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Encyclopedia > Hispanic

Hispanic (Spanish: hispano, hispánico) is a term that historically denoted a relationship to the ancient Hispania (geographically coinciding with the Iberian Peninsula). During the modern era, it took on a more limited meaning, relating to the contemporary nation of Spain. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Modern-Era of NASCAR is a dividing line in NASCARs history. ...


Still more recently, the term is used to describe the culture and people of countries formerly ruled by Spain, usually with a majority of the population speaking the Spanish language. These include Mexico, the majority of the Central and South American countries, and most of the Greater Antilles. There are also Spanish influences in the African nation of Equatorial Guinea,[1] and the cultures of the former Spanish East Indies. This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Location of the Greater Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean The islands of the Caribbean Sea, collectively known as the West Indies are sorted by size and location into the Bahamas (or Lucayan archipelago), the Lesser Antilles and the Greater Antilles. ... Flag A map of the Spanish East Indies Capital Manila (Cebu until 1595, Bacolor 1762-1763, Iloilo 1898) Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Colony Monarch  - 1565-1598 Philip II  - 1896-1898 Alfonso XIII Governor-General  - 1565-1572 Miguel López de Legazpi  - 1898 Diego de los R...

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Terminology

Trajan was a Hispano-Roman Emperor, born in Hispania Baetica (modern-day Spain).

The term Hispanic is derived from Hispanicus, which derived from Hispania (Iberian Peninsula), both of them Latin terms. Hispania may in turn derive from Latin Hispanus , or from Greek Hispania and Hispanos , probably from Celtiberian[2] or from Basque Ezpanna.[3] The words Spain, Spanish, and Spaniard are of the same etymology as Hispanic, ultimately.[2] This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Celtiberian (also Hispano-Celtic) is an extinct Celtic language spoken by the Celtiberians in northern Spain before and during the Roman Empire. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ...


Hispanus was the Latin name given to a person from Hispania during Roman rule. In English, the term Hispano-Roman is sometimes used.[4] The Hispano-Romans were composed of people from many different tribes.[5] Some famous Hispani (plural of Hispanus) were Seneca the Elder, Seneca the Younger, Marcus Annaeus Lucanus, Martial, Prudentius, the Roman Emperors Trajan, Hadrian and Theodosius I, and also Magnus Maximus and Maximus of Hispania. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Main language areas in Iberia circa 250 BC. This is a list of the Pre-Roman people of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania - modern Andorra, Portugal and Spain). ... Lucius, or Marcus, Annaeus Seneca, known as Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Rhetorician (c. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, AD 39-April 30, 65), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, and is one of the outstanding figures of the Silver Latin period. ... Marcus Valerius Martialis, known in English as Martial, was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. ... Aurelius Prudentius Clemens was an Roman Christian poet, born in the Roman province of Tarraconensis (in Northern Spain) in 348. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Magnus Maximus. ... Maximus was Roman usurper (409 - 411) in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula - modern Portugal and Spain). ...


Here follows a comparison of several terms related to Hispanic:

  • Hispano-Roman is used to refer to the culture and people of Hispania, ancestors of the Portuguese and Spanish peoples.[6][7]
  • Hispania was known as Iberia to the Greeks, while the native land of the Hispano-Romans later became a province of the Roman Empire and Al-Andalus during the Moorish Muslim period.
  • Hispanic is used to refer to modern Spain, to the Spanish language, and to the Spanish-speaking nations of the world and particularly the Americas.[8][9]
  • Spanish is used to refer to both to the Spanish language itself and to the culture and the people of Spain.
  • Spaniard is used to refer to the people of Spain.

Prior to the marriage of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469, the four Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula, namely the Kingdom of Portugal, the Crown of Aragon, the Crown of Castile, and the Kingdom of Navarre, were collectively referred to as Hispania - the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula. This revival of the old Roman name in the Middle Ages appears to have originated in Provençal, and appears to be first documented at the end of the 11th century. In the Council of Constance, the four kingdoms shared one vote. Spaniard redirects here. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For other uses, see moor. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Isabella I redirects here. ... Ferdinand V of Castile & II of Aragon the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Coat of arms of Aragon, 15th century The Crown of Aragon is a term used to refer to the permanent union of multiple titles and states in the hands of the King of Aragon. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council considered valid by the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Portugal adopted the word "Lusitanic",[10] or "Lusitanian" to refer to its culture and people, in reference to the Lusitanians, one of the first Indo-European tribes to settle in Europe. From this tribe's name had derived the name of the Roman province of Lusitania, which was a part of Roman province of Hispania, and Lusitania remains Portugal's name in Latin. Lusitanic is a term used to categorize persons who share the linguistic and cultural traditions of the Portuguese-speaking nations of Portugal, Brazil, Macau, East Timor, Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea Bissau and others. ... The Lusitanians (or Lusitani in Latin) were a tribe, or various tribes, from the western Iberian peninsula (province of Lusitania), who spoke a Lusitanian language until the conquest of their territory by the Romans. ... The Lusitanians (or Lusitani in Latin) were a tribe, or various tribes, from the western Iberian peninsula (province of Lusitania), who spoke a Lusitanian language until the conquest of their territory by the Romans. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... In red is the province of Lusitania within the Roman Empire, AD 117 Lusitania was an ancient Roman province including approximately all of modern Portugal south of the Douro river, and part of modern Spain (the present autonomous community of Extremadura and a small part of the province of Salamanca). ...


