From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Om • Brahman • Ishvara
A Hindu ( pronunciation (help·info), Devanagari: हिन्दु) is an adherent of Hinduism, a set of religious, philosophical and cultural systems that originated in the Indian subcontinent. The vast body of Hindu scriptures, divided into Śruti ("revealed") and Smriti ("remembered"), lay the foundation of Hindu beliefs, which primarily include dhárma, kárma, ahimsa and saṃsāra. Vedānta and yoga are one of the several core schools of Hindu philosophy, broadly known as the Sanātana Dharma. The word Hindu is at times attributed to all persons professing Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism or Sikhism as is used in the Constitution of India. Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanÄgarÄ« (à¤¦à¥à¤µà¤¨à¤¾à¤à¤°à¥ â in English pronounced ) (ISCII â IS13194:1991)  is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... The culture of India has been shaped by the long history of India, its unique geography and the absorption of customs, traditions and ideas from some of its neighbors as well as by preserving its ancient heritages, from the Indus Valley Civilization onward. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... The Åruti (Sanskrit thing heard, sound) is the smallest interval of the tuning system of Indian classical music. ... Smriti (Sanskrit à¤¸à¥à¤®à¥à¤¤à¤¿, that which is remembered) refers to a specific canon of Hindu religious scripture. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... Illustration depicting the transmigration of the soul. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... For other uses such as Yoga postures, see Yoga (disambiguation) Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Sanskrit: à¤¯à¥à¤ Yog, IPA: ) is a group of ancient spiritual practices designed for the purpose of cultivating a steady mind. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ...
Hinduism is regarded as the oldest of the world's major religions. Hindu mythology and philosophy have had a profound impact in many parts of the world, especially southern and south-eastern Asia. With more than a billion adherents, Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. The vast majority of Hindus, approximately 1 billion, live in India. Other countries with large Hindu populations, such as Nepal, Mauritius and the island of Bali, can be found in various parts of the world. It has been suggested that Undivided India be merged into this article or section. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... -1... India is the birthplace of Hinduism. ... Hinduism - Percentage by country The percentage of Hindu population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ...
The word Hindu is derived from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historic local appellation for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. and is first seen as a reference to the river Sindhu in the Rig Veda.The usage of the word Hindu was further popularized by the Arabic term al-Hind referring to the land of the people who live across river Indus. By the 13th century, Hindustān emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus". Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... â¹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... The Indus (सिन्धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The name India may refer to either the region of Greater India (the Indian subcontinent), or to the contemporary Republic of India contained therein. ...
Originally, Hindu was a secular term which was used to describe all inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent (or Hindustan) irrespective of their religious affiliation. It occurs sporadically in some 16th-18th century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts, including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata, usually to contrast Hindus with Yavanas or Mlecchas. It appears in South Indian and Kashmiri texts from at least 1323 CE, and increasingly so during British rule. It was only towards the end of the 18th century that the European merchants and colonists referred collectively to the followers of Indian religions as Hindus. Eventually, it came to define a precisely religious identity that includes any person of Indian origin who neither practiced Abrahamic religions nor non-Vedic Indian religions, such as Jainism, Sikhism or Buddhism, thereby encompassing a wide range of religious beliefs and practices related to Sanātana Dharma. Bangla redirects here. ... Gaudiya Vaishnavism, (Bengal) Vaishnavism, is a sect of Hinduism founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. ... The Chaitanya Charitamrita is the biography written by Sri Krishnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, a pivotal figure of the Hindu sect Gaudiya Vaishnavism. ... The Chaitanya Bhagavata of Vrindavana Dasa Thakura (1507-1589 CE) was the first full-length hagiography written in Bengali. ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... Mleccha (from Sanskrit à¤®à¥à¤²à¥à¤à¥à¤ mleccha, meaning non-Aryan, barbarian) is an Indian derogatory term for foreigners or people who did not speak Sanskrit and did not conform with conventional Hindu beliefs and practices. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India - 1858-1901 VictoriaÂ¹ - 1901-1910 Edward VII - 1910-1936 George V - 1936 Edward VIII - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... Population growth, from 443 million in 1960 to 1,004 million in 2000 Map showing the population density of each district in India Map showing the population growth over the past ten years of each district in India Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India Chart showing... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ...
One of the accepted views is that ism was added to Hindu around 1830 to denote the culture and religion of the high-caste Brahmans in contrast to other religions. The term Hinduism was soon appropriated by the Hindus in India themselves as they tried to establish a national, social and cultural identity opposed to European colonialism in India. Liberty Leading the People by EugÃ¨ne Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... India is the birthplace of Hinduism. ... The colonial era in India began in 1502, when the Portuguese established the first European trading center at Kollam. ...
