enan, Muhammed Abdullah (2007), Ibn Khaldun: His Life and Works, The Other Press, p. v, ISBN 9839541536 
  29. ^ Dr. S. W. Akhtar (1997). "The Islamic Concept of Knowledge", Al-Tawhid: A Quarterly Journal of Islamic Thought & Culture 12 (3).
  30. ^ Marwick, Arthur (1970). The Nature of History. The Macmillian Press LTD. pp. p. 169. 
  31. ^ Tosh, John (2006). The Pursuit of History. Pearson Education Limited. pp. pp. 168–169. 
  32. ^ Pavkovic, Michael; Morillo, Stephen (2006), What is Military History?, Oxford: Polity Press (published 31 July 2006), pp. 3–4, ISBN 9780745633909 
  33. ^ Burke, P. (1998). New perspectives on historical writing. University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press. Page 3.
  34. ^ http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1468-2346.2008.00708.x?cookieSet=1
  35. ^ (Japanese) http://www.iwanami.co.jp/jpworld/text/textbook01.html
  36. ^ James W. Loewen, Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong, Touchstone, 1996, ISBN 978-0684818863.
  37. ^ Plato, The Republic, in The Portable Plato, Penguin, 1977, ISBN 0140150404. "...the audacious fiction, which I propose to communicate gradually, first to the rulers, then to the soldiers, and lastly to the people."

Jack Goody (born 1918 or 1919) is a British social anthropologist. ... // Google offers a variety of services and tools besides its basic web search. ... Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... The Other Press is the student newspaper of Douglas College. ...

Bibliography

  • Asimov, Isaac; Asimov's Chronology of the World; Harper Collins, 1991, ISBN 0062700367.
  • Carr, E.H. with a new introduction by Richard J. Evans; What is History?; Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001, ISBN 0333977017.
  • Durant, Will & Ariel; The Lessons of History; MJF Books, (1997), ISBN 1567310249.
  • Evans, Richard J.; In Defence of History; W. W. Norton (2000), ISBN 0393319598.
  • Tosh, John; The Pursuit of History; Longman (2006), ISBN 1405823518.

External links

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Amino acid dating is a technique used to estimate age in a wide variety of situations. ... The molecular clock (based on the molecular clock hypothesis (MCH)) is a technique in genetics, which researchers use to date when two species diverged. ... Generally a chronicle (Latin chronica, from Greek Χρόνος) is historical account of facts and events in chronological order. ... Cover of History: Fiction or Science? Chronology volumes 1,2,3 The New Chronology of Anatoly Timofeevich Fomenko is an attempt to rewrite world chronology, based on his conclusion that world chronology as we know it today is fundamentally flawed. ... Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide time into discrete named blocks. ... A Synchronoptic view is a graphic display of a number of entities as they proceed through time. ... For other uses, see Timeline (disambiguation). ... For the political notion, see Year Zero (political notion). ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Floruit (or fl. ...


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