The expansion of the Spanish Empire between 1492 and 1898 brought thousands of Spanish migrants to the conquered lands, who established settlements, mainly in the Americas but also in other distant parts of the world, producing a number of multiracial populations. Today the term Hispanic is typically applied to the varied populations of these places, including those with insignificant or no Spanish ancestry. This is not necessarily so for people of Portuguese ancestry, in former Portuguese colonies such as Brazil or Portugal itself. For instance, Portuguese Americans are not considered "Hispanic" by the United States Census Bureau. An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... Portuguese Americans are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates in the southwest European nation of Portugal. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ...

Definitions in the United States

The terms Hispanic and Latino tend to be used interchangeably in the United States for people with origins in Spanish–speaking countries. Latino, from American Spanish, is used in some cases as an abbreviation for latinoamericano or "Latin American".[11] In other Hispanophone countries, Hispanic and Latino are not commonly used. The term "Latin American" was used for the first time in the nineteenth century when the French occupied Mexico (1862-1867), leading to the Second Mexican Empire, and wanted to be included in what is considered Spanish America. For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... Spanish is the second most common language in the United States, after English, being spoken in some grade by about 27. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The Mexican Empire was the name of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century when it was ruled by an Emperor. ...


The 1970 Census was the first time that a "Hispanic" identifier was used and data collected with the question. The definition of "Hispanic" has been modified in each successive census. The 2000 Census asked if the person was "Spanish/Hispanic/Latino".[12] The Nineteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 203,302,031, an increase of 13. ... (Redirected from 2000 United States census) The United States 2000 census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ...


The U.S. Office of Management and Budget currently defines "Hispanic or Latino" as "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race".[13] This definition excludes people of Portuguese origins, such as Portuguese Americans or Brazilian Americans. However, they are included in some government agencies' definitions. For example, the U.S. Department of Transportation defines Hispanic to include, "persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or others Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race."[14] This definition has been adopted by the Small Business Administration as well as many federal, state, and municipal agencies for the purposes of awarding government contracts to minority owned businesses. Still, other government agencies adopt definitions that exclude people from Spain, since there is a distinct ethnic difference (indigenous American or European American). Some others include people from Brazil, but not Spain or Portugal. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission encourages any individual who believes that he or she is Hispanic according to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget definition (any Spanish culture or origin) to self-identify as Hispanic.[15] The United States Department of Labor - Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs encourages the same self-identification.[16] As a result, any individual who traces his or her origins to part of the Spanish Empire may self-identify as Hispanic, because an employer may not override an individual's self-identification.[17] The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is a body within the Executive Office of the President of the United States which is tasked with coordinating United States Federal agencies. ... For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) is a federal Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with transportation. ... The Small Business Administration (SBA) is a United States government agency that provides support to small businesses. ... The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, or EEOC, is a United States federal agency tasked with ending employment discrimination in the United States. ... The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is a body within the Executive Office of the President of the United States which is tasked with coordinating United States Federal agencies. ... The United States Department of Labor is a Cabinet department of the United States government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, re-employment services, and some economic statistics. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ...

Hispanicization

Hispanicization is the process by which a place or a person absorbs characteristics of Hispanic society and culture.[18][19][20] Modern hispanization of a place, namely in the United States, might be illustrated by Spanish language media and businesses. Hispanization of a person might be illustrated by speaking Spanish, making and eating Latin food, listening to Spanish language music, dressing in Hispanic styles or participating in Hispanic festivals and holidays. Hispanization is the opposite of assimilation. In the United States Anglo culture has long been the dominant culture and, historically, U.S. immigrants have assimilated by the third generation. Not to be confused with Intermarriage. ...


One of the reasons why the assimilation of Hispanics in the U.S. is not comparable to that of other cultural groups is that Hispanic and Latino Americans have been living in some parts of North America for centuries, in many cases well before the Anglo culture became dominant. For example, California, Texas, Colorado, New Mexico (1598), Arizona, Nevada and Florida have been home to Hispanic peoples since the 16th century, long before the U.S. gained independence from Great Britain. These and other Spanish-speaking territories were part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and later Mexico, before these regions joined or were taken by the United States in 1848. Some cities in the U.S. were founded by Spanish settlers in the 16th century, prior to the creation of the Thirteen Colonies. For example, San Miguel de Galdape, Pensacola and St. Augustine, Florida were founded in 1526, 1559 and 1565 respectively, Santa Fe, New Mexico was founded in 1604, and Albuquerque was established in 1660. Therefore, in some parts of the U.S., the Hispanic cultural legacy is older than the Anglo-Saxon origin. For this reason, many generations have largely maintained their cultural traditions and Spanish language. This article is about the U.S state. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... A map of the former territories of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... Nickname: Motto: Enhancing the Quality of Life for all Citizens Location in Escambia County and the state of Florida Coordinates: , Country United States State Florida County Escambia Government  - Mayor John Fogg (R) Area  - City 39. ... Nickname: Location in St. ... Nickname: Location in Santa Fe County, New Mexico Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Fe Founded ca. ... Albuquerque redirects here. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ...


Language retention is a common index to assimilation, and according to the 2000 census, about 75 percent of all Hispanics spoke Spanish in the home — even many Hispanics who can trace their ancestry to the original Spanish settlement of the U.S. Southwest between 1598 and 1769. Spanish language retention rates vary geographically; parts of Texas and New Mexico have language retention rates over 90 percent, whereas parts of Colorado and California have retention rates lower than 30 percent.


