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Encyclopedia > Himalayan wolf
Himalayan Wolf

Captive moulting Himalayan Wolf in Bangladesh
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Canis
Species: C. lupus
Subspecies: C. l. himalayensis
Trinomial name
Canis lupus himalayensis
R. K. Aggarwal, Y.V Jhala et al., 2007 [1]

The Himalayan Wolf, originally thought to belong to Tibetan wolf, may represent a distinct canid species, Canis himalayensis[1]. Now have rank subspecies of Gray Wolf, and get Taxonomy ID. It is native to a small region in northern India (Jammu and Kashmir and then Himachal Pradesh) and eastern Nepal in the Himalayas. DNA research suggested that this wolf may represent (together with the Indian Wolf) an ancient isolated line of wolves in India. The Himalayan wolf only has a small population of 350 animals, and 21 specimens live in zoos throughout India [Inventory of animals in Indian Zoos 2000-2001, New Delhi, India 2002, 314.]. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (590x905, 34 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... . ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dÄ“, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... Species Canis adustus Canis aureus Canis dirus (extinct) Canis latrans Canis lupus Canis mesomelas Canis simensis   † also includes dogs. ... For other uses, see Wolf (disambiguation), Gray Wolves (disambiguation), or Timber Wolf (comics). ... Trinomial nomenclature is a taxonomic naming system that extends the standard system of binomial nomenclature by adding a third taxon. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Wolf (disambiguation), Gray Wolves (disambiguation), or Timber Wolf (comics). ... Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... , Himachal Pradesh (Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA:  ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... Trinomial name Canis lupus pallipes (Reginald Innes Pocock, 1941) Present distribution of Indian wolf in light blue The Indian Wolf (Canis lupus pallipes), also known as the Indian Gray Wolf or the Peninsular Gray Wolf, is the small subspecies of the Grey Wolf. ...

Contents

History

Historically, scientists have named at the very least 32 different subspecies of the gray wolf. These differences among subspecies were based primarily on differences in morphology. The Himalayan wolf is usually believed to be a part of the Canis lupus chanco subspecies. This subspecies occupied the area of Kashmir and stretching to the east part of China and Mongolia. Up until now the Himalayan wolf had not been studied genetically. New evidence based on the mitochondrial DNA shows signs that the Himalayan wolf could very well be a new subspecies and perhaps even a new species all together. It is believed the Himalayan wolf separated from the Gray wolf approximately 800,000 years ago. Thereby, perhaps making it a different species in its own right. If in fact it is a new species, new questions arise as to why it wasn't able to perpetuate across the globe in the same matter as its relative the Gray wolf. [2] Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... For other uses, see Wolf (disambiguation), Gray Wolves (disambiguation), or Timber Wolf (comics). ...


Habitat

The habitat of the Himalayan Wolf (also known as the Tibeten Wolf) is confined to small pockets of India, Kashmir, and into China and Mongolia. It is believed that when this species first evolved, they were surrrounded by glaciers and other physical areas that did not promote expansion and perpetuation. Much of their habitat is shared by another newly discovered species, the Indian Wolf. It is unknown as to why these two species do not interbreed in spite of the overlap in habitat. This fact allows the two species to remain genetically distinct from all other wolves and dogs found on the planet. Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus pallipes (Reginald Innes Pocock, 1941) Present distribution of Indian wolf in light blue The Indian Wolf (Canis lupus pallipes), also known as the Indian Gray Wolf or the Peninsular Gray Wolf, is the small subspecies of the Grey Wolf. ...

