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Encyclopedia > Historical powers

This article deals with the world most powerful nations and empires before the Congress of Vienna. A Great Power/Nation/Empire is a nation or state that, through its great economic, political and military strength, is able to exert power over its region of the world. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... A nation is an imagined community of people created by a national ideology, to which certain norms and behavior are usually attributed. ... Scholars debate about what exactly constitutes an empire (from the Latin imperium, denoting military command within the ancient Roman government). ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ...

Contents

Ancient Powers

Ancient Near East

Main article: Ancient Near East
Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent spheres of influence. The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in orange.

The terms ancient Near East or ancient Orient encompass the early civilizations predating classical antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East, during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise of Sumer and Gerzeh in the 4th millennium BCE to the expansion of the Persian Empire in the 6th century BCE. Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (602x619, 23 KB) Summary Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (602x619, 23 KB) Summary Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). ... Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna) is the name given to an extensive archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. ... Hatti is the reconstructed ancient name of a region in Anatolia inhabited by the Hattians between the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC, and later by the Hittites, who were at the height of their power ca 1400 BC–1200 BC. The capital city of both peoples was Hattusa (modern... // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iran) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... Gerzeh ( or Girza, Jirzah ) was a predynastic Egyptian cemetery (29°27N, 31°12E) located along the west bank of the Nile and today named after al-Girza, the nearby present day town in Egypt [1]. Gerzeh is situated only several miles due east of the lake of the... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were...


The ancient Near East is generally understood as encompassing Mesopotamia (modern Iraq and Syria), Persia (Iran), Armenia, Egypt, the Levant (Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Palestinian Authority), and Anatolia (Turkey). Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /ləvænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Sumer and Akkad

Main articles: Sumer and Akkadian Empire

Sumer (or Šumer) was one of the early civilizations of the Ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term "Sumerian" applies to all speakers of the Sumerian language. Sumer together with Ancient Egypt and the Indus Valley Civilization is considered the first settled society in the world to have manifested all the features needed to qualify fully as a "civilization". Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iran) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (960x720, 133 KB)Self made map and text File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) // Events Sumerian city of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC); Sumerian hegemony in Mesopotamia, with the invention of writing, base-60 mathematics, astronomy and astrology, civil law, complex hydrology, the sailboat, the wheel, and the potters wheel, 4000... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ...


Ancient Egypt

Main article: Ancient Egypt
The Egyptian and Hittite spheres of influence around the time of the 19th dynasty.

Ancient Egypt was one of the world's first civilisations, with its beginnings in the fertile Nile valley around 3000BC although its power was not great until after the Hittite invasions under great pharaohs such as Ramses in the early Egyptian times. Ancient Egypt was an example of a nation that used mainly soft power to become a major power. It was one of the first nations to have a system of writing and large scale construction projects. However, as neighboring civilizations developed militaries capable of crossing Egypt's natural barriers the Egyptian armies were not always able to repel them and so by 1000 BC Egyptian influence as an independent civilization waned.[1] Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Download high resolution version (850x850, 311 KB)preliminary version — more labels will be added. ... Download high resolution version (850x850, 311 KB)preliminary version — more labels will be added. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name Kanakht Merymaa Nebty name Mekkemetwafkhasut Golden Horus Userrenput-aanehktu Consort(s) Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issues Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children of... Soft power is a term used in international relations theory to describe the ability of a political body, such as a state, to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. ...


Elam

Main article: Elam

Elam is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. Its culture played a crucial role in the Persian Empire, especially during the Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it, when the Elamite language remained in official use. As such, the Elamite period is considered a starting point for the history of Iran. Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites (also known as Ilamids). ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ...


Elamite strength was based on an ability to hold various areas together under a coordinated government that permitted the maximum interchange of the natural resources unique to each region. Traditionally, this was done through a federated governmental structure.


The Hurrian kingdoms

Main article: Hurrians

The Hurrians refer to a people who inhabited northern Mesopotamia beginning approximately 2500 BC. The Hurrian peoples were not incredibly united, existing as quasi-feudal kingdoms, the most prominent being the Mitanni kingdom, which was at it's height towards the close of the 14th century BC. By the 13th century BC, the Hurrian kingdoms had been conquered by foreign powers, chiefly the Assyrians. For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni. ... (Redirected from 2500 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... // Overview Events 1344 BCE – 1322 BCE -- Beginning of Hittite empire Rise of the Urnfield culture Significant persons Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt Suppiliulima, king of the Hittites Moses Inventions, discoveries, introductions Template:DecadesAndYearsBCE Category: ‪14th century BCE‬ ... This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ...


Assyria

Main article: Assyria
Assyrian Empire

In the earliest historical times, the term Assyria referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur. Later, as a nation and empire that came to control all of the Fertile Crescent, Egypt and much of Anatolia, the term "Assyria proper" referred to roughly the northern half of Mesopotamia (the southern half being Babylonia), with Nineveh as its capital. An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1985x1365, 639 KB) Summary This is a large map of Assyria, made by Ningyou. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1985x1365, 639 KB) Summary This is a large map of Assyria, made by Ningyou. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Assur (Assyrian: ܐܫܘܪ) also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian Aššur, was the capital of ancient Assyria. ... The Fertile Crescent is a historical crescent-shape region in the Middle East incorporating the Levant, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ...


The Assyrian homeland was located near a mountainous region, extending along the Tigris as far as the high Gordiaean or Carduchian mountain range of Armenia, sometimes known as the "Mountains of Ashur".


The Assyrian kings controlled a large kingdom at three different times in history. These are called the Old, Middle, and Neo-Assyrian kingdoms, or periods. The most powerful and best-known nation of these periods is the Neo-Assyrian kingdom, 911-612 BC.

The Hittite Empire (red) at the height of its power in ca. 1290 BC, bordering on the Egyptian Empire (green)

Image File history File links Hittite_Empire. ... Image File history File links Hittite_Empire. ...

Hittite Empire

Main article: Hittite Empire

The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URUḪattuša) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was at its height, encompassing central Anatolia, north-western Syria as far as Ugarit, and upper Mesopotamia. After 1180 BC, the empire disintegrated into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some surviving until as late as the 8th century BC. Hittites is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa (the modern village of Boğazköy in todayss north-central Turkey), through most of the second millennium BC. The Hittite kingdom, which at... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... The Lion Gate in the south-west Hattusa (also known as Hattusas or Khattushash) was the capital of the Hittite Empire. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... // Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: Queen Sobekneferu died. ... // Overview Events 1344 BCE – 1322 BCE -- Beginning of Hittite empire Rise of the Urnfield culture Significant persons Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt Suppiliulima, king of the Hittites Moses Inventions, discoveries, introductions Template:DecadesAndYearsBCE Category: ‪14th century BCE‬ ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; in Arabic) 35°35´ N; 35°45´E) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... (Redirected from 1180 BC) Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC 1200s BC 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC Events and Trends April 24 1184 BC - Traditional date of the fall of... The Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 9th to 7th centuries BC The so-called Neo-Hittite or post-Hittite states were Luwian-speaking political entities of Iron Age Syria that arose after the collapse of the Hittite Empire around 1180 BC and lasted until roughly 700 BC, the time of...