Hispanic retention rates are so high in parts of Texas and New Mexico and along the border because the percentage of Hispanics living there is also very high. Laredo, Texas; Chimayo, New Mexico; Nogales, Arizona and Coachella, California, for example, all have Hispanic populations greater than 90 percent. In these pockets, Hispanics have always been the majority population. These communities are known within the Hispanic community or Hispanidad, as "continuous communities" because Hispanics have continuously been the majority population since they were settled in the 16th or 17th centuries. Interestingly, Anglo Americans moving into these communities often Hispanicize, creating a situation where assimilation and Hispanization are one and the same. Nickname: Location of Laredo in Texas Coordinates: , Country State County Webb Settled 1755 Government  - Type Mayor / City Manager  - Mayor Raul G. Salinas  - City Manager Carlos R. Villarreal Area  - City 84. ... Chimayó is a census-designated place located in northern New Mexico, United States. ... Nogales is a city in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, United States. ... Coordinates: County Riverside Government  - Mayor Eduardo Garcia Area  - City 83 km²  (32 sq mi) Elevation 20. ... Hispanidad (literally Spanishness) is the community formed by all the people and nations that share Spanish language and culture. ...

Spanish-speaking countries and regions

Today, Spanish is among the most commonly spoken first languages of the world. During the period of the Spanish Empire, between 1492 to 1898, many people migrated from Spain to the conquered lands. The Spaniards brought with them their languages and culture, and in this process that lasted several centuries, created a global empire with multiracial populations. The interracial marriages between peoples in the colonies led to the creation of the new mixed (mestizo) peoples in many countries. Genetically Spaniards are typically European and are believed to be the longest continuously established population in Europe; they also have small traces of many peoples from the rest of Europe, the Near East and the Mediterranean areas of northern Africa.[21][22] The Spanish heritage also includes an international community of Spanish-speakers, which are found in Spain, as well as throughout its former colonies in the continents and countries shown in the table below. An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... The Spanish people or Spaniards are an ethnic group native to Spain, in southwestern Europe, who are primarily descended from the autochthonous pre-Indo-European Euskaldunak, Latin, Visigothic, Celtic and Moorish peoples. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother and a black father The terms multiracial and mixed-race describe people whose parents are not the same race, or the descendants of such mixed people. ... -1... Mestizo is a Spanish term that was formerly used in the Spanish Empire and continues to be used today in Latin America to refer to people of mixed European (Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry living in the region of Latin America. ...

Spanish speaking countries
Hispanic World
     Spanish identified as an official or de facto language.
Note: Spanish is identified as a co-official language in Peru, Bolivia and Equatorial Guinea.
See also: List of countries where Spanish is an official language
.
Language and Ethnicities in Spanish Speaking Areas Around the World
Continent/Region Country/Territory Languages Spoken [23] Ethnic Groups [24] Picture References
Europe Spain Spanish (official) 89%, Catalan 9%, Galician 5%, Basque 1%, are official regionally. (Spanish is spoken by 100% of the population, over 100% indicates bilingual population). ]]).[25] Majority composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types; includes North African Arab, Berber and/or Moor bloodlines mostly sequestered/abolished during the Inquisition period. Also included rather recent sub-Saharan African immigrants, some of whom are mixed with the established composite bloodlines and/or North African bloodlines. The population also includes recent North African and Middle East immigrants, especially from countries like Algeria and Morocco. Roma people (Gitanos) still make up a considerable part of the population. Recent Asian immigrant groups, like East Indians and Chinese, make up a small portion of the population. ValladolidAyto 20-4-03.JPG [26]
North America Mexico Spanish 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%; (Indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages) (2005) Mestizo (European-Amerindian) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, White 9%, other 1% Zocalo cathedral.jpg [27]
United States English 80.3% (english only), Spanish 12.2%, other Indo-European 3.8%, Asian and Pacific island 2.7%, other 0.7% (2000 census) (Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii).

Note: While the U.S. is an English speaking country, the historical populations of Spanish-speakers in the American West/Southwest, and the large influx of immigrants from Spanish speaking countries in recent years[28] This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... North American redirects here. ... Mestizo is a Spanish term that was formerly used in the Spanish Empire and continues to be used today in Latin America to refer to people of mixed European (Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry living in the region of Latin America. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Whites redirects here. ... The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where English is an official language, in order of population. ...

White 79.96%, Black 12.85%, Asian 4.43%, Amerindian and Alaska native 0.97%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.18%, two or more races 1.61% (July 2007 estimate)

Note: a separate listing for Hispanic is not included because the U.S. Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean a person of Latin American descent (including persons of Cuban, Mexican, or Puerto Rican origin) living in the U.S. who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.); about 15.1% of the total U.S. population is Hispanic.

