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Encyclopedia > Hill lists in the British Isles

The mountains and hills of Great Britain, and to a lesser extent Ireland, are the subject of a considerable number of lists which categorise them by height, topographic prominence, or other criteria. They are commonly used as a basis for peak bagging, whereby hillwalkers attempt to reach all the summits on a given list. The oldest and best known of these lists is that of the Munros, mountains in Scotland over 3000 feet; other well-known lists include the Corbetts, Wainwrights and Marilyns. Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height, shoulder drop or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains. ... Peak bagging (also hill bagging, mountain bagging, or among enthusiasts, just bagging) is a popular activity for hillwalkers and mountaineers in which they attempt to reach the summit of each peak in a region above some height, or having a particular feature. ... Hillwalking or fellwalking is the recreational practice of hiking in mountainous terrain. ... Sgurr Fiona and the Corrag Bhuide pinnacles of An Teallach A Munro is a Scottish hill with a height over 3000 feet (914. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government Constitutional monarchy (as part of the UK)  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP... A foot (plural: feet) is any of several old units of distance or length, measuring around a quarter to a third of a meter. ... A Corbett is a hill in Scotland between 2500 and 3000 feet (762–914. ...

Contents


Scotland

Munros

Main article: Munro

The Munros are mountains in Scotland over 3000 feet (914.4 m). The list was originally compiled by Sir Hugh Munro in 1891, and is modified from time to time by the Scottish Mountaineering Club (SMC).[1] Unlike most other lists, the Munros do not depend on a rigid prominence criterion for entry; instead, those which satisfy the subjective measure of being a "separate mountain" are regarded as Munros, while subsidiary summits are given the status of tops. There are 284 Munros and 227 further tops, all of them in the Scottish Highlands. Sgurr Fiona and the Corrag Bhuide pinnacles of An Teallach A Munro is a Scottish hill with a height over 3000 feet (914. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government Constitutional monarchy (as part of the UK)  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP... Sir Hugh Thomas Munro (1856-1919) was born in London, but brought up in Scotland on the family estate of Lindertis near Kirriemuir. ... The Scottish Mountaineering Club (SMC) was founded in 1889, in Glasgow, Scotland. ... In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height, shoulder drop or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains. ... The Scottish Highlands are the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ...

This is a list of all 284 Munros, as according to the current (1997) revision of the Scottish Mountaineering Club. ...

Corbetts

The Corbetts are peaks in Scotland between 2500 and 3000 feet (762 and 914.4 m), with a relative height of at least 500 feet (152.4 m). The list was compiled in the 1920s by John Rooke Corbett, a Bristol-based climber and SMC member, and was published posthumously after it was passed to the SMC by his sister.[1] There are 219 Corbetts, many of them in areas of Scotland which have no Munros, notably Moidart, Applecross, the Southern Uplands and the islands of Arran, Jura, Rùm and Harris. Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government Constitutional monarchy (as part of the UK)  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP... In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height, shoulder drop or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains. ... Sgurr Fiona and the Corrag Bhuide pinnacles of An Teallach A Munro is a Scottish hill with a height over 3000 feet (914. ... Moidart is a district in Lochaber, Highland, Scotland to the west of Fort William; the area is very remote and Loch Shiel cuts off the south-west boundary of the district. ... The Pass of the Cattle was until the late 20th century the only road linking Applecross with the rest of the country Applecross is a small settlement at the edge of the Applecross Peninsula in Wester Ross, on the west coast of the Scottish Highlands. ... The Southern Uplands is the southernmost of Scotlands three major geographic areas (the others being the Central Belt and the Highlands). ... Arran shown within Argyll The Isle of Arran (Scots Gaelic: Eilean Arainn) is the largest island in the Firth of Clyde (430 km2). ... Jura shown within Argyll Satellite picture of Jura Jura (Scottish Gaelic Diùra) is a Scottish island, in the Inner Hebrides. ... Rùm (a Scottish Gaelic name which is usually anglicised to Rum) is one of the Small Isles, in Lochaber, Highland, Scotland. ... The Isle of Harris An Cliseam from the Abhainn Mharaig, just off the main road to Lewis. ...