The Hittites were also famous for their skill in building and using chariots. The Hittites were pioneers of the Iron Age, manufacturing iron artifacts from as early as the 14th century BC, making them possibly even the first to do so. The Hittites passed much knowledge and lore from the Ancient Near East to the newly arrived Greeks in Europe. Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief) Approximate historical map of the spread of the chariot, 2000 –500 BC. A chariot is a two-wheeled, horse-drawn vehicle. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... // Overview Events 1344 BCE – 1322 BCE -- Beginning of Hittite empire Rise of the Urnfield culture Significant persons Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt Suppiliulima, king of the Hittites Moses Inventions, discoveries, introductions Template:DecadesAndYearsBCE Category: ‪14th century BCE‬ ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


Persian Empire

Main article: Persian Empire

The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ...

Achaemenid Empire

Main article: Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Persia at its zenith

The Achaemenid Empire (559 BC–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. At the height of its power, the Empire spanned over three continents. It also eventually incorporated the following territories: in the east modern Afghanistan and beyond into central Asia, and parts of Pakistan; in the north and west all of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), the upper Balkans peninsula (Thrace), and most of the Black Sea coastal regions; in the west and southwest the territories of modern Iraq, northern Saudi-Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, all significant population centers of ancient Egypt and as far west as portions of Libya. Encompassing approximately 7.5 million square kilometers, the Achaemenid Empire was territorially the largest empire of antiquity. In its time it had political power over neighboring countries, and had high cultural and economic achievements during its lengthy rule over a vast region from its picturesque capital at Persepolis. The Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Hakhāmanishiyan, هخامنشیان also frequently, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.) (559 BC–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1676x869, 503 KB) Note : Inspired by Historical Atlas of Georges Duby (p. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1676x869, 503 KB) Note : Inspired by Historical Atlas of Georges Duby (p. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Greater Iran (in Persian: ایران بزرگ pron: Iran-e Bozorg, also ایران‌زمین pron: Iran-zameen) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to the entire region where Iranian languages are today spoken as a first language, or as a second language by a significant minority. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Thraciae veteris typvs. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Motto لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله(Arabic) Lā ilāhā illā-llāhu; muhammadun rasÅ«lu-llāhi(transliteration) There is no god but Allah; Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah Anthem Aash Al Maleek Long live the King Capital (and largest city) Riyadh Official languages Arabic Government Absolute monarchy  -  King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz  -  Crown... The times before writing belong either to protohistory or to prehistory. ... Persepolis aerial view. ...


Sassanid Empire

The normal borders of the great Sassanid Empire during much of its existence
Main article: Sassanid Empire
See also: Parthia

The Sassanid Empire is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). The empire's territory encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Afghanistan, eastern parts of Turkey, and parts of Syria, Pakistan, Caucasia, Central Asia and Arabia. During Khosrau II's rule in 590–628 Egypt, Jordan, Palestine, Lebanon were also briefly annexed to the Empire. The Sassanid era, encompassing the length of the Late Antiquity period, is considered to be one of the most important and influential historical periods in Iran. In many ways the Sassanid period witnessed the highest achievement of Persian civilization, and constituted the last great Iranian Empire before the Muslim conquest and adoption of Islam. Image File history File links Sassanid-empire. ... Image File history File links Sassanid-empire. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: ṢāṣānÄ«yān) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The Caucasus is a region in eastern Europe and western Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Gold coin of Khosrau II. Silver coin of Khosrau II, dating to ca. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ...


Greek powers

Main article: Ancient Greece

The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ...

Athens

Map of Ancient Athens
Main article: Athens

The History of Ancient Athens is one of the longest of any city in Europe and in the world. Athens has been continuously inhabited for at least 3,000 years. It became the leading city of Ancient Greece in the first millennium BC. Its cultural achievements during the 5th century BC laid the foundations of western civilization. During the Middle Ages, Athens experienced decline and then a recovery under the Byzantine Empire. Athens was relatively prosperous during the Crusades, benefiting from Italian trade. Image File history File links Athens File links The following pages link to this file: History of Athens ... Image File history File links Athens File links The following pages link to this file: History of Athens ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ...


The 5th century BC marked the zenith of Athens as a center of literature, philosophy (see Greek philosophy) and the arts (see Greek theatre). Some of the most important figures of Western cultural and intellectual history lived in Athens during this period: the dramatists Aeschylus, Aristophanes, Euripides and Sophocles, the philosophers Aristotle, Plato and Socrates, Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... Greek theatre or Greek Drama came into its own between 600 and 200 BC in the ancient city of Athens. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , ca. ... A statue of Euripides Euripides (Greek: Ευριπίδης) (c. ... Sophocles (ancient Greek: ; 495 BC - 406 BC) was the second of three great ancient Greek tragedians. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... This page is about the ancient Greek philosopher. ...


Sparta

Territory of ancient Sparta
Main article: Sparta

During Classical times Sparta had reached the status of a superpower,[2] and by overpowering both the Athenian and Persian Empires, Flolowing the victories in the Messenian Wars (631 BC), Sparta established itself as a local power in Peloponnese and the rest of Greece. During the following centuries, Sparta's reputation as a land-fighting force was unequaled.[3] In 480 BC a small Spartan unit under King Leonidas made a legendary last stand against a massive, invading Persian army at the Battle of Thermopylae. One year later, Sparta assembled at full strength and lead a Greek alliance against the Persians at Plataea. There, a decisive Greek victory put an end to the Greco-Persian War along with Persian ambition of expanding into Europe. Even though this war was won by a pan-Greek army, credit was given to Sparta, who besides being the protagonist at Thermopylae and Plataea, had been the nominal leader of the entire Greek expedition.[4] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (743x681, 200 KB) Territory of Sparta in the classical age. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (743x681, 200 KB) Territory of Sparta in the classical age. ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: SpártÄ“) is a city in southern Greece. ... An American B-2 bomber in flight. ... The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. As it was led by Athens, it is sometimes pejoratively referred to as the Athenian Empire. ... The Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Hakhāmanishiyan, هخامنشیان also frequently, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.) (559 BC–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... Leonidas (Greek: - Lions son, Lion-like) was a king of Sparta, the 17th of the Agiad line, one of the sons of King Anaxandridas II of Sparta. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Greek city-states Achaemenid Persia Commanders Leonidas I † Xerxes the Great Strength 300 Spartans 900 Helots[1] 700 Thespians 400 Thebans[1] 5,000 other Greek allies1 Estimates vary (See below) Casualties 300 Spartans 900 Helots[1] 700 Thespians 400 Thebans[1] 1,400 Greek allies 20,000 (Modern... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Pausanias Mardonius† Strength 100,000 (Pompeius) 110,000 (Herodotus) 120,000 (Ctesias) 300,000 (Herodotus and Plutarch) Casualties 10,000+ (Ephorus and Diodorus) 1,360 (Plutarch) 159 (Herodotus) 43,000 survived (Herodotus) 100,000 killed (Diodorus) The Battle of Plataea was the last battle... Combatants Greek city states, particularly Athens and Sparta Persian Empire Commanders Miltiades Themistocles Leonidas I Pausanias Kimon Pericles Mardonius Datis Artaphernes Xerxes I Megabyzus The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and...


