FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Hip hop music
Hip hop music
Stylistic origins Funk, disco, soul, dub, reggae, toasting, performance poetry, spoken word, signifying, the dozens, scat singing, talking blues
Cultural origins 1970s, the Bronx, New York City
Typical instruments Turntable, synthesizer, vocals, drum machine, sampler, guitar, piano
Mainstream popularity High worldwide since the late 1980s
Derivative forms Electro - Trip hop - Breakbeat - Jungle/Drum'n'bass - Crunk
Subgenres
Alternative hip hop - Turntablism - Acid rap - Christian hip hop - Comedy hip hop - Conscious hip hop - Freestyle rap - Gangsta rap - Hardcore hip hop - Horrorcore - Instrumental hip hop - Mafioso rap - Nerdcore hip hop - Political hip hop - Baltimore club - Brick city club - Chicano rap - Mobb music - Native American hip hop
Fusion genres
Country-rap - G-funk - Ghetto house - Ghettotech - Hip hop soul - Hip house - Hyphy - Jazz rap - Merenhouse - Neo soul - Pop rap - Ragga - Rap opera - Rap rock - Rapcore - Rap metal - Cumbia rap - Merenrap - Hip life - Low Bap - Glitch hop - Wonky - Industrial hip hop
Regional scenes
East Coast hip hop - West Coast hip hop - Southern hip hop - Midwest hip hop

World hip hop

Hip hop is a musical genre which developed alongside hip hop culture, and is commonly based on concepts of looping, rapping, freestyling, DJing, scratching, sampling and beatboxing. The music is used to express concerns of political, social, and personal issues. Hip hop began in the Bronx in New York City in the 1970s, primarily among African Americans, with some Jamaican immigrant influence. The term rap is often used synonymously with hip hop, however, the latter denotes the practices of an entire subculture.[1] For other uses, including related musical genres, see Funk (disambiguation). ... This article is about the music genre. ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dub. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Grandmaster Flash, a pioneer of hip hop deejaying A disc jockey (also called DJ, or deejay) is an individual who selects and plays prerecorded music for an intended audience. ... Performance poetry is poetry that is specifically composed for or during performance before an audience. ... Spoken word is a form of music or artistic performance in which lyrics, poetry, or stories are spoken rather than sung. ... Signifyin(g) (Gates) or signifyin (slang) is an African-American rhetorical device featuring indirect communication or persuasion and the creating of new meanings for old words and signs. ... Your father redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Talking blues is a sub genre of the blues music genre. ... The Bronx is one of the five boroughs of New York City in the United States. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... DJ Mixer. ... Synth redirects here. ... Rap redirects here. ... A Boss DR-202 Drum Machine A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument designed to imitate the sound of drums and/or other percussion instruments. ... An AKAI MPC2000 sampler Playing a Yamaha SU10 Sampler A sampler is an electronic music instrument closely related to a synthesizer. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... Pianoforte redirects here. ... Electro is either (a) a prefix used to indicate a relationship to electricity, as in electro-mechanical, or electro-magnet, or (b) a stand-alone word. ... Trip hop (also known as the Bristol sound) is a term coined by United Kingdom dance magazine Mixmag, to describe a musical trend in the mid-1990s; trip hop is downtempo electronic music that grew out of Englands hip hop and house scenes. ... This article is about breakbeat, the electronic dance music genre. ... Oldschool jungle is the name given to a style of electronic music that incorporates influences from genres including breakbeat hardcore, techno, rare groove and reggae/dub/dancehall. ... Drum and bass (drum n bass, DnB) is an electronic music style. ... For other uses, see Crunk (disambiguation). ... Alternative hip hop (also known as alternative rap) is a genre that is defined in greatly varying ways. ... DJ Mixer. ... Acid rap, or American trip hop, is a subgenre of abstract hip hop in which lyrics are cryptic, abstract, spacey, sometimes dark, and sometimes drug or science fiction-related, with eerie, trippy, spaced-out drumbeats and instrumentation. ... Christian hip hop (originally Gospel rap, also known as holy hip hop or Christ hop) is a form of hip hop music which uses Christian themes to express the songwriters faith. ... Conscious hip hop is a subgenre of alternative hip hop which focuses on social issues. ... Freestyle rap is an improvisational form of rapping, performed with few or no previously composed lyrics, which is said to reflect a direct mapping of the mental state and performing situation of the artist. ... For the Ice T album, see Gangsta Rap (album). ... Hardcore hip hop is a form of hip hop music that developed in the late 1980s. ... Death rap redirects here. ... Instrumental hip hop is hip hop music without vocals. ... Mafioso rap is a hip hop sub-genre which flourished in the mid-1990s. ... Nerdcore hip hop, or geeksta rap, is a subgenre of hip hop music that is performed by nerds or geeks, and is characterized by themes and subject matter considered to be of general interest to nerds, though it can appeal to others as well. ... Public Enemy’s, It Takes A Nation Of Millions To Hold Us Back, is one of the defining albums of the political hip hop genre Political hip hop is a subgenre of alternative hip hop. ... Baltimore club, also called Baltimore breaks, Baltimore house, knucklehead, thump and Dew Doo beat, is a genre of house and dance music. ... Brick City club or New Jersey club is an offshoot of Baltimore club music from Newark, New Jersey which was pioneered and popularized by D.J.Tamiel, Mista Quiet Man, and Tim Dolla, in the early/mid 1990s following Baltimores track. ... Chicano rap is a subgenre of hip hop music, latin rap and gangsta rap that embodies aspects of West Coast and Southwest Mexican American (Chicano) culture and is typically performed by American rap singers and musicians of Mexican descent. ... Mobb Music is a style of West Coast rap music that began in the San Francisco Bay Area in the late 1980s. ... Native American hip hop is popular among Native Americans in the United States and the First Nations of Canada. ... Country-rap is the fusion of country music with hip hop music. ... G-funk, an abbreviation of Gangsta-funk, is a type of hip hop music that emerged from West Coast gangsta rap in the early 1990s. ... Ghetto house, booty house or Juke house is a type of Chicago House which started being recognised in its own right from around 1992 onwards. ... Two of the heavy hitters of the genre DJ Funk (l) DJ Assault (r). ... Hip hop soul is the second major subgenre of contemporary R&B. The term generally describes a style of music that blends soulful R&B singing and raw hip hop production. ... Look up hyphy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jazz rap is a fusion of alternative hip hop music and jazz, developed in the very late 1980s and early 1990s. ... Merenhouse is a style of music developed in the US and Latin America by groups such as Proyecto Uno and Zona 7. ... Neo soul (also known as nu soul) is a music genre and an umbrella term for current soul music. ... Pop rap (sometimes referred to as hip pop) is the name given to a style of hip hop that has a strong pop music influences. ... Not to be confused with Rāga. ... A rap opera or hip-hopera is a series of hip hop songs in the form of an opera, inspired by the concept of rock opera. ... Rap rock is a hybrid of rap and rock music. ... Rapcore is a musical genre that fuses the techniques of hip hop, gangsta rap, hard rock, heavy metal, alternative rock, hardcore punk and sometimes funk. ... Rap metal is a musical genre that takes influence from both rap music and heavy metal music. ... Cumbia Rap is a fairly new spin off of the original cumbia genre. ... Merenrap, or meren-rap, is a style of hip hop music which was formed from the fusion of Dominican merengue music with rapping. ... Low Bap Logo Low Bap is a sub-genre of the Greek hip hop music scene, that emerged in the mid-1990s as the sound of the prominent Greek hip hop group Active Member. ... East Coast hip hop is a style of hip hop music that originated in New York City during the early-1970s. ... West Coast hip hop, is a style of hip hop music that originated in California in the early 1980s. ... Dirty south redirects here. ... Midwest hip hop is hip hop music performed by artists from the Midwestern United States. ... Hip hop music was primarily limited to its country of origin, the United States, until the 1980s, at which point it reached into other countries and continents until its presence was worldwide. ... Musical genres are categories which contain music which share a certain style or which have certain elements in common. ... In electronic music, a loop is a sample which is repeated. ... Rap redirects here. ... Freestyle rap is an improvisational form of rapping, performed with few or no previously composed lyrics, which is said to reflect a direct mapping of the mental state and performing situation of the artist. ... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... Scratching is a DJ or turntablist technique used to produce sounds for some types of music. ... This article is about reusing existing sound recordings in creating new works. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bronx redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Jamaica is a country in the Caribbean Sea, located south of Cuba and to the west of Hispaniola, on which Haiti and the Dominican Republic are situated. ...


Rapping, also referred to as MCing or emceeing, is a vocal style in which the artist speaks lyrically, in rhyme and verse, generally to an instrumental or synthesized beat. Beats, almost always in 4/4 time signature, can be created by looping portions of other songs, usually by a DJ, or sampled from portions of other songs by a producer.[2] Modern beats incorporate synthesizers, drum machines, and live bands. Rappers may write, memorize, or improvise their lyrics and perform their works a cappella or to a beat. A Master of Ceremonies or MC is the host of a staged event or other performance. ... DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... In general, a sample is a part of the total, such as one individual or a set of individuals from a population (of people or things), a small piece or amount of something larger, a number of function values of a function, or part of a song. ... Improvisation is the act of making something up as you go along. ...

Contents

Origin of the term

Creation of the term hip hop is often credited to Keith Cowboy, a rapper with Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five.[3] Though Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, and DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap. It is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U.S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of marching soldiers.[3] Cowboy later worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, which was quickly used by other artists such as The Sugarhill Gang in "Rapper's Delight".[3] Rapping is one of the elements of hip hop and the distinguishing feature of hip hop music; it is a form of rhyming lyrics spoken rhythmically over musical instruments, with a musical backdrop of sampling, scratching and mixing by DJs. ... DJ Grandmaster Flash was one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ... Lovebug Starski is an American hip hop artist and one of the pioneers of the form. ... DJ Hollywood (born December 10, 1954) is an American old school hip hop DJ and rapper. ... This article is about the music genre. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rhythmic music and Rhythmic radio, also known as Rhythmic Crossover or Rhythmic Pop, is a term used to describe a certain group of radio stations and the Billboard chart that is compiled based on airplay from those radio stations. ... The Sugarhill Gang is an American hip hop and funk group, known mostly for their biggest hit, Rappers Delight, the first hip hop single to become a Top 40 hit. ... Rappers Delight is a 1979 single by American hip hop trio The Sugarhill Gang; it was one of the first hip hop hit singles. ...


Former Black Spades gang member Afrika Bambaataa is credited with first using the term to describe the subculture in which the music belonged; although it is also suggested that it was a derogatory term to describe the type of music.[4] The first use of the term in print was in the Village Voice,[5] by Steven Hager, later author of a 1984 history of hip hop.[6] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Afrika Bambaataa is a DJ and community leader from the South Bronx, who was instrumental in the early development of hip hop throughout the 1970s. ... In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a set of behaviors and beliefs, culture, which could be distinct or hidden, that differentiate them from the larger culture to which they belong. ...

1970s

Roots of hip hop

DJ Kool Herc - generally recognised as the father of hip hop
1520 Sedwick Avenue, the Bronx, a venue used by Kool Herc which is often considered the birthplace of hip hop
Grand Wizard Theodore (on the right)

The roots of hip hop are found in African American music. The griots of West Africa are a group of traveling singers and poets who are part of an oral tradition dating back hundreds of years. Their vocal style is similar to that of rappers. The African-American traditions of signifyin', the dozens, and jazz poetry are all descended from the griots. In addition, musical 'comedy' acts such as Rudy Ray Moore and Blowfly, are considered by some to be the forefathers of rap. Categories: People stubs | Hip hop musicians | Hip hop DJs | 1955 births ... Joseph Biggie Grand Saddler (born January 1, 1958 in Bridgetown, Barbados), better known as Grandmaster Flash, is a American hip hop musician and DJ; one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ... Grand Wizard Theodore (left). ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Griots, pronounced greeohs, are wordsmiths of West Africa who use poetry, proverbs, and rhythm to teach villagers about their history. ... Signification is the act of signifying, the use of signs (things that represent other things). ... Your father redirects here. ... Jazz poetry can be defined as poetry that demonstrates jazz-like rhythm or the feel of improvisation, from an article by Pittsburg State University faculty. ... Rudy Ray Moore (born March 17, 1937 in Fort Smith, Arkansas) is an African-American comedian, singer, film actor, and film producer. ... Blowfly is the stage name and alternate persona of Clarence Reid (b. ...


Within New York City, griot-like performances of poetry and music by artists such as The Last Poets, Gil Scott Heron and Jalal Mansur Nuriddin had a significant impact on the post-civil rights era culture of the 1960s and 1970s. The Last Poets is a group of poets and musicians who arose from the late 1960s African American civil rights movements black nationalist thread. ... Gil Scott-Heron - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Jalal Mansur Nuriddin is one of the founding members of The Last Poets, a group of poets and musicians that evolved in the 1960s out of the Harlem writers workshop in New York. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...


Hip hop arose during the 1970s when block parties became increasingly popular in New York City, especially in the Bronx. Block parties incorporated DJs who played popular genres of music, especially funk and soul music. DJs, realizing its positive reception, began isolating the percussion breaks of popular songs. This technique was then common in Jamaican dub music[7][8] and had spread to New York City via the substantial Jamaican immigrant community. A major proponent of the technique was the "godfather" of hip hop, the Jamaican-born DJ Kool Herc. A block party is a large informal public celebration in which many members of a single neighborhood congregate to observe a positive event of usually local importance. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Bronx (disambiguation). ... For other uses, including related musical genres, see Funk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... Percussion instruments are played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped. ... For other uses, see Dub. ... Categories: People stubs | Hip hop musicians | Hip hop DJs | 1955 births ...