The earliest evidence for prehistoric religion in India date back to the late Neolithic in the early Harappan period (5500–2600 BCE). The beliefs and practices of the pre-classical era (1500–500 BCE) are called the "historical Vedic religion". Modern Hinduism grew out of the Vedas, the oldest of which is the Rigveda, dated to 1700–1100 BCE. The Vedas center on worship of deities such as Indra, Varuna and Agni, and on the Soma ritual. They performed fire-sacrifices, called yajña, and chanted Vedic mantras but did not build temples or icons.  The oldest Vedic traditions exhibit strong similarities to Zoroastrianism and other Indo-European religions. Hinduism, includes survivals of traditions of the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilization and of Proto-Indo-Iranian traditions during the Iron Age Vedic religion and the historical Shramana traditions. ... Mount Kailash (officially: KangrinboqÃª; Tibetan: Gang Rinpoche, à½à½à½¦à¼à½¢à½²à½à¼à½à½¼à½ à½§à½ºà¼; Wylie: Gangs Rin-po-che; ZWPY: KangrinboqÃª; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Hindi à¤à¥à¤²à¤¾à¤¶ à¤ªà¤°à¥à¤µà¤¤, KailÄÅÄ Parvata) is a peak in the GangdisÃª mountains, the source of some of the longest rivers in Asiaâthe Indus River, the Sutlej River, a tributary of the Ganges... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Prehistoric religion is a general term for the hypothetical religious belief system of prehistoric peoples. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The term Indus Valley Tradition is used to refer to the cultures of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra rivers, stretching from the Neolithic Mehrgarh period down to the Iron Age or Indo-Gangetic Tradition. ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... In Vedic religion, Varuna (Devanagari:à¤µà¤°à¥à¤£, IAST:) is a god of the sky, of rain and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (å°) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (ç«) | Air / Wind (é¢¨) | Void / Sky / Heaven (ç©º) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahÄbhÅ«ta) Vayu / Pavan â Air / Wind Agni / Tejas â Fire Akasha â Aether Prithvi / Bhumi â Earth Ap / Jala â Water BÃ¶n New Zealand Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. ... This article is about the Vedic plant and ritual. ... Yagna is an ancient vedic ritual, where sacrifices are made to a particular divinity, using fire (Agni) as a medium. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... This article is about the religious artifacts. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ...
The major Sanskrit epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata, were compiled over a protracted period during the late centuries BCE and the early centuries CE. They contain mythological stories about the rulers and wars of ancient India, and are interspersed with religious and philosophical treatises. The later Puranas recount tales about devas and devis, their interactions with humans and their battles against demons. For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... For other uses, see Deva (disambiguation). ... This article is about the demon in Hindu mythology. ...
Three major movements underpinned the naissance of a new epoch of Hindu thought: the advent and spread of Upanishadic, Jaina, and Buddhist philosophico-religious thought throughout the broader Indian landmass. Mahavira (24th Tirthankar of Jains) and Buddha (founder of Buddhism) taught that to achieve moksha or nirvana, one did not have to accept the authority of the Vedas or the caste system. Buddha went a step further and claimed that the existence of a Self/soul or God was unnecessary. Buddhism peaked during the reign of Asoka the Great of the Mauryan Empire, who unified the Indian subcontinent in the 3rd century BCE. After 200 CE several schools of thought were formally codified in Indian philosophy, including Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Purva-Mimamsa and Vedanta. Charvaka, the founder of an atheistic materialist school, came to the fore in North India in the sixth century BCE. Between 400 BCE and 1000 CE Hinduism expanded at the expense of Buddhism. Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira. ... The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: à¤¸à¤¾à¤à¤à¥à¤¯, IAST: SÄá¹khya - Enumeration) is one of the six schools of classical Indian philosophy. ... For other uses such as Yoga postures, see Yoga (disambiguation) Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Sanskrit: à¤¯à¥à¤ Yog, IPA: ) is a group of ancient spiritual practices designed for the purpose of cultivating a steady mind. ... (Sanskrit ni-ÄyÃ¡, literally recursion, used in the sense of syllogism, inference)) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophyâspecifically the school of logic. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: à¤µà¥à¤¶à¥à¤·à¤¿à¤)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... Carvaka, also frequently transliterated as Charvaka, and also known as Lokayata, is a thoroughly materialist and atheist school of thought with ancient roots in India. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ...