Kalpa, Himachal Pradesh

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Evolution

Up until recently it was believed that all wolves and dogs were part of the wolf-dog clade meaning that all domesticated dogs are derived from wolves. When the Himalayan lineage was studied, it was found that the wolf shared no genetic markers with gray wolves or dogs. This indicates that the Himalayan wolf played no role in the domestication of dogs. When the divergence of the Himalayan wolf occurred 800,000 years ago, the habitat of modern day Nepal was going through major geologic and climate upheaval. The Himalayan region, also home to the Indian Wolf and the Gray Wolf, is the only geographical location in the entire world were these three species of wolves exist, thereby supporting the theory that the Indian region is the most likely place of modern wolf evolution. Himalayan wolf is probably ancestor of all wolves in the world. India is place of origin wolves group. Trinomial name Canis lupus pallipes (Reginald Innes Pocock, 1941) Present distribution of Indian wolf in light blue The Indian Wolf (Canis lupus pallipes), also known as the Indian Gray Wolf or the Peninsular Gray Wolf, is the small subspecies of the Grey Wolf. ... For other uses, see Wolf (disambiguation), Gray Wolves (disambiguation), or Timber Wolf (comics). ...


Outlook

The future of the Himalayan wolf is uncertain at best. Up until recently, it wasn't known that the Himalayan wolf varied genetically with other wolves. Recent studies have estimated the population to be only 350 individuals. These wolves are viewed as a menace to local farmers and ranchers and in turn are killed because they are unprotected. Therefore, it is imperative that these animals become protected because they represent the oldest extant lineage of any species of wolf on the planet. The species is estimated to be 800,000 years old which is twice as old as the North American Gray wolf at 400,000 years old.


Captive breeding and saving

18 Himalayan wolves are being bred in captivity. They were captured in the wild, as one of the threatened species was found with the snow leopard and are now being preserved in the Trans-Himalayan region of India, the Darjeeling Zoo in Shiwalik Hills on the lower range of the Himalaya in West Bengal, and in the Kufri Zoo with Kufri Himalayan National Park located in Himachal Pradesh province.[3] . In 2004, larger gropus of Himalyan wolves were spotted in the Spiti valley.[4]. The total population evaluates for 21 individuals in four of the Zoological Parks of India.[5]study sample tuck Binomial name (Schreber, 1775) Range map Synonyms Uncia uncia The Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia), sometimes known as the ounce, is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central Asia from Afghanistan to Lake Baikal and eastern Tibet. ... Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park is the zooligical park in the town of Darjeeling in the Indian state of West Bengal. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Forest in Himachal Pradesh cover an area of nearly 21,325 km² that is about 38. ... , Himachal Pradesh (Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA:  ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... The Spiti valley is a desert mountain valley located high in the Himalaya mountains which is periodically cut off totally during winter. ...


See also

Trinomial name Canis lupus pallipes (Reginald Innes Pocock, 1941) Present distribution of Indian wolf in light blue The Indian Wolf (Canis lupus pallipes), also known as the Indian Gray Wolf or the Peninsular Gray Wolf, is the small subspecies of the Grey Wolf. ... The Eastern Canadian Wolf, Canis lycaon, is a potentially new wolf species in North America. ... Binomial name Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 The Wolf or Grey Wolf (Canis lupus) is a mammal of the Canidae family and the ancestor of the domestic dog. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ R. K. Aggarwal, T. Kivisild, J. Ramadevi, L. Singh:Mitochondrial DNA coding region sequences support the phylogenetic distinction of two Indian wolf species. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, Volume 45 Issue 2 Page 163-172, May 2007 online
  • 1. Sharma, D. K., J. E. Maldonaldo, Y. V. Jhala, and R. C. Fleischer. 2003. Ancient wolf lineages in India. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B (Supplement) Biology Letters. Published online August 8, 2003. "Ancient wolf lineages in India."
  • 2. Wolves in India. The Ancient Wolves of India. Wolf.org.
  • 3. Wolves. Did They Originate In South Asia? By Dipesh Satapathy. An Indo-U.S. team of zoologists uncovers fascinating evidence about the evolution of wolves in India. UsembassyState.
  • 4. Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad 500 007, India. Ramesh K. Aggarwal, J. Ramadevi and Lalji Singh. Genome Biology 2003. Ancient origin and evolution of the Indian wolf
  • 5. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 45 (2), 163–172.