Dub music had become popular in Jamaica due to the influence of American sailors and Rhythm & Blues. Large sound systems were set up to accommodate poor Jamaicans who couldn't afford to buy records and dub developed at the sound systems. DJ Kool Herc was one of the most popular DJs in the early 70’s. Due to the fact that the New York audience did not particularly like dub or reggae, Herc quickly switched to using funk, soul and disco records. Because the percussive breaks were generally short, Herc and other DJs began extending them using an audio mixer and two records. For other uses, see Dub. ... Rhythm and blues (or R & B) is a musical marketing term introduced in the United States in the late 1940s by Billboard magazine. ... Sound system has multiple meanings: A sound reinforcement system is a system for amplifying, reproducing, and sometimes recording audio. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... BBC Local Radio Mark III radio mixing desk In professional audio, a mixing console, mixing desk (Brit. ...


Turntables techniques, such as beat mixing/matching, scratching (seemingly invented by Grand Wizard Theodore) and beat juggling eventually developed along with the breaks, creating a base that could be rapped over. This same techniques contributed to the popularization of remixes. Such looping, sampling and remixing of another's music, sometimes without the original artist's knowledge or consent, can be seen as an evolution of Jamaican dub music, [7][8] and would become a hallmark of the hip hop style. Grand Wizard Theodore (left). ...


Jamaican immigrants also provided an influence on the vocal style of rapping by delivering simple raps at their parties, inspired by the Jamaican tradition of toasting.[7][9] DJs and MCs would often add call and response chants, often comprising of a basic chorus, to allow the performer to gather his thoughts (e.g. "one, two, three, y'all, to the beat, y'all"). Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... MasterCard logo Manchaster Town Hall MC can mean: Mini Cooper: Macao: FIPS PUB 10-4 territory code Machine, (also m/c) Manchester, England (also m/c) Mariah Carey, American songstress Marginal cost Marin Catholic Master cylinder Master of Ceremonies Rapper (also emcee), or a prefix for the names of rappers...


Later, the MCs grew more varied in their vocal and rhythmic approach, incorporating brief rhymes, often with a sexual or scatological theme, in an effort at differentiating themselves and entertaining the audience. Hip hop music was an outlet and a "voice" for disenfranchised youth [10] as the culture reflected the social, economic and political realities of their lives.[11] These early raps incorporated the dozens, a product of African American culture. Kool Herc & the Herculoids were the first hip hoppers to gain major fame in New York, however the number of MC teams increased over time. Frequently, these were collaborations between former gangs, such as Afrikaa Bambaataa's Universal Zulu Nation - now a large, international organization. Melle Mel, a rapper/lyricist with The Furious Five is often credited with being the first rap lyricist to call himself an "MC."[12] During the early 1970s, breakdancing arose during block parties, as b-boys and b-girls got in front of the audience to dance in a distinctive and frenetic style. The style was documented for release to a world wide audience for the first time in documentaries and movies such as Style Wars, Wild Style, and Beat Street. A gang is a group of individuals who share a common identity and, in current usage, engage in illegal activities. ... Afrika Bambaataa (born April 10, 1960) is a DJ and community leader from the South Bronx, who in the late 1970s, was instrumental in the early development of hip hop. ... The Universal Zulu Nation, originally known simply as The Organization, is an international hip hop awareness group, which arose among reformed street gang members in New York City in the 1970s, formed and headed by hip hop music pioneer Afrika Bambaataa. ... Melle Mel (born Melvin Glover on May 15, 1962 in Bronx, New York ) is a hip-hop musician, one of the pioneers of old school hip hop as a lyricist & as lead rapper of Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five. ... Album cover of The Official Adventures of Grandmaster Flash DJ Grandmaster Flash (born Joseph Saddler on January 1, 1958 in Barbados) is a hip hop musician and DJ; one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ... A breakdancer performing a one-handed freeze (also known as a pike) in the streets of Paris. ... b-boy was originally a term applied to a breakdancer. ... Style Wars is an early documentary on hip hop culture, made by Tony Silver and Henry Chalfant, made in New York City in the early 1980s. ... For other uses, see Wild Style (disambiguation). ... Beat Street is a 1984 mainstream hip hop dramatic feature film, and the second following Breakin. It is set in New York City during the popularity rise of hip hop culture in the early 1980s. ...


Although there were many early MCs that recorded solo projects of note, such as DJ Hollywood, Kurtis Blow and Spoonie Gee, the frequency of solo artists didn't increase until later with the rise of soloists with really big stage presence and drama, such as LL Cool J. Most early hip hop was dominated by groups where collaboration between the members was integral to the show.[13] DJ Hollywood (born December 10, 1954) is an American old school hip hop DJ and rapper. ... Kurtis Blow (born Curtis Walker, 9 August 1959, Harlem, New York) is one of the first commercially successful rappers and the first to sign with a major label. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... James Todd Smith III (born January 14, 1968), better known as LL Cool J, is an American hip hop artist and actor. ...

Influence of disco

Hip-hop music was both heavily influenced by disco and a backlash against it. According to Kurtis Blow, the early days of hip-hop were characterized by divisions between fans and detractors of disco music. This article is about the music genre. ... Kurtis Blow (born Curtis Walker, 9 August 1959, Harlem, New York) is one of the first commercially successful rappers and the first to sign with a major label. ...


Hip hop had largely emerged as "a direct response to the watered down, Europeanised, disco music that permeated the airwaves",[14][15] and the earliest hip hop was mainly based on hard funk loops. However, by 1979, disco instrumental loops/tracks had become the basis of much hip hop music. This genre got the name of "disco rap". Ironically, hip hop music was also a proponent in the eventual decline in disco popularity. This article is about the music genre. ...


DJ Pete Jones, Eddie Cheeba, DJ Hollywood, and Love Bug Starski were disco-influenced hip hop DJs. Their styles differed from other hip hop musicians who focused on rapid-fire rhymes and more complex rhythmic schemes. Afrika Bambaataa, Paul Winley, Grandmaster Flash, and Bobby Robinson were all members of this latter group. DJ Hollywood (born December 10, 1954) is an American old school hip hop DJ and rapper. ... Lovebug Starski is an American hip hop artist and one of the pioneers of the form. ... Afrika Bambaataa is a DJ and community leader from the South Bronx, who was instrumental in the early development of hip hop throughout the 1970s. ... Joseph Biggie Grand Saddler (born January 1, 1958 in Bridgetown, Barbados), better known as Grandmaster Flash, is a American hip hop musician and DJ; one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ... nba ...


In Washington, D.C. go-go emerged as a reaction against disco and eventually incorporated characteristics of hip hop during the early 1980s. The genre of electronic music behaved similarly, eventually evolving into what is known as house music in Chicago and techno music in Detroit. For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Go-Go is a subgenre of funk music developed in and around Washington, D.C. in the mid and late 1970s. ... For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ... House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit, Michigan during the mid-1980s with influences from electro, New Wave, Funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during the end of the Cold War in industrial America at that time. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor...

Transition to recording

The label of "Rapper's Delight"

The first hip hop recording is widely regarded to be Sugar Hill Gang's Rapper's Delight, from 1979.[16] Much controversy surrounds this allegation because some point out that King Tim III (Personality Jock) by The Fatback Band was released a few weeks before Rapper's Delight.[17] There are various other claimants for the title of first hip hop record. Rappers Delight is a 1979 single by American hip hop trio The Sugarhill Gang; it was one of the first hip hop hit singles. ... The Sugarhill Gang is an American hip hop group, known mostly for one hit, Rappers Delight, the first hip hop single to become a Top 40 hit. ... Rappers Delight is a 1979 single by American hip hop trio The Sugarhill Gang; it was one of the first hip hop hit singles. ... King Tim III (Personality Jock) is a 1979 (see 1979 in music) song by the Fatback Band from the disco album XII. Released a few months before Rappers Delight (which is often cited as the first commercially released hip hop song), this song has become perhaps the bands... The Fatback Band (later, Fatback) were a 1970s and 80s American funk band. ...


By the 1980’s, all the major elements and techniques of the hip hop genre were in place. Though not yet mainstream, hip hop had permeated outside of New York City; it could be found in cities as diverse as Los Angeles, Washington, DC, Baltimore, Dallas, Kansas City, San Antonio, TX, Miami, Seattle, St. Louis, New Orleans, Houston, and Toronto. Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Dallas redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Alamo in San Antonio San Antonio is a city in the U.S. state of Texas. ... . City nicknames: The American Riviera; The Magic City Location of the city proper in the state of Florida County Miami-Dade County, Florida Area  - Total  - Water 143. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... The Gateway Arch, shown here behind the Old Courthouse, is the most recognizable part of the St. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Houston redirects here. ...


Despite the genre's growing popularity, Philadelphia was, for many years, the only city whose contributions could be compared to New York City's. Hip hop music became popular in Philadelphia in the late 70s. The first released record was titled "Rhythm Talk", by Jocko Henderson. For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


The New York Times had dubbed Philadelphia the "Graffiti Capital of the World" in 1971. Philadelphia native DJ Lady B recorded "To the Beat Y'All" in 1979, and became the first female solo hip hop artist to record music.[18] Later, Schoolly D, another Philadelphia artist, helped invent what became known as gangsta rap. The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Lady B (b. ... // Background Schoolly D is the moniker of Jesse B. Weaver, Jr. ... For the Ice T album, see Gangsta Rap (album). ...

1980s

Russell Simmons
Afrika Bambaataa (on the left)
The cover of Kurtis Blow's album Kurtis Blow

The 1980s marked an intense diversification of hip hop as the genre developed more complex styles. Some early examples of such styles are represented in the following tracks: Kurtis Blow (born Curtis Walker, 9 August 1959, Harlem, New York) is one of the first commercially successful rappers and the first to sign with a major label. ... Kurtis Blow, (born Curtis Walker on August 9, 1959), is one of the most influential early rappers and hip hops first mainstream star. ...

  • Bruce Haack & Russell Simmons - "Party Machine" (1982). Now considered the 'blueprint' of electro. The track includes a 'shout-out'; it is arguably the first song to do so.
  • Rammellzee & K-Rob - "Beat Bop" (1983). This song was a 'slow jam' which had a dub influence with its use of reverb and echo as texture and playful sound effects.
  • T La Rock - "It's Yours" (1984). This record is not only famed for its quick-fire editing but also for his 'scientific' approach to rhyme construction.

Heavy usage of the new generation of drum machines such as the Oberheim DMX and Roland 808 models was a characteristic of many 1980 songs. To this day the 808 kickdrum is traditionally used by hip hop producers. Over time sampling technology became more advanced; however earlier producers such as Marley Marl used drum machines to construct their beats from small excerpts of other beats in synchronisation. Later, samplers such as the E-mu SP-1200 allowed not only more memory but more flexibility for creative production. This allowed the filtration and layering different hits, and with a possibility of re-sequencing them into a single piece. Joseph Biggie Grand Saddler (born January 1, 1958 in Bridgetown, Barbados), better known as Grandmaster Flash, is a American hip hop musician and DJ; one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ... The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel (1981) is a single released by Grandmaster Flash. ... Bruce Clinton Haack (1931-1988) was a musician and composer, and a pioneer within the realm of electronic music. ... Russell Simmons (born October 4, 1957 in Queens, New York), is an American entrepreneur and record producer. ... Electro is either (a) a prefix used to indicate a relationship to electricity, as in electro-mechanical, or electro-magnet, or (b) a stand-alone word. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Look up dub in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... When sound is produced in an enclosed space multiple reflections build up and blend together creating reverberation or reverb. ... Look up echo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Clarence Ronnie Keaton (born 1961), known by the stage name, T La Rock, was an American old school rapper best known for his collaboration with Def Jam Recordings co-founder Rick Rubin and the 1984 single, Its Yours. // T La Rock was born and raised in the Bronx borough... A Boss DR-202 Drum Machine Drum machines are sequencers with a synthesizer, sampler, and/or a sample playback (rompler) component that is tailored to imitate the sounds of drums and other percussion instruments. ... Oberheim Electronics is a company, founded in 1973 by Tom Oberheim (a former design engineer at Maestro), which manufactured audio synthesizers and a variety of other electronic musical instruments. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Sampling may refer to: Sampling (signal processing), converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal Sampling (music), re-using portions of sound recordings in a piece Sampling (statistics), selection of observations to acquire some knowledge of a statistical population Sampling (case studies), selection of cases for single or multiple case... Marlon Williams (born September 30, 1962 in Queens, New York City), better known as Marley Marl, is an influential hip-hop producer. ... Synchronization is coordination with respect to time. ... A sampler can be any of the following things: In general, a sampler is any broadly representative cross-section of some collection; for instance, food products are sometimes packaged in samplers containing a variety of chocolates or beers. ... E-mu SP-1200 is a classic sampler released August of 1987 by E-mu as an update of the SP-12. ...


With the emergence of a new generation of samplers such as the AKAI S900 in the late 1980s, producers did not require the aid of tape loops. Public Enemy's first two albums were created with the help of large tape loops. The process of looping break into a breakbeat now became more common with a sampler, now doing the job which so far had been done manually by the DJ. In 1989, DJ Mark James under the moniker "45 King", released "The 900 Number", a breakbeat track created by synchronizing samplers and vinyl.[13] Public Enemy, also known as PE, is a hip hop group from Long Island, New York, known for their politically charged lyrics, criticism of the media, and active interest in the concerns of the African American community. ...


The content of hip hop evolved as well. The early styles presented in the 1970s soon were replaced with metaphorical lyrics over complex, multi-layered instrumentals. Artists such as Melle Mel, Rakim, Chuck D, and KRS-One revolutionized hip hop by transforming it into a more mature art form. The Message (1982) by Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five is widely considered the birth of "serious" rap. Melle Mel (born Melvin Glover on May 15, 1962 in Bronx, New York ) is a hip-hop musician, one of the pioneers of old school hip hop as a lyricist & as lead rapper of Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five. ... Rakim (pronounced Rah-Kem) (full name Rakim Allah, born William Michael Griffin Jr. ... Carlton Douglas Ridenhour (born August 1, 1960 in Brooklyn, New York), better known by his stage name, Chuck D, is an African-American rapper, author, and producer. ... KRS-One (born Lawrence Krisna Parker on August 20, 1965 in Brooklyn, New York. ... For Nas song, see The Message (Nas song). ... DJ Grandmaster Flash was one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ...