Alamo Mission, San Antonio.jpg [29]
Central America Belize Spanish 43%, Creole 37%, Mayan dialects 7.8%, English 5.6% (official), German 3.2%, Garifuna 2%, other 1.5% Mestizo 34%, Creole 25%, Spanish 15%, Maya 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 11% (2000 census) Belmopan Parliament.jpg [30]
Costa Rica Spanish (official), English White 85%, Mestizo 10%, Black 3%, Amerindian 1%, Chinese 1% 4- Vue San Jose.jpg [31]
El Salvador Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians) Mestizo 90%, White 9%, Amerindian 1% San Salvador downtown.jpg [32]
Guatemala Spanish 70%, Amerindian languages 30% (23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca). Mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish - in local Spanish called Ladino) and European 59.4%, K'iche 9.1%, Kaqchikel 8.4%, Mam 7.9%, Q'eqchi 6.3%, other Mayan 8.6%, indigenous non-Mayan 0.2%, other 0.1% (2001 census) Catedral Metropolitana, Guatemala City.jpg [33]
Honduras Spanish, Amerindian dialects Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, Black 2%, White 1% TEGUZ---Plaza-Central-450.jpg [34]
Nicaragua Spanish 97.5% (official), Miskito 1.7%, other 0.8% (1995 census) (English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast). Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 69%, White 17%, Black 9%, Amerindian 5% Grana gF.JPG [35]
Panama Spanish (official), English 14% (many Panamanians bilingual) Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 70%, Amerindian and mixed (West Indian) 14%, White 10%, Amerindian 6% Balboa Avenue.JPG [36]
South America Argentina Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French White (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, Mestizo (mixed White and Amerindian ancestry), Amerindian, or other non-White groups 3% Palacio Legislativo de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Diagonal Julio A. Roca.jpg [37]
Bolivia Spanish 60.7% (official), Quechua 21.2% (official), Aymara 14.6% (official), foreign languages 2.4%, other 1.2% (2001 census) Quechua 30%, Mestizo (mixed White and Amerindian ancestry) 30%, Aymara 25%, White 15% Plaza del Estudiante La Paz Bolivia.jpg [38]
Chile Spanish (official), Mapudungun, German, English White and White-Amerindian 95.4%, Mapuche 4%, other indigenous groups 0.6% (2002 census) Centre-ville Santiago.jpg [39]
Colombia Spanish Mestizo 58%, White 20%, Mulatto 14%, Black 4%, mixed Black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1% Cartagena05.jpg [40]
Ecuador Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua) Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, Black 3% Guayaquil 1.jpg [41]
Paraguay Spanish (official), Guarani (official) Mestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) 95%, other 5% CDE Vista Aerea.JPG [42]
Peru Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages Amerindian 45%, Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 37%, White 15%, Black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3% Casa de Osambela y otras.JPG [43]
Uruguay Spanish, Portuñol, or Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian frontier) White 88%, Mestizo 8%, Black 4%, Amerindian (practically nonexistent) Playa Pocitos.jpg [44]
Venezuela Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects Mestizos (mixed Amerindian and White), White, Africans and Amerindians. Caracas Cathedral 2.jpg [45]
Caribbean Islands Cuba Spanish White 65.1%, Mulatto and Mestizo 24.8%, Black 10.1% (2002 census) Capitolio and Grand Teatro de La Habana.jpg [46]
Dominican Republic Spanish mixed 73%, White 16%, Black 11% Calle Colonial en Santo Domingo.jpg [47]
Puerto Rico
(Territory of the U.S. with Commonwealth status)
Spanish, English white (mostly Spanish origin) 76.2%, black 6.9%, Asian 0.3%, Amerindian 0.2%, mixed 4.4%, other 12% (2007) Historic house in Cabo Rojo, PR.jpg [48]
Africa Equatorial Guinea Spanish 67.6% (official), other 32.4% (includes the other 2 official languages - French and Portuguese, Fang, Bube, Annobonese, Igbo, Krio, Pichinglis, and English) (1994 census)
Note: Equatorial Guinea was the only Spanish colony in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census) Malabo a 13-oct-01.jpg [49]
The CIA World Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).[50]
Areas with minor Spanish influence, not Official
Continent/Region Country/Territory Languages Spoken [23] Ethnic Groups [24] Picture References
Asia and Oceania Easter Island
Territory of Chile
Spanish (official), Rapanui Rapanui AhuTongariki.JPG [51]
Guam, Philippines, Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau Most former Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific no longer recognize Spanish as an official language. The predominant languages used in Guam are English, Chamorro and Filipino. Also, in Guam -a U.S. territory- and the Northern Mariana Islands, a commonwealth in political union with the U.S., a Malayo-Polynesian language called Chamorro is spoken, with numerous loanwords with Spanish etymological origins. However it is not a Spanish creole language. Chavacano, a Spanish-based creole language is still spoken in the Philippines by 600,000 people.[52] The top four languages used in the Northern Mariana Islands are Filipino, Chinese, Chamorro and English.[53][54] Additionally, Micronesia's official language is English, although native languages, such as Chuukese, Kosraean, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro and Kapingamarangi are also prominent.[55] In Palau, Spanish is no longer used; instead, the people use their native languages, such as Palauan, Angaur, Sonsorolese and Tobian.[56] Asian/Pacific Islander and other Intramuros 001.jpg [52][53][54][55][56]
The CIA World Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).[50]