Sanskritic culture went into decline after the end of the Gupta period. The early medieval Puranas helped establish a religious mainstream among the pre-literate tribal societies undergoing acculturation. The tenets of Brahmanic Hinduism and of the Dharmashastras underwent a radical transformation at the hands of the Purana composers, resulting in the rise of a mainstream "Hinduism" that overshadowed all earlier traditions. Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414-455). ... The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... Look up acculturation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Though Islam came to India in the early 7th century with the advent of Arab traders and the conquest of Sindh, it started to become a major religion during the later Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent. During this period Buddhism declined rapidly and many Hindus converted to Islam. Numerous Muslim rulers such as Aurangzeb destroyed Hindu temples and persecuted non-Muslims; however some, such as Akbar, were more tolerant. Hinduism underwent profound changes, in large part due to the influence of the prominent teachers Ramanuja, Madhva, and Chaitanya. Followers of the Bhakti movement moved away from the abstract concept of Brahman, which the philosopher Adi Shankara consolidated a few centuries before, with emotional, passionate devotion towards the more accessible avatars, especially Krishna and Rama. The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 11th to the 17th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into the region, beginning during the period of the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, from the 7th century onwards. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 â March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... Persecution of Hindus refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Hindus. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Ramanuja (Tamil: , [?]; traditionally 1017â1137), also known as Ramanujacharya, was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... For Madhavacharya the Advaita saint, see Madhava Vidyaranya. ... Deities of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu (right) and Sri Nityananda (left) at Radha-Krishna temple in Radhadesh, Belgium Caitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Chaitanya) (1486 - 1534), was an ascetic Hindu monk and social reformer in 16th century Bengal, India (present-day West Bengal and Bangladesh). ... Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... Brahman (nominative ) is a concept of Hinduism. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: à´à´¦à´¿ à´¶à´àµà´à´°à´¨àµâ, DevanÄgarÄ«: , , IPA: ); c. ... This article is about the concept in Hindu philosophy. ...
Indology as an academic discipline of studying Indian culture from a European perspective was established in the 19th century, led by scholars such as Max Müller and John Woodroffe. They brought Vedic, Puranic and Tantric literature and philosophy to Europe and the United States. At the same time, societies such as the Brahmo Samaj and the Theosophical Society attempted to reconcile and fuse Abrahamic and Dharmic philosophies, endeavouring to institute societal reform. This period saw the emergence of movements which, while highly innovative, were rooted in indigenous tradition. They were based on the personalities and teachings of individuals, as with Ramakrishna and Ramana Maharshi. Prominent Hindu philosophers, including Aurobindo and Prabhupada (founder of ISKCON), translated, reformulated and presented Hinduism's foundational texts for contemporary audiences in new iterations, attracting followers and attention in India and abroad. Others such as Vivekananda, Paramahansa Yogananda, B.K.S. Iyengar and Swami Rama have also been instrumental in raising the profiles of Yoga and Vedanta in the West. Today modern movements, such as ISKCON and the Swaminarayan Faith, attract a large amount of followers across the world. Akshardham  is a Hindu temple complex in Delhi, India. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... The Guinness Book of Records (or in recent editions Guinness World Records, and in previous US editions Guinness Book of World Records) is a book published annually, containing an internationally recognized collection of superlatives: both in terms of human achievement and the extrema of the natural world. ... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ... Max MÃ¼ller as a young man Friedrich Max MÃ¼ller (December 6, 1823 â October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max MÃ¼ller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... Sir John Woodroffe (1865â1936), also known by his pseudonym Arthur Avalon, received his B.C.L. (Bachelor of Civil Law) from University College, Oxford. ... Veda redirects here. ... ... This article is an overview of Tantra and an in-depth look at the Tantra of Hinduism. ... Brahmo Samaj is a social and religious movement founded in Kolkata, India in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. ... The Theosophical Society was the organization formed to advance the spiritual doctrines and altruistic living known as Theosophy. ... Symbols of the three main Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Eastern (yellow) religions in each country. ... Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Bangla: à¦°à¦¾à¦®à¦à§à¦·à§à¦£ à¦ªà¦°à¦®à¦¹à¦à¦¸ Ramkrishno PÃ´romÃ´hongsho), born Gadadhar Chattopadhyay (Bangla: à¦à¦¦à¦¾à¦§à¦° à¦à¦à§à¦à§à¦ªà¦¾à¦§à§à¦¯à¦¾à¦¯à¦¼ GÃ´dadhor ChÃ´Å£Å£opaddhae) , (February 18, 1836âAugust 16, 1886) was a Hindu religious teacher and an influential figure in the Bengal Renaissance of the Nineteenth century. ... Sri Ramana Maharshi (December 30, 1879 â April 14, 1950) was a Hindu Sage who lived on the sacred mountain Arunachala in India. ... Śrī Aurobindo Śrī Aurobindo (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian nationalist, scholar, poet, Hindu mystic, Evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru. ... A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (September 1, 1896âNovember 14, 1977) was the founder of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (popularly known as the Hare Krishnas). Born as Abhay Charan De, in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. ... The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) is a new religious movement based on Bengali, or more specifically Gaudiya, Vaishnavism founded by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, referred to by followers as His Divine Grace, in New York in 1966. ... Introduction Swami Vivekananda (Narendranath Dutta) (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902) is considered one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the Hindu religion. ... Paramahansa Yogananda (Bengali: à¦ªà¦°à¦®à¦¹à¦à¦¸ à¦¯à§à¦à¦¾à¦¨à¦¨à§à¦¦ PÃ´romohÃ´ngsho Joganondo, Sanskrit: à¤ªà¤°à¤®à¤¹à¤à¤¸ à¤¯à¥à¤à¤¾à¤¨à¤âà¤¦ Paramahaá¹sa YogÄnaá¹da; January 5, 1893âMarch 7, 1952), born Mukunda Lal Ghosh (Bengali: à¦®à§à¦à§à¦¨à§à¦¦ à¦²à¦¾à¦² à¦à§à¦· Mukundo Lal Ghosh), was an Indian yogi and guru who introduced many westerners to the teachings of meditation and Kriya Yoga through his book, Autobiography of... A photograph of B.K.S. Iyengar B.K.S. Iyengar, (aka Yogacharya B.K.S. Iyengar) born Bellur Krishnamachar Sundararaja Iyengar, December 14, 1918, in India, is founder of Iyengar Yoga and one of the most respected yoga teachers in the world. ... Swami Rama (1925 â 1996) was born Brij Kishore Dhasmana, to a Northern Indian Brahmin family and became lineage holder of the Sankya Yoga tradition of the Himalayan Masters. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ...