During the early 1980s, electro music was formed within the hip hop movement, largely led by artists such as Cybotron, Hashim, Planet Patrol and Newcleus. The most notable proponent was Afrika Bambaataa who produced a single called "Planet Rock". Clear (1990) Cybotron was a techno group formed in 1980 by Juan Atkins and Richard 3070 Davis in Detroit, Michigan. ... Hashim (died ca. ... Space Patrol was a puppet TV series from the United Kingdom, made in 1962, written and produced by Roberta Leigh in association with the Associated British Corporation It featured the vocal talents of Dick Vosburgh, Ronnie Stevens, Libby Morris, Murray Kash and Ysanne Churchman, and comprised 39 half-hour episodes. ... Newcleus is a band that came in on the first wave of electronic hip-hop in the early 1980s. ... Afrika Bambaataa is a DJ and community leader from the South Bronx, who was instrumental in the early development of hip hop throughout the 1970s. ... This article is about the UK radio station. ...


Some rappers eventually became mainstream pop performers. Kurtis Blow's appearance in a Sprite commercial[19] marked the first hip hop musician to represent a major product. Kurtis Blow (born Curtis Walker, 9 August 1959, Harlem, New York) is one of the first commercially successful rappers and the first to sign with a major label. ... Sprite is a clear, lemon-lime-flavored (called lemonade in Australia), non-caffeinated soft drink, produced by the Coca-Cola Company. ...

Nationalization and internationalization

Hip hop was almost entirely unknown outside of the United States prior to the early 1980s. During that decade, it began its spread to every inhabited continent and became a part of the music scene in dozens of countries. In the early part of the decade, breakdancing became the first aspect of hip hop culture to reach Germany, Japan, Australia and South Africa, where the crew Black Noise established the practice before beginning to rap later in the decade. Meanwhile, recorded hip hop was released in France (Dee Nasty's 1984 Paname City Rappin') and the Philippines (Dyords Javier's "Na Onseng Delight" and Vincent Dafalong's "Nunal"). In Puerto Rico, Vico C became the first Latino rapper, and his recorded work was the beginning of what became known as reggaeton. Hip hop music was primarily limited to its country of origin, the United States, until the 1980s, at which point it reached into other countries and continents until its presence was worldwide. ... A breakdancer performing a one-handed freeze (also known as a pike) in the streets of Paris. ... Black noise is 1. ... Dee Nasty (Born 1960) is a DJ, producer, and Hip-Hop pioneer in Paris, France. ... Vico C (born Armando Lozada Cruz on September 8, 1971) is a Puerto Rican rapper and singer who is considered one of the founders of reggaeton. ... Reggaeton (also spelled Reggaetón, and known as Reguetón and Reggaetón in Spanish) is a form of urban music which became popular with Latin American youth during the early 1990s and spread over the course of 10 years to North American, European, Asian, and Australian audiences. ...


Japanese hip hop is said to have begun when Hiroshi Fujiwara returned to Japan and started playing Hip-Hop records in the early 1980s.[20] Japanese hip hop generally tends to be most directly influenced by old school hip hop, taking from the era's catchy beats, dance culture, and overall fun and carefree nature and incorporating it into their music. As a result, hip hop stands as one of the most commercially viable mainstream music genres in Japan, and the line between it and pop music is frequently blurred.


Hip hop has globalized into many cultures worldwide, as evident through the emergence of numerous regional scenes. It has emerged globally as a movement based upon the main tennets of hip hop culture. The music and the art continue to embrace, even celebrate, its transnational dimensions while staying true to the local cultures to which it is rooted. Hip-hop's inspiration differs depending on each culture. Still, the one thing virtually all hip hop artists worldwide have in common is that they acknowledge their debt to those African American people in New York who launched the global movement.[21] While hip-hop is sometimes taken for granted by Americans, it is not so elsewhere, especially in the developing world, where it has come to represent the empowerment of the disenfranchised and a slice of the American dream. American hip-hop music has reached the cultural corridors of the globe and has been absorbed and reinvented around the world.[22] An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...

New school hip hop

The new school of hip hop was a second wave of hip hop music starting from 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D.M.C. and LL Cool J. Like the hip hop preceding it, it came predominately from New York City. The new school was initially characterized in form by drum machine led minimalism, often tinged with elements of rock. It was notable for taunts and boasts about rapping, and socio-political commentary, both delivered in an aggressive, self-assertive style. In image as in song its artists projected a tough, cool, street b-boy attitude. These elements contrasted sharply with the funk and disco influenced outfits, novelty hits, live bands, synthesizers and party rhymes of artists prevalent in 1984, and rendered them old school. New school artists made shorter songs that could more easily gain radio play, and more cohesive LPs than their old school counterparts. By 1986 their releases began to establish hip hop as a fixture of the mainstream. Rap and hip hop became commercially successful, as exemplified by The Beastie Boys' 1986 album Licensed to Ill, which was the first rap album to hit #1 on the Billboard charts.[23] Old school hip hop is a term used to describe the very earliest hip hop music to come out of the block parties of New York City in the 1970s and 1980s. ... New school hip hop is a rarely-heard term referring to hip hop created later in the forms development, contrasted with old school hip hop. ... Run-DMC is a famous hip hop crew founded by Jason Mizell (Jam Master Jay) and includes Joseph Run Simmons and Darryl DMC McDaniels, all from Hollis, Queens. ... James Todd Smith III (born January 14, 1968), better known as LL Cool J, is an American hip hop artist and actor. ... The Beastie Boys as depicted on the cover of their 1992 album Check Your Head. ... Licensed to Ill is the debut album by the Beastie Boys, released in 1986 (see 1986 in music). ...

Golden age hip hop

Public Enemy

Hip hop's "golden age" is a name given to a period in hip hop - usually from the late 1980s to early 90s - said to be characterized by its diversity, quality, innovation and influence. There were strong themes of Afrocentricity and political militancy, while the music was experimental and the sampling was eclectic. There was often a strong jazz influence. The artists most often associated with the phase include Public Enemy (whose 1988 album It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back is widely regarded as hip hop's greatest moment), KRS-One and his Boogie Down Productions, Stetsasonic, Eric B. & Rakim, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest, Brand Nubian and the Jungle Brothers. The golden age of hip hop, derivative of old school hip hop, was probably introduced with the popularity of Run-DMCs 1986 album Raising Hell. ... Jazz rap is a fusion of alternative hip hop music and jazz, developed in the very late 1980s and early 1990s. ... It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back is the second full-length album by American hip hop group Public Enemy, released on April 19, 1988 (see 1988 in music) on Def Jam Recordings. ... KRS-One (born Lawrence Krisna Parker on August 20, 1965 in Brooklyn, New York. ... Boogie Down Productions (1989) Boogie Down Productions was originally composed of KRS One, D Nice, and DJ Scott La Rock. ... Stetsasonic, appearing on the cover of their debut album, On Fire Stetsasonic was an American hip hop group formed in 1981 (see 1981 in music) in Brooklyn, New York. ... Eric Barrier (Eric B.) and William Griffin (Rakim), were a hip-hop duo known as Eric B. & Rakim. ... De La Soul is a Grammy-award winning hip hop group from Long Island, New York. ... A Tribe Called Quest is a critically acclaimed and highly-influential American hip-hop group, formed in 1988. ... Brand Nubian is a hip hop group from New Rochelle, New York, consisting of three MCs; Grand Puba (born Maxwell Dixon, March 4, 1966), Sadat X (formerly Derek X, born Derek Murphy) and Lord Jamar (born Lorenzo Dechalus, on September 17, 1968), and two DJs, DJ Alamo and DJ Sincere. ... The Jungle Brothers are an American hip hop group who pioneered the fusion of jazz and hip-hop and also became the first hip hop group to use an in house producer. ...

Gangsta rap and West Coast hip hop

Gangsta rap is a genre of hip hop that reflects the violent lifestyles of some inner-city youths. It was pioneered by the mid 80s work of musicians such as Schoolly D and Ice T. In 1988, N.W.A. released Straight Outta Compton, which formalised the style, as well as cementing Los Angeles as its main centre. Thus, N.W.A. helped to establish West Coast hip hop as a genre equal in importance to East Coast hip hop. For the Ice T album, see Gangsta Rap (album). ... West Coast hip hop, is a style of hip hop music that originated in California in the early 1980s. ... // Background Schoolly D is the moniker of Jesse B. Weaver, Jr. ... Tracy Marrow (born February 16, 1958), better known as Ice T or Ice-T, is an American rapper, singer and actor. ... This article is about the hip-hop group. ... This article is about the album. ... East Coast hip hop is a style of hip hop music that originated in New York City during the early-1970s. ...

1990s

In 1992, Dr. Dre released The Chronic. As well as helping to establish West Coast gangsta rap as more commercially viable than East Coast hip hop, this album founded a style called G Funk, which soon came to dominate West Coast hip hop. The style was further developed and popularized by Snoop Dogg's 1993 album Doggystyle. For the New York radio and television presenter, see Doctor Dre. ... Back cover The Chronic is the highly influential debut album from American rap producer Dr. Dre, released in 1992. ... For the record label, see G-Funk Entertainment G-Funk, or Gangsta Funk, is a type of hip hop music that emerged from West Coast gangsta rap in the early 1990s. ... Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. ...


The Wu-Tang Clan shot to fame around the same time. Being from New York's Staten Island, the Wu-Tang Clan brought the East Coast back into the mainstream at a time when the West Coast mainly dominated rap. Other major artists in the so-called East Coast hip hop renaissance included The Notorious B.I.G., Jay-Z, and Nas. (See the article on the East Coast-West Coast hip hop rivalry.) Wu-Tang redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Jay-Z (aka the Jigga, HOV and Hova, born Shawn Carter on December 4, 1970 in Brooklyn, New York) is an African American rapper/hip hop artist and record label executive; one of the most popular and successful rappers of the late 1990s and early 2000s. ... For other uses, see Nas (disambiguation). ... The East Coast–West Coast hip hop rivalry was an on-going dispute in the early-mid 1990s between artists and fans of the East Coast and West Coast hip-hop scenes. ...


Record labels based out of Atlanta, St. Louis, and New Orleans also gained fame for their local scenes. The midwest rap scene is also notable, with the fast vocal styles from artists such as Bone Thugs-n-Harmony and Twista. By the end of the decade, hip hop was an integral part of popular music, and many American pop songs had hip hop components. This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... The Gateway Arch, shown here behind the Old Courthouse, is the most recognizable part of the St. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Midwest rap is a style of hip hop that originated in the Midwestern United States, in areas including Minneapolis, Minnesota, Cleveland, Ohio, St. ... Bone Thugs-n-Harmony is an American hip hop group from Cleveland, Ohio, best known for their high pace rapping style and harmonizing vocals. ... Carl Terrell Mitchell, (born on November 27, 1973 in Chicago, Illinois) better known by his stage name Twista, is an American rapper that held the title of fastest rapper in the world according to the Guinness World Records in 1992, being able to rap 11. ...

World hip hop

In the 1990s and the following decade, elements of hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music. Nu soul, for example, combined hip hop and soul music and produced major stars such as Gnarls Barkley. In the Dominican Republic, a recording by Santi Y Sus Duendes and Lisa M became the first single of merenrap, a fusion of hip hop and merengue. Nu soul (AKA neo soul) is a musical genre that fuses R&B, 1970s style soul, and hip hop. ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... Gnarls Barkley is an American musical collaboration between multi-instrumentalist and producer Danger Mouse (Brian Burton) from New York, and rapper/vocalist Cee-Lo Green (Thomas Callaway), from Atlanta. ... Merenrap, or meren-rap, is a style of hip hop music which was formed from the fusion of Dominican merengue music with rapping. ... Merengue is a type of lively, joyful music and dance that comes from the Dominican Republic [1]. It is popular in the Dominican Republic. ...


New York City experienced a heavy Jamaican hip hop influence during the 90s. This influence was brought on by cultural shifts particularly because of the heightened immigration of Jamaicans to New York City and the American-born Jamaican youth who were coming of age during the 90s. Hip hop artists such as De La Soul and Black Star have produced albums influenced by Jamaican roots.[2] De La Soul is a Grammy-award winning hip hop group from Long Island, New York. ... Black star can refer to any of the following; Black Star, refers to the planet Saturn in ancient Judeism beliefs Dark star, a theoretical star that has a surface escape velocity that equals or exceeds the speed of light Black hole, any region of space time where escape to the...


In Europe, Africa, and Asia, hip hop began to move from the underground to mainstream audiences. In Europe, hip hop was the domain of both ethnic nationals and immigrants. British hip hop, for example, became a genre of its own, and Germany produced the well-known Die Fantastischen Vier as well as several Turkish performers like the controversial Cartel, Kool Savaş, and Azad. Similarly, France has produced a number of native-born stars, such as IAM and Suprême NTM, but the most famous French rapper is probably the Senegalese-born MC Solaar. The Netherlands' most famous rappers are The Osdorp Posse, an all-white crew from Amsterdam, and The Postmen from Cape Verde and Suriname. Italy found its own rappers, including Jovanotti and Articolo 31, grow nationally renowned, while the Polish scene began in earnest early in the decade with the rise of PM Cool Lee. In Romania, B.U.G. Mafia came out of Bucharest's Pantelimon neighborhood, and their brand of gangsta rap underlines the parallels between life in Romania's Communist-era apartment blocks and in the housing projects of America's ghettos. Israel's hip hop grew greatly in popularity at the end of the decade, with several stars Palestinian (Tamer Nafer) and Israeli (Subliminal) . Mook E., preached peace and tolerance. British Hip Hop is a genre of music, and a culture that covers a variety of styles of rap music made in the United Kingdom. ... Die Fantastischen Vier also known as Fanta 4 is a German hip hop group from Stuttgart, Germany. ... Cartel is a 1995 Turkish hip hop group that received attention and popularity in both Turkey and Germany. ... Kool Savas (formerly King Kool Savas (KKS), Juks or Jux) (born February 10, 1975 in Aachen) is a German rapper of Turkish descent. ... Azad means free in Armenian, Persian, Urdu and Hindi. ... IAM may refer to: Maroc Telecom (Arabic transliteration: Ittisalat Al Maghrib), the main telecommunication company in Morocco IAM (band), a French rap band from Marseille created in 1989 International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers, a North American labor union Institute of Advanced Motorists, a charity based in the UK... Suprême NTM (or simply NTM) is a French hip hop group formed in 1989 in the Seine-Saint-Denis département. ... MC Solaar is the stage name of francophone hip hop artist Claude MBarali (born March 5, 1969). ... Cover of the debut album Osdorp Stijl Osdorp Posse was one of the first rap groups to produce rap music in the Dutch language. ... Jovanotti (often misspelt as Giovanotti) is an Italian singer-songwriter and rapper. ... Articolo 31 is a popular band in Milan, Italy, melding hip hop, funk, pop and traditional Italian musical forms. ... Piotr Marzec (b. ... Uzzi, Caddy, Tataee, DJ Swamp & friend Villy at the MTV Awards, 2004 BUG Mafia and Loredana Groza B.U.G. Mafia (Bucuresti Under Ground Mafia) is a Bucharest based hip hop crew (founded in 1993), among the first hip hop groups in Romania. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Sorin Oprescu (Independent) Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... Pantelimon (population: 1,922) is a commune in Ilfov county, Romania. ... For the term Palestinian as applied to Jews, see Palestinian Jew. ... Tamer Nafar is a Palestinian rap artist. ... Yaakov Kobi Shimony (Hebrew: יעקב קובי שמעוני, born November 13, 1979), generally known by his rap name Subliminal (Hebrew: סאבלימינל), is an Israeli rap artist and music producer. ...