Music

Folk and popular dance and music also varies greatly among Hispanics. For instance, the music from Spain is a lot different from the Hispanic American, although there is a high grade of exchange between both continents. In addition, due to the high national development of the diverse nationalities and regions of Spain, there is a lot of music in the different languages of the Peninsula (Catalan, Galician and Basque, mainly). See, for instance, Music of Catalonia or Rock català, Music of Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias, and Basque music. For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... West Indies redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages used by some 351 million speakers. ... Chamorro (Chamoru in Chamorro) is the native language of the Chamorro or Chamoru of the Northern Mariana Islands and Guam. ... Chavacano (as a proper noun, as a derivative of the Spanish adjective chabacano, and as it is generally accepted in literature, the broadcast media, and Zamboangueños) or Chabacano (as the Spanish adjective) is the common name for the several varieties of the Philippine Creole Spanish spoken in the Philippines. ... A number of Creole languages are based on the Spanish language. ... Chuukese (also called Trukese) is a Trukic language of the Austronesian language family spoken primarily on the islands of Chuuk in the Caroline Islands in Micronesia. ... Kosraean, also sometimes called Kusaiean, is the language spoken on Kusaie Island, Caroline Islands, and Nauru. ... Pohnpeian is a Micronesian language of the Ponapeic-Trukic subfamily. ... Yapese is a language spoken by 6,600 people on the island of Yap (Federated States of Micronesia). ... Ulithian is the name of the language spoken in the Ulithi atoll. ... Woleaian is the main language of the island of Wottegai and surrounding islands in the state of Chuuk of the Federated States of Micronesia. ... Nukuoro is an atoll in the Federated States of Micronesia. ... Kapingamarangi is an atoll in the Federated States of Micronesia. ... Angaur (or Ngeaur) is an island in the island nation of Palau. ... The Sonsorolese language is a language spoken in Palau and the Northern Mariana Islands, by 600 people. ... The Tobian language, also Tobi is, with English and the Sonsorolese language the language spoken on the Palau islands of Tobi (or Hatobohei), Pulo Anna, Merir, Fana, Helen Reef and Sonsoral (or Sonsorol). ... // In Spain, several very different cultural streams came together in the first centuries of the Christian era: the Roman culture, which was dominant for several hundred years, and which brought with it the music and ideas of Ancient Greece; early Christians, who had their own version of the Roman Rite... Latin American music, sometimes simply called Latin music in The United States, includes the music of all countries in Latin America and comes in many varieties. ... The Languages of Spain are the languages spoken or once spoken in the territory of the country of Spain. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Catalonia (in Spain and France) has one of the oldest documented musical traditions in Europe, and has had a rich musical culture continuously for at least two thousand years. ... The term Rock Català (English: Catalan Rock) is used to refer to the music groups that sing in catalan, both rock bands and non-rock bands, specially at the end of 80s and 90s. ... traditional Asturian dancers The traditional music of Galicia and Asturias has some similarities with the neighbouring areas of Cantabria, León, Castile and northern Portugal. ... The Basque language is unrelated to any other language family and its origins are unknown. ...


On the other side of the ocean, Latin America is also home to a wide variety of music, even though "Latin" music is often erroneously thought of, as a single genre. Hispanic Caribbean music tends to favor complex polyrhythms of African origin. Mexican music shows combined influences of mostly Spanish and Native American origin, while traditional Northern Mexican music — norteño and banda — is more influenced by country-and-western music and the polka, brought by Central European settlers to Mexico. The music of Hispanic Americans — such as tejano music — has influences in rock, jazz, R&B, pop, and country music as well as traditional Mexican music such as Mariachi. Meanwhile, native Andean sounds and melodies are the backbone of Peruvian and Bolivian music, but also play a significant role in the popular music of most South American countries and are heavily incorporated into the folk music of Ecuador and Chile and the tunes of Colombia, and again in Chile where they play a fundamental role in the form of the greatly followed nueva canción. In U.S. communities of immigrants from these countries it is common to hear these styles. Latin pop, Rock en Español, Latin hip-hop, Salsa, Merengue, and Reggaeton styles tend to appeal to the broader Hispanic population, and varieties of Cuban music are popular with many Hispanics of all backgrounds. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Mexican music redirects here. ... Norteño (literally meaning northern in Spanish; also known as conjunto) is a genre of Mexican music. ... Banda is a brass-based form of traditional Mexican music. ... Street musicians in Prague playing a polka Polka is a fast, lively Central European dance, and also a genre of dance music. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Tejano music (Spanish-Texan music) is the name given to various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Hispanic populations of Central and Southern Texas. ... This article is about the genre. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... R&B redirects here. ... Ritchie Valens album cover Latin Pop (Pop Latino, in Spanish) is pop music from Latin America, Spain, Portugal, Italy and Hispanic American artists who sing in languages spoken in Latin America, mainly Spanish, Italian and Portuguese. ... Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. ... This article is about the Mexican musical genre and ensemble. ... This article is about the mountain range in South America. ... Nueva Canción (Spanish for new song) is a movement in Latin American music that was developed first in the Southern Cone of South America - Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay - during the 1950s and 1960s, but also popularized shortly after in Central America. ... Ritchie Valens album cover Latin Pop (Pop Latino, in Spanish) is pop music from Latin America, Spain, Portugal, Italy and Hispanic American artists who sing in languages spoken in Latin America, mainly Spanish, Italian and Portuguese. ... Rock en español is the latest generation of Spanish language rock and roll. ... This article is about the dance. ... Merengue is a dance originating in the Dominican Republic (East Hispaniola). ... Reggaeton (also spelled Reggaetón, and known as Reguetón and Reggaetón in Spanish) is a form of urban music which became popular with Latin American youth during the early 1990s and spread over the course of 10 years to North American, European, Asian, and Australian audiences. ...