The roots of the diverse set of religious beliefs, traditions and philosophy of Hindus were laid during the Vedic age which originated in India between 2000 and 1500 BC. The ancient Vedic religion is considered by most scholars as the predecessor of the modern religion of Hindus and it has had a profound impact on India's history, culture and philosophy. The Vedas are the oldest sacred books of Hinduism and lay the foundation of several schools of Hindu thought. The Upanishads refers to those scriptures which form the core teachings of the Vedānta philosophy. Adi Shankara's commentaries on the Upanishads led to the rise of Advaita Vedanta, the most influential sub-school of Vedanta. Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... Krishna (IAST , the Sanskrit for dark or black) (see below), is according to common Hindu tradition the eighth avatar of Vishnu. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... Combatants Pandavas led by Dhristadyumna Kauravas led by Bhishma Commanders Arjuna Bhima Yudhishthira Nakula Sahadeva Bhishma Drona Karna Duryodhana Ashwatthama Strength 7 Akshauhinis 1,530,900 soldiers 11 Akshauhinis 2,405,700 soldiers Casualties Almost Total Only 7 survivors - the five Pandavas, Krishna, and Satyaki Almost Total Only 3 survivors... Map of early Iron Age Vedic India after Witzel (1989). ... The religion of the Vedic civilization is the predecessor of classical Hinduism, usually included in the term. ... The culture of India has been shaped by the long history of India, its unique geography and the absorption of customs, traditions and ideas from some of its neighbors as well as by preserving its ancient heritages, from the Indus Valley Civilization onward. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... Veda redirects here. ... The Upanishads (Devanagari: à¤à¤ªà¤¿à¤¨à¤·à¤¦à¥, IAST: ) are regarded as part of the Vedas and as such form part of the Hindu scriptures. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: à´à´¦à´¿ à´¶à´àµà´à´°à´¨àµâ, DevanÄgarÄ«: , , IPA: ); c. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Sanskrit ; IPA ) is a sub-school of the VedÄnta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ...
In the holy text Merutantra,the word Hindu is defined as "Hinani Gunani Dushyanti iti Hindu".Meaning that Gunani that which destroys the inferior raja-tama components or gunas is a Hindu.Thus, to be a Hindu is to follow a way of life that enhances the spiritually pure sattva component and sattva predominant qualities like love, courage, humility, expansiveness, etc.and overcomes the spiritually impure raja-tama predominant attitude like anger, lust, jealousy, greed, attachment, pride etc.
Hinduism consists of several sects and denominations, of which Vaishnavism and Shaivism are by far the most popular. Other aspects include folk and conservative Vedic Hinduism. Since the 18th century, Hinduism has accommodated a host of new religious and reform movements, with Arya Samaj being one of the most notable Hindu revivalist organizations. Due to the wide diversity in the beliefs, practices and traditions encompassed by Hinduism, there is no universally accepted definition on who a Hindu is, or even agreement on whether term Hinduism represents a religious, cultural or socio-political entity. In 1995, Chief Justice P. B. Gajendragadkar was quoted in an Indian Supreme Court ruling: Hinduism encompasses many movements and schools fairly organized within Hindu denominations. ... Vaishnavism is one of the principal traditions of Hinduism, and is distinguished from other schools by its primary worship of Vishnu (and his associated avatars) as the Supreme God. ... This article is about the religion Shaivism. ... Årauta refers to the tradition of the Åruti in Vaidika Dharma. ... Hinduism is going through a phase of regeneration and reform through the vehicle of several contemporary movements, collectively termed as Hindu reform movements. ... Arya Samaj (Aryan Society or Society of Nobles) is a Hindu reform movement in India that was founded by Swami Dayananda in 1875. ... The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ...
- When we think of the Hindu religion, unlike other religions in the world, the Hindu religion does not claim any one prophet; it does not worship any one god; it does not subscribe to any one dogma; it does not believe in any one philosophic concept; it does not follow any one set of religious rites or performances; in fact, it does not appear to satisfy the narrow traditional features of any religion or creed. It may broadly be described as a way of life and nothing more.