Donalds

The Donalds are hills in the Scottish Lowlands over 2000 feet (609.6 m). The list was compiled by Percy Donald, and is maintained by the SMC.[1] Whether a hill is a Donald is determined by a complicated formula. A hill with a prominence of at least 30 m is automatically a Donald, but one with a relative height of 15 m may be one if it is of sufficient topographic interest. There are 89 Donalds, many of which are also Corbetts or Grahams. The Scottish Lowlands ( an Galldachd in Gaelic ), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due south and east of a line (the Highland Boundary...

  • List of Donalds

Grahams

The Grahams are hills in Scotland between 2000 and 2500 feet (609.6 and 762 m), with a prominence of at least 500 feet (152.4 m). The list of hills fitting these criteria was first published by Alan Dawson in The Relative Hills of Britain[2]. They were later named Grahams after the late Fiona Torbet (née Graham) who compiled a similar list around the same time. Dawson continues to maintain the list, which contains 224 hills.

  • TACit Tables: The Grahams and the New Donalds — list of Grahams by region.

Murdos

The Murdos are an attempt to apply strict objective criteria to the Munros and their associated tops. They are all the summits in Scotland over 3000 feet (914.4 m) with a relative height of at least 30 m. There are 444 Murdos, compared to 284 Munros or 511 Munros plus tops. The list was compiled and is maintained by Alan Dawson.[3] Sgurr Fiona and the Corrag Bhuide pinnacles of An Teallach A Munro is a Scottish hill with a height over 3000 feet (914. ...

  • TACit Tables: The Murdos — list of Murdos by region.

Outside Scotland

Nuttalls

The Nuttalls are hills in England and Wales over 610 m (2000 feet) with a relative height of at least 15 m. There are 252[4] Nuttalls in England and 188 in Wales. The list was compiled by John and Anne Nuttall and published in two volumes, The Mountains of England & Wales [5] [6]. Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population... Motto: (Welsh for Wales for ever) Anthem: Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff Official language(s) English, Welsh Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Rhodri Morgan AM Unification    - by Gruffudd ap Llywelyn 1056  Area    - Total 20,779 km² (3rd... The metre, or meter (US), is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet) is any of several old units of distance or length, measuring around a quarter to a third of a meter. ...


By including hills that rise by as little as 15 m above their surroundings, the list of Nuttalls is sometimes criticised for including too many insignificant minor tops. The Hewitts (see below) are one attempt to avoid this.


With the exception of Pillar Rock, a rocky outcrop on Pillar in the Lake District, the peaks of all of the Nuttalls can be reached without resort to rock climbing. As of May 2006, 116 people are known to have completed the list. Pillar is a fell in the English Lake District. ... The panorama across Eskdale from Ill Crag. ... Climbers on Valkyrie at the Roaches. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • List of Nuttalls in Wales
  • List of Nuttalls in England

Hewitts

The Hewitts are Hills in England, Wales and Ireland over Two Thousand feet (609.6 m), with a relative height of at least 30 m. The English[7] and Welsh[8] lists were compiled and are maintained by Alan Dawson; the Irish[9] list is by Clem Clements. The list addresses one of the criticisms of the Nuttalls by requiring hills to have a relative height of 30 m, thus excluding the 125 least prominent Nuttalls from the list.


There are 525 Hewitts in total: 178 in England, 137 in Wales and 211 in Ireland. (Black Mountain is counted in both England and Wales.) Scotland is excluded from the list of Hewitts as it would add a vast number of relatively minor Scottish hills to the list. (A survey has recently been completed listing all the hills in Scotland that otherwise meet the criteria for Hewitts. The list was published in three parts: the Murdos[3], the Corbett Tops[10], and the Graham Tops[11]. If all these were added to the list of Hewitts, it would contain 2638 hills.) Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population... Motto: (Welsh for Wales for ever) Anthem: Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff Official language(s) English, Welsh Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Rhodri Morgan AM Unification    - by Gruffudd ap Llywelyn 1056  Area    - Total 20,779 km² (3rd... Black Mountain is a mountain in the Black Mountains (not to be confused with the Black Mountain range of hills). ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government Constitutional monarchy (as part of the UK)  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP...