In later Classical times, Sparta along with Athens, Thebes and Persia had been the main superpowers fighting for supremacy against each other. As a result of the Peloponnesian War, Sparta, a traditionally continental culture, became a naval power. At the peak of her power she subdued many of the key Greek states and even managed to overpower the powerful Athenian navy. By the end of the 5th century she stood out as a state which had defeated at war both the Persian and Athenian Empires, a period which marks the Spartan Hegemony. Sparta was, above all, a militarist state, and emphasis on military fitness began virtually at birth. Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... Thebes (in Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva, Katharevousa: — ThÄ“bai or Thíve) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... An American B-2 bomber in flight. ... For the earlier war beginning in 460 BC, see First Peloponnesian War. ... The Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Hakhāmanishiyan, هخامنشیان also frequently, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.) (559 BC–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. As it was led by Athens, it is sometimes pejoratively referred to as the Athenian Empire. ... Period in classical Greek history. ...


Macedonian Empire

Map of Alexander the Great's empire.
Main article: Macedon

Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek Μακεδονία Makedonía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordering the kingdom of Epirus on the west and the region of Thrace to the east.[5] For a brief period it became the most powerful state in the ancient Near East after Alexander the Great conquered most of the known world, inaugurating the Hellenistic period of Greek history. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x961, 805 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Alexander the Great User:Macedonia User:Asteraki ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x961, 805 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Alexander the Great User:Macedonia User:Asteraki ... Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordering the kingdom of Epirus on the west and the region of Thrace to the east[1... This is a list of traditional Greek place names. ... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... Epirus (Greek Ήπειρος, Ípiros) is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in south-eastern Europe. ... Thraciae veteris typvs. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Turkey, Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria). ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... The History of Greece extends back to the arrival of the Greeks in Europe some time before 1500 BC, even though there has only been an independent state called Greece since 1821. ...


Carthage

Main article: Carthage
Map of the Phoenician and Punic world; as many as 300 settlements existed

Carthage was a major power over the Western Mediterranean between 575 BC and 272 BC and was considered the leading European power in 350 BC.[6] Carthage as a major power was originally a Phoenician settlement, and when Tyre fell to the Assyrians Carthage assumed power over the former settlements of the region. The foundation of Carthaginian power was seafaring trade throughout the Western Mediterranean (following the tracks of the Phoenicians). Although Rome was originally a land based military power, eventually it saw Carthage an enemy and built a navy to challenge them, which led to the three Punic Wars between these powers. The last of these eliminated Carthage as an independent civilization, and left Rome as the most impressive power in the Western Mediterranean. Carthage (Greek: , from the Phoenician meaning new town, Arabic: , Latin: ) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Image File history File links Phoenician_colonies. ... Image File history File links Phoenician_colonies. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ...


Hellenistic Kingdoms

Main article: Hellenistic civilization

The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ...

Seleucid Empire

Main article: Seleucid Empire

The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ...

Ptolemaic Egypt

Maurya Empire at its greatest extent under Ashoka the Great.
Buddhist proselytism at the time of Ashoka the Great (260-218 BCE).

The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt began following Alexander the Greats conquest in 332 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. It was founded when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt, creating a powerful Hellenistic state from southern Syria... cleopatra ruled seneca for 10 years before she ruled Egypt. ... Image File history File links Mauryan_Empire_Map. ... Image File history File links Mauryan_Empire_Map. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BC. It is the emblem of India. ... Allegiance: Maurya Empire (Magadha Empire) Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, Magadha, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (DevanāgarÄ«: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (Imperial title: Devanampiya Piyadassi, Prakrit for He who is the beloved of the Gods and... Download high resolution version (959x577, 19 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (959x577, 19 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ... Proselytism is the practice of attempting to convert people to another opinion, usually another religion. ... Allegiance: Maurya Empire (Magadha Empire) Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, Magadha, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (DevanāgarÄ«: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (Imperial title: Devanampiya Piyadassi, Prakrit for He who is the beloved of the Gods and...

South Asian powers

For most of its history, South Asia (Indian subcontinent) was divided into numerous states. Very few South Asian powers dominated most of the region. However, several South Asian empires were able to expand across Southern Asia, and sometimes into parts of the Middle East, Central Asia and Southeast Asia. This article is about the geopolitical region in Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Maurya Empire

Main article: Maurya Empire

The Mauryan Empire was the first political entity to unite most of the Indian subcontinent and expand into Central Asia and the Middle East. Its soft power further spread into much of Persia and Greece due to its military victories over these regions. Its soft power also extended into Egypt and Syria. The Empire was founded in 322 BC by Chandragupta Maurya. Chandragupta waged a war against the nearby Greek powers and won, forcing the Greeks to surrender large amounts of land. Under the reign of Ashoka the Great, the empire became pacifist and turned to spreading its soft power in the form of Buddhism.[7] A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BC. It is the emblem of India. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य), sometimes known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... Allegiance: Maurya Empire (Magadha Empire) Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, Magadha, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (DevanāgarÄ«: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (Imperial title: Devanampiya Piyadassi, Prakrit for He who is the beloved of the Gods and... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion and a philosophy. ...


Gupta Empire

Main article: Gupta Empire

The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ...

Han China

Main article: Han Dynasty
Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2

The Han Dynasty (206 BC – AD 220), lasting 400 years, is commonly considered within China to be one of the greatest periods in the entire history of China. At its height, the Han empire extended over a vast territory of 6 million km² and housed a population of approximately 55 million. During this time period, China became a military, economic, and cultural powerhouse. The empire extended its political and cultural influence over Korea, Mongolia, Vietnam, and Central Asia before it finally collapsed under a combination of domestic and external pressures. The Han Dynasty was the strongest and largest empire in the world during the reign of Emperor Wu, surpassing in size the contemporary Roman Empire. Han Dynasty commanderies and kingdoms, AD 2 Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 AD - 24 AD... Image File history File linksMetadata Han_commanderies_and_kingdoms_CE_2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Han_commanderies_and_kingdoms_CE_2. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that go back to the Three sovereigns and five emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 or ì¡°ì„ , see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ...