Thus some scholars argue that the Hinduism is not a religion per se but rather a reification of a diverse set of traditions and practices by scholars who constituted a unified system and arbitrarily labeled it Hinduism. The usage may also have been necessitated by the desire to distinguish between "Hindus" and followers of other religions during the periodic census undertaken by the colonial British government in India. Other scholars, while seeing Hinduism as a 19th century construct, view Hinduism as a response to British colonialism by Indian nationalists who forged a unified tradition centered on oral and written Sanskrit texts adopted as scriptures. For other uses, see Creed (disambiguation). ... A way of life is a common term which describes the lifestyle of an entire culture. ... Reification, also called hypostatization, is treating a concept, an abstraction, as if it were a real, concrete thing. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Map of India. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...
A commonly held view, though, is that while Hinduism contains both "uniting and dispersing tendencies", it has a common central thread of philosophical concepts (including dharma, moksha and samsara), practices (puja, bhakti etc.) and cultural traditions. These common elements originating (or being codified within) the Vedic, Upanishad and Puranic scriptures and epics. Thus a Hindu could : For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Samsara (disambiguation). ... A puja as performed in Ujjain during the Monsoon on the banks of the overflowing river Shipra. ... Bhakti (DevanÄgarÄ«: à¤à¤à¥à¤¤à¤¿) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ... Veda redirects here. ... The Upanishads (Devanagari: à¤à¤ªà¤¿à¤¨à¤·à¤¦à¥, IAST: ) are regarded as part of the Vedas and as such form part of the Hindu scriptures. ... ... Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent. ...
In 1995, while considering the question "who are Hindus and what are the broad features of Hindu religion", the Supreme Court of India highlighted Bal Gangadhar Tilak's formulation of Hinduism's defining features: Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Sanskrit ; IPA ) is a sub-school of the VedÄnta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... VishishtAdvaita Vedanta (IAST ;Sanskrit: à¤µà¤¿à¤¶à¤¿à¤·à¥à¤à¤¾à¤¦à¥à¤µà¥à¤¤)) is a sub-school of the VedÄnta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools of VedÄnta being Advaita and Dvaita. ... Dvaita (Devanagari:à¤¦à¥à¤¬à¥à¤¤, Kannada:à²¦à³à²µà³à²¤) (also known as Tattvavada and Bheda-vada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... Dvaitadvaita was proposed by Nimbarka, a 13th Century Vaishnava Philosopher who hailed from Andhra Region. ... This article is about the religion Shaivism. ... Vaishnavism is one of the principal traditions of Hinduism, and is distinguished from other schools by its primary worship of Vishnu (and his associated avatars) as the Supreme God. ... Shaktism focuses worship upon the Hindu Divine Mother, here manifested as Tridevi â the conjoined forms of Lakshmi , Parvati and Saraswati. ... For other uses such as Yoga postures, see Yoga (disambiguation) Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Sanskrit: à¤¯à¥à¤ Yog, IPA: ) is a group of ancient spiritual practices designed for the purpose of cultivating a steady mind. ... Bhakti (DevanÄgarÄ«: à¤à¤à¥à¤¤à¤¿) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ... The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ... Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856 - 1920), was an Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ...
- Acceptance of the Vedas with reverence; recognition of the fact that the means or ways to salvation are diverse; and the realization of the truth that the number of gods to be worshipped is large, that indeed is the distinguishing feature of Hindu religion.
Some thinkers have attempted to distinguish between the concept of Hinduism as a religion, and a Hindu as a member of a nationalist or socio-political class. Veer Savarkar in his influential pamphlet "Hindutva: Who is a Hindu?" considered geographical unity, common culture and common race to be the defining qualities of Hindus; thus a Hindu was a person who saw India "as his Fatherland as well as his Holy land, that is, the cradle land of his religion". This conceptualization of Hinduism, has led to establishment of Hindutva as the dominant force in Hindu nationalism over the last century. The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... The Oxford English Dictionary defines reverence as deep respect and veneration for some thing, place, or person regarded as having a sacred or exalted character. ... For other uses, see Recognition (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... Vinayak Damodar Savarkar VinÄyak DÄmodar SÄvarkar (Marathi: à¤µà¤¿à¤¨à¤¾à¤¯à¤ à¤¦à¤¾à¤®à¥à¤¦à¤° à¤¸à¤¾à¤µà¤°à¤à¤°) (May 28, 1883 â February 26, 1966) was an Indian politician and activist, who is credited with developing the Hindu nationalist political ideology Hindutva. ...
Customs and traditions
| ||This section does not cite any references or sources. |
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2009)
Ethnic and cultural fabric
Hinduism, its religious doctrines, traditions and observances are very typical and inextricably linked to the culture and demographics of India. Hinduism has one of the most ethnically diverse bodies of adherents in the world. It is hard to classify Hinduism as a religion because the framework, symbols, leaders and books of reference that make up a typical religion are not uniquely identified in the case of Hinduism. Hinduism is almost 4,000 years old. Most commonly it can be seen as a "way of life" which gives rise to many other civilized forms of religions. Population growth, from 443 million in 1960 to 1,004 million in 2000 Map showing the population density of each district in India Map showing the population growth over the past ten years of each district in India Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India Chart showing... The main temple of Besakih The Mother Temple of Besakih, in the village of Besakih on the slopes of Mount Agung, is the most important temple of Agama Hindu Dharma in Bali, Indonesia and one of a series of Balinese temples. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ...