doi:10.1111/j.1439-0469.2006.00400.x. R. K. Aggarwal, T. Kivisild, J. Ramadevi, L. Singh (2007). Volume 45 Issue 2 Page 163-172, May 2007. ...Distinction of two Indian wolf species

Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dÄ“, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Species Canis adustus Canis aureus Canis dirus (extinct) Canis latrans Canis lupus Canis mesomelas Canis simensis   † also includes dogs. ... Binomial name Canis adustus Sundevall, 1847 The Side-striped jackal (Canis adustus) is a member of the family Canidae, native to central and Southern African. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Golden Jackal range The Golden Jackal (Canis aureus), also called the Asiatic or Common Jackal, is a mammal of the order carnivora native to North and East Africa, Southeastern Europe and South Asia to Burma. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus pallipes (Reginald Innes Pocock, 1941) Present distribution of Indian wolf in light blue The Indian Wolf (Canis lupus pallipes), also known as the Indian Gray Wolf or the Peninsular Gray Wolf, is the small subspecies of the Grey Wolf. ... For other uses, see Coyote (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wolf (disambiguation), Gray Wolves (disambiguation), or Timber Wolf (comics). ... For other uses, see Red Wolf (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Schreber, 1775 Black-backed Jackal range The Black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas), also known as the Silver-backed jackal is a mammal of the order carnivora. ... Binomial name Canis simensis Ruppell, 1840 Map of the range of the Ethiopian Wolf. ... Binomial name Cuon alpinus (Pallas, 1811) The Dhole (Cuon alpinus) is a species of wild dog of the Canidae family. ... Binomial name Cuon alpinus (Pallas, 1811) The Dhole (Cuon alpinus) is a species of wild dog of the Canidae family. ... Binomial name (Temminck, 1820) African Wild Dog range The African Wild Dog, Lycaon pictus, also known as the African Hunting Dog, Cape Hunting Dog, Painted Dog, or Painted Wolf, is a carnivorous mammal of the Canidae family. ... Binomial name (Temminck, 1820) African Wild Dog range The African Wild Dog, Lycaon pictus, also known as the African Hunting Dog, Cape Hunting Dog, Painted Dog, or Painted Wolf, is a carnivorous mammal of the Canidae family. ... Binomial name Atelocynus Microtis (Sclater, 1883) Short-eared Dog (Atelocynus microtis) also known as Small Eared Zorro or Short-eared Fox can be found in South America. ... Binomial name Atelocynus Microtis (Sclater, 1883) Short-eared Dog (Atelocynus microtis) also known as Small Eared Zorro or Short-eared Fox can be found in South America. ... Binomial name Alopex lagopus ({{{author}}}, {{{date}}}) The Crab Eating Fox (Cerdocyon thous), also called the Common Fox or forest fox is a medium-sized fox and is found in South America. ... Binomial name Alopex lagopus ({{{author}}}, {{{date}}}) The Crab Eating Fox (Cerdocyon thous), also called the Common Fox or forest fox is a medium-sized fox and is found in South America. ... Lycalopex is a genus created by Burmeisteri in 1854 for the Hoary Fox (Pseudalopex vetulus). ... Binomial name Pseudalopex culpaeus (Molina, 1782) The culpeo is a South American species of wild dog. ... Binomial name Martin, 1837 Synonyms Dusicyon fulvipes Pseudalopex griseus fulvipes Darwins Fox or Darwins Zorro (Pseudalopex fulvipes) is a small endangered canine from the genus Pseudalopex, also know as Chiloé Zorro or Zorro Chilote in Spanish (zorros is false fox, more related to true dogs and included to... Binomial name Pseudalopex gymnocercus ( Fischer, 1814) Pampas Fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus), also known as Azaras fox, is a medium sized fox native to South America. ... Binomial name Pseudalopex sechurae Thomas, 1900 The Sechuran Fox (Pseudalopex sechurae), also called Peruvian Desert Fox and sechuran zorro is a South American species of canid. ... Binomial name Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) Please note that the Blanfords Fox, or Afghan fox, is also known as Hoary Fox. The Hoary Fox, Pseudalopex vetulus, or Hoary zorro, is a species of zorro (false fox) endemic to Brazil. ... Binomial name Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815) The Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is the largest canid of South America, resembling a dog with reddish