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Encyclopedia > Hip (anatomy)
Hip (anatomy)
Right hip-joint from the front.
Bones of the hip
Latin coxa
Gray's subject #92 333
MeSH Hip
Dorlands/Elsevier h_12/12422739

In anatomy, the hip is the bony projection of the femur which is known as the greater trochanter, and the overlying muscle and fat. The hip joint is the joint between the femur and acetabulum of the pelvis and its primary function is to support the weight of the body in both static (e.g. standing) and dynamic (e.g. walking or running) postures. Image File history File links Gray339. ... Hip bones. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the mammalian bodies. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. ... Categories: Anatomy stubs | Skeletal system ... The pelvis (pl. ...

Contents

Description of the bones of the hips

The hip bones are divided into 5 areas, which are:

  • The sacrum: This is a bone at the base of the vertebral column that is created by the fusion of 4 vertebrae. It attaches to the ilium on the sides. It also provides a point of muscle attachment for back muscles.
  • The coccyx (also called the tail bone): This is a small vestigial bone that attaches to the base of the sacrum. It is created from the fusion of 4 small vertebrae.
  • The ilium: This is the largest area of the hip bones. It consists of 2 large broad plates, one on each side, which serve to support the internal organs, and to provide attachment for muscles of the back, sides, and buttocks. The hip joint of the femur is part of the ilium.
  • The ischium: The ischium consists of 2 broad curves of bone, one on each side, which lie below the ilium, and are attached to the pubis in the front and the ilium in the back. The ischium serves as a place of attachment for muscles. When a person's butt hurts from sitting on a hard surface, it is the result of the sharp ischium pressing on the buttocks.
  • The pubis: The pubis is the front-most area of the hip bones. It attaches to the ilium on the sides and the ischium on the bottom. It provides structural support, and serves as a place of attachment for the muscles of the inner thigh.

For the record label, see Sacrum Torch. ... The coccyx is formed of up to five vertebrae. ... A vestigial organ is an organ whose original function has been lost during evolution. ... The ilium of the pelvis is divisible into two parts, the body and the ala; the separation is indicated on the internal surface by a curved line, the arcuate line, and on the external surface by the margin of the acetabulum. ... Human male pelvis, viewed from front Human female pelvis, viewed from front The pelvis is the bony structure located at the base of the spine (properly known as the caudal end). ... The pubis, the anterior part of the hip bone, is divisible into a body, a superior and an inferior ramus. ...

Movements

Seven different kinds of movements are possible in the hip joint:

A synovial joint that can produce movement in more than one axis is called a multiaxial joint. In anatomy, Flexion is movement whereby bones or other objects are brought closer together. ... It has been suggested that Kinesiology#Motions be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Kinesiology#Motions be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Kinesiology#Motions be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Kinesiology#Motions be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Kinesiology#Motions be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Kinesiology#Motions be merged into this article or section. ... Synovial joints (or diarthroses, or diarthroidal joints) are the most common and most moveable type of joints in the body. ...


Anatomy of the hip joint

Articulation

The hip joint is a synovial joint formed by the articulation of the rounded head of the femur and the cup-like acetabulum of the pelvis. It is classified as a ball and socket joint. It forms the primary connection between the bones of the lower limb and the axial skeleton of the trunk and pelvis. Both joint surfaces are covered with a strong but lubricated layer called articular hyaline cartilage. The cuplike acetabulum forms at the union of three pelvic bones and the joint may not be fully ossified (the process of forming bone) under the age of 25 years. The depth of the acetabulum is increased by a fibrocartilaginous rim called a labrum that grips the head of the femur and secures it in the joint. The acetabulum is oriented inferiorly, laterally and anteriorly. The magnitude of inferior orientation can be assessed using a line connecting the lateral rim of acetabulum and center of femoral head. This lines forms an angle with vertical known as center edge angle or angle of Wiberg. The magnitude of anterior orientation is referred as angle of acetabular anteversion. Synovial joints (or diarthroses, or diarthroidal joints) are the most common and most moveable type of joints in the body. ... The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the mammalian bodies. ... Categories: Anatomy stubs | Skeletal system ... The axial skeleton consists of the bones in the head and trunk of a vertebrate body. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... Ossification is the process of bone formation, in which connective tissues, such as cartilage are turned to bone or bone-like tissue. ... A labrum (Latin for lip) is the large vessel of a warm bath in the Roman thermae. ...


The large head of the femur is completely covered in hyaline cartilage except for a small area called the fovea or pit. This is the site of attachment for an intracapsular ligament (called the ligamentum teres) that attaches directly from the head of the femur to the acetabulum. The head of the femur is attached to the pelvis by a thin neck region that is often prone to fracture in the elderly, mainly due to the degenerative effects of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. ...