Large tribes and communities indigenous to India are closely linked to the synthesis and formation of Hindu civilization. People of East Asian roots living in the states of north eastern India and Nepal were also a part of the earliest Hindu civilization. Immigration and settlement of people from Central Asia and people of Indo-Greek heritage have brought their own influence on Hindu society. East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek...
The roots of Hinduism in southern India, and amongst tribal and indigenous communities is just as ancient and fundamentally contributive to the foundations of the religious and philosophical system.
Ancient Hindu kingdoms arose and spread the religion and traditions across South East Asia, particularly Thailand, Nepal, Burma, Malaysia, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, and what is now central Vietnam. A form of Hinduism particularly different from Indian roots and traditions is practiced in Bali, Indonesia, where Hindus form 90% of the population. Indian migrants have taken Hinduism and Hindu culture to South Africa, Fiji, Mauritius and other countries in and around the Indian Ocean, and in the nations of the West Indies and the Caribbean. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... West Indies redirects here. ...
Hindu ceremonies, observances and pilgrimages
Hinduism is also very diverse in the religious ceremonies performed by its adherents for different periods and events in life, and for death. Principal Festivity of the Hindus also vary from region to region which include Diwali, Shivratri, Ram Navami, Janmashtmi, Ganapati, Durgapuja, Holi, Navaratri, etc. Diwali, or Deepawali, (also called Tihar and Swanti in Nepal) (Markiscarali) is a major Indian and Nepalese festive holiday, and a significant festival in Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism. ... Shophouses in Little India. ...
Many Hindus make pilgrimages to the holy shrines (known as tirthas). Hindu holy shrines include Mount Kailash, Amarnath, Vaishno Devi, Rameshwaram, and Kedarnath. Prominent Hindu holy cities include Varanasi (Benaras), Kathmandu (Nepal), Tirupati, Haridwar, Nashik, Ujjain, Dwarka, Puri, Prayaga, Mathura, Mayapur and Ayodhya. Coupled with the concept of the power of the Mantra, in Hinduism, there is the concept of the holiness of a place. ... Shrine is also used as a conventional translation of the Japanese Jinja. ... Mount Kailash (officially: KangrinboqÃª; Tibetan: Gang Rinpoche, à½à½à½¦à¼à½¢à½²à½à¼à½à½¼à½ à½§à½ºà¼; Wylie: Gangs Rin-po-che; ZWPY: KangrinboqÃª; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Hindi à¤à¥à¤²à¤¾à¤¶ à¤ªà¤°à¥à¤µà¤¤, KailÄÅÄ Parvata) is a peak in the GangdisÃª mountains, the source of some of the longest rivers in Asiaâthe Indus River, the Sutlej River, a tributary of the Ganges... Amarnath is one of the most famous of Hindu temples, dedicated to Lord Shiva, located in Jammu and Kashmir, Republic of India. ... Vaishno Devi Mandir (Hindi: ) is one of the holiest Hindu temples dedicated to Shakti, located in the hill of Vaishno Devi, Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Rameswaram is a town in the southern part of India in the state of Tamil Nadu. ... The Kedarnath temple Kedarnath is a Hindu holy town located in the the Indian state of Uttarakhand. ... Holy city is a synonym applied to many cities, all of them central to the history or faith of specific religions. ... , Varanasi (Sanskrit: à¤µà¤¾à¤°à¤¾à¤£à¤¸à¥ VÄrÄá¹asÄ«, IPA: ), also known as Benares (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA: ), or Kashi (Hindi: ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... For other uses, see Kathmandu (disambiguation). ... , Haridwar (also spelt as Hardwar, Hindi: à¤¹à¤°à¤¿à¤¦à¥à¤µà¤¾à¤°) is a holy city and municipal board in the Haridwar District in the state of Uttarakhand in northern India. ... , Mahakal Temple Ujjain Ujjain (Hindi:à¤à¤à¥à¤à¥à¤¨) ([[map view : maxujjain dot com]) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... , Dwarka is a city and a municipality in Jamnagar district in the state of Gujarat, India. ... Puri can mean: Puri, a city in the Indian state of Orissa, which is famous for the Jagannath temple and the serene beaches located there . ... Map of India. ... The Ganges river at Mayapur Mayapur (Bengali: à¦®à¦¾à¦¯à¦¼à¦¾à¦ªà§à¦°) is located on the banks of the Ganges river near Navadvip, West Bengal, India, 130 km north of Kolkata (Calcutta). ... Ayodhya (Hindi: à¤ à¤¯à¥à¤§à¥à¤¯à¤¾, Urdu: Ø§ÛÙØ¯Ú¾ÛØ§ IAST AyodhyÄ) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ...