In Asia, mainstream stars rose to prominence in the Philippines, led by Francis Magalona, Rap Asia, MC Lara and Lady Diane. In Japan, where underground rappers had previously found a limited audience, and popular teen idols brought a style called J-rap to the top of the charts in the middle of the '90s. Francis Kiko Magalona or as he is also known FrancisM, Master Rapper, and The Man From Manila is credited as being the first Filipino rapper in the Philippines to successfully crossover to the mainstream. ... For other uses, see Teen idol (disambiguation). ...


Latinos had played an integral role in the early development of hip hop, and the style had spread to parts of Latin America, such as Cuba, early in its history. In Mexico, popular hip hop began with the success of Calo in the early '90s. Later in the decade, with Latin rap groups like Cypress Hill on the American charts, Mexican rap rock groups, such as Control Machete, rose to prominence in their native land. An annual Cuban hip hop concert held at Alamar in Havana helped popularize Cuban hip hop, beginning in 1995. Hip hop grew steadily more popular in Cuba, because of official governmental support for musicians. Caló is an Argot of Mexican Spanish spoken in the first half of the 20th century in the southwest United States and was associated with the Zoot Suit or Pachuco culture. ... Cypress Hill is a mostly-Latin American hip hop group from South Gate, California, who are quite possibly most known for their song Insane in the Brain. Their consistent advocacy around the legalization of cannabis consumption has contributed to their popularity. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Alamar is a district in east part of the city of La Havana in Cuba. ...


Brazilian hip hop scene is considered to be the second biggest in the world, just behind American hip hop. Brazilian hip hop is heavily associated with racial and economic issues in the country, where a lot of Black People live in a bad situation in the violent slums, known in Brazil as favelas. São Paulo city is where Hip Hop began in the country, but it spread all over Brazil soon, and today, almost every big Brazilian city, like Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, Belo Horizonte, Recife and Brasilia have a big Hip Hop scene going on. Racionais MC's, MV Bill, Marcelo D2, Rappin Hood, Thaíde and Dj Hum, GOG, RZO are considered the most powerful names in Brazilian hip hop. Brazilian hip hop is one of the worlds major hip hop scenes, with active rap, break dance, and graffiti scenes, specially in São Paulo, where groups tend to have a more international style, influenced by old school hip hop and gangsta rap. ... The United States is the nation of origin of hip hop, a cultural movement that began in the 1970s in New York City, among primarily African American and Hispanic audiences. ... Brazilian hip hop is one of the worlds major hip hop scenes, with active rap, break dance, and graffiti scenes, specially in São Paulo, where groups tend to have a more international style, influenced by old school hip hop and gangsta rap. ... Afro-Brazilian is the term used to racially categorise Brazilian citizens who are black or mainly-black, yet it is rarely used in Brazil. ... Look up favela in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the city. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Salvador (meaning saviour in Spanish and Portuguese) can be: the Central American nation of El Salvador. ... Nickname: Motto: A cidade da gente (Our City) Location of Curitiba Coordinates: , Country Brazil Region State Paraná Founded 29 March 1693 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Mayor Carlos Alberto Richa (PSDB) Area  - City 430. ... This article is about Porto Alegre, Brazil. ... Nickname: Motto: Location of Belo Horizonte Coordinates: , Country Brazil Region State Minas Gerais Founded 1901 Incorporated (as city) December 12, 1897 Government  - Mayor Fernando da Mata Pimentel (PT) Area  - City 330. ... Nickname: Motto: lucea omnibus Latin: That it may shine on all (Matthew 5:15) Location of Recife Country Brazil Region State Pernambuco Founded March 12, 1537 Incorporated (as village) 1709 Incorporated (as city) 1823 Government  - Mayor João Paulo Lima e Silva (PT) Area  - City 218 km² (84. ... Bras lia is the capital city of Brazil and is located in the center of the country in a federal district created in the state of Goi s. ... Racionais MCs (Mano Brown, Ice Blue, Edy Rock and DJ KL Jay) are one of the earliest and most prolific Brazilian rap groups. ... Marcelo D2 (born Marcelo Maldonado Gomes Peixoto, November 5, 1967, in Rio De Janeiro) is a Brazilian rapper. ... Brazilian hip hop is one of the worlds major hip hop scenes, with active rap, break dance, and graffiti scenes, specially in São Paulo, where groups tend to have a more international style, influenced by old school hip hop and gangsta rap. ...

West Coast hip hop

After N.W.A broke up, Dr. Dre (a former member) released The Chronic in 1992, which peaked at #1 on the R&B/hip hop chart,[24] #3 on the pop chart and spawned a #2 pop single with "Nuthin' but a "G" Thang." The Chronic took West Coast rap in a new direction,[25] influenced strongly by P funk artists, melding sleazy funk beats with slowly drawled lyrics. This came to be known as G-funk and dominated mainstream hip hop for several years through a roster of artists on Death Row Records including Tupac Shakur and Snoop Dogg, whose Doggystyle included the songs "What's My Name" and "Gin and Juice," both top ten hits.[26] West Coast hip hop, is a style of hip hop music that originated in California in the early 1980s. ... This article is about the hip-hop group. ... For the New York radio and television presenter, see Doctor Dre. ... Back cover The Chronic is the highly influential debut album from American rap producer Dr. Dre, released in 1992. ... Nuthin but a G Thang is a 1993 hit song by American gangsta rapper Dr. Dre, from his debut solo album, The Chronic. ... P-Funk is a musical genre associated with George Clinton and other members of Parliament Funkadelic, which had a heyday in the 1970s, and still continues to attract new fans thanks both to the legacy of stank samples it bequeathed to hip hop, and the live shows that the band... G-funk, an abbreviation of Gangsta-funk, is a type of hip hop music that emerged from West Coast gangsta rap in the early 1990s. ... Death Row Records is a record label that was founded in 1991 by Dr. Dre and Suge Knight, and was once home to some of raps biggest names, including Tupac Shakur, Dr. Dre, Snoop Doggy Dogg and Tha Dogg Pound (Kurupt and Daz Dillinger). ... Tupac Amaru Shakur (June 16, 1971 – September 13, 1996), also known by his stage names 2Pac, Makaveli, or simply as Pac, was an American artist renowned for his rap music, movie roles, poetry, and his social activism. ... Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. ... This article is about the Snoop Doggy Dogg album. ...


Detached from this scene were more thoughtful artists such as The Pharcyde as well as more underground artists such as the Solesides collective (DJ Shadow and Blackalicious amongst others) Jurassic 5, People Under the Stairs, The Alkaholiks, and earlier Souls of Mischief represented a return to hip-hops roots of sampling and well planned rhymeschemes. Other rappers include Too Short and MC Hammer from Oakland. The Pharcyde is a rap group from the West coast of the United States. ... SoleSides Records is a underground hip-hop label based in Northern California, founded in 1993. ... DJ Shadow (born Josh Davis in 1972)[1] is an American DJ, turntablist, music producer and songwriter. ... Blackalicious is an American alternative hip hop duo. ... Jurassic 5 is a hip hop group formed in 1993 by rappers Chali 2na, Akil, Zaakir aka Soup, Mark 7even, and turntable maestros DJ Nu-Mark and DJ Cut Chemist, who came together from two separate crews, the Rebels of Rhythm and Unity Committee. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tha Alkaholiks, also known as Tha Liks, are an American hip hop group from Los Angeles, California. ... Souls of Mischief is a hip hop group, part of the hip hop collective Hieroglyphics. ... Too Short, or Too $hort, (born Todd Anthony Shaw on April 28, 1966) is a rapper who started his career in his hometown of Oakland, California. ... MC Hammer (born Stanley Kirk Burrell on March 30, 1962) is an American MC who was popular during the late 1980s and early 1990s, known for his dramatic rise to and fall from fame and fortune, his trademark Hammer pants, and for leaving a lasting influence on hip hop culture... Oakland is the name of several places in the United States of America: Oakland, Alabama Oakland, California (The best-known city with this name) Oakland, Florida Oakland, Maine Oakland, Maryland Oakland, Michigan Oakland, Missouri Oakland, Nebraska Oakland, New Jersey Oakland, Oklahoma Oakland, Oregon Oakland, Pennsylvania Oakland, Rhode Island Oakland, Tennessee...

East Coast hip hop

In the early 1990s east coast hip hop was dominated by the Native Tongues posse which was loosely composed of De La Soul with producer Prince Paul, A Tribe Called Quest, The Jungle Brothers, as well as their loose affiliates 3rd Bass, Main Source, and the less successful Black Sheep & KMD. Although originally a "daisy age" conception stressing the positive aspects of life, darker material (such as De La Soul's thought provoking "Millie Pulled a Pistol on Santa") soon crept in. East Coast hip hop is a style of hip hop music that originated in New York City during the early-1970s. ... The Native Tongues Posse is a group of late 1980s and early 1990s black nationalist hip hop artists known for their positive Afrocentric lyrics and jazzy beats. ... De La Soul is a Grammy-award winning hip hop group from Long Island, New York. ... Prince Paul (born Paul Huston) is a DJ and hip hop producer. ... A Tribe Called Quest is a critically acclaimed and highly-influential American hip-hop group, formed in 1988. ... The Jungle Brothers are an American alternative hip hop group who pioneered the fusion of jazz and hip hop. ... 3rd Bass was a rap group in the late 1980s and early 1990s, notable for being one of the first successful interracial rap groups. ... Main Source was an innovative, acclaimed Toronto and New York-based hip hop group comprised of Toronto natives Sir Scratch, K-Cut, and Queens native Large Professor. ... Black Sheep is an alternative hip-hop duo from The Bronx, New York, consisting of Andres Dres Titus and William Mista Lawnge McLean. ... KMD (Kausing Much Damage, or a positive Kause in a Much Damaged society) was a hip-hop trio in the early 1990s best known for launching the career of acclaimed MC and Producer MF Doom, who at the time was known as Zev Love X. Other members of the group...


Artists such as Masta Ace (particularly for Slaughtahouse) & Brand Nubian, Public Enemy, Organized Konfusion followed a more overtly militant poise, both in sound and manner. Biz Markie, the 'clown prince of hip hop' was causing himself, and all other hip-hop producers a problem with his appropriation of the Gilbert O'Sullivan song 'Alone again, naturally'. The quality of this article or section may be compromised by peacock terms. You can help Wikipedia by removing peacock terms. ... SlaughtaHouse is the second album from hip hop artist Masta Ace, released with his crew Masta Ace Incorporated, consisting of Ace, Lord Digga, Paula Perry, Eyceurokk and Leschea. ... Brand Nubian is a hip hop group from New Rochelle, New York, consisting of three MCs; Grand Puba (born Maxwell Dixon, March 4, 1966), Sadat X (formerly Derek X, born Derek Murphy) and Lord Jamar (born Lorenzo Dechalus, on September 17, 1968), and two DJs, DJ Alamo and DJ Sincere. ... Organized Konfusion was an alternative hip hop duo from Queens, New York. ... Biz Markie (born Marcel Hall April 8, 1964 in Harlem, New York) is a rapper and DJ, best known for humorous singles such as Just a Friend. He has been labeled The Clown Prince of Hip-Hop. ... Gilbert OSullivan Raymond Edward OSullivan, known professionally as Gilbert OSullivan (born 1 December 1946, Waterford, County Waterford, Ireland) is an Irish singer-songwriter, best known for his early 1970s hits Alone Again (Naturally), Clair and Get Down. // Early in his life, his family moved to Swindon, Wiltshire...


In the mid 1990s, artists such as the Wu-Tang Clan, Nas and The Notorious B.I.G. increased New York's visibility at a time when hip hop was mostly dominated by West Coast artists. The mid to late 1990s saw a generation of rappers such as the members of D.I.T.C. and Big Pun who would prove very lucrative. Wu-Tang redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nas (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Digging in the Crates Crew, also known as the DITC, is a New York-based hip-hop collective. ... Christopher Lee Rios (November 9, 1971 - February 7, 2000), better known as Big Punisher or Big Pun, was an American rapper of Puerto Rican descent who emerged from the underground rap scene in The Bronx in the late 1990s. ...