Roman Empire

The Roman Empire under Trajan (98 - 117). This would be the Empire's peak territorial power
Main article: Roman Empire

The Roman Empire is widely known as Europe's largest and most powerful civilization. After the Punic Wars Rome was already the biggest empire on the planet but its expansion continued with the invasions of Greece and Asia Minor. By 27 BC Rome had control over half of Europe as well as Northern Africa and large amounts of the Middle East. The Roman Empire, together with the Han Empire of China were the two superpowers of the known world at this time. Rome also had a developed culture, building on the earlier Greek culture. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 489 pixel Image in higher resolution (1020 × 624 pixel, file size: 26 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of the Roman provinces under Trajan, c. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 489 pixel Image in higher resolution (1020 × 624 pixel, file size: 26 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of the Roman provinces under Trajan, c. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ...


From the time of Augustus to the Fall of the Western Empire, Rome dominated Western Eurasia, comprising the majority of its population. Roman expansion began long before the state was changed into an Empire and reached its zenith under emperor Trajan with the conquest of Dacia in AD 106. At this territorial peak, the Roman Empire controlled approximately 5 900 000 km² (2,300,000 sq.mi.) of land surface. Rome's influence upon the culture, law, technology, arts, language, religion, government, military, and architecture of Western civilization continues to this day. For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... Romulus Augustus was deposed as Western Roman Emperor in 476 while still young. ... West Eurasia is an area bounded by the Sahara and the Indian Ocean to the south, the Atlantic to the west, and the Arctic Ocean to the north. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... For other uses, see number 106. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ...


Medieval Powers

The Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. 550. Territories in violet reconquered during reign of Justinian the Great

Image File history File links EasternRomanEmpire. ... Image File history File links EasternRomanEmpire. ...

Byzantine Empire (395 - 1453)

Main article: Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire was formed in 395, as the Eastern Roman Empire and survived for more than 1000 years. Parts of the ancient Roman cultural heritage survived there. It was the stronghold of the Eastern Orthodox Christianity and thus influenced many states. The Byzantines were the only Europeans to produce fine silk which was an important sourse of their wealth along with trade. Byzantium used to be a major military power with huge army and strong fleet. It fought against the Arabs to the south, the Bulgarians to the north and the Crusaders, who managed to seize Constantinople in 1204. The Byzantines restored their state in 1261, but its strength never recoverred and it was eventually destroyed by the Turks in 1453. Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Map of Constantinople. ... // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Empire re-formed August 29 - Urban IV becomes Pope, the last man to do so without being a Cardinal first Bela IV of Hungary repels Tatar invasion Charles of Anjou given rule of... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (İstanbul). ...


Islamic Empire (632 - 1258)

Main articles: Islamic Empire and Muslim conquests
The Islamic Empire at its greatest extent

In 622, a new world religion emerged, Islam, founded by Muhammad. After his death, his successors began a century of rapid expansion across most of the known world, establishing the Arab Empire as the largest empire the world had yet seen. Template:Islamic Empire infobox The Ottoman Empire (1299 - 29 October 1923) (Ottoman Turkish: Devlet-i Aliye-yi Osmaniyye; literally, The Sublime Ottoman State, modern Turkish: Osmanlı Ä°mparatorluÄŸu), is also known in the West as the Turkish Empire. ... Age of the Caliphs The initial Muslim conquests (632-732) began after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and were marked by a century of rapid Arab expansion beyond the Arabian peninsula under the Rashidun and Umayyad caliphs, ending with the Battle of Tours— resulting in a vast Muslim... Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... Events Hijra - Muhammad and his followers withdraw from Mecca to Medina - year one of the Islamic calendar. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ...


Rashidun Caliphate

Main article: Rashidun

Under the Rashidun Caliphate, the Muslim Arabs defeated the powerful Sassanid Persian Empire during the Islamic conquest of Persia and the Byzantine Roman Empire during the Byzantine-Arab Wars. The Arabs eventually conquered the Persian Empire and Roman Syria under the famous general Khalid ibn al-Walid, as well as Roman Egypt and Central Asia, all within a decade. The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in both Sunni and Shia Islam to refer to the rightly guided Caliphs prophesised in the famous tradition, Hold firmly to my example (sunnah) and that of the Rightly Guided Caliphs (Ibn Majah, Abu Dawood). ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilaafah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam as well as Shia Islam, Coptic Orthodox Church, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholic, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze and Ibadi Islam An entry was temporarily removed here. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: Ṣāṣānīyān) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire[1], Arab Ghassanids, Bulgarian Empire (later) Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) The Byzantine-Arab Wars was a long drawn-out war between the Byzantine Empire and the emerging Arab Empire. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) The Age of the Caliphs The Muslim conquest of Syria occured in the first half of the 7th century. ... Khālid ibn al-Walīd (592 - 642) (Arabic: خالد بن الوليد) also known as Sayf-Allāh al-Maslul (the Drawn Sword of God), was one of the two renowned Arab generals (see also: Amr ibn al-Aas) during the early Muslim conquests of the 7th Century. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Umayyad Caliphate

Main article: Umayyad

The Umayyad Caliphate completed the Muslim expansion after conquering Roman North Africa, Visigothic Hispania, Southern Italy, and parts of the northwestern Indian subcontinent and northwestern China. As a result, the Arab Empire became the largest empire the world had yet seen. However, Umayyad expeditions into the Frankish Kingdom and Byzantium were unsuccessful, as they were eventually stopped by the Bulgarians and Byzantines in 718 and the Franks in 732. Nonetheless, the Caliphate remained a huge military power with mighty navy. The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad conquest of North Africa continued the century of rapid Arab Muslim expansion following the death of Mohammed in 632 CE. By 640 the Arabs controlled Mesopotamia, had invaded Armenia, and were concluding their conquest of Byzantine Syria. ... The Umayyad conquest of Hispania (711–718) commenced when an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of North and West Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711 CE. Under the authority of the Umayyad caliph at Damascus, and led... The Islamic conquest and domination of Sicily (as well as parts of southern Italy) is a process whose origin must be traced back in the general expansion of Islam from the 7th century onwards (see Muslim conquests for more details). ... The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent took place from the 13th to the 16th centuries. ... This article contains translated text and needs attention from someone approaching dual fluency. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Events Pelayo established the Kingdom of Asturias in the Iberian peninsula (modern day Portugal and Spain). ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Tours: Near Poitiers, France, leader of the Franks Charles Martel and his men, defeat a large army of Moors, stopping the Muslims from spreading into Western Europe. ...


Abbasid Caliphate

Main articles: Abbasid and Islamic Golden Age

The period of the Abbasid Caliphate is considered the Golden Age of Islam. The empire was rich with flourishing trade across Asia, Europe and Africa. Its culture was thriving, influenced by the Persians, and boasted great achievements in architecture, literature, science and mathematics. Many cities grew with large populations, beautiful palaces and gardens such as Baghdad, which had a population of a million at its peak, as well as Damascus, Cairo and Cordoba. The Caliphate eventually desintigrated after a series of invasions by nomadic Muslim tribes from the east. Abbasid Caliphate (Abbasid Khalifat) and contemporary states and empires in 820. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran; for Central Asian Persians, see Tajiks. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... This article is about the general history of science in the Muslim World. ... Islamic mathematics is the profession of Muslim Mathematicians. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Damascus ( transliteration: , also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Córdoba most commonly means Córdoba, Spain, a famous city in Spain inhabited since the time of ancient Rome, and the seat of the Emir of Córdoba and the Caliph of Córdoba. ...