Goddess Durga's holy shrine in Vaishno Devi attracts thousands of devotees every year. Hundreds of millions of Hindus annually visit holy rivers such as the Ganges ("Ganga" in Sanskrit) and temples near them, wash and bathe themselves to purify their sins. The Kumbha Mela (the Great Fair) is a gathering of between 10 to 20 million Hindus upon the banks of the holy rivers at Allahabad (Prayag), Ujjain, Nashik, as periodically ordained in different parts of India by Hinduism's priestly leadership. The most famous is at the confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh which is known as "Sangam". In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. ... Vaishno Devi Mandir (Hindi: ) is one of the holiest Hindu temples dedicated to Shakti, located in the hill of Vaishno Devi, Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... This article is about the river. ... The 2001 Kumbh Mela. ... Not to be confused with the nearby Jamuna River a tributary of the Meghna River, which is sometimes confused both in older historical literature, and by translations of the local dialects. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA: , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ...
Sixteen sanskars (rituals)
These are various rituals necessary within a life of Hindu. These samskaram are applied during different phases of life. These are: Pashupatinath Temple, Eastview A holyman crosses Bagmati river with a plank of wood Pashupatinath Temple Pashupatinath temple (à¤ªà¤¶à¥à¤ªà¤¤à¤¿à¤¨à¤¾à¤¥ à¤®à¤¨à¥à¤¦à¤¿à¤°) is a Hindu temple located on the shore of the Bagmati river on the eastern part of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. ... For other uses, see Kathmandu (disambiguation). ... In Hinduism young male members of the Brahmin and Kshatriya caste may perform a coming of age ceremony, however as the caste system has been disregarded and was not part of Hinduism, through birth as such, various members of other castes also perform this ceremony. ... Motto: Mother and Motherland are Greater than Heaven Anthem: Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka Capital Kathmandu (Nepal Bhasa: à¤¯à¥à¤) , Largest city Kathmandu Official languages Nepali Recognised regional languages Maithili, Nepal Bhasa, Bhojpuri, Tharu, Gurung, Tamang, Magar, Awadhi, Sherpa, Kiranti and another 100 different indigenous languages. ... For other uses, see Kathmandu (disambiguation). ... Durbar Square is a market square in Kathmandu, Nepal. ...
- Garbhadhan Sanskar (Conception)
- Punsavan Sanskar (Protection)
- Simantanayan Sanskar (Bringing Happiness to mother)
- Jatakarm Sanskar (Child Birth)
- Namakaran Sanskar (Naming of Child)
- Nishkraman Sanskar (First outdoor visit)
- Annaprashan Sanskar (First food feeding)
- Chudkaram Sanskar (Haircutting)
- Karnavedh Sanskar (Ear piercing)
- Upnayan (Sacred thread wearing)
- Vedarambh Sanskar (Study starting)
- Samavartna Sanskar (Education completion)
- Vivah Sanskar (Marriage)
- Vanprasth Sanskar (Preparation for renouncing)
- Sanyas Sanskar (Renouncing)
- Antyesti Sanskar (Funeral)
Some Hindus may perform initiation ceremonies like Upanayana or Janoy or 'Vratabandha'. These ceremonies have variants depending on the caste, the culture and the region. Upanayana is a Hindu samskara for children of the three highest castes. ... Castes are hereditary systems of social occupation, endogamy, social culture, economic class, and political power. ...
In a ceremony administered by a priest, a coir string, known as Janoy, Poonool (lit. "flower thread, "Tamil), janivara (Kannada, Marathi), is hung from around a young boy's left shoulder to his right waist line for Brahmins and from right shoulders to left waistline by Kshatriyas. The ceremony varies from region to community, and includes reading from the Vedas and special Mantras and Slokas. This article is about religious workers. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... A Kshatriya is a member of the military or reigning order, according to the law-code of Manu the second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra. ...
- ^ India-Constitution:Religious rights Article 25:"Explanation II: In sub-Clause (b) of clause (2), the reference to Hindus shall be construed as including a reference to persons professing the Sikh, Jaina or Buddhist religion"
- ^ CIA World Factbook - India Demographics 80.5% of 1.166 billion Indians are Hindus
- ^ "India", Oxford English Dictionary, second edition, 2100a.d. Oxford University Press.
- ^ http://books.google.ca/books?id=EWlHPAkjBKUC&pg=PA782&lpg=PA782&dq=rig+veda+sindhu+hindu&source=bl&ots=BEN5WftdIe&sig=3Vn5iQSXAQ2OhxEE6cTeAzgYSow&hl=en&ei=dd4jTKjYI4H7lwf8tc2FAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBcQ6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=rig%20veda%20sindhu%20hindu&f=false
- ^ Thapar, R. 1993. Interpreting Early India. Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 77
- ^ Thompson Platts, John. A dictionary of Urdu , classical Hindī, and English. W.H. Allen & Co., Oxford University 1884.
- ^ O'Conell, Joseph T. (1973). "The Word 'Hindu' in Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava Texts". Journal of the American Oriental Society 93 (3): pp. 340–344.