The productions of RZA, particularly for Wu-Tang Clan, became very influential, with artists such as Mobb Deep being highly influenced by their combination of somewhat detached instrumental loops, highly compressed and processed drums and gangsta lyrical content. Wu-Tang affiliate albums such as Raekwon the Chef's Only Built 4 Cuban Linx and GZA's Liquid Swords are now viewed as classics along with Wu-Tang 'core' material. RZA (IPA pronunciation: ; born , July 5, 1969) is an American hip hop producer, rapper and actor. ... Wu-Tang redirects here. ... Mobb Deep are a hip hop duo which consists of rappers Havoc and Prodigy. ... Gangsta can refer to: Eye dialect/Slang for a member of a gang, a gangster. ... Raekwon (born January 12, 1970) as Corey Woods (aka the Chef and Lex Diamonds)) is an American rapper and a member of the Wu-Tang Clan. ... Only Built 4 Cuban Linx is an influential East Coast rap album by rapper Raekwon, released in 1995. ... GZA (IPA pronunciation: ), aka The Genius, (born Gary Grice August 22, 1966 in Brooklyn, New York City) is an American hip hop artist. ... Liquid Swords is a solo album by Wu-Tang Clan member GZA, a. ...


Producers such as DJ Premier (primarily for Gangstarr but also for other affiliated artists such as Jeru the Damaja), Pete Rock (With CL Smooth and supplying beats for many others), Buckwild, Large Professor, Diamond D and The 45 King supplying beats for numerous MC's regardless of location. This biographical article or section needs additional references for verification. ... Gang Starr is an American hip hop duo, composed of Guru (hailing from Boston, Massachusetts) and DJ Premier (hailing from Texas). ... Jeru the Damaja (pronounced DA-ma-jer, born Kendrick Jeru Davis) is an MC from Brooklyn, New York. ... Pete Rock (born Peter Phillips, June 21, 1970[1] in Bronx, New York) is an American hip hop DJ, producer and rapper. ... CL Smooth (born Corey Penn, October 8, 1968 in New Rochelle, New York) is an American rapper from Mount Vernon, New York and the vocal half of the influential hip-hop duo Pete Rock & CL Smooth. ... Buckwild is a popular Hip hop producer hailing from The Bronx, New York. ... William Paul Mitchell (born March 21, 1972 in Flushing, Queens, New York), best known as Large Professor, also as Large Pro and the Extra P, is a New York based hip hop record producer and MC. He is best known as a member of the influential underground hip hop group... Diamond D (real name, Joseph Kirkland) is a hip-hop record producer and remixer from The Bronx, New York City. ... DJ Mark the 45 King (born Mark James), also known as the 45 King, started DJing in New Jersey in the mid-80s. ...


Albums such as Nas's Illmatic, Jay-Z's Reasonable Doubt and OC's Word...Life are made up of beats from this pool of producers. For other uses, see Nas (disambiguation). ... Illmatic is the debut album by rapper Nas, released on April 19, 1994 through Columbia Records, and featuring production from Large Professor (of Main Source), Pete Rock (of Pete Rock & CL Smooth), Q-Tip (of A Tribe Called Quest) and DJ Premier (of Gang Starr), as well as a guest... Jay-Z (aka the Jigga, HOV and Hova, born Shawn Carter on December 4, 1970 in Brooklyn, New York) is an African American rapper/hip hop artist and record label executive; one of the most popular and successful rappers of the late 1990s and early 2000s. ... Reasonable doubt redirects here. ... Oc or OC may refer to The O.C., American television show set in Orange County, California. ... is the debut album from underground Hip Hop artist O.C.. The album is considered to be a forgotten Hip Hop classic of the 90s. ...


Later in the decade the business acumen of the Bad Boy records tested itself against Jay-Z and his Roc-A-Fella Records and on the west coast Death Row Records. my name is carl do you like pie i like pie yo momma is so fat Look up bad boy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jay-Z (aka the Jigga, HOV and Hova, born Shawn Carter on December 4, 1970 in Brooklyn, New York) is an African American rapper/hip hop artist and record label executive; one of the most popular and successful rappers of the late 1990s and early 2000s. ... Roc-A-Fella Records is an American hip hop/rap record label. ... Death Row Records is a record label that was founded in 1991 by Dr. Dre and Suge Knight, and was once home to some of raps biggest names, including Tupac Shakur, Dr. Dre, Snoop Doggy Dogg and Tha Dogg Pound (Kurupt and Daz Dillinger). ...


The rivalry between the East Coast and the West Coast rappers eventually turned into a personal rivalry,[27] aided in part by the music media[citation needed].


Although the 'big business' end of the market domininated matters commercially the late 90s to early 2000 era saw a number of relatively successful east coast indie labels such as Rawkus Records (with whom Mos Def gained great success) and later, Def Jux, the history of the two labels is intertwined, the latter having been started by EL-P of Company Flow in reaction to the former, it offered an outlet for more underground artists such as Mike Ladd, Aesop Rock, Mr Lif, RJD2,Cage and Cannibal Ox. Other acts such as the Hispanic Arsonists and slam poet turned MC Saul Williams met with differing degrees of success. Rawkus Records is an American hip hop record label, known for jump-starting the careers of both Mos Def and Talib Kweli. ... Dante Terrell Smith (born December 11, 1973), better known by his stage name Mos Def, is a Golden Globe and Emmy Award-nominated and Grammy Award-nominated acclaimed American actor and MC, respectively. ... Definitive Jux (a. ... El-Producto or El-P (born Jaime Meline) is well known in underground hip hop circles as a pioneer whose work with the trio Company Flow (El-P, Big Jus and Mr. ... Company Flow was a hip hop crew at one time associated with the independent record label Rawkus Records. ... For the Australian poet, see Mike Ladd (poet). ... Aesop Rock (born Ian Matthias Bavitz on 1976-05-11) is an American hip hop artist. ... Mr. ... RJD2 (born Ramble John RJ Krohn on May 27, 1976) is an American hip hop producer, singer and musician. ... Look up cage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cannibal Ox is a hip hop music duo from Harlem, New York City. ... Arsonists The Arsonists are an underground hip hop group formed 1993 in Bushwick, Brooklyn, New York. ... Slam poetry is a form of performance poetry that occurs within a competitive poetry event, called a slam, at which poets perform their own poems (or, in rare cases, those of others) that are judged on a numeric scale by randomly picked members of the audience. ... Saul Stacey Williams (born February 29, 1972) is most known for his blend of poetry and hip-hop. ...

Diversification of styles

In the late 90s, the styles of hip hop diversified. Southern rap became popular in the early '90's,[28] with the releases of Arrested Development's 3 Years, 5 Months & 2 Days in the Life Of... in 1992, Goodie Mob's Soul Food in 1995 and OutKast's ATLiens in 1996. All three groups were from Atlanta, Georgia. Later, Master P (Ghetto D) built up a roster of artists (the No Limit posse) based out of New Orleans. Master P incorporated G funk and Miami bass influences; and distinctive regional sounds from St. Louis, Chicago, Washington D.C., Detroit and others began to gain popularity. Also in the 1990s, rapcore, a fusion of hip hop and hardcore punk,[29] became popular among mainstream audiences. Rage Against the Machine, Linkin Park and Limp Bizkit were among the most well known rapcore bands. See also: Category:Hip hop genres Hip hop music can be subdivided into subgenres, fusions with other genres and regional hip hop scenes. ... Southern rap (or Dirty South hip-hop) is a type of hip hop music that emerged in the late-1990s as a popular force from cities such as New Orleans, Miami, Atlanta, Memphis, Houston, and Dallas. ... Arrested Development is an American progressive hip hop group, founded by Speech and Headliner as a positive, Afrocentric alternative to the gangsta rap popular in the early 1990s. ... 3 Years, 5 Months & 2 Days in the Life Of. ... Goodie Mob, based in Atlanta, Georgia, is widely considered one of the founding hip hop acts of the Dirty South movement. ... This article is about the hip hop group. ... ATLiens is the second album by hip-hop duo OutKast. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... Percy Miller (born April 29, 1969), better known as Master P, (P. Miller) is an American Rapper and Producer. ... This is highest first week selling album by rapper Master P to date. ... No Limit Records is a record label that began in 1990 as the No Limit Record Shop in Richmond, California. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... For the record label, see G-Funk Entertainment G-Funk, or Gangsta Funk, is a type of hip hop music that emerged from West Coast gangsta rap in the early 1990s. ... Miami bass (also known as booty music, a term that may also include other genres, such as dirty rap), is a type of hip hop music that became popular in the 1980s and 1990s. ... The Gateway Arch, shown here behind the Old Courthouse, is the most recognizable part of the St. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Rapcore is a musical genre that fuses the techniques of hip hop, gangsta rap, hard rock, heavy metal, alternative rock, hardcore punk and sometimes funk. ... Hardcore punk is a subgenre of punk rock that originated in North America around 1980. ... Rage Against the Machine, is an American rock band, formed in Los Angeles, California in 1991. ... Linkin Park is a rock band from Agoura Hills, California. ... Limp Bizkit is an American nu metal band from Jacksonville, Florida. ...


Though white rappers like the Beastie Boys and 3rd Bass had had some popular success or critical acceptance from the hip hop community, Eminem's success, beginning in 1999 with the platinum The Slim Shady LP[30] surprised many. However, Eminem was criticized[by whom?] for glorification of violence, misogyny[31] and drug abuse as well as homophobia and albums laced with constant profanity. Adam Horovitz Adam Yauch Michael Diamond The Beastie Boys are an American hip hop group from New York City consisting of Michael Mike D Diamond, Adam MCA Yauch, and Adam Ad-Rock Horovitz. ... 3rd Bass was a rap group in the late 1980s and early 1990s, notable for being one of the first successful interracial rap groups. ... Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), better known as Eminem or Slim Shady, is a Grammy and Academy Award-winning American rapper, record producer and actor from the Detroit, Michigan area. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

2000s

In the year 2000, The Marshall Mathers LP by Eminem sold over ten million copies in the United States and was the fastest selling album of all time[32] Nelly's debut LP, Country Grammar, sold over nine million copies. The United States also saw the success of alternative hip hop in the form of moderately popular performers like The Roots, Dilated Peoples, Gnarls Barkley and Mos Def, who achieved unheard-of success for their field. Alternate covers Alternate cover Limited Edition cover Singles from The Marshall Mathers LP Released: 2000 Released: May 16, 2000 Released: October 17, 2000 Released: January 9, 2001 Released: 2001 The Marshall Mathers LP is the successful second studio album from American rapper Eminem, released in 2000. ... Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), better known as Eminem or Slim Shady, is a Grammy and Academy Award-winning American rapper, record producer and actor from the Detroit, Michigan area. ... For other uses, see Nelly (disambiguation). ... Country Grammar is the debut album of rap artist Nelly. ... Alternative hip hop (also known as alternative rap) is a genre that is defined in greatly varying ways. ... The Roots, a. ... Dilated Peoples is an underground hip hop group residing in California. ... Gnarls Barkley is an American musical collaboration between multi-instrumentalist and producer Danger Mouse (Brian Burton) from New York, and rapper/vocalist Cee-Lo Green (Thomas Callaway), from Atlanta. ... Dante Terrell Smith (born December 11, 1973), better known by his stage name Mos Def, is a Golden Globe and Emmy Award-nominated and Grammy Award-nominated acclaimed American actor and MC, respectively. ...


Southern hip hop in the 2000s gave birth to crunk music. Hip hop influences also found their way increasingly into mainstream pop during this period.


Popular (mainstream and underground) hip hop artists during the 2000s included:


West Coast: B-Real, Blu, The Coup, Crooked I, Del tha Funkee Homosapien, DJ Quik, Guerilla Black, The Game, Hieroglyphics, Ice Cube, Jurassic 5, Kurupt, Kottonmouth Kings, Madlib, MURS, Westside Connection, Xzibit, Zion I, Dilated Peoples, Snoop Dogg, People Under The Stairs, Common Market, Ugly Ducking, The Grouch, Jake One, Lilo, Kay, Kush, Blue Scholars, West Coast hip hop, is a style of hip hop music that originated in California in the early 1980s. ... Louis Freese (born June 2, 1970), known by stage name B-Real, is a Latin rapper of Mexican and Afro-Cuban heritage[1]. He is best known for being the lead rapper in hip hop group Cypress Hill, who debuted with their self-titled album Cypress Hill in 1991. ... The Coup is a hip-hop group based in Oakland, California. ... Dominick Wickliffe, better known by his stage name Crooked I is an American rapper from Long Beach, California. ... Del the Funky Homosapien, also known as Del tha Funkee Homosapien and Deltron Zero, is an alternative hip hop artist. ... David Martin Blake (born January 18, 1970), better known as by his stage name DJ Quik, or as of 2007 simply Quik, is a West Coast rapper and record producer from Compton, California. ... Guerilla Black (born in 1977 in Chicago, Illinois as Toni Guy) is a West Coast rapper from Compton, California. ... Jayceon Terell Taylor (born November 27, 1979 in Los Angeles,[1] California), better known by his stage name The Game, is a multi-platinum American rapper signed to Interscope Records. ... Ice Cube (born OShea Jackson on June 15, 1969 in Los Angeles, California) is an American actor and rapper. ... Jurassic 5 is a hip hop group formed in 1993 by rappers Chali 2na, Akil, Zaakir aka Soup, Mark 7even, and turntable maestros DJ Nu-Mark and DJ Cut Chemist, who came together from two separate crews, the Rebels of Rhythm and Unity Committee. ... Kurupt (born Ricardo Emmanuel Brown on November 23, 1972 in Darby Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania) is an American rapper and former Executive Vice President of Death Row Records. ... Kottonmouth Kings are a hip-hop/rapcore band from California, USA. // The Kottonmouth Kings began in 1994. ... For the word game, see Mad Libs. ... This article is about the rapper. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alvin Nathaniel Joiner (born September 18, 1974) better known by his stage name Xzibit, is an American rapper, actor, and television personality, who was born in Detroit, Michigan and was raised in Los Angeles, California by his father and stepmother. ... Zion I is a hip hop duo that started in Oakland, California. ... Dilated Peoples is an underground hip hop group residing in California. ... Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Common Market performs at the Capitol Hill Block Party July 2006. ... Young Einstein, Andy Cooper & Dizzy Dustin Ugly Duckling are a hip hop trio, formed in 1993 in Long Beach, California. ... LILO (LInux LOader) is a boot loader for Linux. ... Kay may refer to: In fiction: Kay, a character in the Men In Black film series and animated series Sir Kay, character from Arthurian legend In politics: Kay A. Orr, U.S. Republican Party politician Kay Bailey Hutchison, the senior United States Senator from Texas In other fields: DJ Kay... This article is about the Nubian civilization. ... Blue Scholars are a hip hop duo based in Seattle, Washington. ...