  • List of Hewitts in England
  • List of Hewitts in Wales

Wainwrights

The Wainwrights are hills (locally known as fells) in the English Lake District National Park that have a chapter in one of Alfred Wainwright's Pictorial Guides to the Lakeland Fells. There are 214 hills in the seven guides. There are no height or distance qualifications to these hills; they are simply the ones he thought worthy of inclusion. A further 102 hills were included in the supplementary guide, The Outlying Fells of Lakeland. Crinkle Crags as seen from the adjoining fell of Cold Pike. ... Alfred Wainwright (1907 – 1991) was best known for his seven Pictorial Guides to the Lakeland Fells. ... The Pictorial Guides to the Lakeland Fells is a series of seven books detailing the fells of the English Lake District. ...

Alfred Wainwright listed 214 fells in total in his series of seven Pictorial Guides to the Lakeland Fells. ...

Marilyns

Main article: Marilyn (hill)

The Marilyns are hills in the British Isles that have a relative height of at least 150 m, regardless of distance, absolute height or other merit. There are currently 1554 Marilyns in Britain: 1214 in Scotland, 180 in England, 156 in Wales and 5 on the Isle of Man. (Black Mountain is in both England and Wales, which is why the country totals sum to 1555.) There are a further 453 Marilyns in Ireland. The list was compiled and is maintained by Alan Dawson.[2] A Marilyn is a hill with a relative height of at least 150 metres, regardless of absolute height or other merit. ... A Marilyn is a hill with a relative height of at least 150 metres, regardless of absolute height or other merit. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into British and Irish Isles. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population... Motto: (Welsh for Wales for ever) Anthem: Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff Official language(s) English, Welsh Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Rhodri Morgan AM Unification    - by Gruffudd ap Llywelyn 1056  Area    - Total 20,779 km² (3rd... Black Mountain is a mountain in the Black Mountains (not to be confused with the Black Mountain range of hills). ...


Peak bagging culture

In the Lake District especially, there is a tradition of finding the maximum number of tops, including all the major summits, which can be visited in a 24 hour period - see Lakeland 24 hour record. This usually requires fell running, and a support team. The pre-war record, set by Bob Graham, of 42 tops, has become a standard round, which has been repeated by over 1000 people. In 1932 the Lakeland fell runner Bob Graham set a peak bagging record of 42 Lakeland peaks in just under 24 hours. ... Fell running, also known as mountain running and hill running, is the sport of running and racing, off road, over upland country where the gradient climbed is a significant component of the difficulty. ... In 1932 the Lakeland fell runner Bob Graham set a peak bagging record of 42 Lakeland peaks in just under 24 hours. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c Bearhop, D.A. (1997). Munro's Tables. Scottish Mountaineering Club & Trust. ISBN 0-9075215-3-3.
  2. ^ a b Dawson, Alan (1992). The Relative Hills of Britain. Milnthorpe: Cicerone Press. ISBN 1-85284-068-4.
  3. ^ a b Dawson, Alan (1995). The Murdos. Cambuskenneth, Stirling: TACit Press. ISBN 0-9522680-3-5.
  4. ^ Nuttall, John & Anne. Honister Crag (or Black Star). Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  5. ^ Nuttall, John & Anne (1999). The Mountains of England & Wales - Volume 1: Wales, 2nd edition, Milnthorpe, Cumbria: Cicerone. ISBN 1-85284-304-7.
  6. ^ Nuttall, John & Anne (1990). The Mountains of England & Wales - Volume 2: England, 2nd edition, Milnthorpe, Cumbria: Cicerone. ISBN 1-85284-037-4.
  7. ^ Dawson, Alan (1997). The Hewitts and Marilyns of England. Cambuskenneth, Stirling: TACit Press. ISBN 0-9522680-7-8.
  8. ^ Dawson, Alan (1997). The Hewitts and Marilyns of Wales. Cambuskenneth, Stirling: TACit Press. ISBN 0-9522680-6-X.
  9. ^ Clements, E.D. 'Clem' (1998). The Hewitts and Marilyns of Ireland. Cambuskenneth, Stirling: TACit Press. ISBN 0-9522680-8-6.
  10. ^ Dawson, Alan; Hewitt, Dave (1999). Corbett Tops and Corbetteers. Cambuskenneth, Stirling: TACit Press. ISBN 0-9534376-1-2.
  11. ^ Dawson, Alan; Clements, E.D. 'Clem'; Gordon, James (2004). Graham Tops and Grahamists. Cambuskenneth, Stirling: TACit Press. ISBN 0-9534376-2-0.

 
 

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