Literature

Hispanic literature and folklore has an enormous variety and richness. There are thousands of writers from the Middle Ages to the present. Some of the most recognized writers are Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (Spain), , Lope de Vega (Spain), Calderón de la Barca (Spain), , Miguel de Unamuno (Spain), George Santayana (US), José Rizal (Philippines), José Martí (Cuba), Sabine Ulibarri (US), Federico García Lorca (Spain), Octavio Paz (Mexico), Gabriel García Márquez (Colombia), Horacio Quiroga (Uruguay), Rómulo Gallegos (Venezuela), Rubén Darío (Nicaragua), Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru), Giannina Braschi (Puerto Rico), Cristina Peri Rossi (Uruguay),Clarice Lispector (Brazil),Luisa Valenzuela (Argentina), Roberto Quesada (Honduras), Julio Cortázar (Argentina), Pablo Neruda (Chile), Gabriela Mistral (Chile), Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina), Pedro Henríquez Ureña (Dominican Republic),Carlos Fuentes (Mexico), Ernesto Sabato(Argentina) and Juan Tomás Ávila Laurel (Equatorial Guinea), Ciro Alegria (Peru), Joaquin Garcia Monge (Costa Rica), amongst many others. Cervantes redirects here. ... Lope de Vega Lope de Vega (also Félix Lope de Vega Carpio or Lope Félix de Vega Carpio) (25 November 1562 – 27 August 1635) was a Spanish playwright and poet. ... Pedro Calderon de la Barca Pedro Calderón de la Barca (January 17, 1600 – May 25, 1681), Spanish dramatist and poet, was born in Madrid. ... Don Miguel de Unamuno Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo (September 29, 1864–December 31, 1936) was an essayist, novelist, poet, playwright and philosopher from Spain. ... George Santayana George Santayana (December 16, 1863, Madrid – September 26, 1952, Rome), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist. ... For places, institutions and objects named after this person, see Rizal (disambiguation). ... For other persons named José Martí, see José Martí (disambiguation). ... Dr. Sabine Reyes Ulibarrí (September 21, 1919 - January 4, 2003) was an American poet. ... Federico García Lorca Federico García Lorca (June 5, 1898 – August 19, 1936) was a Spanish poet and dramatist, also remembered as a painter, pianist, and composer. ... Octavio Paz Lozano (March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998) was a Mexican writer, poet, and diplomat, and the winner of the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature. ... Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez (born March 6, 1927[1]) is a Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter and journalist. ... Horacio Quiroga (December 31, 1878, Salto, Uruguay – February 19, 1937, Buenos Aires, Argentina) was a Uruguayan author of short stories. ... Rómulo Gallegos Freire (2 August 1884 – 4 April 1969) was a Venezuelan novelist and politician. ... A framed picture of Rubén Darío hanging in the National Theater. ... Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa (born March 28, 1936) is a Peruvian writer, politician, journalist, and essayist. ... Cutting-edge poet and novelist Giannina Braschi (b. ... Cristina Peri Rossi (born November 12, 1941) is an Uruguayan novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... Clarice Lispector (December 10, 1920 - December 9, 1977) was a Brazilian writer. ... Luisa Valenzuela (b. ... Julio Cortázar (August 26, 1914 – February 12, 1984) was a Belgian-born Argentine intellectual and author of experimental novels and short stories. ... Pablo Neruda (July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the penname and, later, legal name of the Chilean writer and communist politician Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto. ... Gabriela Mistral (April 7, 1889 – January 10, 1957) was the pseudonym of Lucila de María del Perpetuo Socorro Godoy Alcayaga, a Chilean poet, educator, diplomat and feminist who was the first Latin American to win the Nobel Prize for Literature, in 1945. ... Borges redirects here. ... Pedro Henríquez Ureña (1884-1946) was an intellectual, essayist, philosopher, humanist, philologist and literary critic, considered one of the foremost figures of the Dominican literature and leading man of letters in the continent. ... Carlos Fuentes Carlos Fuentes Macías (born November 11, 1928) is a Mexican writer and one of the best-known living novelists and essayists in the Spanish-speaking world. ... Ernesto Sábato (born June 24, 1911) is an Argentine writer of Italian and Arbëreshë (Italian Albanian) descent. ... Juan Tomás Ávila Laurel (Malabo, 1966) is a Annobonese writer from Equatorial Guinea. ... Ciro Alegr a (1909-1967) was a Peruvian journalist, politician, and novelist. ...

Religious diversity

With regard to religious affiliation among Hispanics, Christianity — specifically Roman Catholicism — is usually the first religious tradition that comes to mind. Indeed, the Spaniards took the Roman Catholic faith to Latin America, and Roman Catholicism continues to be the overwhelmingly predominant, but not the only, religious denomination amongst most Hispanics. A small but growing number of Hispanics belong to a Protestant denomination. Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ...