Dirty South: T.I, Bobby Ray, Chamillionaire, Three 6 Mafia (DJ Paul, Lord Infamous, Juicy J), Hurricane Chris, UGK (Pimp C, Bun B), Paul Wall, Trick Daddy, Big Tymers Mannie Fresh), Lil Wayne, Juvenile, Webbie, David Banner, Ludacris, Ying Yang Twins, Pastor Troy, Jermaine Dupri, Scarface, 8Ball & MJG, South Park Mexican, Big Moe, Z-Ro Lil Scrappy, Unk,Gorilla Zoe, Dirty south redirects here. ... Hakeem Seriki (born November 28, 1979)better known by his stage name Chamillionaire (pronounced Ka-MIL-yin-air, IPA: , a portmanteau of chameleon and millionaire) is an American rapper (and often singer) and the CEO of Chamillitary Entertainment. ... Three 6 Mafia (formerly Triple 6 Mafia) is an American hip hop group originating from Memphis, Tennessee. ... DJ Paul (born Paul Beauregard in 1977 in Memphis, Tennessee) is one of the producers (along with Juicy J) of Memphis rap group Three 6 Mafia and collective Hypnotize Minds. ... Lord Infamous (born Ricky Dunigan on November 17, 1975 in Memphis, Tennessee) was a member of the Memphis rap group Three 6 Mafia. ... Juicy J (born Jordan Michael Houston on April 5, 1975) is one of the producers of Memphis rap group Three 6 Mafia and collective Hypnotize Minds. ... Chris Dooley, Jr. ... UGK (short for Underground Kingz) was a hip-hop duo from Port Arthur, Texas formed in 1987 by long-time friends the late Chad Pimp C Butler and Bernard Bun B Freeman. ... Chad Butler (December 29, 1973 – December 4, 2007), better known as Pimp C, was an American Southern rapper better known as one-half of the hip hop group UGK. // UGK, which also includes Bun B, is a successful rap group from the Southern U.S. especially during the early to... Bernard Freeman, better known by his stage name Bun B, is a rapper and one half (with the late Pimp C) of Southern hip hop act UGK from Port Arthur, Texas. ... -1... Maurice Young (born September 23, 1973 in Miami, Florida), better known as Trick Daddy, is an Atlantic Records recording artist. ... The Big Tymers were a U.S. hip hop duo, one of the popular acts on New Orleans record label Cash Money Records. ... Mannie Fresh (born Byron Thomas on March 20, 1974 In New Orleans, Louisiana) is the former in-house producer for the successful New Orleans-based record label Cash Money Records. ... Dwayne Michael Carter, Jr. ... Terius Gray (born March 25, 1975 in New Orleans, Louisiana) known by his stage name Juvenile, is an American rapper. ... Webster Gradney, Jr. ... This article is about a musician. ... -1... The Ying Yang Twins are an Atlanta-based crunk rap duo consisting of Kaine (born Eric Jackson on December 16, 1978) and D-Roc (born Deongelo Holmes on February 23, 1979). ... Pastor Troy (born Micah Levar Troy in Augusta, Georgia on November 18, 1977) is an American rapper. ... Jermaine Dupri also known simply as JD (born Jermaine Dupri Mauldin on September 23, 1972) is an American record producer and rapper. ... Brad Terrence Jordan[1] (born on November 9, 1970 in New Jersey), better known by his stage name Scarface (and formerly Akshen) is an American rapper originally known for his work as a member of The Geto Boys. ... 8-Ball and MJG is an American hip hop duo from Memphis, Tennessee. ... South Park Mexican (born Carlos Coy, October 5, 1970 in Houston, Texas) is a rapper, currently incarcerated for child molestation. ... Big Moe, stage name of Kenneth Moore (August 20, 1974 – October 14, 2007), was an American rapper from Houston, Texas. ... Z-Ro (born Joseph Wayne McVey on June 6, 1976) is an American rapper from Houston, Texas, known for his up-from-nothing rise to fame, flexibility in rhyme and extensive collaboration with other rap artists and musicians. ... Lil Scrappy (born Darryl Kevin Richardson II on January 19, 1984 in Atlanta, Georgia) is a rapper signed to BME Recordings. ... Dj Unk (formerly known as Unknown and DJ Unknown, born Anthony Platt) is a DJ/rapper. ... Gorilla Zoe is an American hip hop artist from Atlanta, Georgia. ...


Midwest: Atmosphere, Common, Black Milk, Insane Clown Posse, Esham, Slum Village, Eminem, Proof, Kon Artis, Royce da 5'9", Kanye West, Twista, Lupe Fiasco, Bone Thugs-n-Harmony, Tech N9ne, Brother Ali, Chingy, Nelly, Jibbs, Huey, J Dilla, Trick-Trick, Guilty Simpson, Kid Cudi, Yung Berg, Slug, P.O.S., Chip Tha Ripper Midwest hip hop is hip hop music performed by artists from the Midwestern United States. ... Atmosphere is an American hip hop duo from Minneapolis, Minnesota. ... Lonnie Rashid Lynn, Jr. ... Though still in his early twenties, Black Milk has been a rising talent both as a producer and as an emcee within the Detroit hip hop scene for several years. ... Insane Clown Posse (commonly known as ICP) is an American rap duo originally from Wayne, Michigan but formed in the neighborhood of Delray. ... ESHAM (East Side Hoes And Money) (born Rashaam Attica Smith on September 20, 1973) is a rapper from Detroit, Michigan and member of the hip hop group Natas. ... Slum Village circa 2000 Slum Village is the name of a hip hop duo from Detroit, Michigan. ... Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), better known as Eminem or Slim Shady, is a Grammy and Academy Award-winning American rapper, record producer and actor from the Detroit, Michigan area. ... DeShaun Dupree Holton (October 2, 1973 – April 11, 2006), better known as Proof, was a Detroit hip hop rapper and member of the rap groups D12 and 5 Elementz. ... Kon Artis (born 1978-12-07) is the stage name of Denaun Porter, an African-American rapper in the D12 group. ... Ryan Montgomery (born July 5, 1977) is an MC known by his stage name Royce da 59. He is known for his early association with Detroit hip hop luminary Eminem and subsequent solo career, during which he has released 3 studio albums as well as mixtapes. ... Kanye Omari West (pronounced /kɑnjɛj/) (born June 8, 1977) is an American record producer and rapper who rose to fame in the mid 2000s. ... Carl Terrell Mitchell, (born on November 27, 1973 in Chicago, Illinois) better known by his stage name Twista, is an American rapper that held the title of fastest rapper in the world according to the Guinness World Records in 1992, being able to rap 11. ... Wasalu Muhammad Jaco (born February 16, 1982 in Chicago, Illinois) better known by his stage name Lupe Fiasco, is an American rapper. ... Bone Thugs-n-Harmony is an American hip hop group from Cleveland, Ohio, best known for their high pace rapping style and harmonizing vocals. ... Aaron Dontez Yates (born November 8, 1971 in Kansas City, Missouri) better known by his stage name Tech N9ne, is an American rapper. ... Brother Ali (born Jason Newman, now Ali Newman) is an American hip hop artist. ... Howard Bailey, Jr. ... For other uses, see Nelly (disambiguation). ... Jovan Campbell (Born November 13, 1990 in St. ... Lawrence Franks (born September 12, 1987) better known by his stage name Huey or Baby Huey is a rapper from St. ... James Dewitt Yancey (February 7, 1974 – February 10, 2006), better known by his stage name J Dilla or Jay Dee, was an acclaimed hip-hop producer who emerged from the mid-1990s underground hip hop scene in Detroit, Michigan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Guilty Simpson is a rapper from Detroit, Michigan. ... Christian Ward (born September 9, 1985) better known by his stage name Yung Berg, is an American rapper out of Chicago. ... Sean Daley, (born on September 7, 1972) better known by his stage name Slug, is a rapper from Minneapolis, Minnesota. ... P.O.S. P.O.S. (born Stefon Alexander), is a rapper signed to Rhymesayers Entertainment and a founding member of Doomtree. ...


East Coast: Charles Hamilton, Talib Kweli, MF Doom, Immortal Technique, Memphis Bleek, Cassidy, Swizz Beatz, Cam'ron, Jadakiss, Wu-Tang Clan (RZA, GZA, Method Man, Raekwon, Ghostface Killah, Inspectah Deck, U-God, Masta Killa, Cappadonna, Ol' Dirty Bastard, Redman), Nas, Lloyd Banks, Styles P, Big Pun, Fat Joe, Busta Rhymes, Mims, Mobb Deep, Mos Def, The Roots, Ja Rule, Jay-Z, Aesop Rock, Kool Keith, Edo G, Sha Stimuli, MF Grimm, El-P, KRS-One, De La Soul, Gang Starr, Buckshot, Wiz Khalifa , Krs-One East Coast hip hop is a style of hip hop music that originated in New York City during the early-1970s. ... There are several people named Charles Hamilton: Charles Hamilton (1876-1961) was a writer whose pen name was Frank Richards Charles Hamilton (1767-1849) was a governor of the colony of Newfoundland Charles V. Hamilton (1929-) was a political science professor and co-authored the book Black Power Charles A... Talib Kweli Greene (born October 3, 1975), better known as Talib Kweli, is an American MC from Brooklyn, New York. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Felipe Coronel, better known as Immortal Technique, is a Hip hop MC and political activist. ... Malik Thuston Cox (born on June 23, 1980), better known by his rap persona of Memphis Bleek, is a New York rapper who regularly came in contact with rap legends such as The Notorious B.I.G. and Jay-Z. After his childhood, he has collaborated with artists such as... Barry Adrian Reese (born July 7, 1982), better known by his stage name Cassidy, is an American rapper. ... Kasseem Mike Dean (born August 30, 1978), better known by his stage name Swizz Beatz, is an American record producer and rapper. ... Cameron Giles (born February 4, 1976), better known as Camron, is American rapper from Harlem in New York City. ... Jayson T. Phillips (born May 27, 1975), also known by his stage name Jadakiss, is an American rapper. ... Wu-Tang redirects here. ... RZA (IPA pronunciation: ; born , July 5, 1969) is an American hip hop producer, rapper and actor. ... GZA (IPA pronunciation: ), aka The Genius, (born Gary Grice August 22, 1966 in Brooklyn, New York City) is an American hip hop artist. ... This article is about Method Man. ... Corey Woods (born January 12, 1970), known by his stage name Raekwon, is an American East Coast rapper and a member of the Wu-Tang Clan. ... Dennis Coles (born May 9, 1970), better known by the stage name Ghostface Killah, is an American rapper revered for his lyrical dexterity and vivid imagination. ... “Jason Hunter” redirects here. ... U-God (born Lamont Hawkins, October 11, 1970 in Brownsville, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.) is an American rapper and member of the hip hop collective, Wu-Tang Clan. ... Masta Killa (born Elgin Turner, born August 18, 1969 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American rapper and member of the Wu-Tang Clan. ... Darryl Hill redirects here. ... ODB redirects here. ... For other uses, see Redman. ... For other uses, see Nas (disambiguation). ... Christopher Charles Lloyd (born April 30, 1982 in Baltimore, Maryland), better known as Lloyd Banks, is an American rapper and is a member of G-Unit. ... David Styles (born November 28, 1974), better known as Styles P is an American based rapper. ... Christopher Lee Rios (November 9, 1971 - February 7, 2000), better known as Big Punisher or Big Pun, was an American rapper of Puerto Rican descent who emerged from the underground rap scene in The Bronx in the late 1990s. ... Joseph Antonio Cartagena (born August 19, 1970), better known by his stage name Fat Joe, is an American rapper of Puerto Rican descent, and is signed to Imperial Records. ... Trevor Smith, Jr. ... Shawn Tapiwa Mims (born March 22, 1981), popularly known as Mims, simply his last name, which is also his stage name. ... Mobb Deep are a hip hop duo which consists of rappers Havoc and Prodigy. ... Dante Terrell Smith (born December 11, 1973), better known by his stage name Mos Def, is a Golden Globe and Emmy Award-nominated and Grammy Award-nominated acclaimed American actor and MC, respectively. ... The Roots, a. ... Jeffrey Atkins (born February 29, 1976), better known by his stage name Ja Rule is an American rapper from Hollis, Queens, New York City, New York, United States. ... Jay-Z (aka the Jigga, HOV and Hova, born Shawn Carter on December 4, 1970 in Brooklyn, New York) is an African American rapper/hip hop artist and record label executive; one of the most popular and successful rappers of the late 1990s and early 2000s. ... Aesop Rock (born Ian Matthias Bavitz on 1976-05-11) is an American hip hop artist. ... Keith Matthew Thornton (born c. ... Ed O.G. is a hip-hop artist from Boston, Massachusetts. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... El-Producto or El-P (born Jaime Meline) is well known in underground hip hop circles as a pioneer whose work with the trio Company Flow (El-P, Big Jus and Mr. ... KRS-One (born Lawrence Krisna Parker on August 20, 1965 in Brooklyn, New York. ... De La Soul is a Grammy-award winning hip hop group from Long Island, New York. ... Gang Starr is an influential East Coast rap group that consists of Guru and DJ Premier. ... Boot Camp Clik is a hip hop group from Brooklyn, New York. ... Cameron Thomaz (born 1987), better known by the stage name Wiz Khalifa, is an American rapper based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... KRS-One (born Lawrence Krisna Parker on August 20, 1965 in Brooklyn, New York. ...