Capsule

The strong but loose fibrous capsule of the hip joints permits the hip joint to have the second largest range of movement (second only to the shoulder) and yet support the weight of the body, arms and head.The capsule is attached proximally to the entire periphery of the acetabulum beyond acetabular labrum.The capsule covers the femoral head and neck like a sleeve and attaches to the base of neck. The capsule has two sets of fibers:the longitudinal and circular fibers.The circular fibers forms a collar around the femoral neck called the zona orbicularis.the longitudinal retinacular fibers travel along the neck and carry blood vessel. As the line of gravity falls posterior to the axis of the hip joint, the combined weight of the body seeks to extend the hip joint in normal standing and make the trunk fall backwards to the ground. To resist the stretching action on the anterior joint capsule in normal upright posture, the hip has two very strong anterior ligaments. This article is about the body part. ...


Ligaments

The hip joint is reinforced by three main ligaments.

  • At the front of the joint, the strong iliofemoral ligament attaches from the pelvis to femur. This Y-shaped ligament is also known as the ligament of Bigelow. This ligament seeks to resist excessive extension of the hip joint. It is often considered to be the strongest ligament in the human body.
  • The pubofemoral ligament attaches across the front of the joint from the pubis bone of the pelvis to the femur. This ligament is orientated more inferiorly than the iliofemoral ligament and reinforces the inferior part of the hip joint capsule. It also blends with the medial parts of the iliofemoral ligament.
  • The posterior of the hip joint capsule is reinforced by the ischiofemoral ligament that attaches from the ischial part of the acetabular rim to the femur.

There is also a small ligament called ligamentum teres or the ligament of the head of the femur. The ligament is a triangularly shaped band with its base on both sides of peripheral edge of acetabular notch. This structure is not that important as a ligament but can often be vitally important as a conduit of a small artery to the head of the femur. This arterial branch is not present in everyone but can become the only blood supply to the bone in the head of the femur when the neck of the femur is fractured or disrupted by injury in childhood. The iliofemoral ligament (Y-ligament; ligament of Bigelow) is a band of great strength which lies in front of the hip joint; it is intimately connected with the joint capsule, and serves to strengthen the joint by resisting hyperextension. ... The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the mammalian bodies. ... The pubocapsular ligament (pubofemoral ligament) is a ligament on the inferior side of the of the hip joint. ... The ischiocapsular ligament (ischiofemoral ligament, ischiocapsular band; ligament of Bertin) consists of a triangular band of strong fibers on the posterior side of the hip joint. ... For the ligament of the hip, see Ligamentum teres femoris. ...


Blood supply and nerve supply of the hip joint

The hip joint is supplied with blood from the medial circumflex femoral and lateral circumflex femoral arteries, which are both usually branches of the deep artery of the thigh (profunda femoris), but may also arise directly from the femoral artery. There is also a small contribution from a small artery in the ligament of the head of the femur which is a branch of the posterior division of the obturator artery, which becomes important to avoid avascular necrosis of the head of the femur when the blood supply from the medial and lateral circumflex arteries are disrupted (e.g. through fracture of the neck of the femur along their course). The medial femoral circumflex artery (internal circumflex artery, medial circumflex femoral artery) is an artery in the upper thigh that helps supply blood to the neck of the femur. ... The lateral femoral circumflex artery (lateral circumflex femoral artery, external circumflex artery) is an artery in the upper thigh. ... The profunda femoris artery (also known as the deep femoral artery, or the deep artery of the thigh) is a branch of the femoral artery that, as its name suggests, travels more deeply (posteriorly) than the rest of the femoral artery. ... Femoral artery and its major branches - right thigh, anterior view. ... The posterior branch of the obturator artery follows the posterior margin of the foramen and turns forward on the inferior ramus of the ischium, where it anastomoses with the anterior branch. ... Avascular necrosis is a disease resulting from the temporary or permanent loss of the blood supply to the bones. ... Head of femur can refer to: Head of Femur (band) Femur head Category: ...


The hip has two anatomically important anastomoses, the cruciate and the trochanteric anastomoses. These exist between the femoral artery or profunda femoris and the gluteal vessels.


The hip joint is supplied by a number of nerves (proprioception, nociception, etc...) including the femoral nerve, the obturator nerve, superior gluteal nerve, and the nerve to quadratus femoris. // Proprioception (PRO-pree-o-SEP-shun (IPA pronunciation: ); from Latin proprius, meaning ones own and perception) is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body. ... “Hurting” redirects here. ... The femoral nerve, the largest branch of the lumbar plexus, arises from the dorsal divisions of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves. ... The Obturator Nerve arises from the ventral divisions of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves; the branch from the third is the largest, while that from the second is often very small. ... The superior gluteal nerve is a nerve that originates in the pelvis which supplies the gluteus medius, the gluteus minimus, and the tensor fasciae latae muscles. ... The nerve to quadratus femoris is a nerve that provides innervation to the quadratus femoris and gemellus inferior muscles. ...