There are also Hispanic Jews, of which most are the descendants of Ashkenazi Jews who migrated from Europe (German Jews, Russian Jews, Polish Jews, etc.) to Latin America, particularly Argentina, Uruguay, Peru and Cuba (Argentina is host to the third largest Jewish population in the Western Hemisphere, after the United States and Canada)[57][58] in the 19th century and during and following World War II. Many Hispanic Jews also originate from the small communities of reconverted descendants of anusim — those whose Spanish and Portuguese Sephardi Jewish ancestors long ago hid their Jewish ancestry and beliefs in fear of persecution by the Spanish Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition in the Iberian Peninsula and Latin America. The Spanish Inquisition led to a large number of forced conversions of Spanish Jews. Genetic studies on the (male) Y chromosome conducted by the University of Leeds in 2008 appear to support the idea that the number of forced conversions have been previously underestimated significantly. They have determined that the current population of Spain has ancestry through the male line that is at least 20% Jewish.[59] This seems to imply there was much forced conversions than which was previously thought to be about 200,000. There are also the now Catholic-professing descendants of marranos and the Hispano crypto-Jews believed to exist in the once Spanish-held Southwestern United States and scattered through Latin America. Additionally, there are Sephardic Jews who are descendants of those Jews who fled Spain to Turkey, Syria, and North Africa, some of whom have now migrated to Latin America, holding on to some Spanish/Sephardic customs, such as the Ladino language which mixes Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic and others, though written with Hebrew and Latin characters.[60] Though, it should be noted, that Ladinos were also African slaves captive in Spain held prior to the colonial period in the Americas. (See also History of the Jews in Latin America and List of Latin American Jews.) Languages English, Hebrew, Yiddish, Russian Religion Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Hebrew: אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים, pronounced , sing. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Anusim (Hebrew, forced ones) is a term describing unwilling converts from Judaism to another religion. ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... The University of Leeds is a major teaching and research university, one of the largest in the United Kingdom with over 32,000 full-time students. ... Marranos (Spanish and Portuguese, literally pigs in the Spanish language, originally a derogatory term from the Arabic محرّم muharram meaning ritually forbidden, stemming from the prohibition against eating the flesh of the animal among both Jews and Muslims), were Sephardic Jews (Jews from the Iberian peninsula) who were forced to adopt... Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as crypto-Jews. The term crypto-Jew is also used to describe descendants of Jews who still (generally secretly) maintain some Jewish traditions, often while adhering... The Southwest could be defined as the states south, or for the most part west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit, such as the 37, or 38, or 39, or 40 degree north line. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... This article deals with the Judaeo-Spanish language. ... Slave redirects here. ... This page is a list of Jews. ...


Among the Hispanic Catholics, most communities celebrate their homeland's patron saint, dedicating a day for this purpose with festivals and religious services. Some Hispanics syncretize Roman Catholicism and African or Native American rituals and beliefs. Such is the case of Santería, popular with Afro-Cubans and which combines old African beliefs in the form of Roman Catholic saints and rituals. Other syncretistic beliefs include Spiritism and Curanderismo. Saints redirects here. ... For other uses, see Santeria (disambiguation). ... Cuban boys playing in Trinidad, Cuba The term Afro-Cuban refers to Cubans of African ancestry, and to historical or cultural elements in Cuba thought to emanate from this community. ... This article is about Kardecist spiritism. ... Moche Ceramic Depicting Curandero. ...


While a tiny minority, there are some Latino Muslims in Latin America and the US. Latino Muslims are Latinos whose religion is Islam. ...


In the United States some 70% of U.S. Hispanics report themselves Catholic, and 23% Protestant, with 6% having no affiliation.[61] A minority among the Roman Catholics, about one in five, are charismatics. Among the Protestant, 85% are "Born-again Christians" and belong to Evangelical or Pentecostal churches. Among the smallest groups, less than 4%, are U.S. Hispanic Jews. For a description of the personality trait, see Charismatic authority. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal...