World and national music

Some countries, like Tanzania, maintained popular acts of their own in the early 2000s, though many others produced few homegrown stars, instead following American trends. Scandinavian, especially Danish and Swedish, performers became well known outside of their country, while hip hop continued its spread into new regions, including Russia, Japan, Philippines, Canada, China, Korea, India and especially Vietnam. For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


In Germany and France, gangsta rap has become popular among youths who like the violent and aggressive lyrics.[33] Some German rappers openly or comically flirt with Nazism, Bushido (born Anis Mohamed Youssef Ferchichi) raps "Salutiert, steht stramm, Ich bin der Leader wie A" (Salute, stand to attention, I am the leader like 'A') and Fler had a hit with the record Neue Deutsche Welle (New German Wave) complete with the title written in Third Reich style Gothic print and advertised with an Adolf Hitler quote.[34] These references also spawned great controversy in Germany.[35][36] For the Ice T album, see Gangsta Rap (album). ... Bushido (September 28, 1978 in Bonn, Germany), born Anis Mohamed Youssef Ferchichi, is a German rapper whose style is strongly influenced by American Gangsta rap. ... Fler (born Patrick Decker), aka Frank White, is a Gangsta rapper from Berlin, Germany. ...   (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933, and Führer (leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. ...


The album "Babel (33 guests in 33 languages)" is one of the most comprehensive products in world hip-hop in the recent years. Over 30 rappers appear on the material using his own mother tongue.[37]

Crunk and snap music

Crunk originated from southern hip hop in the late 1990s. The style was pioneered and commercialized by artists from Memphis, Tennessee and Atlanta, Georgia. For other uses, see Crunk (disambiguation). ... Snap music is a subgenre of hip hop music that emerged from Atlanta, Georgia. ... Dirty south redirects here. ... Memphis was the wife of Epaphus, the founder of Memphis, Egypt in Greek mythology. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ...


Looped, stripped-down drum machine rhythms are usually used. The Roland TR-808 and 909 are among the most popular. The drum machines are usually accompanied by simple, repeated synthesizer melodies and heavy bass stabs. The tempo of the music is somewhat slower than hip-hop, around the speed of reggaeton. A Boss DR-202 Drum Machine A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument designed to imitate the sound of drums and/or other percussion instruments. ... The Roland TR-808 Rhythm Composer was one of the first programmable drum machines (TR serving as an acronym for Transistor Rhythm). Introduced by the Roland Corporation in late 1980, it was originally manufactured for use as a tool for studio musicians to create demos. ... The Roland TR-909 Rhythm Composer is a partially analog, partially sample-based drum machine built by the Japanese Roland Corporation in 1984. ... Reggaeton (also spelled Reggaetón, and known as Reguetón and Reggaetón in Spanish) is a form of urban music which became popular with Latin American youth during the early 1990s and spread over the course of 10 years to North American, European, Asian, and Australian audiences. ...


The focal point of crunk is more often the beats and music than the lyrics therein. Crunk rappers, however, often shout and scream their lyrics, creating an aggressive, almost heavy, style of hip-hop. While other subgenres of hip-hop address sociopolitical or personal concerns, crunk is almost exclusively party music, favoring call and response hip-hop slogans in lieu of more substantive approaches.[38]


Snap music is an subgenre of crunk that emerged from Atlanta, Georgia, in the late 1990s. The genre soon became popular and in mid-2005 artists from other southern states such as Texas and Tennessee began to emerge with this style. Tracks commonly consist of an 808 bassdrum, hi-hat, bass, snapping, a main groove and a vocal track. Hit snap songs include "Lean Wit It, Rock Wit It" by "Dem Franchize Boys", "Laffy Taffy" by D4L, "It's Goin' Down" by Yung Joc and "Crank That (Soulja Boy)" by Soulja Boy Tell 'Em. This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... The Roland TR-808 Rhythm Composer was one of the first programmable drum machines (TR serving as an acronym for Transistor Rhythm). Introduced by the Roland Corporation in late 1980, it was originally manufactured for use as a tool for studio musicians to create demos. ... There are a range of musical instruments that can be collectively be regarded as bass instruments since they are in the bass range. ... Snapping (clicking ones fingers) is the act of creating a cracking/clicking sound with ones fingers by building tension between the thumb and the middle or index finger, and then moving the middle or index finger so it hits the palm of ones hand at a high... In popular music groove, used in the sense of rhythm, is a term for metre and its embellishment by a rhythm section. ... Lean Wit It, Rock Wit It is a song by Atlanta rap group Dem Franchize Boyz. ... Dem Franchize Boyz is a U.S. crunk rap group from Atlanta signed to So So Def Records. ... Laffy Taffy is a song by the Atlanta based hip-hop group D4L, which reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 in January 2006. ... D4L is an American rap band best known for their song Laffy Taffy. ... Its Goin Down is the single by Mike Shinoda and Joseph Hahn from the Nu metal band Linkin Park, and the scratching artists The X-Ecutioners from their 2002 debut album Built From Scratch. ... Jasiel A. Robinson (born April 2, 1983 in Atlanta, Georgia) better known by his stage name Yung Joc, is a Grammy Award-nominated American rapper from College Park, Georgia. ...

Glitch hop and wonky music

Glitch hop is a fusion genre of hip hop and glitch music that originated in the early to mid 2000s in the United States and Europe. Musically, it is based on irregular, chaotic breakbeats, glitchy basslines and other typical sound effects used in glitch music, like skips. Glitch hop artists include Prefuse 73, Dabrye, Flying Lotus. some of artists, that were noted for creating wonky music are Joker, Hudson Mohawke, Flying Lotus. This article is about breakbeat, the electronic dance music genre. ... In popular music a bassline, also bass line, is an instrumental part, or line, which is in the bass or lowest range and thus lower than the other parts and part of the rhythm section. ... Prefuse 73 is one alias under which electronica and hip-hop artist Scott Herren releases music. ... Dabrye is an alias of Ann Arbor, Michigan-based musician Tadd Mullinix (aka James T. Cotton, SK-1), whose Winking Makes A Face was the first album released by Ann Arbor’s Ghostly International. ... Flying Lotus is a Music Producer/Disc Jockey from Winnetka, California. ... Flying Lotus is a Music Producer/Disc Jockey from Winnetka, California. ...


Wonky is a subgenre of hip hop that originated around 2008 all around the globe (but most notably in the United States and United Kingdom, and among international artists of the Hyperdub music label), under the influence of glitch hop and dubstep. Wonky music is of the same glitchy type as glitch hop, but it was specifically noted for its melodies, rich with "mid-range unstable synths". Scotland has become one of the most prominent places, where wonky music was shaped by artists like Hudson Mohawke and Rustie. In Glasgow, Rustie has created the substyle of wonky music called "aquacrunk", a fusion of wonky and crunk music; the most specific trait of aquacrunk are its "aquatic" synths. 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Hyperdub London based record label that specialises in dubstep. ... Dubstep is a genre of electronic dance music which has its roots in Londons early 2000s UK garage scene. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ...


Glitch hop and wonky are popular among limited amount of people, interested in alternative hip hop, electronic music (especially, dubstep); neither glitch hop nor wonky have met any mainstream popularity. For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ...

Decline in sales

Starting in 2005, sales of hip-hop music in the United States began to severely wane, leading Time magazine to question if mainstream hip-hop was "dying." Billboard Magazine found that, since 2000, rap sales dropped 44%,and declined to 10% of all music sales, which, while still a commanding figure when compared to other genres, is a significant drop from the 13% of all music sales where rap music regularly placed.[39][40] NPR culture critic Elizabeth Blair noted that, "some industry experts say young people are fed up with the violence, degrading imagery and lyrics. Others say the music is just as popular as it ever was, but that fans have found other means to consume the music."[41] It can also be argued that many young people now download music illegally, especially through P2P networks, instead of purchasing albums and singles from legitimate stores. Some put the blame on the lack of lyrical content that hip hop once had, for example Soulja Boy Tell 'Em's 2007 debut album souljaboytellem.com was met with negative reviews.[42] Lack of sampling, a key element of hip hop, has also been noted for the decrease in quality of modern albums. For example, there are only four samples used in 2008's Paper Trail by T.I., while there are 35 samples in 1998's Moment of Truth by Gang Starr. The decrease in sampling is in part due to it being too expensive for producers.[43] In Byron Hurt's documentary Hip Hop: Beyond Beats and Rhymes, he claims that hip hop had changed from "clever rhymes and dance beats" to "advocating personal, social and criminal corruption."[44] NPR logo For other meanings of NPR see NPR (disambiguation) National Public Radio (NPR) is a private, not-for-profit corporation that sells programming to member radio stations; together they are a loosely organized public radio network in the United States. ... Paper Trail is the sixth studio album by rapper T.I. scheduled to be released August 12, 2008. ... This article is about the musician. ... Moment of Truth is the fifth album by hip hop duo Gang Starr. ... Gang Starr is an influential East Coast rap group that consists of Guru and DJ Premier. ...


Despite the fall in record sales throughout the music industry,[45] hip-hop has remained a popular genre, with hip-hop artists still regularly topping the Billboard 200 Charts. In the first half of 2009 alone artists such as Eminem,[46] Rick Ross,[47] Black Eyed Peas,[48] and Fabolous[49] all had albums that reached the #1 position on the Billboard 200 charts. Eminem's album Relapse is the fastest selling album of the year so far.[50] The Billboard 200 is a ranking of the 200 highest-selling music albums and EPs in the United States, published weekly by Billboard magazine. ... Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), better known as Eminem or Slim Shady, is a Grammy and Academy Award-winning American rapper, record producer and actor from the Detroit, Michigan area. ... Bartleby Pincus (born January 21st, 1977[1][2] in Carol City, Florida, USA) is an African-American hip-hop artist better known by his stage name Rick Ross, a moniker derived from the name of drug trafficker Freeway Ricky Ross, to whom he has no connection. ... This article is about the American hip hop group. ... John Jackson (born November 18, 1977), better known by his stage name Fabolous, is an American rapper. ... The Billboard 200 is a ranking of the 200 highest-selling music albums and EPs in the United States, published weekly by Billboard magazine. ...

Innovation & revitalization

It was in the later 2000s that alternative hip hop finally secured a place within the mainstream, due in part to the declining commercial viability of gangsta rap as well as the crossover success of artists such as OutKast, Kanye West, and Gnarls Barkley.[51] Not only did OutKast's Speakerboxxx/The Love Below receive universal acclaim from music critics and manage to appeal listeners of all ages spanning numerous musical genres–including rap, rock, R&B, punk, jazz, indie, country, pop, electronica and gospel–but also spawned two number-one hit singles and has been certified diamond by selling 11 times platinum by the RIAA for shipping more than 11 million units, becoming the best selling rap album of all time.[52] Industry observers view the sales race between Kanye West's Graduation and 50 Cent's Curtis as a turning point for hip hop. West emerged the victor, selling nearly a million copies in the first week alone, proving that innovative rap music could be just as commercially viable as gangsta rap, if not more so.[53] Although he designed it as a melancholic pop rather than rap, Kanye's following 808s & Heartbreak would have a significant effect on hip hop music. While his decision to sing about love, loneliness, and heartache for the entirety of the album was at first heavily criticized by music audiences and the album predicted to be a flop, its subsequent critical acclaim and commercial success encouraged other mainstream rappers to take greater creative risks with their music.[54][55] During the release of The Blueprint 3, New York rap mogul Jay-Z revealed that next studio album would be a an experimental effort, stating, "... it's not gonna be a #1 album. That's where I'm at right now. I wanna make the most experimental album I ever made."[56] Jay-Z elaborated that like Kanye, he was unsatisfied with contemporary hip hop, was being inspired by indie-rockers like Grizzly Bear and asserted his belief that the indie rock movement would play an important role in the continued evolution of hip-hop.[57] Alternative hip hop (also known as alternative rap) is a genre that is defined in greatly varying ways. ... This article is about the hip hop group. ... Kanye Omari West (pronounced /kÉ‘njÉ›j/) (born June 8, 1977) is an American record producer and rapper who rose to fame in the mid 2000s. ... Gnarls Barkley is an American musical collaboration between multi-instrumentalist and producer Danger Mouse (Brian Burton) from New York, and rapper/vocalist Cee-Lo Green (Thomas Callaway), from Atlanta. ... Speakerboxxx/The Love Below is a double album by the hip hop group OutKast, released on September 23, 2003 on LaFace Records. ... In the United States, the Recording Industry Association of America awards certification based on the number of albums and singles sold through retail and other ancillary markets. ... “Golden record” redirects here. ... “Golden record” redirects here. ... RIAA redirects here. ... Graduation is the third studio album by hip hop artist Kanye West, released on September 11, 2007. ... Graduation is the third studio album by hip hop artist Kanye West, released on September 11, 2007. ... 50 cent redirects here. ... Curtis is the third studio album by rapper 50 Cent. ... This article is about the genre of popular music. ... This article is about the state. ... Jay-Z (aka the Jigga, HOV and Hova, born Shawn Carter on December 4, 1970 in Brooklyn, New York) is an African American rapper/hip hop artist and record label executive; one of the most popular and successful rappers of the late 1990s and early 2000s. ... Grizzly Bear is a Brooklyn-based indie rock band on Warp Records. ...


The alternative hip hop movement is not limited solely to the United States, as genre-defying rappers such as Somalian poet K'naan, Japanese rapper Shing02, and especially Sri Lankan artist M.I.A. have achieved considerable worldwide recognition. In 2009, TIME magazine placed M.I.A in the Time 100 list of "World's Most Influential people" for having "global influence across many genres."[58][59] Today, due in part to the increasing use of music distribution through the internet, many alternative rap artists are able to find acceptance by far-reaching audiences. Several burgeoning artists such as Kid Cudi and Drake have managed to attain record-breaking, chart-topping hit songs, "Day 'n' Night" and "Successful" respectively, which they both released on free online mixtapes without the help of a major record label. The pair, along with other new artists such as Wale, Asher Roth, The Cool Kids, and B.o.B, openly acknowledge being directly influenced by their '90s alt-rap predecessors in addition to alt-rock groups while their music has been noted by critics as expressing eclectic sounds, life experiences and emotions rarely seen in mainstream hip hop.[60] The Somalis are an ethnic group located in the Horn of Africa. ... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Knaan (Keynaan, meaning traveler in Somali, born 1978)[1] is a Canadian] poet and hip-hop artist from the Hawiye clan in Somalia clan. ... Sri Lankan can refer to: Someone or something from the country of Sri Lanka. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... Time 100 cover for 2007 The Time 100 is an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world, as assembled by Time. ... Aubrey Drake Graham (born October 24, 1986) is a Canadian actor. ... For the album by Los Abandoned, see Mix Tape (album). ...

