FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Histels

Gelisols are an order in USA soil taxonomy. They are soils of very cold climates which are defined as containing permafrost within two metres of the soil surface. The word "Gelisol" comes from the Latin gelare meaning "to freeze", a reference to the process of cryoturbation that occurs from the alternating thawing and freezing characteristic of Gelisols. Soil taxonomy provided by United States Department of Agriculture / Natural Resources Conservation Centre provides an elaborate classification of soil types according to several parameters and in several levels: Order, Suborder, Great Group, Subgroup, Family, and Series. ... In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil that stays in a frozen state for more than two years in a row. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... In Gelisols, cryoturbation refers to the mixing of materials from various horizons of the soil right down to the parent rock. ...


In the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization soil classification system, Gelisols are known as Cryosols. United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and...


Structurally, Gelisols have no B horizon and have an A horizon resting on the permafrost. Because organic matter accumulates in the upper layer, most Gelisols are black or dark brown in colour, followed by a shallow mineral layer. Despite the influence of glaciation in most areas where Gelisols occur, chemically they are not highly fertile because nutrients, especially calcium and potassium, are very easily leached above the permafrost. The permafrost greatly restricts the engineering use of Gelisols, as large structures (eg. buildings) subside as the frozen earth thaws when they are put in place. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Soil horizon. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Soil horizon. ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... Nutrients and the body A nutrient is any element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organisms metabolism, growth, or other functioning. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 39. ...


Gelisols are found chiefly in Siberia, Alaska and Canada. Smaller areas are found in the Andes (mainly near the intersection between Chile, Bolivia and Argentina), Tibet, northern Scandinavia and the ice-free parts of Greenland and Antarctica. Fossil Gelisols are known from as far back as Precambrian ice ages 900 million years ago. Siberia is also an album by Echo & The Bunnymen. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 1st 1,717,854 km² 1,300 km 2,380 km 13. ... The Andes between Chile and Argentina Computer generated image of the Andes, made from a digital elevation model with a resolution of 30 arcseconds The Andes is a vast mountain range forming a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. ... This article is on historic Tibet. ... See also the Nordic countries. ... A fossil Ammonite Fossils (from Latin fossus, literally having been dug up) are the mineralized or otherwise preserved remains or traces (such as footprints) of animals, plants, and other organisms. ... The Precambrian is an informal name for the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ...


Suborders

In USA soil taxonomy, Gelisols are subdivided into: Soil taxonomy provided by United States Department of Agriculture / Natural Resources Conservation Centre provides an elaborate classification of soil types according to several parameters and in several levels: Order, Suborder, Great Group, Subgroup, Family, and Series. ...

  • Histels: organic soils similar to Histosols exept that they have permafrost within 2 meters below ground surface. They have 80 % or more organic materials from the soil surface to a depth of 50 cm or to a glacic layer or densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallowest. These soils occur predominantely in Subarctic and Low Arctic regions of continuous or widespread permafrost. Less than one-third of the active layer (the soil between the ground surface and a permafrost table) or an ice layer which is at least 30-cm thick has been cryoturbated.
  • Turbels: soils that show marked influence of cryoturbation (more than one-third of the depth of the active layer) such as irregular, broken, or distorted horizon boundaries and involutions and areas with patterned ground. They commonly contain tongues of mineral and organic horizons, organic and mineral intrusions and oriented rock fragments. Organic matter is accumulated on top of the permafrost and ice wedges are a common features. Turbels occur primarily in the zone of continuous permafrost.
  • Orthels: soils that show little or no cryoturbation (less than one-third of the depth of the active layer). Patterned ground (except for polygons) generally is lacking. Orthels occur primarily within the zone of discontinuous permafrost, and in alpine areas.

In both the FAO soil classification and the USA soil taxonomy, a Histosol is a soil comprised primarily of organic materials. ... The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Canada and Siberia, the north of Scandinavia, northern Mongolia and the extreme north of Heilongjiang. ... This article is about frozen ground. ... This article is about frozen ground. ...

See also

Pedogenesis or soil evolution (formation) is the process by which soil is created. ... Pedology (pědǒlōgy), (from Russian: pedologiya, from the Greek pedon = soil, earth), is the study of soils and soil formation. ... Soil classification is the branch of soil science which deals with the systematic categorization of soils based on distinguishing characteristics developed during soil formation as well as criteria that dictate choices in land use and soil management. ...

External links

  • Permafrost Soils and Biogeochemistry

  Results from FactBites:
 
Keys to Soil Taxonomy: Great Groups (165 words)
Histels that are saturated with water for less than 30 cumulative days during normal years (and are not artificially drained).
Other Histels that have more thickness of fibric soil materials than any other kind of organic soil material to a depth of 50 cm or to a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallowest.
Other Histels that have more thickness of hemic soil materials than any other kind of organic soil material to a depth of 50 cm or to a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallowest.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m