Bulgaria (880's - 930's)

Main article: Bulgarian Empire
The First Bulgarian Empire's greatest territorial extent during the reign of Tsar Simeon[8]

In 681 the Bulgarians established a powerful state which played a major military and cultural role in Medieval Europe [3]. Bulgaria decisively defeated the Arabs in the battle before Constantinople (718) and stopped the Arab invasion in the eastern parts of the continent,[4] effectively stopping the migrations of the barbarian tribes (Pechenegs, Magyars, Khazars) further to the west. It destroyed the Avars Khanate in 806. With the adoption of Christianity and the invention of the Cyrillic Alphabet, the Bulgarian Empire became the cultural and spiritual centre of the whole Slavic world. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church became the first National Church in Europe to gain its independence in 927 with its own Patriarch. The Bulgarian Empire reached it's biggest size in the early 900s stretching from the Black Sea to Bosnia. [5] First Bulgarian Empire Second Bulgarian Empire This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Combatants Umayyad Caliphate Roman (Byzantine) Empire, First Bulgarian Empire Commanders Maslama, Admiral Suleiman Leo III, Khan Tervel Strength About 200,000 men, 1,800 ships 30,000 Byzantines, 50,000 Bulgarians Casualties 130,000-170,000 men, About 1,795 ships Unknown The Second Arab siege of Constantinople (717-718... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam as well as Shia Islam, Coptic Orthodox Church, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholic, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze and Ibadi Islam An entry was temporarily removed here. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks, also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppes people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Arabic خزر; Persianخزر ; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who established a state in the Danube River area of Europe in the early 6th century. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced , also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages—Belarusian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... First Bulgarian Empire Second Bulgarian Empire This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: , Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


Ghaznavid Empire (960's - 998)

Main article: Ghaznavid Empire

The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ...

Kingdom of Hungary (1300's - 1380's)

Main articles: History of Hungary and Kingdom of Hungary in the Middle Ages

See also the history of Europe, the history of present-day nations and states, Hungary before the Magyars, and Hungary. ... This article deals with the history of the Kingdom of Hungary from the 10th century to c. ...

Frankish Empire (790's - 840's)

Main article: Frankish Empire
Growth of Frankish Power 481-814 AD

The Franks were united for the first time by Clovis I in the late 5th century. In 732 they managed to defeat the Arabs at Poitiers, thereby halting their invasion of Western Europe. During the reign of Charlemagne, it reached its greatest extent, encompassing most of the territory of the Western Roman Empire, and eventually he was proclaimed Emperor by the Pope in 800. He Christianised the pagan peoples he defeated. This was a period of cultural revival known as the Carolingian Renaissance with important educational and writing reforms. The empire disintegrated into three parts after the death of his son Louis the Pious, from which later emerged France and Germany. The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 512 pixel Image in higher resolution (1085 × 694 pixel, file size: 196 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Downloaded from the Historical Maps section Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection website (http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 512 pixel Image in higher resolution (1085 × 694 pixel, file size: 196 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Downloaded from the Historical Maps section Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection website (http://www. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Clovis I (variously spelled Chlodowech or Chlodwig, giving modern French Louis and modern German Ludwig) (c. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Tours: Near Poitiers, France, leader of the Franks Charles Martel and his men, defeat a large army of Moors, stopping the Muslims from spreading into Western Europe. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Combatants Carolingian Franks Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Charles Martel ‘Abd-al-Raḥmān al-Ghāfiqī† Strength Unknown, possibly 20,000 to 30,000 [1] Unknown, but the earliest Muslim sources, still after the era of the battle[2] mention a figure of 80,000. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... The Western Roman Empire is the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian in 286. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ...


Holy Roman Empire (840's - 1510's)

Main article: Holy Roman Empire
The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c.1630, superimposed over modern European state borders

The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. It was also known as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation from the late 15th century onwards. For centuries historians have treated the Holy Roman Empire as completely distinct from the Roman Empire of classical times. The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Image File history File links Holyromanempire. ... Image File history File links Holyromanempire. ... In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical entity, a territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies, between the Middle Ages and modern society. ...


At its post-Carolingian peak, the Holy Roman Empire encompassed the territories of present-day Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Belgium, and the Netherlands as well as large parts of modern Poland, France and Italy. Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ...


Kingdoms of Aragon (1340's - 1516)

Main article: Crown of Aragon
The maximum extent of the Aragonese Empire.

The Crown of Aragon was a Maritime Empire in the later Middle Ages that controlled a large portion of the present-day Northeastern Spain, Southeastern France, as well as possessions stretching across the Mediterranean Sea as far as Greece. It originated in 1137, when the Kingdom of Aragon and the possessions of the County of Barcelona merged by dynastic union into what later would be known as the Crown of Aragon. In 1479 a new dynastic union merged the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile, thus making the dawn of the Spanish Empire. The Crown of Aragon lasted through 1716, when it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees as a result of the Aragonese defeat in the War of the Spanish Succession. King of Aragons arms in 15th century The Crown of Aragon or Aragonese Empire was the regime of a large portion of what is now Spain, plus numerous Mediterranean possessions, for much of the later Middle Ages. ... Image File history File links Aragonese_Empire. ... Image File history File links Aragonese_Empire. ... From the latin maritimus, maritime refers to things relating to the sea. ... Scholars debate about what exactly constitutes an empire (from the Latin imperium, denoting military command within the ancient Roman government). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Northeast is the ordinal direction halfway between north and east. ... Southeast is the ordinal direction halfway between south and east. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Capital Zaragoza Area  – Total  – % of Spain Ranked 4th  47 719 km²  9,4% Population  – Total (2003)  – % of Spain  – Density Ranked 11th  1 217 514  2,9%  25,51/km² Demonym  – English  – Spanish  Aragonese  aragonés Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166... History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain - Visigoths - Al-Andalus - Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Transition to Democracy Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History... Dynastic union refers to the union of two titles or rulerships in one ruler or titleholder. ... Dynastic union refers to the union of two titles or rulerships in one ruler or titleholder. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... Military flag of the Spanish Empire from the 16th century up to 1843. ... The Nueva Planta decrees (Spanish:Decretos de Nueva Planta, Catalan: Decrets de Nova Planta) were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V—the first Bourbon king of Spain—shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Combatants Holy Roman Empire, Great Britain,[1] Dutch Republic, Portugal, Others France, Spain, Bavaria, Others Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Earl of Galway, Count Overkirk, Marquês das Minas Duc de Villars, Duc de Vendôme, Duc de Boufflers, Duc de Villeroi, Duke...