References

  1. ^ Hip hop.(2003). In The Harvard Dictionary of Music. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/harvdictmusic/hip_hop
  2. ^ WhoSampled - a database of sampled music
  3. ^ a b c Keith Cowboy - The Real Mc Coy
  4. ^ http://www.zulunation.com/hip_hop_history2.htm (cached)
  5. ^ Hagar, Steven. "Afrika Bambaataa’s Hip-Hop," Village Voice
  6. ^ Hager, Steven. Hip Hop: The Illustrated History of Break Dancing, Rap Music, and Graffiti. St Martins Press, 1984 (out of print).
  7. ^ a b c 3]. What is "Dub" music anyway? (Reggae)
  8. ^ a b Robert Philen's Blog: Mythic Music: Stockhausen, Davis and Macero, Dub, Hip Hop, and Lévi-Strauss
  9. ^ nciMUSIC - History of Hip Hop - Old School
  10. ^ Crossley, Scott. '’Metaphorical Conceptions in Hip-Hop Music”, African American Review, St Louis University Press, 2005. pp.501-502
  11. ^ Alridge D, Steward J. “Introduction: Hip Hop in History: Past, Present, and Future”, Journal of African American History 2005. pp.190
  12. ^ Article about Mele Mel (Melle Mel) at AllHipHop.com
  13. ^ a b * David Toop (1984/1991/2000). Rap Attack II: African Rap To Global Hip Hop, p.94, ?, 96. New York. New York: Serpent's Tail. ISBN 1852422432.
  14. ^ nciMUSIC - History of Hip Hop http://www.ncimusic.com/tutorial/history/hiphop/hiphop.html
  15. ^ The History Of Hip Hop pg 8 http://www.daveyd.com/raphist8.html
  16. ^ hip hop :: The Encyclopedia of New York State :: Syracuse University Press
  17. ^ Chris Heard, Thursday, 14 October, 2004, 08:52 GMT 09:52 UK. "Silver jubilee for first rap hit", BBC News.
  18. ^ Hip Hop On Wax: Lady B - To The Beat Y'All
  19. ^ http://www.newyorkgospel.com/articles/4/1/Kurtis-Blow-Ministries-and-Holy-Hip-Hop-Music-form-Strategic-Alliance/Page1.html
  20. ^ Theme Magazine - International Man of Mystery
  21. ^ https://moodle.brandeis.edu/file.php/3404/pdfs/kelley-foreword-vinyl-aint-final.pdf
  22. ^ USATODAY.com - The globalization of hip-hop starts and ends with 'Where You're At'
  23. ^ allmusic ((( Licensed to Ill > Overview )))
  24. ^ allmusic ((( The Chronic > Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums )))
  25. ^ The Chronic : Dr. Dre : Review : Rolling Stone
  26. ^ Snoop Dogg Music News & Info | Billboard.com
  27. ^ The Murders of gangsta rappers Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G. - Crime Library on truTV.com
  28. ^ Burks, Maggie (2008-09-03). "Southern Hip-Hop". Jackson Free Press. http://www.jacksonfreepress.com/index.php/site/comments/southern_hip_hop_090308/. Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  29. ^ Ambrose, Joe (2001). "Moshing - An Introduction". The Violent World of Moshpit Culture. Omnibus Press. p. 5. ISBN 0711987440. 
  30. ^ allmusic ((( The Slim Shady LP > Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums )))
  31. ^ (Goldberg 2005, p. 140)
  32. ^ Eminem Lyrics
  33. ^ NY Times: Germany's Rap Music Veers Toward the Violent
  34. ^ The Independent: Rap music and the far right: Germany goes gangsta, 17 August 2005
  35. ^ Der Spiegel: Scandal Rap, 23 May 2005
  36. ^ laut.De Fler: Stolz, Deutsch und rechtsradikal, 13 May 2005
  37. ^ 02/19/2009. "Babel: The Album", BabelRap.com.
  38. ^ Dirty Decade: Rap Music from the South: 1997-2007
  39. ^ After 21% Decline In Sales, Rap Industry Takes A Hard Look At Itself - Futuremusic presents
  40. ^ Hip-Hop's Down Beat - TIME magazine
  41. ^ Is Hip-Hop Dying Or Has It Moved Underground? NPR.org
  42. ^ Soulja Boy Tell ‘Em - Souljaboytellem.com - Hip Hop Album Review
  43. ^ Is Sampling Dead? | SPIN Magazine | by Matthew Newton | Matthew Newton
  44. ^ Crouch, Stanley (2008-12-08). "For the future of hip-hop, all that glitters is not gold teeth". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Hearst Corporation. http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/opinion/391157_crouchonline09.html. Retrieved 2008-12-11. 
  45. ^ http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/media/article4160553.ece
  46. ^ Eminem's Relapse Notches Biggest Billboard Debut Of 2009 - News Story | Music, Celebrity, Artist News | MTV News
  47. ^ Rick Ross Debuts At No. 1 On Billboard 200 For Third Time | Billboard.com
  48. ^ Black Eyed Peas 'E.N.D.' Up At No. 1 On Billboard 200 | Billboard.com
  49. ^ Fabolous Tops Billboard 200; Jackson's 'Ones' Now 2009's Second-Best Seller | Billboard.com
  50. ^ Dizzee Rascal - Dizzee And Eminem Land Fastest-Selling No 1S Of 2009 - Contactmusic News
  51. ^ Michel, Sia (2006-09-18). "Critics' Choice: New CD's". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9503E7DF1031F93BA2575AC0A9609C8B63. Retrieved 2008-05-10. 
  52. ^ [1][dead link]
  53. ^ Sexton, Paul (2007-09-17). "Kanye Defeats 50 Cent On U.K. Album Chart". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. http://www.billboardmagazine.com/bbcom/esearch/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003641886. Retrieved 2007-09-18. [dead link]
  54. ^ Reid, Shaheem (2008-10-03). "Common Praises Kanye's Singing; Lupe Fiasco Plays CEO: Mixtape Monday". MTV. MTV Networks. http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1596254/20081003/common.jhtml. Retrieved 2008-11-23. 
  55. ^ "Urban Review: Kanye West, 808s and Heartbreak". The Observer. Guardian News and Media Ltd. 2008-11-09. http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2008/nov/09/kanye-west-hip-hop-808s-heartbreak. Retrieved 2008-11-24. 
  56. ^ Kash, Tim; Reid, Shaheem; Rodriguez, Jayson (2009-09-03). "Exclusive: Jay-Z's Next LP Will Be 'The Most Experimental I Ever Made'". MTV. MTV Networks. http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1620692/20090902/jay_z.jhtml. Retrieved 2009-09-03. 
  57. ^ Kash, Tim; Montgomery, James (2009-09-03). "Jay-Z Hopes Bands Like Grizzly Bear Will 'Push Hip-Hop'". MTV. MTV Networks. http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1620444/20090831/jay_z.jhtml. Retrieved 2009-09-03. 
  58. ^ The 2009 - TIME 100
  59. ^ The 2009 TIME 100 Time Magazine
  60. ^ Hoard, Christian (17 September 2009). "Kid Cudi: Hip-Hop's Sensitive Soul". Rolling Stone (1087): 40. 

Sources

  • David Toop (1984/1991). Rap Attack II: African Rap To Global Hip Hop. New York. New York: Serpent's Tail. ISBN 1852422432.
  • McLeod, Kembrew. Interview with Chuck D and Hank Shocklee. 2002. Stay Free Magazine.
  • Corvino, Daniel and Livernoche, Shawn (2000). A Brief History of Rhyme and Bass: Growing Up With Hip Hop. Tinicum, PA: Xlibris Corporation/The Lightning Source, Inc. ISBN 1-4010-2851-9
  • Chang, Jeff. "Can't Stop Won't Stop".
  • Rose, Tricia (1994). "Black Noise". Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0-8195-6275-0
  • Potter, Russell (1995) Spectacular Vernaculars: Hip-Hop and the Politics of Postmodernism. Albany: SUNY Press. ISBN 0791426262
  • Light, Alan (ed). (1999). The VIBE History of Hip-Hop. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-609-80503-7
  • George, Nelson (2000, rev. 2005). Hip-Hop America. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-028022-7
  • Fricke, Jim and Ahearn, Charlie (eds). (2002). Yes Yes Y'All: The Experience Music Project Oral History of Hip Hop's First Decade. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81184-7
  • Kitwana, Bakar (2004). The State of Hip-Hop Generation: how hip-hop's culture movement is evolving into political power. Retrieved December 4, 2006. From Ohio Link Database

External links

David Toop (born 1949) is a musician, author, and as of 2001 was visiting Research Fellow at the London Media School. ... ISBN redirects here. ... The daily Seattle Post-Intelligencer is the second leading newspaper in Seattle, Washington, United States. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The New York Times Company (NYSE: NYT) is an American media company best known as the publisher of its namesake, The New York Times. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the original U.S. music television channel. ... Viacom Satellite Broadcasting is a division of media conglomerate Viacom that oversees the operation of many TV network and Internet brands, including the first MTV channel. ... This article is about the magazine. ... David Toop (born 1949) is a musician, author, and as of 2001 was visiting Research Fellow at the London Media School. ... Carlton Douglas Ridenhour (born August 1, 1960 in Brooklyn, New York), better known by his stage name, Chuck D, is an African-American rapper, author, and producer. ... The Bomb Squad is a hip hop production team whose original members were Carl Ryder (Chuck D), Hank Shocklee, Keith Shocklee and Eric Vietnam Sadler. ... Cant Stop, Wont Stop: A History of the Hip Hop Generation is a book by Jeff Chang chronicling the early hip-hop scene. ... View of the EMP from the Seattle Center with the monorail traveling through it. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Carlton Douglas Ridenhour (born August 1, 1960 in Brooklyn, New York), better known by his stage name, Chuck D, is an African-American rapper, author, and producer. ... The Bomb Squad is a hip hop production team whose original members were Carl Ryder (Chuck D), Hank Shocklee, Keith Shocklee and Eric Vietnam Sadler. ... Dwayne Michael Carter, Jr. ... Breakdance, the original hip hop dance style, performed at MTV Street Festival, Thailand. ... Rap redirects here. ... This USPS stamp depicts an 80s breakdancer and a boombox. ... For other uses, see Graffiti (disambiguation). ... DJ Mixer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The roots of hip hop can be found in 1970s block parties in New York City, specifically The Bronx[1]. Hip hop culture, including rapping, scratching, graffiti, and breakdancing. ... Old school hip hop is a term used to describe the very earliest hip hop music to come out of the block parties of New York City in the 1970s and 1980s. ... New school hip hop is a rarely-heard term referring to hip hop created later in the forms development, contrasted with old school hip hop. ... The golden age of hip hop, derivative of old school hip hop, was probably introduced with the popularity of Run-DMCs 1986 album Raising Hell. ... See also: Category:Hip hop genres Hip hop music can be subdivided into subgenres, fusions with other genres and regional hip hop scenes. ... This is a list of influential albums in the history of hip hop music. ... Hip hop music has been popular in Africa since the early 1980s due to widespread American influence. ... Cover of sampler CD (2003) This article is about hip hop music and culture originating in the Arabic-speaking world. ... Asian Hip Hop is a heterogeneous musical genre that covers all hip hop music as recorded and produced by artists of Asian origin. ... European hip hop is hip hop music created by European musicians. ... This article or section should be merged with freestyle house Freestyle music is a form of hip hop and electro which developed in the early 1980s. ... Hip hop is quite a new style of music for Bosnia and Herzegovina, but it has nevertheless proven very popular. ... Filipino hip hop can be divided into two main categories: hip hop as performed and followed in the Philippines, and hip hop performed and followed by people of Filipino descent overseas, mostly among Filipino Americans in the United States. ... Timeline and Samples Genres Classical (Carnatic and Hindustani) - Folk - Rock - Pop - Hip hop Awards Bollywood Music Awards - Punjabi Music Awards Charts Festivals Sangeet Natak Akademi – Thyagaraja Aradhana – Cleveland Thyagaraja Aradhana Media Sruti, The Music Magazine National anthem Jana Gana Mana, also national song Vande Mataram Music of the states Andaman... Native American hip hop is popular among Native Americans in the United States and the First Nations of Canada. ... Hip hop is a cultural movement composed of four parts: breakdancing, graffiti art, rapping and DJing. ... Palestinian hip hop supposedly started in 1998 with Tamer Nafars group DAM[1]. These Palestinian youth forged the new Palestinian musical sub-genre, which blends Arabic melodies and hip hop beats. ... Serbian hip hop refers to all genres of hip hop music in the Serbian language, mostly from Serbia, Republika Srpska (BiH), and Montenegro. ... Taiwanese hip hop music started in the early 1990s, popularized by early hip hop trio L.A. Boyz. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
PopMatters Music Feature | How Hip-Hop Music Is Slowly Transcending Its Circular Culture (2078 words)
When exactly hip-hop emerged as a musical movement is still the subject of some dispute -- depending on who you listen to, the genre ranges from somewhere in its early 20s to a good decade more than that.
Just as the music America's cultural imperialism has forced on the rest of the world over the past few decades became ever more dominated by fl "urban" music feeding off hip-hop's blueprint, so inevitably as this music became increasingly popular, people worldwide became interested in its musical roots and sources.
Yet in their need to keep their music, and themselves, united, they are holding on to both the past and the populist present too tightly, stymying themselves and their art, limiting what could be a liberating outlet for all the facets of their souls to superficial party music presided over by ineloquent, aggressive stereotypes.
Book Hip Hop Singers. Hip Hop Artists, Hip Hop Singer, Hip Hop Music. (359 words)
First noticed in the Bronx, New York, during the mid-70s, hip hop singers were born from a cultural movement in large inner cities.
With its roots in disco and funk, this unusual combination of rapping and DJ-ing quickly catapulted hip hop music artists into the center of a new music and dance craze that is still going on today.
Because this type of music usually requires multiple turntables, synthesizers and other electrical equipment, be sure to ask about the power requirements of groups you interview.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m