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/7221.htm
  2. ^ a b Harper, Douglas. "Online Etymology Dictionary; Hispanic". http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=Hispanic&searchmode=none. Retrieved 2009-02-10.  Also: etymology of "Spain", on the same site.
  3. ^ Anthon, Charles. A System of Ancient and Mediæval Geography for the Use of Schools and Colleges pg.14
  4. ^ Pohl, Walter; Helmut Reimitz (1998). Strategies of Distinction: The Construction of Ethnic Communities, 300-800. BRILL. pp. 117. ISBN ISBN 9004108467, 9789004108462. http://books.google.com/books?id=OAZ1WNWSockC&pg=PA117&lpg=PA117&dq=Hispano-Romans&source=web&ots=guGgdj2YJ3&sig=VP_iIaQ1aiGVUHIQ2Hcy4vSXluU&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result. 
  5. ^ Povos Pré-Romanos da Península Ibérica A map showing the various Pre-Roman peoples of Iberia.
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ [2]
  8. ^ Ask Oxford
  9. ^ Merriam Webster Online
  10. ^ MorDebe. uma Base de Dados Morfológica de Português
  11. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary Latino/Latinoamericano
  12. ^ http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0075/twps0075.html#f1 Aruthur R. Crese, Audrey Dianne Schmidley and Roberto R. Ramirez. Identification of Hispanic Ethnicity in Census 2000: Analysis of Data Quality for the Question on Hispanic Origin, Population Division Working Paper No. 75, U.S. Census Bureau, July 27, 2004 [Revised July 9, 2008].
  13. ^ OMB, Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity (1997)
  14. ^ http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/civilrights/faq.htm U.S. Department of Transportation Office of Civil Rights, What is a Disadvantaged Business Enterprise(DBE)?
  15. ^ 70 Fed. Reg. 71296
  16. ^ Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs FAQ-10 and FAQ-13
  17. ^ Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs FAQ-26
  18. ^ Hispanic Spaces, Latino Places: Community and Cultural Diversity in Contemporary America, 2004. Edited by Dan Arreola, found in Chapter 14 "Hispanization of Hereford, Texas"
  19. ^ US Bureau of the Census, 2004 (see page 10).
  20. ^ Hispanic Community Types and Assimilation in Mex-America 1998. Haverluk, Terrence W. The Professional Geographer, 50(4) pages 465-480.
  21. ^ Estimating the impact of demic diffusion
  22. ^ World Haplogroups Maps
  23. ^ a b CIA World Factbook Language Notes
  24. ^ a b CIA World Factbook Ethnicity Notes
  25. ^ Europeans and their Languages - Special Eurobarometer; resumen en castellano: [3] Encuesta realizada entre noviembre y diciembre de 2005 por la Comisión Europea. Universo: 1025 entrevistados en España. Nótese que los encuestados podían responder varias opciones simultáneamente, por lo que la suma total no es del 100%.
  26. ^ CIA World Factbook Spain
  27. ^ CIA World Factbook Mexico
  28. ^ Census Bureau (2008): [4], [5]
  29. ^ CIA World Factbook The United States
  30. ^ "Belize 2000 Housing and Population Census". Belize Central Statistical Office. 2000. http://celade.cepal.org/cgibin/RpWebEngine.exe/PortalAction?&MODE=MAIN&BASE=CPVBLZ2000&MAIN=WebServerMain.inl. Retrieved 2008-10-11. 
  31. ^ CIA World Factbook Costa Rica
  32. ^ CIA World Factbook El Salvador
  33. ^ CIA World Factbook Guatemala
  34. ^ CIA World Factbook Honduras
  35. ^ CIA World Factbook Nicaragua
  36. ^ CIA World Factbook Panama
  37. ^ CIA World Factbook Argentina
  38. ^ CIA World Factbook Bolivia
  39. ^ CIA World Factbook Chile
  40. ^ CIA World Factbook Colombia
  41. ^ CIA World Factbook Ecuador
  42. ^ CIA World Factbook Paraguay
  43. ^ CIA World Factbook Peru
  44. ^ CIA World Factbook Uruguay
  45. ^ CIA World Factbook Venezuela
  46. ^ CIA World Factbook Cuba
  47. ^ CIA World Factbook Dominican Republic
  48. ^ CIA World Factbook Puerto Rico
  49. ^ CIA World Factbook Equatorial Guinea
  50. ^ a b CIA World Factbook Copyright notice
  51. ^ CIA World Factbook Chile (includes Easter Island)
  52. ^ a b CIA World Factbook Philippines
  53. ^ a b CIA World Factbook Northern Mariana Islands
  54. ^ a b CIA World Factbook Guam
  55. ^ a b CIA - The World Factbook -- Micronesia, Federated States of
  56. ^ a b CIA World Factbook Palau
  57. ^ The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute; Annual Assessment, 2007
  58. ^ United Jewish Communities; Global Jewish Populations
  59. ^ Nicholas Wade, "Gene Test Shows Spain's Jewish and Muslim Mix", New York Times, 12/5/2008, p.A12
  60. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary Ladino
  61. ^ Espinosa, Gastón (2003-01). "Hispanic Churches in American Public Life: Summary of Findings" (PDF). http://www.pewtrusts.org/pdf/religion_hispanic_churches.pdf. Retrieved 2006-12-27. 

References

External links

Language(s) Portuguese, Spanish, and several creoles Religion(s) Predominantly Christian (mainly Roman Catholic); minorities practicing Judaism, Islam, or no religion Related ethnic groups sub-Saharan, African American, Afro-European An Afro-Latin American (also Afro-Latino) is a Latin American person of at least partial African ancestry; the term... For other uses, see Aztec (disambiguation). ... The Cuban-American lobby is a general term for the various groups largely made up by Cuban emigrants to the USA and their descendants who pressure the U.S. government over its policy toward Cuba. ... Fernandinos are a relatively new ethnic group of Equatorial Guinea. ... The Hispanic Paradox refers to the epidemiological finding that Hispanics in the U.S. tend to paradoxically have substantially better health than the average population in spite of what their aggregate socio-economic indicators would predict. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Ibero-America is a term used to refer collectively to the countries in the Americas which were formerly colonies of Spain or Portugal. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... The term indigenous peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Isleños (from the Spanish, meaning islanders) are descendants of Canary Islanders who came to America and settled in the lower Mississippi Valley of Louisiana between 1778 and 1783. ... The Languages of Spain are the languages spoken or once spoken in the territory of the country of Spain. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... This article is about the contemporary indigenous peoples and cultures who descend from, or remain, speakers of the Mayan languages of southern Mesoamerica. ... Spanish is the second most-common language in the United States after English. ... ISBN redirects here. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hispanic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3777 words)
The Hispanic population in the Northeastern United States, concentrated in New York and New Jersey, is composed mostly of Puerto Ricans, however, the Dominican population has risen considerably in the last decade, especially in proportion to that region's Hispanic population.
Hispanics with mostly Caucasoid or Negroid features may not be recognized as such in spite of the ethnic and racial diversity of most Latin American populations.
Many Hispanics born in or with descent from the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Venezuela and Colombia may be of African descent, be it mulatto (mixed European and fl African), zambo (mixed Amerindian and fl African), triracial (specifically European, fl African, and Amerindian) or unmixed fl African.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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