Kingdom of Castile (1230 - 13??)

Limits of the Kingdom of Castile in 1210

The Kingdom of Castile was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. It was created as a politically autonomous entity in the 9th century: it was called County of Castile and was held in vassalage from the Kingdom of León. Its name is supposed to be related to the host of castles constructed in the region. It was one of the ancestor kingdoms of the Kingdom of Spain. Limits of the Kingdom of Castile in 1210 The Kingdom of Castile was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x643, 821 KB) Courtesy of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x643, 821 KB) Courtesy of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The city of León was founded by the Roman Seventh Legion (for unknown reasons always written as Legio Septima Gemina (twin seventh legion). It was the headquarters of that legion in the late empire and was a center for trade in gold which was mined at Las Médulas... Pierrefonds Castle, France. ...


Papacy

The History of the Roman Catholic Church covers a period of just under two thousand years, making the Church one of the oldest religious institutions in history. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ...

Mali Empire (1310's - 1360)

Main article: Mali Empire
The Mali Empire, c. 1350

The Mali Empire was a medieval state of West Africa. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the generosity and wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Kankan Musa I. The Mali Empire had profound cultural influences on West Africa allowing the spread of its language, laws and customs along the Niger River. Musa was a devoted Muslim and Islamic scholarship flourished under his rule, The Sankore University in Timbuktu reached its height, bringing together Islamic scholars from all over the Muslim World. The Mali Empire or Manding Empire or Manden Kurufa was a medieval West African state of the Mandinka from 1235 to 1468. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1580x994, 70 KB) Map of the w:Mali Empire made by User:Astrokey44 in Corel Painter IX File links The following pages link to this file: Mali Empire User:Astrokey44/maps ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1580x994, 70 KB) Map of the w:Mali Empire made by User:Astrokey44 in Corel Painter IX File links The following pages link to this file: Mali Empire User:Astrokey44/maps ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Sundiata Keita or Sundjata Keyita or Mari Djata I (c. ... Wealth from the old English word weal, which means well-being or welfare. The term was originally an adjective to describe the possession of such qualities. ... Mansa is a Mandinka word meaning king of kings. ... Mansa Musa depicted holding a gold nugget from a 1375 map of Africa and Europe Mansa Musa[1] was a 14th century king (or Mansa) who ruled the Mali Empire between 1312 and 1337. ... Map of Niger River with Niger River basin in green The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa, extending over 2500 miles (about 4180 km). ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Sankore University or Sankore or The University of Sankore An ancient center of learning located in Timbuktu, Mali, West Africa. ... Timbuktu (Archaic English: Timbuctoo; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu; French: Tombouctou) is a city in Tombouctou Region, Mali. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...


China (630's - 1590's)

The start of the Sui Dynasty in China after the end of the turbulent and chaotic Northern and Southern Dynasty marks China as the most powerful country in the world economically and militarily, with its prowess unsurpassed by any nation(s) for a thousand years till somewhere in the middle of the Ming dynasty. Below are some of the dynasties that occurred during this era:


Tang Dynasty 630's - 760's

Main article: Tang dynasty
China under the Tang dynasty (yellow) and its neighbouring states in 660 CE.

The Tang Dynasty, with its capital at Chang'an (present-day Xi'an), the most populous city in the world at the time, is regarded by historians as a high point in Chinese civilization — equal to or surpassing that of the Han Dynasty - as well as a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, was greater than that of the Han period, and rivaled that of the later Yuan Dynasty and Qing Dynasty. The influence of Chinese culture reached the highest peak in history and the result can still be found in some countries around modern China. During its height, the Tang Dynasty was one of the greatest powers of the time. For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Image File history File links Tang_dynasty1. ... Image File history File links Tang_dynasty1. ... Changan â–¶(?) (Simplified Chinese: 长安; Traditional Chinese: 長安; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-an) is the ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in China. ... Xian (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsi-An; Postal System Pinyin: Sian), is the capital of Shaanxi province in China and a sub-provincial city. ... Han Dynasty commanderies and kingdoms, AD 2 Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 AD - 24 AD... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus), lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun; Mongolian: Манж Чин), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the ruling Chinese Dynasties. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ...


Song Dynasty 990's - 1080's

Main article: Song dynasty

During the Song dynastry, the wealth of China attracted numerous attacks from the north and the dynasty gradually retreated to the south. For the first time in history, China needed to donate its wealth annually to buy peace. Ironically, the development of Chinese culture reached the highest peak in history due to the artistic character of the emperors. The technological advancement and policies also led to rapid growth of wealth and improvement of living standard. Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1279) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou Dynasty 960  - Battle of Yamen; the end of Song rule 1279 Population  - Peak est. ...


Yuan Dynasty 1270's - 1320's

Main article: Yuan dynasty

The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: 元朝; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus), lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming Dynasty in the historiography of China. The dynasty was established by ethnic Mongols, and it had nominal control over the entire Mongol Empire (stretching from Eastern Europe to the fertile crescent to Russia); however, the Mongol rulers in Asia were only interested in China. Later successors did not even attempt to stake claim over the Khakhan title and saw themselves as Emperor of China, as the Yuan Dynasty grew from being an imperial Mongol administration under Kublai Khan to becoming a basically Chinese institution under his successors. The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus), lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1132x609, 87 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Yuan Dynasty Golden Horde Khan Mongol Empire Ilkhanate Chagatai Khanate Khanate Nomadic Empires ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1132x609, 87 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Yuan Dynasty Golden Horde Khan Mongol Empire Ilkhanate Chagatai Khanate Khanate Nomadic Empires ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus), lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day... The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206–1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Chinese historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Another picture of Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, literally meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] (12 million square miles) at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... The Fertile Crescent is a historical crescent-shape region in the Middle East incorporating the Levant, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. ... Khagan alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan, Khakhan, Khaghan, Kagan, Khaqan etc. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... Kublai Khan, Khubilai Khan or the last of the Great Khans (September 23, 1215[8] - February 18, 1294[9]) (Mongolian: Хубилай хаан, Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ), was a Mongol military leader. ...


Ming Dynasty 1370's - 1590's

Main article: Ming dynasty
The Ming Empire under the Yongle Emperor.

The Ming dynasty was the last ethnic Han-led dynasty in China, supplanting the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty before falling to the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty. At its pinnacle, the Ming Empire was one of greatest powers of its time. Ming rule saw the construction of a vast navy, including four-masted ships of 1,500 tons displacement, and a standing army of 1,000,000 troops. Over 100,000 tons of iron per year were produced in North China (roughly 1 kg per inhabitant), and many books were printed using movable type. Internally, the Great Wall was refurbished to its current state, and the Grand Canal was renovated, thus boasting domestic trade. For other uses, see Ming. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (555x650, 318 KB)This map shows Ming Dynasty China in 1580. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (555x650, 318 KB)This map shows Ming Dynasty China in 1580. ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360–August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di, was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ... Languages Chinese languages, Indian languages, Hebrew Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus), lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeast China). ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun; Mongolian: Манж Чин), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the ruling Chinese Dynasties. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... A mast is a pole which holds a sail of a boat, see mast (sailing). ... A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Northern Peoples Republic of China region. ... A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ... A section of the Great Wall near Beijing during winter The course of the Great Wall is shown in this map dated from 1805 The Great Wall (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , literally long city wall) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built between 5th century... Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ...