fur. ... Binomial name Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815) The Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is the largest canid of South America, resembling a dog with reddish fur. ... Binomial name Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842) The Bush Dog (Speothos venaticus) is a canid found in Central and South America, including Panama, Venezuela, Bolivia, Peru (West of the Andes), Ecuador, the Guyanas, Paraguay, North-East Argentina (Misiones province), and Brazil (from the Amazon rainforest to the state of Santa Catarina). ... Binomial name Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842) The Bush Dog (Speothos venaticus) is a canid found in Central and South America, including Panama, Venezuela, Bolivia, Peru (West of the Andes), Ecuador, the Guianas, Paraguay, northeast Argentina (Misiones province), and Brazil (from the Amazon rainforest to the state of Amazonas). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Arctic Fox range The Arctic Fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the White Fox or Snow Fox, is a fox of the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Arctic Fox range The Arctic Fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the White Fox or Snow Fox, is a fox of the order Carnivora. ... Species Vulpes bengalensis Vulpes cana Vulpes chama Vulpes corsac Vulpes ferrilata Vulpes lagopus Vulpes macrotis Vulpes pallida Vulpes rueppelli Vulpes velox Vulpes vulpes Vulpes zerda Vulpes is a genus of the Canidae family. ... For other uses, see Red Fox (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Say, 1823) The Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) is a small fox found in the western grasslands of North America, such as Colorado, New Mexico and Texas. ... This article is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Binomial name Vulpes corsac (Linnaeus, 1768) The Corsac Fox (Vulpes corsac) is a species of fox. ... Binomial name Vulpes chama (A Smith, 1833) The Cape Fox (Vulpes chama), also called Cama Fox or Silver-backed Fox is a small fox. ... Binomial name Vulpes pallida (Cretzschmar, 1827) The Pale Fox (Vulpes pallida) is a species of fox which inhabits the Sahel from Senegal in the west to Sudan in the east. ... Binomial name Vulpes bengalensis (Shaw, 1800) // Range and Habitat The Indian fox (Vulpes bengalensis) is a fox endemic to the Indian subcontinent and is found from the Himalayan foothills and Terai of Nepal through southern India and from southern and eastern Pakistan to eastern India and southeastern Bangladesh Appearance Vulpes... Tibetan Fox (Vulpes ferrilata) Lives at a high plateau of Tibet, bordering on China and India. ... Binomial name Vulpes cana (Blanford, 1877) Range of Blanfords Fox Please note that two a. ... Binomial name Vulpes rueppelli (Schinz, 1825) Rüppells Fox or Sand Fox (Vulpes rueppelli) is a species of fox living in North Africa and the Middle East, from Morocco to Afghanistan. ... Binomial name (Zimmermann, 1780) Fennec range Synonyms Fennecus zerda Zimmermann, 1780 The fennec is a small fox found in the Sahara Desert of North Africa (excluding the coast) and in some parts of Arabia, which has distinctive oversized ears. ... Species Urocyon cinereoargenteus Urocyon littoralis The genus Urocyon is a genus contains two (possibly three) Western Hemisphere foxes in the family Canidae, the Gray Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and the closely-related Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis). ... For other uses, see Gray Fox (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Urocyon littoralis (Baird, 1857) The Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis) is a small fox that is native to six of the eight Channel Islands of California. ... Binomial name Urocyon sp. ... Binomial name Otocyon megalotis (Desmarest, 1822) The Bat-eared Fox is a canid of the African savanna. ... Binomial name Otocyon megalotis (Desmarest, 1822) The Bat-eared Fox is a canid of the African savanna. ... Binomial name Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray, 1834) The Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a member of the canid family and is considered to be a species of dog although it is often confused with raccoons and badgers. ... It has been suggested that tanuki be merged into this article or section. ...

 
 

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