- ^ David Lorenzen, Who Invented Hinduism? New Delhi 2006, pp. 24-33; Rajatarangini of Yonaraja : "Hinduka"
- ^ a b Gavin, Flood. "Hare Krishna: Hinduism, Vaisnavism, and ISKCON: Authentic Traditions or Scholarly Constructions?". Cults and Society, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2001. http://www.icsahome.com/infoserv_articles/flood_gavin_hinduismvaisismandiskcon.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
- ^ Nikhilananda 1990, pp. 3–8
- ^ "Hindu History" The BBC names a bath and phallic symbols of the Harappan civilization as features of the "Prehistoric religion (3000-1000 BCE)".
- ^ T. Oberlies (Die Religion des Rgveda, Vienna 1998. p. 158) based on 'cumulative evidence' sets wide range of 1700–1100.
- ^ The Ṛgvedic deity Dyaus, regarded as the father of the other deities, is linguistically cognate with Zeus—the king of the gods in Greek mythology, Iovis (gen. of Jupiter) —the king of the gods in Roman mythology, and Tiu/Ziu in Germanic mythology, cf. English 'Tues-day'. Other Vedic deities also have cognates with those found in other Indo-European speaking peoples' mythologies; see Proto-Indo-European religion.
- ^ Olivelle, Patrick, "The renouncer tradition", in Flood 2003, pp. 273–274
- ^ Eliot 2003
- ^ Radhakrishnan & Moore 1967, p. xviii–xxi.
- ^ a b c Basham 1999
- ^ "The rise of Jainism and Buddhism". Religion and Ethics—Hinduism: Other religious influences. BBC. 26 July 2004. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/hinduism/history/history_2.shtml. Retrieved 2007-04-21.
- ^ Vijay Nath, From 'Brahmanism' to 'Hinduism': Negotiating the Myth of the Great Tradition, Social Scientist 2001, pp. 19-50.
- ^ J.T.F. Jordens, "Medieval Hindu Devotionalism" in & Basham 1999
- ^ Raymond Brady Williams (2004), Williams on South Asian Religions and Immigration: Collected Works, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., ISBN 0754638561, http://books.google.com/?id=nkVBOfE1KkAC&dq=swaminarayan+hare+krishna p.217
- ^ Pandit, Bansi. Explore Hinduism. p. 27
- ^ Maharishi Mahesh Yogi; On The Bhagavad Gita; A New Translation and Commentary With Sanskrit Text Chapters 1 to 6, Preface p. 9
- ^ N. Siegel, Paul. The meek and the militant: religion and power across the world. Zed Books, 1987. ISBN 0862323495, 9780862323493.
- ^ Hoiberg, Dale. Students' Britannica India. Popular Prakashan, 2000. ISBN 0852297602, 9780852297605.
- ^ Gupta, Om. Encyclopaedia of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Gyan Publishing House, 2006. ISBN 8182053897, 9788182053892.
- ^ see e.g. Radhakrishnan & Moore 1957, p. 3; Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and Upaniṣads", in: Flood 2003, p. 68
- ^ Brodd, Jefferey (2003). World Religions. Winona, MN: Saint Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-725-5.
- ^ Adherents.com Hinduism
- ^ a b Supreme Court of India, "Bramchari Sidheswar Shai and others Versus State of West Bengal", 1995.
- ^ Frykenberg, Robert. "The emergence of modern 'Hinduism' as a concept and as an Institution: A reappraisal with special reference to South India" in Hinduism reconsidered, Manohar, Delhi, 1989. ISBN 8-17-304385-X
- ^ Hardy, F. "A radical assessment of the Vedic heritage" in Representing Hinduism: The Construction of Religious and National Identity, Sage Publ., Delhi, 1995.
- ^ Flood, Gavin, "Establishing the boundaries" in Flood (2003), pp. 1-17.
- ^ Muller, F. Max. Six Systems of Indian Philosophy; Samkhya and Yoga; Naya and Vaiseshika. 1899. This classic work helped to establish the major classification systems as we know them today. Reprint edition: (Kessinger Publishing: February 2003) ISBN 978-0766142961.
- ^ Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore. A Source Book in Indian Philosophy. (Princeton University Press; 1957) Princeton paperback 12th edition, 1989. ISBN 0691019584.
- ^ Swami Tattwananda. Vaisnava Sects, Saiva Sects, Mother Worship. (Firma KLM Private Ltd.: Calcutta, 1984). This work gives an overview of many different subsets of the three main religious groups in India.
- ^ Savarkar, V. K. Hindutva, Hindi Sahitya Sadan, 2003. ISBN 8-18-838825-4
- ^ Ram-Prasad, C. "Contemporary political Hinduism" in Blackwell companion to Hinduism, Blackwell Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-631-21535-2
- Flood, Gavin (Editor) (2003). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.. ISBN 1-4051-3251-5.
- Radhakrishnan, S.; Moore, CA (1967). A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. Princeton. ISBN 0-691-01958-4.
- Tattwananda, Swami (1984). Vaisnava Sects, Saiva Sects, Mother Worship. Calcutta: Firma KLM Private Ltd.. First revised edition.