Mongol Empire (1210's - 1270's)

Expansion of the Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous land empire in world history, covering over 33 million km² [6] at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan in 1206, and at its height, it encompassed the majority of the territories from southeast Asia to central Europe. The Mongol Empire helped bring political stability and re-establish the Silk Road. Expansion of the Mongol Empire Another picture of Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, literally meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] (12 million square miles) at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day... Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings ÇaÄŸatay in Turkic Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Chaghtai) was the second son of Genghis Khan. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Image File history File links Mongol_Empire_map. ... Image File history File links Mongol_Empire_map. ... Scholars debate about what exactly constitutes an empire (from the Latin imperium, denoting military command within the ancient Roman government). ... World History is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ...


Powers from 1400-1815

France (1450's - 1790's)

France in 1154.

This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1241x1755, 552 KB) Изработено от User:Lotroo File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): France in the Middle Ages Maps of France ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1241x1755, 552 KB) Изработено от User:Lotroo File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): France in the Middle Ages Maps of France ...

Venice (1480's - 1710s)

Main article: Republic of Venice

Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Italian, Latin Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789-1797 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 727 (697)  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 Map of the Venetian Republic, circa 1000. ...

China (1660's - 1800's)

Qing China in 1892
Main article: Qing Dynasty

The Qing Dynasty, occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1644 to 1912. According to the Chinese, the Qing Dynasty was the last Imperial dynasty of China. During its reign, the Qing Dynasty consolidated its grip on China, integrated with Chinese culture, and saw the height of Imperial Chinese influence. The collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1912 brought an end to over 2,000 years of imperial China rule. Download high resolution version (888x725, 778 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (888x725, 778 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun; Mongolian: Манж Чин), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the ruling Chinese Dynasties. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Below is a table of the dynasties in Chinese history. ... A Chinese Tang Dynasty tri-color glazed porcelain horse (ca. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ...


Persian Empire (1580's - 1690's)

Main article: Safavid dynasty
The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders.

The Safavids (1501-1722) are considered as the greatest Iranian Empire since the Islamic conquest of Persia. The Safavid empire originated from Ardabil in Iranian Azerbaijan in northern Iran. It was Turkic-speaking dynasty whose classical and cultural language was Persian.[9][10] The Safavid dynasty had its origins in a long established Sufi order, called the Safaviyeh. The Safavids established an independent unified Iranian state for the first time after the Islamic conquest of Persia and reasserted Iranian political identity, and established Shia Islam as the official religion in Iran. The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Image File history File links The location of the ancient Safavid Empire, an Iranian kingdom, c. ... 1512 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Term used for Persia, Persian Empire or Iran. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... Ardabil (in Persian: اردبیل; also known as Ardebil; ancient name: Artavil) is a historical city in north-western Iran. ... Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Ä€zārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Safaviyeh was the name of the Sufi order founded by the Persian Mystic Sheikh Safi Al-Din of Ardabil (1252-1334). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


United Kingdom(1700's - present)

Main article: British Empire
Map showing British Empire in 1921 coloured pink.

The British Empire was the most extensive empire in world history and for a substantial time was the foremost global power. It was a product of the European Age of Discovery, which began with the maritime explorations of the 15th century, that sparked the era of the European colonial empires. By 1921, the British Empire held sway over a population of about 458 million people, approximately one-quarter of the world's population.[11] It covered about 36.6 million km² (14.2 million square miles),[12] about a quarter of Earth's total land area. Because of its size, it was often reguarded as The empire on which the sun never sets. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 43 KB) There is currently no text in this page. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 43 KB) There is currently no text in this page. ... Following are the worlds largest empire in descending order as commonly understood: 1. ... The top global powers usually have relatively high military budgets, reflecting their powerful military capabilities. ... The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European ships traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners to feed burgeoning capitalism in Europe. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... An anachronous map showing areas pertaining to the Spanish Empire at various times over a period exceeding 400 years. ...


The Low Countries/The Netherlands

Main article: Dutch Empire
A map showing the territory that the Netherlands held at various points in history. Dark green indicates colonies that either were, or originated from, land controlled by the Dutch West India Company, light green the Dutch East India Company.

The Dutch Empire[7] is the name given to the various territories controlled by the Netherlands from the 17th to the 20th century. Their skills in shipping and trading aided the building of an over seas colonal Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Dutch initially built up colonial possessions on the basis of indirect state capitalist corporate colonialism, with the dominant Dutch East India Company. A cultural flowering roughly spanning the 17th century is known as the Dutch Golden Age, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. A map showing the territory that the Netherlands held at various points in history. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 26 KB) Summary Original Image:Holland_Empire. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 26 KB) Summary Original Image:Holland_Empire. ... Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ... Dutch colonial possessions, with the Dutch East India Company possessions marked in a paler green, surrounding the Indian Ocean plus Saint Helena in the mid-Atlantic. ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Corporate colonialism relates to the involvement of corporate bodies in the practice of colonialism or imperialism. ... Dutch colonial possessions, with the Dutch East India Company possessions marked in a paler green, surrounding the Indian Ocean plus Saint Helena in the mid-Atlantic. ... Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ...


Mughal Empire (1550's - 1700's)

Main article: Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire Expansion by(1600's)?

The Mughal empire at its greatest territorial extent ruled most of the Indian subcontinent, and parts of what is now Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan. It has been suggested that Mughal Era be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...


The Mughal Empire was established in 1526 by the Timurid prince Babur, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi. Under Akbar the Great the Empire grew considerably. The empire commanded wealth and resources unparalleled in Indian history. The Mughal period would see a blending of Indian, Iranian and Central Asian artistic, intellectual and literary traditions more than any other in Indian history. Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... Zāhir ud-Dīn Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... Ibrahim Lodi (died April 21, 1526) was the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. ... For other uses, see Akbar (disambiguation). ... Central Asia is a region of Asia. ...