Muscles producing movements at the hip joint

Main article: Muscles of the hip

The muscles that cause movement in the hip can be divided into five groups according to their orientation around the hip joint: In human anatomy, the muscles of the hip joint are those muscles that cause movement in the hip. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...

These muscles produce flexion, extension, lateral rotation, medial rotation, abduction, and adduction. The gluteus maximus is the largest of the gluteus muscles which are located in the buttock. ... In human anatomy, the hamstrings are a group of muscles on the underside (posterior aspect) of the thigh. ... The obturator internus muscle originates on the medial surface of the obturator membrane, the ischium near the membrane, and the rim of the pubis. ... The superior gemellus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The quadratus femoris muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The piriformis (from Latin piriformis = pear shaped) is a muscle in the gluteal region of the lower limb. ... The pectineus muscle is a muscle in the inner thigh, by the femur. ... The Adductor brevis muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... In human anatomy, the hip flexors or iliopsoas are a group of muscles passing through the pelvis that act to flex the hips and rotate the lower spine. ... The Rectus femoris muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The Tensor fasciae latae (singular: Tensor fasciae lata) are muscles of the thigh. ... For the muscle, see sartorius muscle. ... The gluteus maximus is the largest of the gluteus muscles which are located in the buttock. ... In anatomy, Flexion is movement whereby bones or other objects are brought closer together. ... The leg extension is an isolation exercise. ... External rotation (or lateral rotation) is rotation away from the center of the body. ... Internal rotation (or medial rotation) is rotation towards the center of the body. ... Abduction, in functional anatomy, is a movement which draws a limb away from the median plane of the body. ... In anatomy and physiology, adduction is the moving of limbs towards the midline of the body. ...


Many of the hip muscles are responsible for more than one type of movement in the hip, as different areas of the muscle act on tendons in different ways.


Sexual dimorphism in humans

In humans, unlike other animals, the hip bones are substantially different in the two sexes. The hips of human females are broader and deeper than those of males. The femurs are also more widely spaced in females, so as to widen the opening in the hip bone and thus facilitate childbirth. Finally, the ilium and its muscle attachment are shaped so as to situate the buttocks away from the birth canal, where contraction of the buttocks could otherwise damage the baby.


Cultural significance of hips

In art and culture, a woman's hips are often viewed as a symbol of fertility.
In art and culture, a woman's hips are often viewed as a symbol of fertility.

It should also be noted that hips have long been associated with both fertility and general expression of sexuality. Since broad hips facilitate child birth and also serve as an anatomical cue of sexual maturity, they have been seen as an attractive trait for women for thousands of years. Many of the classical poses women take when sculpted, painted or photographed, such as the Odalisque, serve to emphasize the prominence of their hips. In Western society, this often harks back to classical notions of female beauty, particularly in the Venus Kallipygos. Similarly, women's fashion through the ages has often drawn attention to the girth of the wearer's hips. Download high resolution version (570x1138, 127 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (570x1138, 127 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Fertility is a measure of reproduction: the number of children born per couple, person or population. ... Fertility is a measure of reproduction: the number of children born per couple, person or population. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Birth is the process in animals by which an offspring is shot out from the body of its mama. ... Odalisque with a slave by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, painted in 1842 An odalisque was a virgin female slave, who could rise in status to being a concubine or a wife in Ottoman Seraglios, but most of whom tended to the harem of the Turkish sultan. ... // This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Callipygian Venus or Venus Kallipygos, (In Greek, Aphrodite Kallipygos: Aphrodite of the Beautiful Buttocks), is a type of nude female statue of the Hellenistic era. ... Fashion illustration by George Barbier of a gown by Jeanne Paquin, 1912, from La Gazette du bon ton, the most influential fashion magazine of its era. ...


See also

http://www.hip-joints.co.uk In medicine, the hip examination, or hip exam, is undertaken when a patient has a complaint of hip pain and/or signs and/or symptoms suggestive of hip joint pathology. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Waist-to-hip ratio or Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is the ratio of the girth of waist and the girth of hip. ...


Additional images

External links

Look up hip in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hip (anatomy) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1434 words)
The hip joint coxal joint is a multiaxial ball and socket synovial joint formed by the articulation of the rounded head of the femur and the cuplike acetabulum of the pelvis.
The head of the femur is attached to the pelvis by a thin neck region that is often prone to fracture in the elderly, mainly due to the degenerative effects of osteoporosis.
The hips of females, as compared to males, are broader in both the width dimension and the front-to-back dimension, with the femurs spaced wider apart, so as to widen the opening in the hip bone through which babies pass.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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