The Ottoman Empire (1450's - 1680's)

Main article: Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire, 1299–1683

Ottoman Empire (1299 to 1922) was a Turkish state, which at the height of its power (16th - 17th centuries) spanned three continents (see: extent of Ottoman territories) controlling much of Southeastern Europe, the Middle East and most of North Africa. The empire has been called by historians a "Universal Empire" due to both Roman and Islamic traditions.[13] Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Image File history File links Ottoman_small_animation. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_small_animation. ... Events Osman I declares the independence of the Ottoman Principality The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... This is a list of Ottoman Empire dominated territories across Europe, Asia and Africa (1299-1922). ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


The empire was at the center of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. The Ottoman Empire was the only Islamic power to seriously challenge the rising power of Western Europe between the 15th and 19th centuries. With Istanbul (or Constantinople) as its capital, the Empire was in some respects an Islamic successor of earlier Mediterranean empires - the Roman and Byzantine empires. The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... The term Western world or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


Poland-Lithuania (1569's - 1795's)

Main article: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, also known as the First Polish Republic, (Polish: Pierwsza Rzeczpospolita Polska or Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów; Lithuanian: Abiejų tautų respublika) or as the "First Republic," was one of the largest, most powerful and most populous[14] countries in 16th-century 17th-century 18th-century Europe. Its political structure — that of a semi-federal, semi-confederal aristocratic republic — was formed in 1569 by the Union of Lublin, which united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and lasted in this form until the adoption of the Constitution of May 3, 1791. Rzeczpospolita (pronounced: ) is a Polish word for republic or commonwealth, a calque translation of the Latin expression res publica (public affair). The word rzeczpospolita has been used in Poland since at least 16th century, originally a generic term to denote any democratic state. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is hereditary, and split between a small number of families. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose governance is based on popular representation and control. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the... The Jagiellon Era 1385-1572, was dominated by the union of Poland with Lithuania under the Jagiellon Dynasty, founded by the Lithuanian grand duke Jagiello. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). ...


Portugal

Main article: Portuguese Empire
An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). Red - actual possessions; Pink - explorations, areas of influence and trade and claims of sovereignty; Blue - main sea explorations, routes and areas of inluence. The disputed discovery of Australia is not shown.

The Portuguese Empire was the first global empire in history, and also the earliest and longest lived of the Western European colonial empires, existing from 1415 to 1999. Maximum extent of Portuguese colonial possessions in the 16th century. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/png) An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/png) An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... A global empire involves the extension of a states sovereignty over territories all around the world. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


Portugal's small size and population restricted the empire to a collection of small but well defended outposts along the shoreline. The height of the empire power was reached in the 16th century but the indifference of the Habsburg kings and the competition with new colonial empires like the British, French and Dutch started its long and gradual decline. After the 18th century Portugal concentrated in the colonization of Brazil and African possessions. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... PALOP means African Countries of Portuguese Official Language (Portuguese for: Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa). ...


Prussia

Member states of the German Empire (peach), with Prussia in blue
Main article: Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia dominated northern Germany politically, economically, and in terms of population, and was the core of the unified North German Confederation formed in 1867, which became part of the German Empire or Deutsches Reich in 1871. Image File history File links Map-DR-Prussia. ... Image File history File links Map-DR-Prussia. ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Deutsches Reich was the official name for Germany from 1871 to 1945 in the German language. ...


Prussia attained its greatest importance in the 18th and 19th centuries. During the 18th century, it became a great power European under the reign of Frederick II of Prussia (1740–86). During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck pursued a policy of uniting the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany" which would exclude the Austrian Empire. Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... For the German Neighbourhood Kleindeutschland in New York see Little Germany, New York Kleindeutschland (literally Small Germany) was a 19th century political idea postulating the idea of a unified Germany led by Hohenzollern Prussia, with Berlin as capital, and excluding the Austrian Empire. ... Anthem: Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) Capital Vienna Language(s) German Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Disestablished 1867 Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was an empire centred on what is modern day Austria that officially lasted from 1804...


Russia

Main article: Russian Empire

The Russian Empire as a state, existed from 1721 until it was declared a republic in August 1917. The Russian Empire formed from what was Tsardom of Russia under Peter the Great. Peter I, (1672–1725), played a major role in bringing his country into the European state system, and laid the foundations of a modern state in Russia. From its modest beginnings in the 14th century, Russia had become the largest state in the world by Peter's time. Three times the size of continental Europe, it spanned the Eurasian landmass from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean. Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose governance is based on popular representation and control. ... The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Московское царство or Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... This term has two different meanings Eurasian plate - The tectonic plate covering Eurasia. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...


Spain

An anachronous map showing areas pertaining to the Spanish Empire at various times over a period exceeding 400 years.
Main article: Spanish Empire

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 37 KB, MIME type: image/png) The map illustrates the Spanish colonial possessions through out the world. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 37 KB, MIME type: image/png) The map illustrates the Spanish colonial possessions through out the world. ... Military flag of the Spanish Empire from the 16th century up to 1843. ...

Sweden

Main article: Swedish Empire
Map showing the Swedish Empire consisting of Sweden proper and its dominions and possessions, at their greatest territorial extent, following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658

. Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... Image File history File links Sweden_in_1658. ... Image File history File links Sweden_in_1658. ... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... Sweden proper, or Egentliga Sverige, is a term used to distinguish those territories that were fully integrated into the Kingdom of Sweden, as opposed to the dominions and possessions of, or states in union with, the Realm of Sweden. ... // Fiefs Fiefs that were held for a limited time. ... The Treaty of Roskilde was signed on February 26, 1658 in the Danish city Roskilde, whereby the king of Denmark-Norway sacrificed nearly half his territory to save the rest. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by...


Sweden was, between 1611 and 1718, one of the great powers of Europe. In modern historiography this period is known as the Swedish Empire, or Stormaktstiden. Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... // The Funj warrior aristocracy deposes the reigning mek and places one of their own ranks on the throne of Sennar. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... [<br /> ---- Julius Caesar was born in the year 100 BC] Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. ...


References

  1. ^ Math in Ancient Egypt
  2. ^ The Character of Lysander William K. Prentice American Journal of Archaeology
  3. ^ "A Historical Commentary on Thucydides" - David Cartwright, p. 176
  4. ^ Britannica ed. 2006, "Sparta"
  5. ^ "Macedonia" - Britannica 2006
  6. ^ Carthaginian History
  7. ^ Ancient India - Chandragupta Maurya
  8. ^ Map of late 9th century eastern central Europe
  9. ^ Encyclopaedia Iranica. R. N. Frye. Peoples of Iran.
  10. ^ [http://www.tau.ac.il/dayancenter/mel/lewis.html Iran in History ] by Bernard Lewis
  11. ^ Angus Maddison. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective (p. 98, 242). OECD, Paris, 2001.
  12. ^ Bruce R. Gordon. To Rule the Earth... (See Bibliography for sources used.)
  13. ^ H. Inaicik "The rise of the Ottoman Empire" in P.M. Holt, A.K. S. Lambstone, and B. Lewis (eds), "The Cambridge History of Islam" (Cambridge University). pages 295-200
  14. ^ Heritage: Interactive Atlas: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, last accessed on 19 March 2006 At its apogee, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth comprised some 400,000 square miles and a multi-ethnic population of 11 million. For population comparisons, see also those maps: [1], [2].

Prof. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international organisation of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ...

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